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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of onset and nativelike L2 ultimate attainment of morphosyntactic and phonetic intuition2012Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 187-214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has consistently shown there is a negative correlation between age of onset (AO) of acquisition and ultimate attainment (UA) of either pronunciation or grammar in a second language (L2). A few studies have indeed reported nativelike behavior in some postpuberty learners with respect to either phonetics/phonology or morphosyntax, a result that has sometimes been taken as evidence against the critical period hypothesis (CPH). However, in the few studies that have employed a wide range of linguistic tests and tasks, adult learners have not exhibited nativelike L2 proficiency across the board of measures, which, according to some, suggests that the hypothesis still holds. The present study investigated the relationship between AO and UA and the incidence of nativelikeness when measures of phonetic and grammatical intuition are combined. An additional aim was to investigate whether children and adults develop the L2 through fundamentally different brain mechanisms-namely, whether children acquire the language (more) implicitly as an interdependent whole, whereas adults learn it (more) explicitly as independent parts of a whole.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    But first, let's think again!2018Inngår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 906-907Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On the basis of their review of studies, Mayberry and Kluender (2017) propose that the human language learning ability becomes severely compromised if it is not developed in tandem with brain development in early childhood, but that it functions more or less flawlessly, even in adulthood, if language acquisition had at one time proceeded according to the maturational timetable. Mayberry and Kluender therefore suggest that the critical period hypothesis (CPH) for language is unambiguously tied to the timing of L1 acquisition, but that its relevance to L2 acquisition is less clear, the implication being that the well-documented AoA effects in the SLA literature are due to non-maturational (i.e., psychological, experiential, cross-linguistic, etc.) causes.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Development and recoverability of L2 codas: A longitudinal study of Chinese/Swedish interphonology2003Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 313-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the development and recoverability of word-final codas in Chinese-Swedish interlanguage. The relation between consonant deletion and vowel epenthesis is investigated from both a developmental perspective and a grammatical-functional one. Longitudinal, conversational data from three Chinese beginner learners of Swedish were analyzed. First, it is shown that for these learners the acquisition of Swedish codas was U-shaped rather than linear such that they exhibited relatively high accuracy rates at early stages, lower accuracy rates at later stages, and again high accuracy rates at more advanced stages. It is also demonstrated that the epenthesis-deletion differential is closely related to second language proficiency in that the proportion of epenthesis to deletion errors increases over time. Furthermore, the data show that word-final codas that are relatively important for the retention of semantically relevant information generate lower overall frequencies of simplification and greater epenthesis-deletion proportions than codas containing information that is relatively recoverable from other segments or features in the context.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Natural phonology and second language acquisi­tion: problems and consequences1996Inngår i: Toegepaste taalwetenschap in artikelen, ISSN 0169-7420, E-ISSN 2213-4883, nr 55, s. 9-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Some observations of child-adult differences in second language pronunciation.1994Inngår i: Scandinavian Working Papers on Bilingualism, Vol. 9, s. 1-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Vowel epenthesis of /sC(C)/ onsets in Spanish/Swedish inter­phonology: A longitudinal case study1999Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 473-508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that vowel epenthesis of initial /sC(C)/ clusters in the L2 production of L1 Spanish speakers is conditioned by several variable constraints, such as preceding environment, onset length, and sonority relations among onset members. This case study was designed to investigate whether the patterns obtained from elicited speech also hold for conversational data. A longitudinal corpus of spontaneous/natural speech from 1 adult L1 Spanish learner of L2 Swedish was used. The study confirmed most of the results from previous research, for example, that the frequency of epenthesis varies with preceding phonetic environment. However, the study suggested that a lowering effect of preceding vowels must be present, not just the enhancing effect of preceding consonants suggested by Carlisle (1997).

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009Inngår i: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 249-306Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 9-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 481-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 10.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. University of Ghana.
    Noun classes in Sɛlɛɛ2014Inngår i: Journal of West African Languages, ISSN 0022-5401, Vol. XLI, nr 1, s. 95-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the noun class system of Sl, a Na-Togo, Kwa (Niger-Congo) language spoken in the Volta Region of Ghana. As shown in this paper, Sl hasa noun class system with an equal number of singular and plural classes that are paired inirregular ways. The singular-plural pairs are referred to as genders. Nouns normally agreewith certain modifiers within the noun phrase. The agreement targets are determiners,numerals, interrogative pronouns and some adjectives. Outside the noun phrase, nounclasses may be indexed on the verb to signal long distance anaphora, a strategy thatspeakers rarely use. The paper provides a detailed account of possible semantic andcultural motivations for the assignment of nouns to a particular gender and/or class.

