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  • 1.
    Amid, C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Olstedt, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Le Lan, H.
    Tran Thi Minh, H.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    Hellström, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Additive effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature on the branched coral Acropora formosa in Nha Trang, Vietnam2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13360-13372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined effects of the herbicide glyphosate and elevated temperature were studied on the tropical staghorn coral Acropora formosa, in Nha Trang bay, Vietnam. The corals were collected from two different reefs, one close to a polluted fish farm and one in a marine-protected area (MPA). In the laboratory, branches of the corals were exposed to the herbicide glyphosate at ambient (28 degrees C) and at 3 degrees C elevated water temperatures (31 degrees C). Effects of herbicide and elevated temperature were studied on coral bleaching using photography and digital image analysis (new colorimetric method developed here based on grayscale), chlorophyll a analysis, and symbiotic dinoflagellate (Symbiodinium, referred to as zooxanthellae) counts. All corals from the MPA started to bleach in the laboratory before they were exposed to the treatments, indicating that they were very sensitive, as opposed to the corals collected from the more polluted site, which were more tolerant and showed no bleaching response to temperature increase or herbicide alone. However, the combined exposure to the stressors resulted in significant loss of color, proportional to loss in chlorophyll a and zooxanthellae. The difference in sensitivity of the corals collected from the polluted site versus the MPA site could be explained by different symbiont types: the resilient type C3u and the stress-sensitive types C21 and C23, respectively. The additive effect of elevated temperatures and herbicides adds further weight to the notion that the bleaching of coral reefs is accelerated in the presence of multiple stressors. These results suggest that the corals in Nha Trang bay have adapted to the ongoing pollution to become more tolerant to anthropogenic stressors, and that multiple stressors hamper this resilience. The loss of color and decrease of chlorophyll a suggest that bleaching is related to concentration of chloro-pigments. The colorimetric method could be further fine-tuned and used as a precise, non-intrusive tool for monitoring coral bleaching in situ.

  • 2. Arias-Andrés, M.
    et al.
    Rämö, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Torres, F. Mena
    Ugalde, R.
    Grandas, L.
    Ruepert, C.
    Castillo, L. E.
    Van den Brink, P. J.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Rio Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13312-13321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

  • 3.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Benzothiazole, benzotriazole, and their derivates in clothing textiles - a potential source of environmental pollutants and human exposure2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 5842-5849Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles play an important role in our daily life, and textile production is one of the oldest industries. In the manufacturing chain from natural and/or synthetic fibers to the final clothing products, the use of many different chemicals is ubiquitous. A lot of research has focused on chemicals in textile wastewater, but the knowledge of the actual content of harmful chemicals in clothes sold on the retail market is limited. In this paper, we have focused on eight benzothiazole and benzotriazole derivatives, compounds rated as high production volume chemicals. Twenty-six clothing samples of various textile materials and colors manufactured in 14 different countries were analyzed in textile clothing using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Among the investigated textile products, 11 clothes were for babies, toddlers, and children. Eight of the 11 compounds included in the investigation were detected in the textiles. Benzothiazole was present in 23 of 26 investigated garments in concentrations ranging from 0.45 to 51 μg/g textile. The garment with the highest concentration of benzothiazole contained a total amount of 8.3 mg of the chemical. The third highest concentration of benzothiazole (22 μg/g) was detected in a baby body made from “organic cotton” equipped with the “Nordic Ecolabel” (“Svanenmärkt”). It was also found that concentrations of benzothiazoles in general were much higher than those for benzotriazoles. This study implicates that clothing textiles can be a possible route for human exposure to harmful chemicals by skin contact, as well as being a potential source of environmental pollutants via laundering and release to household wastewater.

  • 4.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Sadiktsis, Ioannis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Bergvall, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för analytisk kemi.
    Tire tread wear particles in ambient air—a previously unknown source of human exposure to the biocide 2-mercaptobenzothiazole2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 19, s. 11580-11586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban particulate matter (PM), asphalt, and tire samples were investigated for their content of benzothiazole and benzothiazole derivates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether wear particles, i.e., tire tread wear or road surface wear, could contribute to atmospheric concentrations of benzothiazole derivatives. Airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled at a busy street in Stockholm, Sweden, contained on average 17 pg/m3 benzothiazole and 64 pg/m3 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, and the total suspended particulate-associated benzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole concentrations were 199 and 591 pg/m3, respectively. This indicates that tire tread wear may be a major source of these benzothiazoles to urban air PM in Stockholm. Furthermore, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was determined in urban air particulates for the first time in this study, and its presence in inhalable PM10 implies that the human exposure to this biocide is underestimated. This calls for a revision of the risk assessments of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole exposure to humans which currently is limited to occupational exposure.

  • 5.
    Bighiu, Maria Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 997-1006Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of harmful metals from antifouling paints to water bodies is a well-known problem. In this study, we measured both the amount of biofouling growth on leisure boats during one season as well as the concentration of metals accumulated by the biofouling matrix. Furthermore, the efficiency of antifouling paints and mechanical boat cleaning as well as the effect of hull colour on biofouling were evaluated. Unlike paint residues, biofouling waste has never been regarded as a source of metal contamination and has previously been neglected in the scientific literature. Our results revealed that the biofouling waste contained very high concentrations of metals, up to 28,000 mg copper/kg dw and 171,000 mg zinc/kg dw, which exceeds the guidance values for least sensitive land use in Sweden by factors of 140 and 340, respectively. This observation is important because the contaminated biofouling waste is commonly disposed of in boatyard soils at the end of each season, thus increasing the levels of metal pollution. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the amount of biofouling if the boats were coated with copper or zinc containing paints or no paint at all, indicating that biocide paints might not be necessary in low-salinity areas such as the Stockholm archipelago. For boats that were not painted at all during the season, those washed on boat washers (mechanically) had on average half of the amount of biofouling compared to boats that were not cleaned mechanically. The results of the study indicate the importance of proper management of biofouling waste as well as the use of more environmentally friendly removal methods for biofouling such as boat washers.

  • 6. Carlsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Breivik, Knut
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    Cousins, Ian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Christensen, Jesper
    Grimalt, Joan O.
    Halsall, Crispin
    Kallenborn, Roland
    Abass, Khaled
    Lammel, Gerhard
    Munthe, John
    MacLeod, Matthew
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Øyvind Odland, Jon
    Pawlak, Janet
    Rautio, Arja
    Reiersen, Lars-Otto
    Schlabach, Martin
    Stemmler, Irene
    Wilson, Simon
    Wöhrnschimmel, Henry
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as sentinels for the elucidation of Arctic environmental change processes: a comprehensive review combined with ArcRisk project results2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 23, s. 22499-22528Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can be used as chemical sentinels for the assessment of anthropogenic influences on Arctic environmental change. We present an overview of studies on PCBs in the Arctic and combine these with the findings from ArcRisk-a major European Union-funded project aimed at examining the effects of climate change on the transport of contaminants to and their behaviour of in the Arctic-to provide a case study on the behaviour and impact of PCBs over time in the Arctic. PCBs in the Arctic have shown declining trends in the environment over the last few decades. Atmospheric long-range transport from secondary and primary sources is the major input of PCBs to the Arctic region. Modelling of the atmospheric PCB composition and behaviour showed some increases in environmental concentrations in a warmer Arctic, but the general decline in PCB levels is still the most prominent feature. 'Within-Arctic' processing of PCBs will be affected by climate change-related processes such as changing wet deposition. These in turn will influence biological exposure and uptake of PCBs. The pan-Arctic rivers draining large Arctic/sub-Arctic catchments provide a significant source of PCBs to the Arctic Ocean, although changes in hydrology/sediment transport combined with a changing marine environment remain areas of uncertainty with regard to PCB fate. Indirect effects of climate change on human exposure, such as a changing diet will influence and possibly reduce PCB exposure for indigenous peoples. Body burdens of PCBs have declined since the 1980s and are predicted to decline further.

