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  • 1.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Assessment of Water Quality Across Irrigation Schemes: A Case Study of Wetland Agriculture Impacts in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikkel-id 671Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupled change in land and water use due to increased farming intensity is a main factor affecting water quality and quantity, ecological functions and biodiversity globally. Prolonging growing seasons and increasing productivity in wetlands through irrigation have been targeted for increasing food security, particularly in developing countries. Nevertheless, irrigation and drainage have often been associated with degradation of water quality through increased agrochemical and fertiliser runoff and leaching at local scales. In this study, we investigated water quality in streams used for irrigation in a wetland area in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. We measured physical-chemical water parameters and collected macroinvertebrates with different sensitivity to water quality across several small irrigation schemes covering various conditions. Turbidity, temperature, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N were significantly higher at sampling sites downstream of irrigation compared to upstream. Macroinvertebrate diversity, richness and average score per taxa (ASPT) were higher in general in sampling sites upstream of irrigation, with more sensitive macroinvertebrates decreasing in abundance downstream. There was a positive correlation between physical-chemical parameters and macroinvertebrate indices across the sites. We demonstrate that macroinvertebrate indices can be used as a quick assessment of water quality in response to irrigation schemes in small-scale farming systems of Tanzania. This in turn can allow us to track changes affecting wetland ecosystem function and biodiversity at higher trophic levels and across larger scales, thereby providing useful early warnings to help avoid widespread degradation under widespread agricultural intensification.

  • 2. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Dzyundzyak, Angela
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Pickering, Gary
    Vasseur, Liette
    Ecosystem Perceptions in Flood Prone Areas: A Typology and Its Relationship to Preferences for Governance2016Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, nr 5, artikkel-id 191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A shift appears to be occurring in thinking about flooding, from a resistance-based approach to one of resilience. Accordingly, how stakeholders in flood-prone regions perceive the system and its governance are salient questions. This study queried stakeholders' internal representations of ecosystems (resistance- or resilience-based), preferences for governance actors and mechanisms for flooding, and the relationship between them in five different regions of the world. The influence of personal experience on these variables was also assessed. Most respondents aligned themselves with a resilience-based approach in relation to system connectedness and response to disturbance; however, respondents were almost evenly split between resistance- and resilience-based approaches when considering system management. Responses generally were considered to hold for other disturbances as well. There was no clear relationship between internal representations and preferences for governance actors or mechanisms. Respondents generally favoured actor combinations that included governments and mechanism combinations that included regulations and policies. Those who had personal experience with flooding tended to align themselves with a resilience-based internal representation of system management, but personal experience showed no clear relationship with governance preferences. The findings support an evolutionary perspective of flood management where emerging paradigms enhance preceding ones, and prompt a critical discussion about the universality of resilience as a framing construct.

  • 3. Baird, Julia
    et al.
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Dupont, Diane
    Heinmiller, Tim
    Jollineau, Marilyne
    Kubik, Wendee
    Renzetti, Steven
    Vasseur, Liette
    Contemporary Water Governance: Navigating Crisis Response and Institutional Constraints through Pragmatism2016Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, nr 6, artikkel-id 224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water has often been the source of crises and their frequency will intensify due to climate change impacts. The Niagara River Watershed provides an ideal case to study water crises as it is an international transboundary system (Canada-United States) and has both historical and current challenges associated with water quantity and quality, which resonates broadly in water basins throughout the world. The aim of this study was to understand how stakeholders perceive ecosystems and the relationship with preferences for governance approaches in the context of water governance. An online survey instrument was employed to assess perceptions of the system in terms of resilience (engineering, ecological, social-ecological, or epistemic), preferences for governance approaches (state, citizen, market, and hybrid forms), and the most pressing issues in the watershed. Responses showed that, despite demographic differences and adherence to different resilience perspectives, support was strongest for governance approaches that focused on state or state-citizen hybrid forms. The validity of the resilience typology as a grouping variable is discussed. The roles of institutional constraints, pragmatism in governance approach preferences, and the influence of multiple crises are explored in relation to the context of the study site, as well as to water governance scholarship more broadly.