  • 11.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. University of Ghana.
    Standard negation in SɛlɛɛInngår i: Afrika und Übersee, ISSN 0002-0427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses standard negation in Sɛlɛɛ. Sɛlɛɛ is a Ghana-Togo Mountain (GTM) Language of the Kwa group of the Niger Congo family. Standard negation is the negation of declarative verbal clauses. Different strategies are used in Sɛlɛɛ to negate declarative verbal main clauses depending on the tense and aspect category of the verb. The basic negation strategy used in standard negation is tonal alternation, with or without other negation markers. The other strategies are the use of portmanteau morphemes, affixes and vowel lengthening. Interestingly, in one and the same tense paradigm, different persons can select different negation strategies. There is syncretism among the 1st person singular forms of the negative recent past, the negative habitual and the negative perfect.

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    "Språket – en biljett till frihet": narrativ identitet i en migrationskontext2016Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 143-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights and discusses a young woman’s experience of language use and language development. The woman’s story, which spans a period of fifteen years, starts with her escape from Afghanistan and illustrates her socialisation into Swedish society. The analysis is based on Paul Ricœur’s theoretical framework that is grounded in hermeneutic and phenomenological traditions. Ricœur tries to capture our experiencesof being the same person though we are constantly changing, making his thoughts onstorytelling and identity creation interesting to apply to the experiences of migration. Drawing on the concept of narrative identity, the article points to how narration connects time, how it expresses ethical dimensions and how the woman, little by little, develops an increasingly transnational and inclusive identity. The value of studying new arrivals in a longitudinal perspective also becomes clear as the analysis includes crucial turning points in terms of attitudes and strategies in relation to second language use.

  • 13.
    Aktürk Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Language dominance as a factor in loanword phonology2017Inngår i: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 584-599Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of language dominance in loanword phonology. It is investigated how onset clusters in loanwords are integrated into Turkish by two groups: English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. It is hypothesised that the bilinguals in Sweden will display significantly higher rates of cluster adoption because Turkish is not the dominant language there.

    The data were collected through an oral loanword elicitation task, a text recitation task in the second languages and a questionnaire on language proficiency and use.

    The study had 53 participants (24 in Turkey and 29 in Sweden). The material consisted of 29 loanwords from English and French, and of 50 structurally comparable words in the bilinguals’ second languages. The data were analysed auditively by the author and subjected to an interrater reliability test.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis as the bilinguals in Sweden displayed significantly higher cluster adoption rates. The difference between the groups’ medians was 36.5 percentage points. Furthermore, it was shown that in individual speakers the combination of accurate second-language pronunciation, and clearly higher proficiency in the second language (corresponding to the donor language) compared to the L1 (i.e. the recipient language) guaranteed very high cluster adoption rates.

    This paper provides the first rigorous quantitative proof for the theoretical assumption that accurate pronunciation is not sufficient for structural adoption in loanword phonology but needs to be complemented with sociolinguistic variables. Furthermore, it demonstrates in greater detail than before how societal and individual dominance are connected and through which channels they impact loanword integration.

    Self-reported relative proficiency in the donor language was shown to be a powerful predictor of the sociolinguistic incentive to adopt and could therefore be used as a quick and reliable alternative to elaborate and time-consuming attitude investigations in loanword phonology.

  • 14.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Det flerspråkiga Konstantinopel2010Inngår i: Dragomanen, ISSN 1402-358X, Vol. 13, s. 28-35Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel ger en översikt över den språkliga mångfalden i Konstantinopel mellan åren 330 och 1930 samt belyser de faktorer som har påverkat flerspråkigheten i staden.

  • 15.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Hur bra har den svenska integrationskontexten varit på att främja balanserad tvåspråkighet?2018Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 107-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln undersöker hur bra den svenska integrationskontexten har varit på att främja balanserad tvåspråkighet hos vuxna barn till turkiska invandrare. Balanserad tvåspråkighet har nämligen varit ett av målen i Sveriges mångkulturella språkpolitik. Även ingående jämförelser med motsvarande grupper i Rotterdam och Berlin presenteras. Data kommer från 430 deltagare i projektet The Integration of the European Second Generation varav 133 bodde i Stockholm. Balanserad tvåspråkighet definieras utifrån deltagarnas självuppskattade tal- och skrivfärdigheter i förstaspråket turkiska och respektive andraspråk. Resultaten visar att bara en minoritet av andragenerationens turkar var balanserade tvåspråkiga i Stockholm, som dessutom utgjorde den lägsta andelen bland de undersökta städerna. Samtidigt uppvisade gruppen i Stockholm de högsta färdighetsnivåerna i andraspråket bland de tre städerna. Analysen pekar på att den inkluderande multietniska kontexten i Stockholm haft en positiv effekt på andraspråksfärdigheterna medan den turkiska gruppens relativt ringa storlek och koncentration tillsammans med den bristfälliga implementeringen av modersmålsundervisningen i Sverige haft en negativ effekt på turkiskfärdigheterna. De andra städernas mer segregerade och enklavliknande integrationskontexter verkar istället främja turkiskfärdigheterna mer och leder därmed även till en högre förekomst av balanserad tvåspråkighet. 