  • 7.
    Christiansson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Identification and quantification of products formed via photolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 312-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is used as an additive flame retardant in polymers. It has become a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, particularly abundant in abiotic media, such as sediments, air, and dust, and also present in wildlife and in humans. The main DecaBDE constituent, perbrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209), is susceptible to transformations as observed in experimental work. This work is aimed at identifying and assessing the relative amounts of products formed after UV irradiation of BDE-209. MATERIALS AND METHODS: BDE-209, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF), methanol, or combinations of methanol/water, was exposed to UV light for 100 or 200 min. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (electron ionization) for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), methoxylated PBDEs, and phenolic PBDE products. RESULTS: The products formed were hexaBDEs to nonaBDEs, monoBDFs to pentaBDFs, and methoxylated tetraBDFs to pentaBDFs. The products found in the fraction containing halogenated phenols were assigned to be pentabromophenol, dihydroxytetrabromobenzene, dihydroxydibromodibenzofuran, dihydroxytribromodibenzofuran, and dihydroxytetrabromodibenzofuran. The PBDEs accounted for approximately 90% of the total amount of substances in each sample and the PBDFs for about 10%. DISCUSSION: BDE-209 is a source of PBDEs primarily present in OctaBDEs but also to some extent in PentaBDEs, both being commercial products now banned within the EU and in several states within the USA. It is notable that OH-PBDFs have not been identified or indicated in any of the photolysis studies performed to date. Formation of OH-PBDFs, however, may occur as pure radical reactions in the atmosphere. CONCLUSIONS: Photolysis of decaBDE yields a wide span of products, from nonaBDEs to hydroxylated bromobenzenes. It is evident that irradiation of decaBDE in water and methanol yields OH-PBDFs and MeO-PBDFs, respectively. BDE-202 (2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether) is identified as a marker of BDE-209 photolysis. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: BDE-209, the main constituent of DecaBDE, is primarily forming debrominated diphenyl ethers with higher persistence which are more bioaccumulative than the starting material when subjected to UV light. Hence, DecaBDE should be considered as a source of these PBDE congeners in the environment

  • 8.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Enhus, Carolina
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Induced production of brominated aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 22, s. 18107-18114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic Sea, high concentrations of toxic brominated aromatic compounds have been detected in all compartments of the marine food web. A growing body of evidence points towards filamentous algae as a natural producer of these chemicals. However, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and life history on algal production of brominated compounds. In this study, several congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenols (BPs) were identified in a naturally growing filamentous red algal species (Ceramium tenuicorne) in the Baltic Sea. The identified substances displayed large seasonal variations in the alga with a concentration peak in July. Production of MeO-/OH-PBDEs and BPs by C. tenuicorne was also established in isolated clonal material grown in a controlled laboratory setting. Based on three replicates, herbivory, as well as elevated levels of light and salinity in the culture medium, significantly increased the production of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP). Investigation of differences in production between the isomorphic female, male and diploid clonal life stages of the alga grown in the laboratory revealed a significantly higher production of 2,4,6-TBP in the brackish water female gametophytes, compared to the corresponding marine gametophytes. Even higher concentrations of 2,4,6-TBP were produced by marine male gametophytes and sporophytes.

  • 9. Echeverría-Sáenz, Silvia
    et al.
    Mena, Freylan
    Arias-Andrés, María
    Vargas, Seiling
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Castillo, Luisa E.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    In situ toxicity and ecological risk assessment of agro-pesticide runoff in the Madre de Dios River in Costa Rica2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13270-13282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its lagoon is a biodiversity rich watershed formed by a system of streams, rivers, channels, and a coastal lagoon communicating with the Caribbean Sea. This basin sustains a large area of agricultural activity (mostly banana, rice, and pineapple) with intensive use of pesticides, continually detected in water samples. We investigated in situ the toxicological effects caused by pesticide runoff from agriculture and the relation of pesticide concentrations with different biological organization levels: early responses in fish biomarkers (sub-organismal), acute toxicity to Daphnia magna (organismal), and aquatic macroinvertebrate community structure. The evaluation was carried out between October 2011 and November 2012 at five sites along the RMD influenced by agricultural discharges and a reference site in a stream outside the RMD that receives less pesticides. Acute toxicity to D. magna was observed only once in a sample from the RMD (Cano Azul); the index of biomaiker responses in fish exposed in situ was higher than controls at the same site and at the RMD-Freeman. However, only macroinvertebrates were statistically related to the presence of pesticides, combined with both physical-chemical parameters and habitat degradation. All three groups of variables determined the distribution of macroinvertebrate taxa through the study sites.

  • 10.
    Eklund, Britta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Watermann, Burkard
    Persistence of TBT and copper in excess on leisure boat hulls around the Baltic Sea2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 15, s. 14595-14605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A handheld XRF-analyzer specially calibrated for measurements of metals on plastic boat hulls has been used on leisure boats in Denmark (DK), Finland (FI), and Germany (DE). The results on tin and copper are presented as mu g metal/cm(2). Tin is a proxy for the occurrence of organotin compounds on the boat. Two or three sites were visited in each country and between 25 and 90 boats were measured at each site. Every boat was measured at six to eight places, and the results are presented both as mean and median values. Linear regression of mean to median values of the 377 data pairs shows high relationship with R-2 = 0.9566 for tin and R-2 of 0.9724 for copper and thus both ways of calculation may be used. However, for regulative use, it is suggested that all individual measurements on each boat should be presented and used for decisions of removal or sealing of boat hulls. The results are compared with published data from different parts of Sweden, i.e., boats in fresh water, brackish water, and salt water. The results show that tin with mean values > 50 mu g Sn/cm(2) is still found on 42, 24, and 23% of the boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The corresponding percentages based on median values are 38, 22, and 18% for DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The variation among boats is high with a maximum mean value of 2000 mu g Sn/cm(2). As comparison, one layer of an old TBT antifouling paint Hempels Hard racing superior, corresponds to 300 mu g Sn/cm(2). The percentage of boats with tin >400 mu g Sn/cm(2) content based on mean values was 10% in DK, 5% in FI, and 1% in DE. The corresponding median values were 9, 6, and 1% for DK, FI, and DE. Copper, >100 mu g Cu/cm(2), was detected on all measured boats in DK and in DE and on all but 3% of the FI boats. One layer of Hempels MilleXtra corresponds to I' 4000 mu g Cu/cm(2). The recommendation on the can is to apply two layers. The proportion of boats with higher mean copper values than 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 51, 56, and 61 for boats in DK, FI, and DE, respectively. The proportion based on median values > 8000 mu g Cu/cm(2) was 50, 54, and 61% for DK, FI, and DE. The conclusion is that many leisure boats around the Baltic Sea still display or possess antifouling paints containing organotin compounds and that more than half of the boats have more copper than needed for one boat season according to the paint producers. Much of these known toxic compounds will probably be released into the environment and harm the biota. The calibrated XRF-method, intended for area measurements on boat hulls, is an easy and cheap way to detect boats with organotin compounds and high copper content. We recommend environmental authorities to use this method for identification of such boats and to use the results for requesting measures to minimize further leakage to the environment.

  • 11.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Winnberg, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Spatial and temporal trends of the Stockholm Convention POPs in mothers' milk - a global review2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 12, s. 8989-9041Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of environmental and health concern for more than half a century and have their own intergovernmental regulation through the Stockholm Convention, from 2001. One major concern is the nursing child's exposure to POPs, a concern that has led to a very large number of scientific studies on POPs in mothers' milk. The present review is a report on the assessment on worldwide spatial distributions of POPs and of their temporal trends. The data presented herein is a compilation based on scientific publications between 1995 and 2011. It is evident that the concentrations in mothers' milk depend on the use of pesticides and industrial chemicals defined as POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are higher in the more industrialized areas, Europe and Northern America, whereas pesticides are higher in Africa and Asia and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are reported in higher concentrations in the USA. POPs are consequently distributed to women in all parts of the world and are thus delivered to the nursing child. The review points out several major problems in the reporting of data, which are crucial to enable high quality comparisons. Even though the data set is large, the comparability is hampered by differences in reporting. In conclusion, much more detailed instructions are needed for reporting POPs in mothers' milk. Temporal trend data for POPs in mothers' milk is scarce and is of interest when studying longer time series. The only two countries with long temporal trend studies are Japan and Sweden. In most cases, the trends show decreasing concentrations of POPs in mothers' milk. However, hexabromocyclododecane is showing increasing temporal concentration trends in both Japan and Sweden.