  • 4.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Scenarios of Nutrient-Related Solute Loading and Transport Fate from Different Land Catchments and Coasts into the Baltic Sea2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 7, artikkel-id 1407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses controlled numerical experimentation to comparatively simulate and investigate solute transport and concentration responses and patterns in the Baltic Sea for various solute releases from the land through two different coastal cases. These cases are the Swedish Kalmar County coast and the Polish coast of the Vistula River outlet. For equivalent solute releases, the coastal flow conditions and their interactions with main marine currents determine the local coastal solute spreading, while the overall spreading over the Baltic Sea is similar for the two coastal cases, despite their large local differences. For nutrient-proportional solute release scenarios, the highly-populated Vistula catchment yields much greater total, but smaller per-capita nutrient impacts, in the Baltic Sea than the Kalmar County catchment. To be as low as from the Vistula catchment, the per-capita nutrient contribution from Kalmar County would have to be reduced much more than required on average per Swedish inhabitant by the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This highlights an unfairness issue in the per-capita distribution of nutrient load allowance among the Baltic countries, which needs to be considered and handled in further research and international efforts aimed to combat the Baltic Sea eutrophication.

  • 5.
    Chen, Yuanying
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Dominant Hydro-Climatic Drivers of Water Temperature, Salinity, and Flow Variability for the Large-Scale System of the Baltic Coastal Wetlands2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the large-scale coastal wetland system of the Baltic Sea, this study develops a methodology for investigating if and to what degree the variability and changes in certain hydro-climatic drivers control key coastal-marine physical conditions. The studied physical conditions include: (a) water temperature, (b) water salinity, and (c) flow structures (magnitudes and directions of flows between marine basins and the associated coastal zones and wetlands). We use numerical simulations of three hydro-climatically distinct cases to investigate the variations in hydro-climatic drivers and the resulting physical conditions (a-c) among the cases. The studied hydro-climatic forcing variables are: net surface heat flux, wind conditions, saltwater influx from the North Sea, and freshwater runoff from land. For these variables, the available observation-based data show that the total runoff from land is significantly and positively correlated with precipitation on the sea itself, and negatively correlated with saltwater influx from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea. Overall, the physical condition (a-c) variability in the Baltic Sea and its coastal zones is found to be pairwise well-explained by simulation case differences as follows: (a) Net heat flux is a main control of sea water temperature. (b) Runoff from land, along with the correlated salt water influx from the North Sea, controls average sea salinity; with the variability of local river discharges shifting some coastal zones to deviate from the average sea condition. (c) Wind variability and change control the Baltic Sea flow structure, primarily in terms of flow magnitude and less so in terms of flow direction. For specific coastal wetland zones, considerable salinity differences from average Baltic Sea conditions (due to variability in local river discharges) are found for the coasts of Finland and Estonia, while the coastal wetland zones of south-eastern Sweden, and of Estonia and Latvia, emerge as particularly sensitive to wind shifts.

  • 6.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK). University of California System .
    Easton, Zachary M.
    Fuka, Daniel R.
    Walter, M. Todd
    Steenhuis, Tammo S.
    Real-Time Forecast of Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in the Salmon Creek Watershed, New York State, Using an Online Prediction Tool2013Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 5, nr 3, s. 917-944Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the northeastern United States (U.S.), watersheds and ecosystems are impacted by nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from agricultural activity. Where agricultural fields coincide with runoff-producing areas-so called hydrologically sensitive areas (HSA)-there is a potential risk of NPS contaminant transport to streams during rainfall events. Although improvements have been made, water management practices implemented to reduce NPS pollution generally do not account for the highly variable, spatiotemporal dynamics of HSAs and the associated dynamics in NPS pollution risks. This paper presents a prototype for a web-based HSA prediction tool developed for the Salmon Creek watershed in upstate New York to assist producers and planners in quickly identifying areas at high risk of generating storm runoff. These predictions can be used to prioritize potentially polluting activities to parts of the landscape with low risks of generating storm runoff. The tool uses real-time measured data and 24-48 h weather forecasts so that locations and the timing of storm runoff generation are accurately predicted based on present-day and future moisture conditions. Analysis of HSA predictions in Salmon Creek show that 71% of the largest storm events between 2006 and 2009 were correctly predicted based on 48 h forecasted weather data. Real-time forecast of HSAs represents an important paradigm shift for the management of NPS in the northeastern U.S.