  • 16.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish2010Inngår i: Turkic languages, ISSN 1431-4983, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 153-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the phonological integration of the front coda /l/ after a back vowel in the final rime of words borrowed from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish. This original donor structure is interesting because it in conflict with the core rules of Turkish phonology. Several sub-disciplines of linguistics have dealt with the role of different phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the phonological integration of lexical borrowings but there is no consensus on their respective weights in borrowing and on how their interaction is to be conceptualised. The Arabic data in the study are based on historical loanwords while the Swedish data have been obtained through an experiment. The focus of the article is the choice between adoption and adaptation as integration strategies and how different factors interact in producing the attested integration patterns. The results show that adoption is predominantly preferred to adaptation in both cases due to the dominant status of the donor languages in the contexts of borrowing. Hence, it is argued that sociolinguistic factors play the main role in these two particular cases.

  • 17.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords2014Inngår i: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, s. 162-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how bilingual borrowers integrate originally long vowels and consonants in loanwords from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish in illicit positions. Both historical corpus data and data from an elicitation task are used. The main focus is on the role of perceptual salience and the choice between adaptation and adoption as different integration strategies. The results show that length is accurately perceived in both cases of borrowing due to the particular linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts of second language acquisition. Phonologically long Arabic vowels and consonants as well as not phonologically but phonetically long Swedish vowels with high salience are adopted as innovations by the bilingual borrowers. The latter adoption confirms that the input to loanword integration is not phonological but phonetic in nature, i.e. the surface form. Phonologically long Swedish consonants with low salience due to short duration are, instead, adapted through shortening. This adaptation is done in production through a process called filtering in with the help of feedback from perception. The paper proposes that perceptual salience plays an important role not only in monolingual but also in bilingual borrowing by concluding that high perceptual salience is necessary but not sufficient for adoption in bilingual borrowing.

  • 18.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Miller, David
    Rothman, Jason
    Morphological variability in second language learners: An examination of electrophysiological and production data2017Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, nr 10, s. 1509-1536Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined potential sources of morphological variability in adult L1‑English L2‑Spanish learners, with a focus on L1‑L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event‑related potentials to examine noun‑adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun‑adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half, masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half in the singular. With this set‑up, we examined learners’ potential overreliance on unmarked forms or “defaults” (singular/masculine). Experiment 2 examines similar dependencies in spoken sentence production (expressive knowledge). Results showed that learners (n=22) performed better with number than gender overall, but their brain responses to both features were qualitatively native‑like (i.e., P600), even though gender was probed with nouns that do not provide strong distributional cues to gender. In addition, variability with gender agreement was better accounted for by lexical (as opposed to syntactic) aspects. Learners showed no advantage for comprehension over production. They also showed no systematic evidence of reliance on morphological defaults, although their online processing was sensitive to markedness in a native‑like manner. Overall, these results suggest that there is facilitation for properties of the L2 that exist in the L1 and that markedness impacts L2 processing, but in a native‑like manner. These results also speak against proposals arguing that adult L2ers have deficits at the level of the morphology or the syntax.

  • 19.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Rothman, Jason
    Being a Participant Matters: Event-Related Potentials Show That Markedness Modulates Person Agreement in Spanish2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study uses event-related potentials to examine subject-verb person agreement in Spanish, with a focus on how markedness with respect to the speech participant status of the subject modulates processing. Morphological theory proposes a markedness distinction between first and second person, on the one hand, and third person on the other. The claim is that both the first and second persons are participants in the speech act, since they play the speaker and addressee roles, respectively. In contrast, third person refers to whomever is neither the speaker nor the addressee (i.e., it is unmarked for person). We manipulated speech participant by probing person agreement with both first-person singular subjects (e.g., yo...lloro *I...cry-1ST PERSON-SG") and third-person singular ones (e.g., la viuda...llora "the widow...cry-3RD PERSON-SG"). We also manipulated agreement by crossing first-person singular subjects with third-person singular verbs (e.g., yo...*llora "I...cry-(3RD PERSON-SG)") and vice versa (e.g., la viuda...*lloro "the widow...cry-1ST PERSON-SG"). Results from 28 native speakers of Spanish revealed robust positivities for both types of person violations, relative to their grammatical counterparts between 500 and 1000 ms, an effect that shows a central-posterior distribution, with a right hemisphere bias. This positivity is consistent with the P600, a component associated with a number of morphosyntactic operations (and reanalysis processes more generally). No negativities emerged before the P600 (between 250 and 450 ms), although both error types yielded an anterior negativity in the P600 time window, an effect that has been argued to reflect the memory costs associated with keeping the errors in working memory to provide a sentence-final judgment. Crucially, person violations with a marked subject (e.g., yo...*llora*I...cry-3RD PERSON SG") yielded a larger P600 than the opposite error type between 700 and 900 ms. This effect is consistent with the possibility that, upon encountering a subject with marked features, feature activation allows the parser to generate a stronger prediction regarding the upcoming verb. The larger P600 for person violations with a marked subject might index the reanalysis process that the parser initiates when there is a conflict between a highly expected verbal form (i.e., more so than in the conditions with an unmarked subject) and the form that is actually encountered.