  • 12. Ge, Linke
    et al.
    Dong, Qianqian
    Halsall, Crispin
    Chen, Chang-Er L.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Li, Jun
    Wang, Degao
    Zhang, Peng
    Yao, Ziwei
    Aqueous multivariate phototransformation kinetics of dissociated tetracycline: implications for the photochemical fate in surface waters2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 16, s. 15726-15732Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics are ubiquitous pollutants in aquatic systems and can exist as different dissociated species depending on the water pH. New knowledge of their multivariate photochemical behavior (i.e., the photobehavior of different ionized forms) is needed to improve our understanding on the fate and possible remediation of these pharmaceuticals in surface and waste waters. In this study, the photochemical degradation of aqueous tetracycline (TC) and its dissociated forms (TCH20, TCH-, and TC2-) was investigated. Simulated sunlight experiments and matrix calculations indicated that the three dissociated species had dissimilar photolytic kinetics and photo-oxidation reactivities. TC2- photo-degraded the fastest due to apparent photolysis with a kinetic constant of 0.938 +/- 0.021 min(-1), followed by TCH- (0.020 +/- 0.005 min(-1)) and TCH20 (0.012 +/- 0.001 min(-1)), whereas Tar was found to be the most highly reactive toward center dot OH (105.78 +/- 3.40 M(-1 )s(-1)), and TC2- reacted the fastest with O-1(2) (344.96 +/- 45.07 M-1 s(-1)). Water with relatively high pH (e.g., similar to 8-9) favors the dissociated forms of TCH- and TC2- which are most susceptible to photochemical loss processes compared to neutral TC. The calculated corresponding environmental half-lives (t(1/2,E) ) in sunlit surface waters ranged from 0.05 h for pH = 9 in midsummer to 3.68 h for pH = 6 in midwinter at 45 degrees N latitude. The moms was dominated by apparent photolysis (especially in summer, 62-91%), followed by O-1(2) and center dot OH oxidation. Adjusting the pH to slightly alkaline conditions prior to UV or solar UV light treatment may be an effective way of enhancing the photochemical removal of TC from contaminated water.

  • 13.
    Gebbink, Wouter A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Ullah, Shahid
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sandblom, Oskar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids in target food samples and packaging - method development and screening2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 7949-7958Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate mono-, di-, and tri-esters (mono-, di-, and triPAPs) are used to water- and grease-proof food packaging materials, and these chemicals are known precursors to perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Existing analytical methods for PAPs lack sample clean-up steps in the sample preparation. In the present study, a method based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) was developed and optimized for the analysis of mono-, di-, and triPAPs, including a clean-up step for the raw extracts. The method was applied to food samples and their PAP-containing packaging materials. The optimized UPLC/MS/MS method enabled the separation and identification of a total of 4 monoPAPs, 16 diPAPs, and 7 triPAPs in the technical mixture Zonyl®-RP. For sample clean-up, weak anion exchange solid phase extraction columns were tested. PAPs standard solutions spiked onto the columns were separated into a fraction containing neutral compounds (triPAPs) and a fraction with ionic compounds (mono- and diPAPs) with recoveries between 72–110 %. Method limits of quantification for food samples were in the sub to low picogram per gram range. For quantitative analysis of PAPs, compound-specific labeled internal standards showed to be essential as sorption and matrix effects were observed. Mono-, di-, and/or triPAPs were detected in all food packaging materials obtained from the Swedish market. Up to nine diPAPs were detected in the food samples, with the 6:2/6:2 and 6:2/8:2 diPAPs as the dominant compounds. DiPAP concentrations in the food samples ranged from 0.9 to 36 pg/g, which was comparable to individual PFCA concentrations in the same samples. Consumption of food packed in PAP-containing materials could be an indirect source of human exposure to PFCAs.

  • 14. Gruzieva, Olena
    et al.
    Georgelis, Antonios
    Andersson, Niklas
    Bellander, Tom
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. SLB-analys, Sweden.
    Merritt, Anne-Sophie
    Comparison of measured residential black carbon levels outdoors and indoors with fixed-site monitoring data and with dispersion modelling2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 28, nr 13, s. 16264-16271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiologic studies on health effects of air pollution usually rely on time-series of ambient monitoring data or on spatially modelled levels. Little is known how well these estimate residential outdoor and indoor levels. We investigated the agreement of measured residential black carbon (BC) levels outdoors and indoors with fixed-site monitoring data and with levels calculated using a Gaussian dispersion model. One-week residential outdoor and indoor BC measurements were conducted for 15 families living in central Stockholm. Time-series from urban background and street-level monitors were compared to these measurements. The observed weekly concentrations were also standardized to reflect annual averages, using urban background levels, and compared spatially to long-term levels as estimated by dispersion modelling. Weekly average outdoor BC level was 472 ng/m3 (range 261-797 ng/m3). The corresponding fixed-site urban background and street levels were 313 and 1039 ng/m3, respectively. Urban background variation explained 50% of the temporal variation in residential outdoor levels averaged over 24 h. Modelled residential long-term outdoor levels were on average comparable with the standardized measured home outdoor levels, and explained 49% of the spatial variability. The median indoor/outdoor ratio across all addresses was 0.79, with no difference between day and night time. Common exposure estimation approaches in the epidemiology of health effects related to BC displayed high validity for residencies in central Stockholm. Urban background monitored levels explained half of the outdoor day-to-day variability at residential addresses. Long-term dispersion modelling explained half of the spatial differences in outdoor levels. Indoor BC concentrations tended to be somewhat lower than outdoor levels. 

  • 15. Gustafsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Wang, Bei
    Gerde, Per
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Yeung, Leo W. Y.
    Bioavailability of inhaled or ingested PFOA adsorbed to house dust2022Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 29, nr 52, s. 78698-78710Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor environments may impact human health due to chemical pollutants in the indoor air and house dust. This study aimed at comparing the bioavailability and distribution of PFOA following both an inhalation and an oral exposure to PFOA coated house dust in rats. In addition, extractable organofluorine (EOF) was measured in different tissue samples to assess any potential influence of other organofluorine compounds in the experimental house dust. Blood samples were collected at sequential time points after exposure and at the time of termination; the lungs, liver, and kidney were collected for quantification of PFOA and EOF. The concentration of PFOA in plasma increased rapidly in both exposure groups attaining a Cmax at 3 h post exposure. The Cmax following inhalation was four times higher compared to oral exposures. At 48 h post exposure, the levels of PFOA in the plasma, liver, and kidney were twice as high from inhalation exposures. This shows that PFOA is readily bioavailable and has a rapid systemic distribution following an inhalation or oral exposure to house dust coated with PFOA. The proportion of PFOA to EOF corresponded to 65–71% and 74–87% in plasma and tissues, respectively. The mass balance between EOF and target PFOA indicates that there might be other unknown PFAS precursor and/or fluorinated compounds that co-existed in the house dust sample that can have accumulated in rats.

  • 16.
    Gómara, Belén
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). CSIC, Spain.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Quintanilla-López, Jesús Eduardo
    José González, María
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in placenta from Madrid mothers2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 139-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Concentrations and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in placenta samples from a Madrid population (Spain) are reported. Structure dependent retentions of OH-PCBs are known to occur in both humans and wildlife, making it of interest to assess placental transfer of both parent compounds and their metabolites to the developing foetus.

    Results The Sigma PCB concentrations found in placenta samples were in the range 943-4,331 pg/g fresh weight (f.w.), and their hydroxylated metabolites showed a 20-time lower concentration level (53-261 pg/g f.w.). The PCB profiles were surprisingly dominated by CB-52 and CB-101 accounting for more than 44% of the total PCB concentration. This is indicating a source of exposure that is not yet identified. The OH-PCB profiles were dominated by 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146, representing >50% of the Sigma OH-PCB concentration of the placenta samples. Statistical analysis of the data revealed strong correlations between the PCB congeners, among some OH-PCBs, and between OH-PCB metabolites with a meta- and para- substitution pattern. Both PCB and OH-PCB concentrations presented homogeneous distribution, what allowed the establishment of a partial least squares model that correlated the concentrations of OH-PCB with those of PCBs in placenta samples. In addition, causal correlations were observed between the concentrations of OH-PCBs and those of their corresponding PCB precursors.