  • 7.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Robust Assessment of Uncertain Freshwater Changes: The Case of Greece with Large Irrigation-and Climate-Driven Runoff Decrease2018Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikkel-id 1645Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a data-driven approach to robustly assess freshwater changes due to climate change and/or human irrigation developments by use of the overarching constraints of catchment water balance. This is applied to and tested in the high-uncertainty case of Greece for five nested catchments of different scales across the country and for freshwater changes from an early period (1930-1949) with small human influences on climate and irrigation to a recent period (1990-2009) with expected greater such influences. The results show more or less equal contributions from climatic decrease in precipitation and from human irrigation development to a considerable total decrease in runoff (R) over Greece. This is on average -75 +/- 10 mm/year and is greatest for the Ionian catchment in the west (-119 +/- 18 mm/year) and the Peloponnese catchment in the south (-91 +/- 16 mm/year). For evapotranspiration (ET), a climate-driven decrease component and an irrigation-driven increase component have led to a net total increase of ET over Greece. This is on average 26 +/- 7 mm/year and is greatest for the Mainland catchment (29 +/- 7 mm/year) and the Aegean catchment in the east (28 +/- 6 mm/year). Overall, the resulting uncertainties in the water-balance constrained estimates of R and ET changes are smaller than the input data uncertainties.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Ebert, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Södertörn University, Sweden; .
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Well Salinization Risk and Effects of Baltic Sea Level Rise on the Groundwater-Dependent Island of Oland, Sweden2018Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikkel-id 141Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we estimate baseline conditions in terms of the current risk of well salinization on the Baltic Sea island of Oland, Sweden, and assess the effects of future sea level rise on the land area, infrastructure and cultural values. We use a multicriterion geographical information systems (GIS) approach. Geomorphological and physical parameters affect the risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, including their hydrology, geomorphology, and climatology; the spatial distribution of the current risk of salinization is mapped in this study. In the event of a future 2 m sea level rise, a total land area of 67 km(2) will be inundated on Oland, corresponding to approximately 5% of the island's land surface. Inundation includes urban areas, nature reserves, and animal protection areas, implying the loss of environmental and socioeconomic values. A future 2 m sea level rise will also cause direct inundation of 3% of all wells on the island. Currently, 17.5% of all wells are at a high risk of becoming saltwater contaminated. More generally, the present results add evidence showing a relatively high vulnerability of major Baltic Sea islands and their infrastructure to future sea level rise. The approach used here and related results, including salinization risk maps, may prove useful for decision-makers in the planning of infrastructure. Drilling of new wells could for instance preferably be done in areas with identified lower risk-index values, which would facilitate an overall higher freshwater withdrawal in the interest of the entire island.

  • 9.
    Hoff, Holger
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bonzi, C.
    Joyce, Brian
    Stockholm Environment Institute, US.
    Tielbörger, K.
    A water resources planning tool for the Jordan River basin2011Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 718-736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum.
    Desormeaux, Amanda
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jawitz, James W.
    Clerici, Nicola
    Piemontese, Luigi
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Alexandra Rodríguez-Rodriguez, Jenny
    Adolfo Anaya, Jesús
    Blanco-Libreros, Juan F.
    Borja, Sonia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Celi, Jorge
    Chalov, Sergey
    Chun, Kwok Pan
    Cresso, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Dessu, Shimelis Behailu
    Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    Downing, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Espinosa, Luisa
    Ghajarnia, Navid
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Girard, Pierre
    Gutiérrez, Álvaro G.
    Hansen, Amy
    Hu, Tengfei
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Kalantary, Zahra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Labbaci, Adnane
    Licero-Villanueva, Lucia
    Livsey, John
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Machotka, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier.
    McCurley, Kathryn
    Palomino-Ángel, Sebastián
    Pietron, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Price, René
    Ramchunder, Sorain J.
    Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza
    Ricaurte, Luisa Fernanda
    Dahir, Lula
    Rodríguez, Erasmo
    Salgado, Jorge
    Sannel, A. Britta K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Carolina Santos, Ana
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Sjöberg, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Sun, Lian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Beijing Normal University, China.
    Thorslund, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Xu, Diandian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Hohai University, China.
    Zamora, David
    Ziegler, Alan D.
    Åhlén, Imenne
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Priorities and Interactions of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with Focus on Wetlands2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are often vital physical and social components of a country's natural capital, as well as providers of ecosystem services to local and national communities. We performed a network analysis to prioritize Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for sustainable development in iconic wetlands and wetlandscapes around the world. The analysis was based on the information and perceptions on 45 wetlandscapes worldwide by 49 wetland researchers of the Global Wetland Ecohydrological Network (GWEN). We identified three 2030 Agenda targets of high priority across the wetlandscapes needed to achieve sustainable development: Target 6.3-Improve water quality; 2.4-Sustainable food production; and 12.2-Sustainable management of resources. Moreover, we found specific feedback mechanisms and synergies between SDG targets in the context of wetlands. The most consistent reinforcing interactions were the influence of Target 12.2 on 8.4-Efficient resource consumption; and that of Target 6.3 on 12.2. The wetlandscapes could be differentiated in four bundles of distinctive priority SDG-targets: Basic human needs, Sustainable tourism, Environmental impact in urban wetlands, and Improving and conserving environment. In general, we find that the SDG groups, targets, and interactions stress that maintaining good water quality and a wise use of wetlandscapes are vital to attaining sustainable development within these sensitive ecosystems.