  • 20.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008Inngår i: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 29-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 21.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    A alternância /d/, /l/ e /r/ em variedades linguísticas afrolatinas2010Inngår i: Journal of Portuguese and Spanish lexically-based creoles, ISSN 1646-7000, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [pt]

    Este trabalho é uma análise da alternância entre /l/, /r/ e/d/ na linguagem de comunidades latino-americanas de forte presença africana ouafrodescendente. Os dados examinados provêm de uma série de estudos linguísticosanteriores e fontes literárias em espanhol e em português que incluemrepresentações da fala de africanos e seus descendentes. Duas perguntasnorteiam o presente estudo: Quais são os fonemas que se “confundem” e em queposições? Até que ponto a “confusão” é frequente nas variedades em questão? Apartir destas perguntas discutem-se explicações para esta mudança baseadas emdados que apontam seja para a deriva ou evolução natural das variedadesibéricas, seja para o contato entre línguas ibéricas e africanas. A análise dosdados revela que alguns destes fonemas são trocados de forma sistemática emposições específicas unicamente em variedades de espanhol e português queevoluíram em contato com línguas africanas.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    RESULT and PURPOSE relations with and without 'so'2014Inngår i: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 148, s. 1-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence relations differ in their tendency to be explicitly marked. How such relations are recognized and what determines their tendency to be marked is a matter of debate. The connective so represents a special case: it can be used to signal RESULT coherence relations and the more specific cause-effect relation of PURPOSE, but overt marking has been claimed to be required for PURPOSE and optional for RESULT. We present written corpus and experimental results on the use of so that show that RESULT and PURPOSE with this connective can be reliably distinguished from each other, and that the modal auxiliaries can/could and will/would are strongly associated with PURPOSE. In the corpus study, PURPOSE always occurs with explicit so, while RESULT is often left unmarked. These results are in line with recent claims based on annotated corpus data that implicit (unmarked) and explicit (marked) coherence relations can be qualitatively different (e.g. Sporleder and Lascarides, 2008; Webber, 2009). However, in our experiments using strongly purposive event pairs, 35-40% of examples were identified as PURPOSE without a connective or a modal verb cue. We argue that the difference between the corpus results and the experimental results can be explained as a difference between the tasks of speakers and hearers, and we outline an explanation for how marking can be obligatory for PURPOSE relations and yet optional for RESULT. We also propose that nonveridicality seems to play a key role in a marking requirement for PURPOSE, and explain why the unusual marking pattern found makes it difficult to give a pragmatic account similar to more well-known language asymmetries.

  • 23. Aronsson, Berit
    et al.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Boundary tones in non-native speech: The transfer of pragmatic strategies from L1 Swedish into L2 Spanish2014Inngår i: Intercultural Pragmatics, ISSN 1612-295X, E-ISSN 1613-365X, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 159-198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The pragmatic functions of pitch at tone unit boundaries are studied in L2 Spanish spoken by Swedish learners, as compared to L1 Swedish and L1 Spanish. The data are recordings of a task in which the subjects - 10 learners of Spanish and 13 native controls - make a restaurant booking on the phone in Spanish, and the Swedish subjects also perform this task in their L1. The tone unit boundary rises and falls produced have been analyzed with special focus on rises and their accompanying vowel duration patterns. The turn-regulating functions of signaling turn-continuation vs. transition-relevance are contrasted with intersubjectivity-regulating signals, namely (non-) prompts for information and ( non-) prompts for interpersonal acceptance. Since open-ended yes/no-questions are signaled by rises in Spanish, though not in Swedish, and since declaratives carrying a positive politeness value tend to end in rises (the tail flick) in Swedish, though not in Spanish, various types of potential negative transfer could be predicted for Swedish learners' L2 Spanish. It is shown that L1 Spanish speakers consistently use moderate rises for turn-keeping and high rises for information-seeking, and that this pattern has no equivalence in the L2 Spanish data. Conversely, rises in L2 Spanish frequently occur where L1 Spanish speakers prefer falls. These rises, interpreted as tail flicks,also occur in L1 Swedish, but they are far more frequent in the L2 Spanish data. Thus, clear transfer patterns are found, which are further reinforced by - insecurity effects due to L2 speaking.

  • 24.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Barn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Myths about bilingual learning in family life settings: Leoold’s child language biographies and contemporary children’s play practices2018Inngår i: Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, ISSN 2210-6561, E-ISSN 2210-657XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In four volumes, Werner Leopold documented his first child's acquisition of German and English (e.g. 1939; 1949). In this article I problematize contemporary myths about bilingualism that partly date back to Leopold's pioneering work and his theorizing about the one-language/one- person method of language development. Notably, this method worked for his first-born, but not for his second child, whose very existence has often not been noted. A dyadic bias – privileging the study of one parent/one child – has led to a neglect of the role of siblings and peers. Moreover, a cognitive bias has led to an under-analysis of the role of play in language acquisition. On the basis of work on play practices and activity settings, this paper addresses these biases, highlighting the role of social demands and play communities for multilingual development. Several explanations are presented for why Leopold's second child did not speak German. In foregrounding the social situation of development and the role of play, this paper advocates more holistic approaches, including the study of hybrid improvisations in everyday practices.