  • 17.
    Iadaresta, Francesco
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Manniello, Michele Dario
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK).
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. University of Salerno, Italy.
    Holmbäck, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Russo, Paola
    Chemicals from textiles to skin: an in vitro permeation study of benzothiazole2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 25, s. 24629-24638Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the possible impact on human health, few studies have been conducted to assess the penetration and accumulation of contaminants in the skin after a prolonged contact with textile materials. In previous studies, we have shown that benzothiazole and its derivatives, as well as other potentially hazardous chemicals, often are present as textile contaminants in clothes available on the retail market. Since benzothiazole is a common contaminant in clothes, these can be a possible route for human chemical exposure, both systemic and onto the skin. To investigate this potential exposure, Franz-type and flow-through cells were used for the permeation studies together with a Strat-MA (R) artificial membranes. Experiments were performed using solutions of benzothiazole, as well as contaminated textile samples in the donor chamber. Benzothiazole was demonstrated to penetrate through, as well as being accumulated in the membrane mimicking the skin. After 24 h, up to 62% of benzothiazole was found in the acceptor cell, while up to 37% was found absorbed in the skin mimicking membrane. It also was shown that there was release and permeation from contaminated fabrics. The results indicate that benzothiazole can be released from textile materials, penetrate through the skin, and further enter the human body. This will possibly also apply to other chemical contaminants in textiles, and the results of this study indicate that the presence of these textile contaminants entails potential health risks. A rough risk assessment was made for clothing textiles according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and European regulations for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic compounds, using literature data for benzothiazole.

  • 18.
    Javed, M. Tariq
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Botaniska institutionen.
    Stoltz, Eva
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Botaniska institutionen.
    Greger, Maria
    Changes in pH and organic acids in mucilage of Eriophorum angustifolium roots after exposure to elevated concentrations of toxic elements2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 1876-1880Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of Eriophorum angustifolium in mine tailings of pyrite maintains a neutral pH, despite weathering, thus lowering the release of toxic elements into acid mine drainage water. We investigated if the presence of slightly elevated levels of free toxic elements triggers the plant rhizosphere to change the pH towards neutral by increasing organic acid content. Plants were treated with a combination of As, Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn at different concentrations in nutrient medium and in soil in a rhizobox-like system for 48-120 hrs. The pH and organic acids were detected in the mucilage dissolved from root surface, reflecting the rhizosphere solution. Also the pH of root-cell apoplasm was investigated. Both apoplasmic and mucilage pH increased and the concentrations of organic acids enhanced in the mucilage with slightly elevated levels of toxic elements. When organic acid concentration was high, also the pH was high. Thus, efflux of organic acids from the roots of E. angustifolium may induce rhizosphere basification.

  • 19.
    Lage, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Burian, Alfred
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Rasmussen, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Costa, Pedro Reis
    Annadotter, Heléne
    Godhe, Anna
    Rydberg, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    BMAA extraction of cyanobacteria samples: which method to choose?2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 338-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    beta-N-Methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a neurotoxin reportedly produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates, is proposed to be linked to the development of neurological diseases. BMAA has been found in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide, both in its phytoplankton producers and in several invertebrate and vertebrate organisms that bioaccumulate it. LC-MS/MS is the most frequently used analytical technique in BMAA research due to its high selectivity, though consensus is lacking as to the best extraction method to apply. This study accordingly surveys the efficiency of three extraction methods regularly used in BMAA research to extract BMAA from cyanobacteria samples. The results obtained provide insights into possible reasons for the BMAA concentration discrepancies in previous publications. In addition and according to the method validation guidelines for analysing cyanotoxins, the TCA protein precipitation method, followed by AQC derivatization and LC-MS/MS analysis, is now validated for extracting protein-bound (after protein hydrolysis) and free BMAA from cyanobacteria matrix. BMAA biological variability was also tested through the extraction of diatom and cyanobacteria species, revealing a high variance in BMAA levels (0.0080-2.5797 mu g g(-1) DW).

  • 20.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ferreira, João
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Flawed risk assessment of antifouling paints leads to exceedance of guideline values in Baltic Sea marinas2020Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 27, nr 22, s. 27674-27687Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The seasonal variations of dissolved and bioavailable copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were studied in two recreational marinas in Sweden and Finland. The time series from the two marinas were characterized by rising concentrations during the spring boat launching, elevated concentrations all through the peak boating season, and decreasing concentrations in autumn when boats were retrieved for winter storage. This pattern shows a clear link between Cu and Zn concentrations and boating activity, with antifouling paints as the principal source. The leaching from antifouling paints was also found to significantly alter the speciation of dissolved Cu and Zn in marina waters, with an increase of the proportion of metals that may be considered bioavailable. This change in speciation, which occurred without any change in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), further increases the environmental risk posed by antifouling paints. In the Swedish marina, dissolved Cu and Zn exceed both Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) and Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC), indicating that the current Swedish risk assessment (RA) of antifouling paints is failing to adequately protect the marine environment. An evaluation of the RA performance showed the underlying cause to be an underestimation of the predicted environmental concentration (PEC) by factors of 2 and 5 for Cu and Zn, respectively. For both metals, the use of inaccurate release rates for the PEC derivation was found to be either mainly (Cu) or partly (Zn) responsible for the underestimation. For Zn, the largest source of error seems to be the use of an inappropriate partitioning coefficient (K-D) in the model. To ensure that the use of antifouling coatings does not adversely impact the sensitive Baltic Sea, it is thus recommended that the K-D value for Zn is revised and that representative release rates are used in the RA procedure.

  • 21.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Norling, Matz
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 10, s. 10146-10157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Malaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.

  • 22. Leepe, Khadija Akter
    et al.
    Li, Mei
    Fang, Xin
    Hiyoshi, Ayako
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Acute effect of daily fine particulate matter pollution on cerebrovascular mortality in Shanghai, China: a population-based time series study2019Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, nr 25, s. 25491-25499Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies have investigated the impacts of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on human health. In this study, we examined the association of daily PM2.5 concentrations with the number of deaths for the cerebrovascular disease on the same day, using the generalized additive model (GAM) controlling for temporal trend and meteorological variables. We used the data between 2012 and 2014 from Shanghai, China, where the adverse health effects of PM2.5 have been of particular concern. Three different approaches (principal component analysis, shrinkage smoothers, and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regularization) were used in GAM to handle multicollinear meteorological variables. Our results indicate that the average daily concentration of PM2.5 in Shanghai was high, 55 mu g/m(3), with an average daily death for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) of 62. There was 1.7% raised cerebrovascular disease deaths per 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 concentration in the unadjusted model. However, PM2.5 concentration was no longer associated with CVD deaths after controlling for meteorological variables. The results were consistent in the three modelling techniques that we used. As a large number of people are exposed to air pollution, further investigation with longer time period including individual-level information is needed to examine the association.

  • 23. Lin, Zhong
    et al.
    Zhen, Zhen
    Chen, Changer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Li, Yongtao
    Luo, Chunling
    Zhong, Laiyuan
    Hu, Hanqiao
    Li, Jin
    Zhang, Yueqin
    Liang, Yanqiu
    Yang, Jiewen
    Zhang, Dayi
    Rhizospheric effects on atrazine speciation and degradation in laterite soils of Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 13, s. 12407-12418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a worldwide-used herbicide and often detected in agricultural soils and groundwater at concentrations above the permitted limit, because of its high mobility, persistence, and massive application. This study applied pot experiments to investigate the atrazine contents and speciation during the phytoremediation process by Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. in laterite soils. From the change of the total atrazine and bioavailable atrazine measured by diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT), P. alopecuroides significantly improved atrazine degradation efficiency from 15.22 to 51.46%, attributing to the increasing bioavailable atrazine in rhizosphere. Only a small amount of atrazine was taken up by P. alopecuroides root and the acropetal translocation from roots to shoots was limited. The atrazine speciation was significantly different between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere, attributing to the declining pH and organic matters in rhizosphere. The relationship between pH and soil-bound/humus-fixed atrazine illustrated the pH-dependant release of the atrazine from soils and the competition between humus adsorption and uptake by P. alopecuroides. The present study reveals the important roles of soil pH and organic matters in atrazine speciation and availability in laterite soils, and provides new insights in the rhizospheric effects on effective phytoremediation of atrazine.