  • 11. Lewandowski, Jörg
    et al.
    Arnon, Shai
    Banks, Eddie
    Batelaan, Okke
    Betterle, Andrea
    Broecker, Tabea
    Coll, Claudia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Drummond, Jennifer D.
    Garcia, Jaime Gaona
    Galloway, Jason
    Gomez-Velez, Jesus
    Grabowski, Robert C.
    Herzog, Skuyler P.
    Hinkelmann, Reinhard
    Höhne, Anja
    Hollender, Juliane
    Horn, Marcus A.
    Jaeger, Anna
    Krause, Stefan
    Löchner Prats, Adrian
    Magliozzi, Chiara
    Meinikmann, Karin
    Mojarrad, Brian Babak
    Mueller, Birgit Maria
    Peralta-Maraver, Ignacio
    Popp, Andrea L.
    Posselt, Malte
    Putschew, Anke
    Radke, Michael
    Raza, Muhammad
    Riml, Joakim
    Robertson, Anne
    Rutere, Cyrus
    Schaper, Jonas L.
    Schirmer, Mario
    Schulz, Hanna
    Shanafield, Margaret
    Singh, Tanu
    Ward, Adam S.
    Wolke, Philipp
    Wörman, Anders
    Wu, Liwen
    Is the Hyporheic Zone Relevant beyond the Scientific Community?2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id 2230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers are important ecosystems under continuous anthropogenic stresses. The hyporheic zone is a ubiquitous, reactive interface between the main channel and its surrounding sediments along the river network. We elaborate on the main physical, biological, and biogeochemical drivers and processes within the hyporheic zone that have been studied by multiple scientific disciplines for almost half a century. These previous efforts have shown that the hyporheic zone is a modulator for most metabolic stream processes and serves as a refuge and habitat for a diverse range of aquatic organisms. It also exerts a major control on river water quality by increasing the contact time with reactive environments, which in turn results in retention and transformation of nutrients, trace organic compounds, fine suspended particles, and microplastics, among others. The paper showcases the critical importance of hyporheic zones, both from a scientific and an applied perspective, and their role in ecosystem services to answer the question of the manuscript title. It identifies major research gaps in our understanding of hyporheic processes. In conclusion, we highlight the potential of hyporheic restoration to efficiently manage and reactivate ecosystem functions and services in river corridors.

  • 12.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Ohio State University, USA.
    Goethals, Peter
    Schneider, Petra
    Dominguez-Granda, Luis
    Hampel, Henrietta
    Lam, Norris
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Nolivos, Indira
    Reinstorf, Frido
    Tejeda, Raymundo C. Rodriguez
    Vázquez, Raúl F.
    Ho, Long
    Improving Water Management Education across the Latin America and Caribbean Region2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 11, artikkel-id 2318Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education can help secure inclusive and resilient development around water resources. However, it is difficult to provide the latest science to those managing water resources (both now and in the future). Collectively, we hypothesize that dissemination and promotion of scientific knowledge using students as central agents to transfer theoretical knowledge into practice is an efficient way to address this difficulty. In this study, we test this hypothesis in the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region as a representative case study region. First, we use a literature review to map a potential gap in research on education around water resources across the LAC region. We then review potential best practices to address this gap and to better translate water resources education techniques into the LAC region. Integral to these efforts is adopting students as agents for information transfer to help bridge the gap between the global state-of-the science and local water resources management. Our results highlight the need to establish a new standard of higher educational promoting exchange between countries as local populations are vulnerable to future shifts in climate at global scales and changes in land usage at regional scales. The new standard should include peer-to-peer mentoring achieved by jointly exchanging and training students and practitioners in water management techniques, increasing access to water data and pedagogic information across the region, and lowering administration roadblocks that prevent student exchange.