  • 25.
    Arvidsson, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Quantity of target language contact in study abroad and knowledge of multiword expressions: A Usage-Based approach to L2 development2019Inngår i: Study Abroad Research in Second Language Acquisition and International Education, ISSN 2405-5522, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 145-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes a Usage-Based approach to the learning of French multiword expressions (MWEs) in Study Abroad (SA). MWEs are conventionalized form-meaning mappings, for example du coup (‘and so’) and en fait (‘actually’), and are assumed to be learned through repeated exposure. Based on this assumption, the study adopted a pretest/posttest design to explore how quantity of out-of-class target-language (TL) contact predicted the development of MWE knowledge among 41 Swedish students during a semester in France. MWE knowledge was assessed by a modified cloze test based on transcriptions of informal language use (www.clapi.fr) and TL contact information was obtained through the Language Engagement Questionnaire (McManus, Mitchell, & Tracy-Ventura, 2014). Contrary to expectations, the findings showed that quantity of out-of-class TL contact did not predict gains in MWE knowledge and add further counterevidence for the role of sheer quantity of TL contact for linguistic development in SA.

  • 26. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Burnand, Julie
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Learning to Think in a Second Language: Effects of Proficiency and Length of Exposure in English Learners of German2015Inngår i: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, s. 138-153Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task involving working memory (Athanasopoulos & Bylund, 2013; Bylund & Athanasopoulos, 2015), the current study asks whether native speakers of an aspect language start paying more attention to event endpoints when learning a nonaspect language. Native English and German (a nonaspect language) speakers, and English learners of L2 German, who were pursuing studies in German language and literature at an English university, were asked to match a target scene with intermediate degree of endpoint orientation with two alternate scenes with low and high degree of endpoint orientation, respectively. Results showed that, compared to the native English speakers, the learners of German were more prone to base their similarity judgements on endpoint saliency, rather than ongoingness, primarily as a function of increasing L2 proficiency and year of university study. Further analyses revealed a nonlinear relationship between length of L2 exposure and categorization patterns, subserved by a progressive strengthening of the relationship between L2 proficiency and categorization as length of exposure increased. These findings present evidence that cognitive restructuring may occur through increasing experience with an L2, but also suggest that this relationship may be complex and unfold over a long period of time.

  • 27.
    Avelar, Juanito
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Expressões possessivo-existenciais de tempo decorrente na fala dos quilomboas de Moquém2012Inngår i: Stockholm Review of Latin American Studies, ISSN 1654-0204, E-ISSN 1654-0204, nr 8, s. 65-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Avelar, Juanito
    et al.
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Galves, Charlotte
    O papel das línguas africanas na emergência da gramática do português brasileiro2014Inngår i: Lingüística, ISSN 1132-0214, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 241-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Axelsson, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Inledning: Nyanlända barn och ungdomar i de nordiska länderna2016Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 5-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Research Centre for Grammar and Language Use, Aarhus University .
    Daval-Markussen, Aymeric
    Research Centre for Grammar and Language Use, Aarhus University.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Plag, Ingo
    Universität Siegen.
    Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles2011Inngår i: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 5-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In creolist circles, there has been a long-standing debate whether creoles differ structurally from non-creole languages and thus would form a special class of languages with specific typological properties. This debate about the typological status of creole languages has severely suffered from a lack of systematic empirical study. This paper presents for the first time a number of large-scale empirical investigations of the status of creole languages as a typological class on the basis of different and well-balanced samples of creole and non-creole languages. Using statistical modeling (multiple regression) and recently developed computational tools of quantitative typology (phylogenetic trees and networks), this paper provides robust evidence that creoles indeed form a structurally distinguishable subgroup within the world's languages. The findings thus seriously challenge approaches that hold that creole languages are structurally indistinguishable from non-creole languages.