  • 24.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Gustafsson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Degradation of naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Baltic Sea sediment via reductive debromination2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, nr 28, s. 25878-25885Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last two decades, the occurrence of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) has been observed to be nearly ubiquitous among Baltic Sea filamentous macroalgae. High concentrations are continuously recorded among red, green, and brown filamentous algae. Several of these algae species are ephemeral, and when large parts of the colonies decay at the end of their lifecycles, the OH-PBDEs are expected to largely partition to the sediment. In this study, the fate of OH-PBDEs in Baltic Sea sediment was investigated, with focus on the effect of reductive debromination. During chemical debromination, it was observed that the half-life could differ with as much as two orders of magnitude between a pentabrominated and a tetrabrominated congener. Using collected Baltic Sea sediment, it was further observed that the half-life of spiked pentabrominated OH-PBDEs spanned from a few days up to a few weeks in room temperature. At 4 degrees C, it took 6 months to achieve a 50% decrease in concentration of the fasted degrading congener. Clear differences in selectivity between chemical debromination and debromination in sediment were also observed when studying the major reaction products. Baltic Sea sediment seems to have a good capacity for reducing naturally produced OH-PBDEs.

  • 25.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Lipid-soluble conjugates of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 954-961Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) of proposed natural origin have been detected throughout the food web of the Baltic Sea. Some OH-PBDEs have been shown to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation and the thyroid hormone system in exposed organisms. This paper describes an investigation into the fate of OH-PBDEs in the Baltic Sea's predominant specie, the blue mussel. The main focus was on the conjugation of OH-PBDEs with lipophilic moieties (e.g., fatty acids) and the potential role this transformation mechanism may have in heavily exposed mussels in nature. Analytical methods were developed to accurately determine the concentrations of these conjugates in blue mussels collected on different occasions during the summer in a coastal area of the Baltic proper. The measured concentrations of conjugated OH-PBDEs were compared to those of the unconjugated parent compounds, and it was found that in some cases, the levels of the conjugated derivatives can be equal or even higher than the levels of the unconjugated OH-PBDEs. This is, to our knowledge, the first study on lipid-soluble OH-PBDE conjugates, and the first study to investigate the occurrence of such conjugates of halogenated phenolic compounds in environmentally exposed mussels. The mussels were also found to contain hydrolysable water-soluble derivatives of OH-PBDEs (such as e.g., glucuronic acid and/or sulfate conjugates etc.). These were tentatively determined to be of lower concentration (by up to an order of magnitude) than that of the OH-PBDEs which were conjugated with lipophilic moieties.

  • 26.
    Luongo, Giovanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Avagyan, Rozanna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Hongyu, Ren
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Östman, Conny
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    The washout effect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and their derivatives in clothing textiles2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 2537-2548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In two previous papers, the authors have shown that benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and several of their derivatives are widespread in clothing textile articles. A number of these compounds exhibit allergenic and irritating properties and, due to their octanol-water partition coefficient, are prone to be absorbed by the skin. Moreover, they are slightly soluble in water, which could make washing of clothes a route of emission into the environment. In the present study, the washout effect of benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline, and some of their derivatives has been investigated. Twenty-seven textile samples were analyzed before, as well as after five and ten times of washing. The most abundant analyte was found to be benzothiazole, which was detected in 85 % of the samples with an average concentration of 0.53 mu g/g (median 0.44 mu g/g), followed by quinoline, detected in 81 % of the samples with an average concentration of 2.42 mu g/g (median 0.21 mu g/g). The average decrease in concentration for benzothiazoles was 50 % after ten times washing, while it was around 20 % for quinolines. The average emission to household wastewater of benzothiazoles and quinolines during one washing (5 kg of clothes made from polyester materials) was calculated to 0.5 and 0.24 g, respectively. These results strongly indicate that laundering of clothing textiles can be an important source of release of these compounds to household wastewater and in the end to aquatic environments. It also demonstrates a potential source of human exposure to these chemicals since considerable amounts of the compounds remain in the clothes even after ten times of washing.

  • 27.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå Universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 1460-1468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction  

    Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison.

    Materials and methods  

    The samples were liquid–liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GS-MS).

    Results and discussion  

    The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE.

    Conclusions  

    Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.

  • 28.
    Meng, Qingpeng
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK). Peking University, China.
    Zhang, Jing
    Zhang, Zhaoyu
    Wu, Tairan
    Geochemistry of dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River Drainage (China): distribution, sources, and water quality assessment2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 8091-8103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved trace elements and heavy metals in the Dan River drainage basin, which is the drinking water source area of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (China), affect large numbers of people and should therefore be carefully monitored. To investigate the distribution, sources, and quality of river water, this study integrating catchment geology and multivariate statistical techniques was carried out in the Dan River drainage from 99 river water samples collected in 2013. The distribution of trace metal concentrations in the Dan River drainage was similar to that in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, indicating that the reservoir was significantly affected by the Dan River drainage. Moreover, our results suggested that As, Sb, Cd, Mn, and Ni were the major pollutants. We revealed extremely high concentrations of As and Sb in the Laoguan River, Cd in the Qingyou River, Mn, Ni, and Cd in the Yinhua River, As and Sb in the Laojun River, and Sb in the Dan River. According to the water quality index, water in the Dan River drainage was suitable for drinking; however, an exposure risk assessment model suggests that As and Sb in the Laojun and Laoguan rivers could pose a high risk to humans in terms of adverse health and potential non-carcinogenic effects.

  • 29.
    Moreira Bastos, Patricia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Vidarson, Jenny
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljökemi.
    Oxidative transformation of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (PBDEs) and of hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs)2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 15, nr 7, s. 606-613Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND, AIM, AND SCOPE: The historical and widespread use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as flame retardants in consumer products worldwide has caused PBDEs to now be regarded as pervasive environmental contaminants. Most recently, hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs) have emerged as environmentally relevant due to reports of their natural production and metabolism. An important parameter for assessing the environmental impact of a chemical substance is persistence. By formulating the concept that persistence is the result of the substance's physicochemical properties and chemical reactivity, Green and Bergman have proposed a new methodology to determine the inherent persistence of a chemical. If persistence could be predicted by straightforward methods, substances with this quality could be screened out before large-scale production/manufacturing begins. To provide data to implement this concept, we have developed new methodologies to study chemical transformations through photolysis; hydrolysis, substitution, and elimination; and via oxidation. This study has focused on adapting an oxidative reaction method to be applicable to non-water soluble organic pollutants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBDEs and one MeO-PBDE were dissolved in tetrahydrofuran/methanol and then diluted in alkaline water. The OH-PBDEs were dissolved in alkaline water prior to reaction. The oxidation degradation reaction was performed at 50 degrees C using potassium permanganate as described elsewhere. The pH was maintained at 7.6 with disodium hydrogen phosphate and barium hydrogen phosphate, the latter also serving as a trapping agent for manganate ions. The oxidation reactions were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography and reaction rates were calculated. RESULTS: The OH-PBDEs have very fast oxidative transformation rates compared to the PBDEs. The reaction rates seem to be primarily dependent on substitution pattern of the pi-electron-donating bromine substituents and of bromine content. There are indications that further reactions of OH-PBDEs, e.g., methylation to the MeO-PBDEs, decrease the oxidation rates, and thereby generate more persistent substances. DISCUSSION: The resistance of PBDEs to oxidation, a major degradation pathway in air, should be further investigated, since these compounds do undergo long range transport. With slight modifications, the original method has been adapted to include a larger variety of chemical substances, and preliminary data are now available on the oxidative transformation rates for PBDEs and of OH-PBDEs. CONCLUSIONS: The original oxidation degradation method can now include non-water soluble compounds. This modification, using low concentrations of test chemicals, allows us to measure oxidative transformation rates, for some of the lower brominated DEs, data that can be used to assess their persistence in future model calculations. Oxidative transformation rates for PBDEs are slow compared to those for the OH-PBDEs. This suggests that OH-PBDEs, when released into the environment, undergo faster oxidative metabolism and excretion than the PBDEs. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: To evaluate the modified method, more degradation reactions with non-water soluble compounds should be investigated. Recent studies show that OH-PBDEs are present in rats and in humans and, because of their activity as endocrine disruptors, determining their subsequent environmental fate is of importance. The resistance of PBDEs to oxidative degradation should be acknowledged as of possible future concern. Several other compound classes (such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), and pharmaceuticals) need to be subjected to this screening method to increase the database of transformation rates that can be used with this model.