  • 13.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Nathanson, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lam, Norris
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    Rutzinger, Martin
    Kean, Jason W.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Can Low-Resolution Airborne Laser Scanning Data Be Used to Model Stream Rating Curves?2015Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 1324-1339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study explores the potential of using low-resolution (0.2 points/m(2)) airborne laser scanning (ALS)-derived elevation data to model stream rating curves. Rating curves, which allow the functional translation of stream water depth into discharge, making them integral to water resource monitoring efforts, were modeled using a physics-based approach that captures basic geometric measurements to establish flow resistance due to implicit channel roughness. We tested synthetically thinned high-resolution (more than 2 points/m(2)) ALS data as a proxy for low-resolution data at a point density equivalent to that obtained within most national-scale ALS strategies. Our results show that the errors incurred due to the effect of low-resolution versus high-resolution ALS data were less than those due to flow measurement and empirical rating curve fitting uncertainties. As such, although there likely are scale and technical limitations to consider, it is theoretically possible to generate rating curves in a river network from ALS data of the resolution anticipated within national-scale ALS schemes (at least for rivers with relatively simple geometries). This is promising, since generating rating curves from ALS scans would greatly enhance our ability to monitor streamflow by simplifying the overall effort required.

  • 14.
    Maneas, Giorgos
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece.
    Makopoulou, Eirini
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Bousbouras, Dimitris
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Anthropogenic Changes in a Mediterranean Coastal Wetland during the Last CenturyThe Case of Gialova Lagoon, Messinia, Greece2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id 350Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human interventions during the last 70 years have altered the characteristics of the Gialova Lagoon, a coastal wetland that is part of a wider Natura 2000 site. In this study, we explore how human interventions and climate altered the wetland's hydrological conditions and habitats, leading to changing wetland functions over time. Our interpretations are based on a mixed methodological approach combining conceptual hydrologic models, analysis of aerial photographs, local knowledge, field observations, and GIS (Geographic Information System) analyses. The results show that the combined effects of human interventions and climate have led to increased salinity in the wetland over time. As a result, the fresh and brackish water marshes have gradually been turned into open water or replaced by halophytic vegetation with profound ecological implications. Furthermore, current human activities inside the Natura 2000 area and in the surrounding areas could further impact on the water quantity and quality in the wetland, and on its sensitive ecosystems. We suggest that a more holistic understanding of the broader socio-ecological system is needed to understand the dynamics of the wetland and to achieve sustainable long-term management and conservation strategies.

  • 15.
    Mbanguka, René P.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lopez, Marc Girons
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings2016Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikkel-id 572Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake watergroundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century) development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climatedrainage basinlake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.

  • 16. Melo Zurita, Maria de Lourdes
    et al.
    Thomsen, Dana C.
    Holbrook, Neil J.
    Smith, Timothy F.
    Lyth, Anna
    Munro, Paul G.
    de Bruin, Annemarieke
    Seddaiu, Giovanna
    Roggero, Pier Paolo
    Baird, Julia
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of the Sunshine Coast, Australia; Brock University, Canada.
    Bullock, Ryan
    Collins, Kevin
    Powell, Neil
    Global Water Governance and Climate Change: Identifying Innovative Arrangements for Adaptive Transformation2018Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 29Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A convoluted network of different water governance systems exists around the world. Collectively, these systems provide insight into how to build sustainable regimes of water use and management. We argue that the challenge is not to make the system less convoluted, but rather to support positive and promising trends in governance, creating a vision for future environmental outcomes. In this paper, we analyse nine water case studies from around the world to help identify potential innovative arrangements' for addressing existing dilemmas. We argue that such arrangements can be used as a catalyst for crafting new global water governance futures. The nine case studies were selected for their diversity in terms of location, scale and water dilemma, and through an examination of their contexts, structures and processes we identify key themes to consider in the milieu of adaptive transformation. These themes include the importance of acknowledging socio-ecological entanglements, understanding the political dimensions of environmental dilemmas, the recognition of different constructions of the dillema, and the importance of democratized processes.