  • 31. Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Gretenkort, Tobias
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Dr. Crevaux’s Wayana-Carib Pidgin of the Guyanas: a grammatical sketch2018Inngår i: Amérindia: revue d'ethnolinguistique amérindienne, ISSN 0221-8852, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 169-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32. Barddal, Johanna
    et al.
    Smitherman, Thomas
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Danesi, Serena
    Jenset, Gard B.
    McGillivray, Barbara
    Reconstructing constructional semantics: The dative subject construction in Old Norse-Icelandic, Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Russian and Old Lithuanian2012Inngår i: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 511-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the historical linguistic community is well aware, reconstructing semantics is a notoriously difficult undertaking. Such reconstruction has so far mostly been carried out on lexical items, like words and morphemes, and has not been conducted for larger and more complex linguistic units, which intuitively seems to be a more intricate task, especially given the lack of methodological criteria and guidelines within the field. This follows directly from the fact that most current theoretical frameworks are not construction-based, that is, they do not assume that constructions are form-meaning correspondences. In order to meet this challenge, we present an attempt at reconstructing constructional semantics, and more precisely the semantics of the Dative Subject Construction for an earlier stage of Indo-European. For this purpose we employ lexical semantic verb classes in combination with the semantic map model (Bar partial derivative dal 2007, Bar partial derivative dal, Kristoffersen & Sveen 2011), showing how incredibly stable semantic fields may remain across long time spans, and how reconstructing such semantic fields may be accomplished

  • 33.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    La connaissance d’une langue étrangère romane favorise-t-elle l’acquisition d’une autre langue romane?: influences translinguistiques dans la syntaxe d’une L32006Inngår i: AILE : Acquisition et interaction en langue étrangère, ISSN 1243-969X, Vol. 24, s. 149-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [fr]

    Cet article traite de l’influence translinguistique qu’exerce la connaissance de langues secondes (L2) apprises antérieurement sur la syntaxe d’une troisième langue (L3). L’objet de l’étude est l’acquisition de la position préverbale de la négation de phrase en italien L3. Les données ont été collectées auprès d’un groupe de lycéens suédois, apprenants d’italien et ayant tous le suédois comme langue maternelle, une langue où la négation dans la proposition principale est postverbale. Les apprenants ont l’anglais comme première L2, et ils ont par la suite étudié le français, l’espagnol, ou l’allemand. Dans ces différentes langues, la position de la négation varie. L’espagnol est la seule de ces langues dans laquelle la négation est placée en position préverbale, à savoir dans une position similaire à celle de l’italien. L’étude de la négation de phrase offre donc des possibilités intéressantes d’examiner l’incidence de la proximité typo­logique entre L1/L2 et L3 sur l’acquisition d’une L3. Les résultats indiquent un transfert positif de l’espagnol L2 sur l’italien L3 ; seul le groupe ayant étudié l’espagnol produit exclusivement la négation préverbale, alors que les étudiants ayant étudié uniquement des langues germaniques (anglais et allemand) antérieurement à l’italien produisent principalement la négation post­verbale avec les verbes non thématiques. Cette dernière structure a également été relevée dans le groupe connaissant le français, mais dans une moindre mesure.

  • 34.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Falk, Ylva
    The role of the second language in third language acquisition: the case of Germanic syntax2007Inngår i: Second Language Research, ISSN 0267-6583, Vol. 23, nr 4, s. 459-484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study of the placement of sentence negation in third language acquisition (L3), we argue that there is a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true second language (L2) and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Although there is considerable evidence for L2 influence on vocabulary acquisition in L3, not all researchers believe that such influence generalizes to morphosyntactic aspects of the grammar. For example, Håkansson et al. (2002) introduce the Developmentally Moderated Transfer Hypothesis (DMTH), which incorporates transfer in Processability Theory (PT). They argue against syntactic transfer from L2 to L3. The present study presents counter-evidence to this hypothesis from two groups of learners with different L1s and L2s acquiring Swedish or Dutch as L3. The evidence clearly indicates that syntactic structures are more easily transferred from L2 than from L1 in the initial state of L3 acquisition. The two groups behave significantly differently as to the placement of negation, a difference that can be attributed to the L2 knowledge of the learners in interaction with the typological relationship between the L2 and the L3.

  • 35.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Gudmundson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Aspects of lexical sophistication in advanced learners' oral production vocabulary acquisition and use in l2 french and italian2012Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 269-290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on the design and use of a profiler for lexical sophistication (i.e., use of advanced vocabulary), which was created to assess the lexical richness of intermediate and advanced Swedish second language (L2) learners' French and Italian. It discusses how teachers' judgments (TJs) of word difficulty can contribute to the methodology for lexical profiling and compares two methods, one purely frequency based and one modified on the basis of TJs of word difficulty. It has been suggested elsewhere that factors other than frequency play an important role in vocabulary acquisition. Here it is argued that cognates and thematic vocabulary related to teaching materials, although infrequent in target language (TL) corpora, should not necessarily be considered advanced and that analyses of learners' lexical sophistication would benefit from integrating these aspects. In this study, the frequency-based method normally used in lexical profiling was modified by recategorizing some low-frequency words considered easy by many teachers. On the basis of the TJs, a basic vocabulary, which consisted mainly of high-frequency words but also of cognates and thematic words, was defined, which was based on the fact that teachers judged certain low-frequency cognates and thematic words as relatively easy. Using the modified method, learners' lexical profiles were found to be more homogeneous within groups of learners at specific proficiency levels. The superiority of the new method over the purely frequency-based one was shown when comparing effect sizes. It is argued that this method gives a more correct picture of advanced L2 lexical profiles.