  • 30. Nguyen, Thanh
    et al.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Nguyen, Van
    The combined effect of Bassa 50EC and Vitashield 40EC on the brain acetylcholinesterase activity in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus)2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 17, s. 17207-17215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The combined effect of Vitashield 40EC (chlorpyrifos ethyl-CPF) and Bassa 50EC (fenobucarb-F) was compared with the effects from exposure to the two pesticides separately, by measuring the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in climbing perch fingerlings (Anabas testudineus). The experiment was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and included three treatments containing 0.173 mg/L of CPF, 1.137 mg/L of F, 0.173 mg/L of CPF + 1.137 mg/L of F (M), and a control. The inhibition of the brain AChE activity in fish exposed to F was weaker and shorter than in fish exposed to CPF. The inhibition by the mixture of CPF and F was significantly lower and less prolonged than the inhibition by only CPF but significantly higher than the inhibition by only F.

  • 31.
    Nguyen, Thanh Tam
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Nong Lam University, Vietnam.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Van Nguyen, Cong
    The joint toxicity effects of Chlorpyrifos ethyl and Fenobucarb to Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) from rice fields in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 13226-13234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organophosphates (e.g. chlorpyrifos ethyl) and carbamates (e.g. fenobucarb), are commonly used to control a wide range of pests in rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. This study assesses the combined effect of chlorpyrifos ethyl (CPF) and fenobucarb (F) on the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in climbing perch fingerlings from rice fields in the Mekong Delta. It also investigates if Pyridine-2-aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) can be used to re-activate cholinesterase that has been blocked by CPF and F. Three days after spraying, the water concentrations of both insecticides decreased quickly below the detection levels. However the brain AChE activity in fish was inhibited for more than seven days. The results indicate a quicker but less prolonged inhibition of the brain AChE activity by the mixture than by only CPF. The inhibition levels were above 70% only during the first 48 hours, which could explain why all fish survived. 2-PAM resulted in a significant re-activation of the cholinesterase blocked by a combination of CPF and F, and it is proposed that the re-activation by 2-PAM could provide a way to assess the AChE inhibition level in organisms, when no unexposed individuals are available as controls. The results indicate that current use of CPF and F in rice farming in the Mekong Delta is likely to cause negative effects on non-target organisms. Many of these effects may be sub-lethal, and there is a need to develop relevant bio-markers, that are relevant, cheap and easy to apply under tropical conditions in developing countries.

  • 32. Norden, Marcus
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Engwall, Magnus
    High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vanern, Sweden2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 8021-8030Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vanern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the mu g/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  • 33. Nordén, Marcus
    et al.
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Developmental toxicity of PFOS and PFOA in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus)2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 10855-10862Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in environmental samples and have been studied in various species. In this study, we compare the sensitivity of three avian species to the toxic effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). Eggs of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis), herring gull (Larus argentatus) and the domestic White Leghorn chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) were exposed in ovo by injection into the air sac. Effects on embryo survival were observed following exposure to PFOS and PFOA in chicken and herring gull. Chicken was found to be the most sensitive species with 50 % reduced embryo survival at 8.5 mu g/g egg for PFOS and 2.5 mu g/g egg for PFOA. Cormorant was shown to be the least sensitive species. The difference in sensitivity between chicken and herring gull was a factor of 2.7 for PFOS and 3.5 for PFOA. Between chicken and great cormorant, the sensitivity difference was 2.6 for PFOS and 8.2 for PFOA. Effects on embryo survival were seen at egg injection doses of PFOS close to levels found in environmental samples from wild birds, indicating that PFOS could be having effects in highly exposed populations of birds. This study also shows that there are differences in species sensitivity to PFOS and PFOA that should be taken into consideration in avian wildlife risk assessment.

  • 34.
    Raymond, Caroline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Samuelsson, Göran S.
    Agrenius, Stefan
    Schaanning, Morten T.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Impaired benthic macrofauna function 4 years after sediment capping with activated carbon in the Grenland fjords, Norway2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, nr 28, s. 16181-16197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sediments in the Grenland fjords in southern Norway are heavily contaminated by large emissions of dioxins and mercury from historic industrial activities. As a possible in situ remediation option, thin-layer sediment surface capping with powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay was applied at two large test sites (10,000 and 40,000 m(2)) at 30-m and 95-m depths, respectively, in 2009. This paper describes the long-term biological effects of the AC treatment on marine benthic communities up to 4 years after treatment. Our results show that the capping with AC strongly reduced the benthic species diversity, abundance, and biomass by up to 90%. Vital functions in the benthic ecosystem such as particle reworking and bioirrigation of the sediment were also reduced, analyzed by using novel bioturbation and bioirrigation indices (BPc, BIPc, and IPc). Much of the initial effects observed after 1 and 14 months were still present after 49 months, indicating that the effects are long-lasting. These long-lasting negative ecological effects should be carefully considered before decisions are made on sediment remediation with powdered AC, especially in large areas, since important ecosystem functions can be impaired.

  • 35.
    Rämö, Robert A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Ruepert, Clemens
    Castillo, Luisa E.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in the River Madre de Dios, Costa Rica using PERPEST, SSD, and msPAF models2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13254-13269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the ecological risks (ERA) of pesticides to aquatic organisms in the River Madre de Dios (RMD), which receives surface runoff water from banana, pineapple, and rice plantations on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Water samples collected over 2 years at five sites in the RMD revealed a total of 26 pesticides. Their toxicity risk to aquatic organisms was assessed using three recent ERA models. (1) The PERPEST model showed a high probability (>50 %) of clear toxic effects of pesticide mixtures on algae, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and community metabolism and a low probability (<50 %) of clear effects on fish. (2) Species sensitivity distributions (SSD) showed a moderate to high risk of three herbicides: ametryn, bromacil, diuron and four insecticides: carbaryl, diazinon, ethoprophos, terbufos. (3) The multi-substance potentially affected fraction (msPAF) model showed results consistent with PERPEST: high risk to algae (maximum msPAF: 73 %), aquatic plants (61 %), and arthropods (25 %) and low risk to fish (0.2 %) from pesticide mixtures. The pesticides posing the highest risks according to msPAF and that should be substituted with less toxic substances were the herbicides ametryn, diuron, the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethoprophos, and the fungicide difenoconazole. Ecological risks were highest near the plantations and decreased progressively further downstream. The risk to fish was found to be relatively low in these models, but water samples were not collected during fish kill events and some highly toxic pesticides known to be used were not analyzed for in this study. Further sampling and analysis of water samples is needed to determine toxicity risks to fish during peaks of pesticide mixture concentrations. The msPAF model, which estimates the ecological risks of mixtures based on their toxic modes of action, was found to be the most suitable model to assess toxicity risks to aquatic organisms in the RMD. The PERPEST model was found to be a strong tool for screening risk assessments. The SSD approach is useful in deriving water quality criteria for specific pesticides. This study, through the application of three ERA models, clearly shows that pesticides used in plantations within the RMD watershed are expected to have severe adverse effects on most groups of aquatic organisms and that actions are urgently needed to reduce pesticide pollution in this high biodiversity ecosystem.

  • 36.
    Samuelsson, Göran S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Svensk Ekologikonsult, Sweden.
    Raymond, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Agrenius, Stefan
    Schaanning, Morten
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Response of marine benthic fauna to thin-layer capping with activated carbon in a large-scale field experiment in the Grenland fjords, Norway2017Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, nr 16, s. 14218-14233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A field experiment with thin-layer capping was conducted in the Grenland fjords, Norway, for remediation in situ of mercury and dioxin-contaminated sediments. Experimental fields at 30 and 95 m depth were capped with (i) powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed with clay (AC+clay), (ii) clay, and (iii) crushed limestone. Ecological effects on the benthic community and species-feeding guilds were studied 1 and 14 months after capping, and a total of 158 species were included in the analyses. The results show that clay and limestone had only minor effects on the benthic community, while AC+clay caused severe perturbations. AC+clay reduced the abundance, biomass, and number of species by up to 90% at both 30 and 95 m depth, and few indications of recovery were found during the period of this investigation. The negative effects of AC+clay were observed on a wide range of species with different feeding strategies, although the suspension feeding brittle star Amphiura filiformis was particularly affected. Even though activated carbon is effective in reducing sediment-to-water fluxes of dioxins and other organic pollutants, this study shows that capping with powdered AC can lead to substantial disturbances to the benthic community.

