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  • 1.
    Abril-Ojeda, Galo
    Stockholms universitet.
    The role of disaster relief for long-term development in LDCs: with special reference to Guatemala after the 1976 earthquake1982Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Bartolomei, María Luisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Latinamerika-institutet.
    Human Rights in a Global World - The New Role played by Transnational, National and Local Actors 2000Inngår i: Inequality, Democracy and Sustainable Development in Latin America / [ed] Jaime Behar, Stockholm: Institute of Latin American Studies, Stockholm University , 2000, s. 135-153Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article suggests a re-interpretation of human rights accountability taking into account the globalization process, the crisis of the modern nation-state and the new role-played by transnational, national and local actors in implementing and developing human rights law. The focus on impact and accountability is meant to demonstrate the importance of, and the legal basis for, broadening human rights advocacy in addressing additional actors. Non-state actors contribute to the production, interpretation and implementation of international human rights norms either directly or indirectly. They have also contributed toward underlining a core of basic values and common concerns on which to build a new normative people-centered framework. To counteract the limits and weakness of the Nation-State, it is imperative to strengthen the transnational advocacy of promotion and protection of human rights, which can create a “cosmopolitan consciousness of human rights" in the global world.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Buzaglo, Jorge D.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen, Latinamerikainstitutet.
    Planning alternative development strategies: experiments on the Mexican economy1982Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Gonzalez, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Interpreting the taking vs. creating power dichotomy: A case study of the Argentinean labour movement CTA and the Constituyente Social2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a case study of the alternative labour union organization Central de Trabajadores de la Argentina (CTA) in Argentina and the most recent project under process striving for system change, named the Constituyente Social. The case under study is used to illustrate the perception of power in relation to aspirations for societal change among the left in Latin America. The overall struggle of the CTA and the Constituyente Social is to create a more just society based on a deepening of democracy, more participatory in character. Two understandings of power are presented, on the one hand is the taking power concept, inherited from the political struggles where the belief is that power needs to be taken from the elite in order to succeed with structural change in society. On the other hand is the creating power perception, best exemplified with the Zapatista movement in Mexico. There is no conquering of power in this view, but a creation and strengthening of power among the masses. The theoretical chapter presents a view that unites these two perceptions, arguing for the need to intersect the vertical (power taking) and the horizontal (power creating) struggles. The Constituyente Social is analyzed in relation to this intersection, providing concrete examples of where the two power perceptions are utilized, sometimes simultaneously. The overall conclusion is that the dichotomization usually done between the two understandings of power is incomplete and may even damage the struggle for societal change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Lalander, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Suicide of the Elephants?: Venezuelan Decentralization between Partyarchy and Chavismo2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 3rd of December 1989, Venezuelans went to the polls for the first time to directly elect their local and regional political leaders. A process of government decentralization was initiated with direct elections of municipal mayors and regional state governors. Since 1958, the political system had been dominated by two political parties, the social democratic AD (Acción Democrática) and Christian democratic COPEI, both strongly centralized parties. The system of strongly dominant political parties is often referred to as partyarchy, with penetration of organized social and political activities. Notwithstanding, the AD-COPEI partyarchy experienced a relatively rapid process of undermining from 1989, losing control over important mayordomes, governorships and municipal councils. This book deals with the transformations of the Venezuelan political party system in the context of the decentralization process. During the principal study period (1989-2004), non-traditional political parties like the socialist MAS (Movimiento Al Socialismo) and Causa R (Causa Radical) have emerged, and triumphed in the elections of mayors and governors, thus threatening the previous almost hegemonic position of AD and COPEI. The municipal, regional and national elections of 1998 and 2000 changed the political panorama even more. Several entirely new political parties have emerged. The MVR (Movimiento V República) party of current President Hugo Chávez presents the most dramatic and rapid rise in this context. But similarly, other parties associated with decentralization have achieved increased political influence. Theoretically, a combination of actors’ rational choice, and, more process-structural approaches, particularly the use of the framework of political opportunity structures, helps to theoretically understand the political transformations related to decentralization and its implications for the party system. The study demonstrates that the party system and political decentralization are intimately connected and dependent of each other. This study describes and analyzes the “encounter” between the Venezuelan party system and the decentralization reform.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Lalander, Rickard O.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Suicide of the Elephants?: Venezuelan Decentralization between Partyarchy and Chavismo2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 3rd of December 1989, Venezuelans went to the polls for the first time to directly elect their local and regional political leaders. A process of government decentralization was initiated with direct elections of municipal mayors and regional state governors. Since 1958, the political system had been dominated by two political parties, the social democratic AD (Acción Democrática) and Christian democratic COPEI, both strongly centralized parties. The system of strongly dominant political parties is often referred to as partyarchy, with penetration of organized social and political activities. Notwithstanding, the AD-COPEI partyarchy experienced a relatively rapid process of undermining from 1989, losing control over important mayordomes, governorships and municipal councils. The municipal, regional and national elections of 1998 and 2000 changed the political panorama even more. Several entirely new political parties have emerged. The MVR (Movimiento V República) party of current President Hugo Chávez presents the most dramatic and rapid rise in this context. But similarly, other parties associated with decentralization have achieved increased political influence.Theoretically, a combination of actors rational choice, and, more process-structural approaches, helps to theoretically understand the political transformations related to decentralization and its implications for the party system. The study demonstrates that the party system and political decentralization are Intimately connected and dependent of each other. This study describes and analyzes the "encounter" between the Venezuelan party system and the decentralization reform.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Lembke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    In the Lands of Oligarchs: Ethno-Politics and the Struggle for Social Justice in the Indigenous-Peasant Movements of Guatemala and Ecuador2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study explores how struggles for social justice by Guatemalan and Ecuadorian indigenous peasant movements are affected by ethno-politics (the strategic political use of ethnicity), by using a comparative historical approach incorporating structural change and strategic agency. The analysis revolves around the partly enduring, partly changing oligarchic structures. The choice of the countries rests primarily upon the composition of their respective oligarchic classes. In Guatemala, the despotic agrarian oligarchs have dominated for much of the past century; whereas in Ecuador, the oligarchy was divided into an agrarian and a modernist fraction.