  • 36.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Lindqvist, Christina
    Developing a lexical profiler for spoken French and Italian L2: The role of frequency, cognates and thematic vocabulary2011Inngår i: EUROSLA Yearbook, ISSN 1568-1491, E-ISSN 1569-9749, Vol. 11, s. 75-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a follow-up to Lindqvist et al. (to press), where we investigated lexical frequency profiles of learners of French and Italian at different proficiency levels. By analyzing the proportion of low-frequency words used by the learners, we could distinguish proficiency levels that differ significantly at group level and correspond to morphosyntactic proficiency levels. However, some individual results within the groups indicated a need to analyze individual profiles in order to get a better picture of the actual quality of the learner’s vocabulary knowledge. The present study focuses on thematic vocabulary and cognates among the low-frequency words used by learners at different proficiency levels. We suggest that investigating qualitative aspects of learners’ word knowledge is a fruitful complement to traditional lexical profiling analysis. Such a combination can lead to a more complete picture of learners’ lexical profiles. Although we are aware that word frequency is known to be a powerful factor in vocabulary acquisition, our on-going research aims at developing a more general lexical profiler that integrates additional aspects that we have found to be relevant for learnability.

  • 37.
    Bartning, Inge
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The functions of a high-frequency collocation in native and learner discourse: the case of French c’est and Swedish det är2007Inngår i: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 1-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-linguistic study investigates the functionality and use of one particular linguistic collocation in each of two languages, viz. the French c'est and the Swedish det är, both meaning ‘it is’. The data are drawn from conversational speech production by adult native speakers and second language learners. The investigation shows that these collocations are highly polyfunctional as components in different grammatical constructions, that they play a significant role as a formula in the planning and execution of utterances and that they show a characteristic distribution of frequency of use and a characteristic profile of development in learner speech. A usage-based view of how language develops in individuals is adopted in the analysis of these findings, showing that these various properties are connected to each other and that they have an important bearing on the development of learners' interlanguages.

  • 38.
    Bartning, Inge
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för franska, italienska och klassiska språk.
    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg
    Hancock, Victorine
    On the role of linguistic contextual factors for morphosyntactic stabilization in high level l2 french2012Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 243-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to offer contextual linguistic explanations for morphosyntactic deviances (MSDs) in high-level second language (L2) French (30 nonnative speakers vs. 10 native speakers). It is hypothesized that the distribution of formulaic sequences (FSs) and the complexity of information structure will influence the occurrence of MSDs. The study reports that MSDs rarely occur within FSs, and if they do, they occur within sequences containing open slots for creative rule application. The rhematic part of the utterance attracts more MSDs due to the fact that this part is more syntactically complex than the preamble (the thematic part). An additional explanation is the mean length of the rhematic part, which is longer than the preamble and implies a higher processing load. A final explanation of MSD occurrence in the rheme is linked to the distribution of FSs in the information structure. The results are discussed in relation to the ongoing debate on the constructs of complexity, accuracy, and fluency-a promising area of study.

  • 39.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    On Motivated Signs in the Swedish Sign Language.1978Inngår i: Studia Linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, E-ISSN 1467-9582, Vol. XXXII, nr I-II, s. 9-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Complex Epistemic Perspective in Kogi (Arwako)2016Inngår i: International Journal of American Linguistics, ISSN 0020-7071, E-ISSN 1545-7001, Vol. 82, nr 1, s. 1-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes a form of epistemic marking in Kogi (Arwako-Chibchan) that positions information between the speech-participants from the perspective of the speaker. This form of epistemic marking is tentatively labeled “complex epistemic perspective” and is found with five prefixes that attach to the auxiliary verb. Relevant meaning contrasts are between speaker-perspective and addressee-perspective forms, which may in turn be separated into symmetric and asymmetric forms that signal shared and exclusive knowledge access. The meaning dimension of knowledge access is also subject to a private/public distinction that parallels the notion of “territory of information” (Kamio 1997; Heritage 2012) where information may belong more to one of the speech participants than the other. The analyzed forms thus share a core function in specifying two simultaneous perspectives as part of the referential ground (e.g. Hanks 1990; 2009). The paper builds on first-hand data collected in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of northern Colombia and offers the first comprehensive analysis of epistemic marking in the language.