  • 37. Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    van den Brink, Paul J.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Insect community composition and functional roles along a tropical agricultural production gradient2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13426-13438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High intensity agricultural production systems are problematic not only for human health and the surrounding environment, but can threaten the provision of ecosystem services on which farm productivity depends. This research investigates the effects of management practices in Costa Rica on on-farm insect diversity, using three different types of banana farm management systems: high-input conventional system, low-input conventional system, and organic system. Insect sampling was done using pitfall and yellow bowl traps, left for a 24-h period at two locations inside the banana farm, at the edge of the farm, and in adjacent forest. All 39,091 individual insects were classified to family level and then morphospecies. Insect species community composition and diversity were compared using multivariate statistics with ordination analysis and Monte Carlo permutation testing, and revealed that each of the management systems were significantly different from each other for both trap types. Insect diversity decreased as management intensity increased. Reduced insect diversity resulted in fewer functional groups and fewer insect families assuming different functions essential to ecosystem health. Organic farms had similar species composition on the farm compared to adjacent forest sites, whereas species composition increasingly differed between farm and forest sites as management intensity increased. We conclude that while organic production has minimal impact on insect biodiversity, even small reductions in management intensity can have a significantly positive impact on on-farm insect biodiversity and functional roles supported.

  • 38.
    Schück, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Greger, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Salinity and temperature influence removal levels of heavy metals and chloride from water by wetland plants2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, nr 30, s. 58030-58040Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater with low temperatures and elevated salinity, common in areas where deicing salt is used, might affect the removal of heavy metals by plants in stormwater treatment systems such as floating treatment wetlands. This short-term study evaluated the effects of combinations of temperature (5, 15, and 25 °C) and salinity (0, 100, and 1000 mg NaCl L−1) on the removal of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (1.2, 68.5, 78.4, and 559 μg L−1) and Cl (0, 60, and 600 mg Cl L−1) by Carex pseudocyperusC. riparia, and Phalaris arundinacea. These species had previously been identified as suitable candidates for floating treatment wetland applications. The study found high removal capacity in all treatment combinations, especially for Pb and Cu. However, low temperatures decreased the removal of all heavy metals, and increased salinity decreased the removal of Cd and Pb but had no effect on the removal of Zn or Cu. No interactions were found between the effects of salinity and of temperature. Carex pseudocyperus best removed Cu and Pb, whereas P. arundinacea best removed Cd, Zu, and Cl. The removal efficacy for metals was generally high, with elevated salinity and low temperatures having small impacts. The findings indicate that efficient heavy metal removal can also be expected in cold saline waters if the right plant species are used.

  • 39. Schütze, Eileen
    et al.
    Ahmed, Engy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Voit, Annekatrin
    Klose, Michael
    Greyer, Matthias
    Svatoš, Aleš
    Merten, Dirk
    Roth, Martin
    Holmström, Sara J. M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Kothe, Erika
    Siderophore production by streptomycetes-stability and alteration of ferrihydroxamates in heavy metal-contaminated soil2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 24, s. 19376-19383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal-contaminated soil derived from a former uranium mining site in Ronneburg, Germany, was used for sterile mesocosms inoculated with the extremely metal-resistant Streptomyces mirabilis P16B-1 or the sensitive control strain Streptomyces lividans TK24. The production and fate of bacterial hydroxamate siderophores in soil was analyzed, and the presence of ferrioxamines E, B, D, and G was shown. While total ferrioxamine concentrations decreased in water-treated controls after 30 days of incubation, the sustained production by the bacteria was seen. For the individual molecules, alteration between neutral and cationic forms and linearization of hydroxamates was observed for the first time. Mesocosms inoculated with biomass of either strain showed changes of siderophore contents compared with the non-treated control indicating for auto-alteration and consumption, respectively, depending on the vital bacteria present. Heat stability and structural consistency of siderophores obtained from sterile culture filtrate were shown. In addition, low recovery (32 %) from soil was shown, indicating adsorption to soil particles or soil organic matter. Fate and behavior of hydroxamate siderophores in metal-contaminated soils may affect soil properties as well as conditions for its inhabiting (micro)organisms.

  • 40. Singh, Vivek
    et al.
    Karan, Shivesh Kishore
    Singh, Chandrakant
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Samadder, Sukha Ranjan
    Assessment of the capability of SWAT model to predict surface runoff in open cast coal mining areas2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, nr 14, s. 40073-40083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrological response of watersheds affected by large-scale coal mining activities is complex and difficult to simulate. The present study aims to bridge this gap by simulating the effects of land-use and topographical changes due to coal mining on surface runoff in the Jamunia basin of Jharkhand, India. The derivatives of digital elevation model (DEM) have been used to simulate the changes in topography of the study area and the runoff has been calculated using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. The study results revealed significant increase in surface runoff (mm) during the simulation period. The findings of this study established that unplanned mining activities can reduce the water holding capacity of downstream reservoirs and increase the runoff. The outcome of the study will be helpful for mine planners to design sustainable mining operations which will have less adverse impact on the hydrological regime of the watershed. 

  • 41.
    Stadlinger, Nadja
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Tam, Nguyen T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi. Nong Lam University, Vietnam.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Comparison of predicted aquatic risks of pesticides used under different rice-farming strategies in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13322-13334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET. Our results show that several of the used insecticides pose a high risk to fish and arthropods and that the risks are higher among rice farmers than among rice-fish farmers. This study indicates that the PRIMET model in combination with SSDs offer suitable approaches to help farmers and plant protection staff to identify pesticides that may cause high risk to the environment and therefore should be substituted with safer alternatives.

  • 42. Sturve, Joachim
    et al.
    Balk, Lennart
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Liewenborg, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Förlin, Lars
    Carney Almroth, Bethanie
    Effects of an oil spill in a harbor assessed using biomarkers of exposure in eelpout2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, nr 24, s. 13758-13768Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil spills occur commonly, and chemical compounds originating from oil spills are widespread in the aquatic environment. In order to monitor effects of a bunker oil spill on the aquatic environment, biomarker responses were measured in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) sampled along a gradient in Goteborg harbor where the oil spill occurred and at a reference site, 2 weeks after the oil spill. Eelpout were also exposed to the bunker oil in a laboratory study to validate field data. The results show that eelpout from the Goteborg harbor are influenced by contaminants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also during normal conditions. The bunker oil spill strongly enhanced the biomarker responses. Results show elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in all exposed sites, but, closest to the oil spill, the EROD activity was partly inhibited, possibly by PAHs. Elevated DNA adduct levels were also observed after the bunker oil spill. Chemical analyses of bile revealed high concentrations of PAH metabolites in the eelpout exposed to the oil, and the same PAH metabolite profile was evident both in eelpout sampled in the harbor and in the eelpout exposed to the bunker oil in the laboratory study.

  • 43. Svanfelt, Jesper
    et al.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för material- och miljökemi (MMK), Avdelningen för miljökemi.
    Kronberg, Leif
    Photochemical transformation of the thyroid hormone levothyroxine in aqueous solution2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 871-876Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The direct aqueous photolysis of the thyroid hormone levothyroxine (T(4)) has been studied. Methods and Result One of the major photoproducts, i.e., 4-[4-(2-amino-2-carboxy-ethyl)-2,6-diiodo-phenoxy]-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (P1), was isolated by liquid chromatography and structurally assigned by mass spectrometric (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic methods. The identity of a second major product, i.e., 3,5-diiodo-l-thyrosine (P3), was confirmed through access to a commercially available standard. Furthermore, the structures of three additional transformation products are proposed on the basis of data obtained by high-resolution MS analyses. UV absorption spectra were determined for T(4) and the two photoproducts P1 and P3. Disappearance quantum yields were calculated for T(4) (I center dot = 0.014 at pH 12) and P3 (I center dot = 0.024 at pH 12 and I center dot = 0.010 at pH 8.5), whereas the compound P1 was found to be stable under the studied conditions (T(1/2) = 600 min). Conclusion The results indicate that solar UV light may have a significant impact on the fate of T(4) in the aquatic environment.