    Scholars often locate ethnic politicisation in Latin America within the context of a shift from ‘national popular’ and ‘corporatist’ political orders toward political and economic liberalisation. This shift supposedly unleashed ethnic identities which were previously subordinated by the way indigenous communities were politically incorporated. This study shows that dramatic openings for ethnic politicisation in the 1990s occurred where corporatism had been weak and oligarchic structures persisted. But the elites were unable to use ethnicity as a tool for hegemonic control. Due to the oligarchic legacy, class discourses could not be prevented from being reproduced, and ethnic ones were politicised in a way that is dysfunctional to the elites’ effort to politically disarm the rural poor. Another finding is that the persisting influence of the agrarian oligarchy made the Guatemalan movement more focused on the land struggle and more unwilling/unable to integrate into the political arena prescribed by those in control of the state. In Ecuador, the demise of the agrarian oligarchy and the rise of a strong neo-liberal fraction constituted the context within which the movement moved away from the land struggle. It accessed the ethno-political spaces more firmly but resembled the Guatemalan movement in keeping its strategy of mass mobilisation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Rivarola Puntigliano, Andrés
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Latinamerika-institutet.
    Mirrors of Change: A Study of Industry Associations in Chile and Uruguay2003Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mirrors of Change is a cross-sectional study of micro and macro institutional environments that envisages to analyse shifts in the sources of institutional legitimacy since the 1960s. The main aim is to understand whether homogenising macro institutions are adopted at the micro institutional levels. In order to do this, the study examines the heterogenising elements that are specific to local environments. At the micro level, the focus is on two industry associations, namely, the Cámara de Industrias del Uruguay (CIU) and Sociedad de Fomento Fabril (SFF). At the macro level, the investigation is centred on what is termed in this study as ‘World-Culture’, composed of a group of global institutions. As the study shows, World-culture is a source of new social identities, norms, rules and values through which individuals and organisations rationally organise and pursue their interests.

    An important question is whether the role of the nation-state in Chile and Uruguay has changed since the 1960s. The study concludes that there is a clear shift from national to global and regional sources of legitimacy. In both cases, the intensity of interaction with macro institutions (World-culture) has been greater in the 1990s compared to the 1960s. The role of the state as prime source of institutional legitimacy at the national environmental level has decreased since global institutions through carriers like International Organisations that are beyond the reach of the state.

    While the homogenising exogenous institutions wielded greater influence in Chilean and Uruguayan environments, the clashes with traditional domestic institutions had a different character that stimulated new and particular forms of ‘remix’. The CIU went through a process of NGOisation, while the SFF increased its interaction with the state and the region. The two cases examined in this study show distinct responses to common problems owing to different cultural environments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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