  • 17. Mirzaei, Atena
    et al.
    Saghafian, Bahram
    Mirchi, Ali
    Madani, Kaveh
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Yale University, USA.
    The Groundwater‒Energy‒Food Nexus in Iran's Agricultural Sector: Implications for Water Security2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id 1835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the first groundwater-energy-food (GEF) nexus study of Iran's agronomic crops based on national and provincial datasets and firsthand estimates of agricultural groundwater withdrawal. We use agronomic crop production, water withdrawal, and energy consumption data to estimate groundwater withdrawal from electric-powered irrigation wells and examine agronomic productivity in Iran's 31 provinces through the lens of GEF nexus. The ex-post GEF analysis sheds light on some of the root causes of the nation's worsening water shortage problems. Access to highly subsidized water (surface water and groundwater) and energy has been the backbone of agricultural expansion policies in Iran, supporting employment in agrarian communities. Consequently, water use for agronomic crop production has greatly overshot the renewable water supply capacity of the country, making water bankruptcy a serious national security threat. Significant groundwater table decline across the country and increasing energy consumption underscore dysfunctional feedback relations between agricultural water and energy price and groundwater withdrawal in an inefficient agronomic sector. Thus, it is essential to implement holistic policy reforms aimed at reducing agricultural water consumption to alleviate the looming water bankruptcy threats, which can lead to the loss of numerous agricultural jobs in the years to come.

  • 18.
    Palomino-Ángel, Sebastián
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Universidad de Medellín, Colombia.
    Anaya-Acevedo, Jesús A.
    Simard, Marc
    Liao, Tien-Hao
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholms universitets Östersjöcentrum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Analysis of Floodplain Dynamics in the Atrato River Colombia Using SAR Interferometry2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id 875Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Floodplain water flows have large volumetric flowrates and high complexity in space and time that are difficult to understand using water level gauges. We here analyze the spatial and temporal fluctuations of surface water flows in the floodplain of the Atrato River, Colombia, in order to evaluate their hydrological connectivity. The basin is one of the rainiest areas of the world with wetland ecosystems threatened by the expansion of agriculture and mining activities. We used 16 Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radars (DInSAR) phase observations from the ALOS-PALSAR L-band instrument acquired between 2008-2010 to characterize the flow of surface water. We were able to observe water level change in vegetated wetland areas and identify flooding patterns. In the lower basin, flow patterns are conditioned by fluctuations in the levels of the main river channel, whereas in the middle basin, topography and superficial channels strongly influence the flow and connectivity. We found that the variations in water level in a station on the main channel 87 km upstream explained more than 56% of the variations in water level in the floodplain. This result shows that, despite current expansion of agriculture and mining activities, there remain significant hydrological connectivity between wetlands and the Atrato River. This study demonstrates the use of DInSAR for a spatially comprehensive monitoring of the Atrato River basin hydrology. For the first time, we identified the spatiotemporal patterns of surface water flow of the region. We recommend these observations serve as a baseline to monitor the potential impact of ongoing human activities on surface water flows across the Atrato River basin.

  • 19. Peralta-Maraver, Ignacio
    et al.
    Posselt, Malte
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Perkins, Daniel M.
    Robertson, Anne L.
    Mapping Micro-Pollutants and Their Impacts on the Size Structure of Streambed Communities2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 12, artikkel-id 2610Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently there has been increasing concern over the vast array of emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in streams and rivers worldwide. Understanding of the ecological implications of these compounds is limited to local scale case studies, partly as a result of technical limitations and a lack of integrative analyses. Here, we apply state-of-the-art instrumentation to analyze a complex suite of EOCs in the streambed of 30 UK streams and their effect on streambed communities. We apply the abundance-body mass (N-M) relationship approach as an integrative metric of the deviation of natural communities from reference status as a result of EOC pollution. Our analysis includes information regarding the N and M for individual prokaryotes, unicellular flagellates and ciliates, meiofauna, and macroinvertebrates. We detect a strong significant dependence of the N-M relationship coefficients with the presence of EOCs in the system, to the point of shielding the effect of other important environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and productivity. However, contrary to other stressors, EOC pollution showed a positive effect on the N-M coefficient in our work. This phenomenon can be largely explained by the increase in large-size tolerant taxa under polluted conditions. We discuss the potential implications of these results in relation to bioaccumulation and biomagnification processes. Our findings shed light on the impact of EOCs on the organization and ecology of the whole streambed community for the first time.