  • 41.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Epistemic marking and multiple perspective: an introduction2015Inngår i: Language Typology and Universals, ISSN 1867-8319, E-ISSN 2196-7148, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 123-141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses forms of epistemic marking that instantiate multiple perspective constructions (see Evans 2005). Such forms express the speaker’s and the addressee’s simultaneous epistemic perspectives from the point of view of the speaker, crucially relying on the assumptions of the speaker with regard to the addressee’s knowledge. The analysis of forms considers established semanto-pragmatic concepts, such as semantic scope, mitigation strategies and communicative intention (as marked by sentence-type) in the exploration of forms. In addition, the notion of knowledge asymmetry is discussed alongside the concepts of epistemic status and stance as tools for a semantic analysis of investigated forms

  • 42.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako)2012Inngår i: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 154-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) and proposes an analysis in terms of a typologically unusual pattern called conjunct/disjunct, which has been attested for a small number of Asian and South American languages. Canonically, conjunct occurs with first person subjects in statements and with second person in questions, as opposed to any other combination of subject and sentence-type, which is disjunct. The pattern found in Ika both conforms to expectations and, at the same time, contributes to a more nuanced analysis of the functional motivations of the conjunct/disjunct pattern. In Ika, conjunct marking encodes the speaker's direct access to an event that involves either (or both) of the speech participants. In addition, conjunct/disjunct marking interacts predictably with a second set of epistemic markers that encode asymmetries in the epistemic authority of the speaker and the addressee. The analysis builds on first-hand data but remains tentative, awaiting further investigation.

  • 43.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017Inngår i: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, s. 5-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 44.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Time and commitment: the grammaticalization of uúch in Lakandon Maya2017Inngår i: Journal de la Société des Américanistes, ISSN 1957-7842, s. 265-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper accounts for the grammaticalization of uúch, (‘previously’, ‘long ago’) from a one-place predicate in Yukatek Maya meaning ‘to happen’, to a cognate adverbial in Lakandon Maya denoting ‘knowledge asymmetry’; a change from subjective ‘time’ to intersubjective ‘knowledge’. The paper proposes an analysis of uúch and the contrasting kuúch/ka’ch as operators of second-order stance, using a Jakobsonian model for analyzing verbal categories forwarded by Paul Kockelman (2004) to operationalize the notion of stance, as visible in Q’eqchi’ modals. Intersubjectification as a process of language change aligns with Kockelman’s original suggestion that first-order stances may be embedded to produce second-order stances, i.e. “stance about stance”.

  • 45.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Kittilä, Seppo
    Person and Knowledge: Introduction2017Inngår i: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 18-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between person and epistemicity has been a topic of investigation throughout the humanities, including linguistics, but has mostly been focused on how conceptualisations of these two notions overlap, or diverge. This paper reviews some of these conceptualisations, but also adds a finergrained picture of how they intersect in the world's languages. Purported categories such as egophoric marking and lesser known expressions such as non-selected arguments (i.e. ethical datives) are compared to evidentials and modals from a synchronic and diachronic perspective in order to explain how the roles of the speech-act participants as specific arguments relate to their respective function as epistemic authorities. The aim of the paper is to introduce separate contributions relating to such systems as they are found in various parts of the world.

  • 46.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Studying high-level (L1-L2) development and use among young people in multilingual Stockholm: the role of perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation2012Inngår i: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 291-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article makes a case for studying the perceptions that young people have of the ways of speaking of both themselves and others on the supposition that constructions of ambient sociolinguistic variation have an impact on the language development and use of individual language users. Such a study is particularly relevant in multilingual contexts in which differences with regard to social as well as ethnic and linguistic background may generate significantly different perceptions. In a speaker evaluation study, Swedish speech stimuli from 12 young Stockholmers were evaluated by 343 listeners from different backgrounds. The results show that young people may divide and relate to the linguistic space of Stockholm in very different ways and that they vary in their degree of accuracy regarding linguistic self-perception.

  • 47.
    Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Svenskan i dagens flerspråkiga storstadsmiljöer:: en explorativ studie av unga stockholmares perceptioner av variation och varieteter2008Inngår i: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 7-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48. Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    What's the target? A folk linguistic study of young Stockholmers' constructions of linguistic norm and variation2016Inngår i: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, E-ISSN 1747-7565, Vol. 25, nr 1-2, s. 17-39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To account for the full range of language use in contemporary multilingual urban contexts, the notion of target language (TL) needs to be reconsidered. In studies of second language acquisition and language variation, taking TL for granted implies that people agree on what constitutes 'good' language, or the standard norm. The TL of language learners and users is, however, more heterogeneous than is often assumed. To gain insight into what people are actually targeting in their language development and use, we need to study their perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation. In this folk linguistic listener study involving 343 upper secondary school students, a range of data types were analysed: attitude scales, variety labelling, and assessments of speakers' social and linguistic backgrounds. This article highlights some results pointing to a considerable divergence in the listeners' perceptions, in particular with regard to speech representing what is here characterised as migration-related social dialects. Several listeners labelled these samples as 'good' Swedish, possibly suggesting that they do not simply aim at or even relate to a TL identical with the dominating monolingual norm, but may instead have a less narrow view of the kind of Swedish they consider appropriate for use in more formal situations.

  • 49.
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Dialectal and Diachronic Distribution of Case Variation in Lithuanian Pain Verb ConstructionInngår i: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Emergence and spread of accusative marking of body parts in Lithuanian: Construction Grammar accountInngår i: Baltu Filoloģija, ISSN 1691-0036Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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