  • 20.
    Petersen, Karen Lykkebo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. University of California, USA.
    Heck, Nadine
    Reguero, Borja G.
    Potts, Donald
    Hovagimian, Armen
    Paytan, Adina
    Biological and Physical Effects of Brine Discharge from the Carlsbad Desalination Plant and Implications for Future Desalination Plant Constructions2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikkel-id 208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination is increasingly used as a technology for addressing shortages of freshwater supply and desalination plants are in operation or being planned world-wide and specifically in California, USA. However, the effects of continuous discharge of high-salinity brine into coastal environments are ill-constrained and in California are an issue of public debate. We collected in situ measurements of water chemistry and biological indicators in coastal waters (up to 2 km from shore) before and after the newly constructed Carlsbad Desalination Plant (Carlsbad, CA, USA) began operations. A bottom water salinity anomaly indicates that the spatial footprint of the brine discharge plume extended about 600 m offshore with salinity up to 2.7 units above ambient (33.2). This exceeds the maximum salinity permitted for this location based on the California Ocean Plan (2015 Amendment to Water Quality Control Plan). However, no significant changes in the assessed biological indicators (benthic macrofauna, BOPA-index, brittle-star survival and growth) were observed at the discharge site. A model of mean ocean wave potential was used as an indicator of coastal mixing at Carlsbad Beach and at other locations in southern and central CA where desalination facilities are proposed. Our results indicated that to minimize environmental impacts discharge should target waters where a long history of anthropogenic activity has already compromised the natural setting. To ensure adequate mixing of the discharge brine desalination plants should be constructed at high-energy sites with sandy substrates, and discharge through diffusor systems.

  • 21. Samuiloviene, Aurelija
    et al.
    Bartoli, Marco
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Klaipėda University, Lithuania; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Cardini, Ulisse
    Vybernaite-Lubiene, Irma
    Marzocchi, Ugo
    Petkuviene, Jolita
    Politi, Tobia
    Zaiko, Anastasija
    Zilius, Mindaugas
    The Effect of Chironomid Larvae on Nitrogen Cycling and Microbial Communities in Soft Sediments2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikkel-id 1931Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of biogeochemical methods and molecular techniques has the potential to uncover the black-box of the nitrogen (N) cycle in bioturbated sediments. Advanced biogeochemical methods allow the quantification of the process rates of different microbial processes, whereas molecular tools allow the analysis of microbial diversity (16S rRNA metabarcoding) and activity (marker genes and transcripts) in biogeochemical hot-spots such as the burrow wall or macrofauna guts. By combining biogeochemical and molecular techniques, we analyzed the role of tube-dwelling Chironomus plumosus (Insecta, Diptera) larvae on nitrification and nitrate reduction processes in a laboratory experiment with reconstructed sediments. We hypothesized that chironomid larvae stimulate these processes and host bacteria actively involved in N-cycling. Our results suggest that chironomid larvae significantly enhance the recycling of ammonium (80.5 +/- 48.7 mu mol m(-2) h(-1)) and the production of dinitrogen (420.2 +/- 21.4 mu mol m(-2) h(-1)) via coupled nitrification-denitrification and the consumption of water column nitrates. Besides creating oxygen microniches in ammonium-rich subsurface sediments via burrow digging and ventilation, chironomid larvae serve as hot-spots of microbial communities involved in N-cycling. The quantification of functional genes showed a significantly higher potential for microbial denitrification and nitrate ammonification in larvae as compared to surrounding sediments. Future studies may further scrutinize N transformation rates associated with intimate macrofaunal-bacteria associations.

  • 22.
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Land, Magnus
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Change Drivers and Impacts in Arctic Wetland LandscapesLiterature Review and Gap Analysis2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 4, artikkel-id 722Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are essential parts of Arctic landscapes, playing important roles for the sustainable development of the region, and linking to climate change and adaptation, ecosystem services, and the livelihood of local people. The effects of human and natural change drivers on key landscape characteristics of Arctic wetlands may be critical for ecosystem resilience, with some functional aspects still poorly understood. This paper reviews the scientific literature on change drivers for Arctic wetland landscapes, seeking to identify the main studied interactions among different drivers and landscape characteristics and their changes, as well as emerging research gaps in this context. In a total of 2232 studies of various aspects of Arctic wetland landscapes found in the literature, natural drivers and climate change have been the most studied change drivers so far, particularly regarding their impacts on carbon cycling, plant communities and biodiversity. In contrast, management plans, land use changes, and nutrient-pollutant loading, have not been investigated as much as human drivers of Arctic wetland change. This lack of study highlights essential gaps in wetland related research, and between such research and management of Arctic wetlands.

  • 23.
    Seifollahi-Aghmiuni, Samaneh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Nockrach, Minnoka
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    The Potential of Wetlands in Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 609Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands used as cost-effective nature-based solutions provide environmental and socio-economic benefits to people locally and regionally. With significant loss of wetland areas due to expansion of forest, agriculture, and energy production industries, some countries, including Sweden, have begun providing economic support for environmental objectives for wetland conservation and restoration. Targeting such objectives and setting up relevant plans can decrease the risk of losing valuable wetland-related benefits and help achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Different ranges of wetland ecosystem services are broadly addressed by the SDGs, however, target-based assessments are required to better understand wetland functionality for sustainable development. This study investigates whether and how wetland ecosystems at local and regional scales can contribute to achieving the SDGs and their targets in Sweden. Scientific literature, policy documents, and international reports on Swedish wetland ecosystems are scrutinized to exemplify the SDGs and their targets, applying a scoring framework based on their interactions. This reveals that, overall, Swedish wetland ecosystems and implemented management plans can positively interact with 10 SDGs and 17 targets at different levels. The analysis also highlights synergies that need to be considered for integrated environmental governance and enhanced policy coherence for Swedish wetland management.

  • 24.
    Selroos, Jan-Olof
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Cheng, Hua
    Vidstrand, Patrik
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Permafrost Thaw with Thermokarst Wetland-Lake and Societal-Health Risks: Dependence on Local Soil Conditions under Large-Scale Warming2019Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, nr 3, artikkel-id 574Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key question for the evolution of thermokarst wetlands and lakes in Arctic and sub-Arctic permafrost regions is how large-scale warming interacts with local landscape conditions in driving permafrost thaw and its spatial variability. To answer this question, which also relates to risks for ecology, society, and health, we perform systematic model simulations of various soil-permafrost cases combined with different surface-warming trends. Results show that both the prevalence and the thaw of permafrost depended strongly on local soil conditions and varied greatly with these for the same temperature conditions at the surface. Greater ice contents and depth extents, but also greater subsurface volumes thawing at depth under warming, are found for peat soils than other studied soil/rock formations. As such, more thaw-driven regime shifts in wetland/lake ecosystems, and associated releases of previously frozen carbon and pathogens, may be expected under the same surface warming for peatlands than other soil conditions. Such risks may also increase in fast permafrost thaw in mineral soils, with only small thaw-protection effects indicated in the present simulations for possible desertification enhancement of mineral soil covers.

  • 25.
    Senkondo, William
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Water Institute, Tanzania.
    Tuwa, Jamila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Koutsouris, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Tumbo, Madaka
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Estimating Aquifer Transmissivity Using the Recession-Curve-Displacement Method in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley2017Inngår i: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 9, nr 12, artikkel-id 948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on aquifer processes and characteristics across scales has long been a cornerstone for understanding water resources. However, point measurements are often limited in extent and representativeness. Techniques that increase the support scale (footprint) of measurements or leverage existing observations in novel ways can thus be useful. In this study, we used a recession-curve-displacement method to estimate regional-scale aquifer transmissivity (T) from streamflow records across the Kilombero Valley of Tanzania. We compare these estimates to local-scale estimates made from pumping tests across the Kilombero Valley. The median T from the pumping tests was 0.18 m(2)/min. This was quite similar to the median T estimated from the recession-curve-displacement method applied during the wet season for the entire basin (0.14 m(2)/min) and for one of the two sub-basins tested (0.16 m(2)/min). On the basis of our findings, there appears to be reasonable potential to inform water resource management and hydrologic model development through streamflow-derived transmissivity estimates, which is promising for data-limited environments facing rapid development, such as the Kilombero Valley.

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