  • 44.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Sanderson Bellamy, Angelina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. Cardiff University, UK.
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Tedengren, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Assessing the ecological impact of banana farms on water quality using aquatic macroinvertebrate community composition2018Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, nr 14, s. 13373-13381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Costa Rica, considerable effort goes to conservation and protection of biodiversity, while at the same time agricultural pesticide use is among the highest in the world. Several protected areas, some being wetlands or marine reserves, are situated downstream large-scale banana farms, with an average of 57 pesticide applications per year. The banana industry is increasingly aware of the need to reduce their negative environmental impact, but few ecological field studies have been made to evaluate the efficiency of proposed mitigation strategies. This study compared the composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities up- and downstream effluent water from banana farms in order to assess whether benthic invertebrate community structure can be used to detect environmental impact of banana fanning, and thereby usable to assess improvements in management practises. Aquatic invertebrate samples were collected at 13 sites, using kick-net sampling. both up- and downstream banana farms in fast flowing streams in the Caribbean zone of Costa Rica. In total, 2888 invertebrate specimens were collected, belonging to 15 orders and 48 families or taxa. The change in community composition was analysed using multivariate statistics. Additionally, a biodiversity index and the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) score system was applied along with a number of community composition descriptors. Multivariate analyses indicated that surface waters immediately up- and downstream large-scale banana farms have different macroinvertebrate community compositions with the most evident differences being higher dominance by a single taxa and a much higher total abundance, mostly of that same taxon. Assessment of macroinvertebrate community composition thus appears to be a viable approach to detect negative impact from chemical-intensive agriculture and could become an effective means to monitor the efficacy of changes/proposed improvements in fanning practises in Costa Rica and similar systems.

  • 45. Tanwir, Kashif
    et al.
    Akram, M. Sohail
    Masood, Sajid
    Chaudhary, Hassan Javed
    Lindberg, Sylvia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Javed, M. Tariq
    Cadmium-induced rhizospheric pH dynamics modulated nutrient acquisition and physiological attributes of maize (Zea mays L.)2015Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, nr 12, s. 9193-9203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly mobile toxic element in soil-plant systems that interferes with plant growth and nutrient acquisition by modulations in the rhizospheric environment. The current study investigated the influence of maize roots on the medium pH, alterations in nutrient uptake, and impact on the plant's physiological attributes under Cd stress. Among the nine maize cultivars, subjected to Cd stress (9.15 mg/kg of sand), one was identified as Cd tolerant (3062-Pioneer) and the second as Cd sensitive (31P41-Pioneer). The selected maize cultivars were grown in nutrient solutions supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 mu M CdCl2 under controlled conditions and a starting pH of 6.0. The rhizospheric pH dynamics were monitored each day up to 3 days. Both cultivars caused medium basification; however, the response was different at low (10 and 20 mu M) Cd treatments (sensitive cultivar caused medium basification) and at higher (50 mu M) Cd treatment (tolerant cultivar caused medium basification). Furthermore, higher Cd was accumulated by the sensitive cultivar which was predominantly found in the roots. Higher Cd levels in the medium resulted in increased uptake and translocation of both Cd and K (in the tolerant cultivar) or only Cd (in the sensitive cultivar). Uptake of other nutrients (Ca, Zn, and Fe) was antagonistically affected by Cd stress in both cultivars. Moreover, Cd stress significantly impaired chlorophyll content, catalase activity, and total protein content; irrespective of the genotype. The malondialdehyde (MDA) content was found to increase, in both cultivars, together with Cd level. However, the extent to which Cd interfered with the studied attributes was more pronounced in the sensitive cultivar as compared to the tolerant one. It is concluded that the maize roots responded to Cd stress by initiating modulations of medium pH which might be dependent on Cd tolerance levels. The study results may help to develop strategies to reduce Cd accumulation in maize and decontamination of metal-polluted soil sediments.

  • 46.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Orata, Francis
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl acids in dairy cows in a naturally contaminated environment2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 20, nr 11, s. 7959-7969Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Beef and dairy products may be important vectors of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), but the understanding of how PFAAs are accumulated and transferred through agricultural food chains is very limited. Here, the bioaccumulation of PFAAs in dairy cows receiving naturally contaminated feed and drinking water was investigated by conducting a mass balance of PFAAs for a herd of dairy cows in a barn on a typical Swedish dairy farm. It was assumed that the cows were able to reach steady state with their dietary intake of PFAAs. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with 8 to 12 carbons were detected in cow tissue samples (liver, muscle, and blood) at concentrations up to 130 ng kg(-1). Mass balance calculations demonstrated an agreement between total intake and excretion within a factor of 1.5 and consumption of silage was identified as the dominant intake pathway for all PFAAs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were highly tissue and homologue specific. While BMFs of PFOS and PFCAs with 9 and 10 fluorinated carbons in liver ranged from 10 to 20, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was not biomagnified (BMF < 1) in any of the investigated tissues. Biotransfer factors (BTFs; defined as the concentration in tissue divided by the total daily intake) were calculated for muscle and milk. Log BTFs ranged from -1.95 to -1.15 day kg(-1) with the highest BTF observed for PFOS in muscle. Overall, the results of this study suggest that long-chain PFAAs have a relatively high potential for transfer to milk and beef from the diet of dairy cows. However, a low input of PFAAs to terrestrial systems via atmospheric deposition and low bioavailability of PFAAs in soil limits the amount of PFAAs that enter terrestrial agricultural food chains in background contaminated environments and makes this pathway less important than aquatic exposure pathways. The BTFs estimated here provide a useful tool for predicting human exposure to PFAAs via milk and beef under different contamination scenarios.

  • 47. Wei, Lai
    et al.
    Huang, Qinghui
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Gao, Hongwen
    Huang, Fei
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of night herons and poultries from the upper Yangtze Basin, Southwest China2023Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, nr 41, s. 93744-93759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs have been identified as useful indicators for biomonitoring the environmental pollution in China. In this study, we investigated thirty eggs of black-crowned night heron collected from the upper Yangtze River (Changjiang) Basin, Southwest China, for the occurrence of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Our results showed a general presence of POPs in night heron eggs with OCPs being the dominant contaminants, having a geometric mean concentration of 22.2 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (1.36 ng g(-1) ww), PBDEs (0.215 ng g(-1) ww), and PCDD/Fs (23.0 pg g(-1) ww). The concentration levels were found to be significantly higher in night heron eggs than in poultry eggs by one or two magnitude orders. Among OCP congeners, p,p & PRIME;-DDE was found to be predominant in night heron eggs, with a geometric mean concentration of 15.1 ng g(-1) ww. Furthermore, species-specific congener patterns in eggs suggested similar or different sources for different POPs, possibly associated with contaminated soil and parental dietary sources. Additionally, estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk associated with consumption of bird eggs. Our results revealed non-negligible non-cancer and cancer risk for humans who consume wild bird eggs as a regular diet instead of poultry eggs.

  • 48. Weidemann, Eva
    et al.
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Bidleman, Terry
    Boman, Christoffer
    Carlin, Danielle J.
    Collina, Elena
    Cormier, Stephania A.
    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.
    Gullett, Brian K.
    Johansson, Christer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lucas, Donald
    Lundin, Lisa
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Marklund, Stellan
    Nording, Malin L.
    Ortuno, Nuria
    Sallam, Asmaa A.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Jansson, Stina
    14th congress of combustion by-products and their health effects-origin, fate, and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 8141-8159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 14th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and Their Health Effects was held in UmeAyen, Sweden from June 14th to 17th, 2015. The Congress, mainly sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program and the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, focused on the Origin, fate and health effects of combustion-related air pollutants in the coming era of bio-based energy sources. The international delegates included academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, policymakers and representatives of industrial partners. The Congress provided a unique forum for the discussion of scientific advances in this research area since it addressed in combination the health-related issues and the environmental implications of combustion by-products. The scientific outcomes of the Congress included the consensus opinions that: (a) there is a correlation between human exposure to particulate matter and increased cardiac and respiratory morbidity and mortality; (b) because currently available data does not support the assessment of differences in health outcomes between biomass smoke and other particulates in outdoor air, the potential human health and environmental impacts of emerging air-pollution sources must be addressed. Assessment will require the development of new approaches to characterize combustion emissions through advanced sampling and analytical methods. The Congress also concluded the need for better and more sustainable e-waste management and improved policies, usage and disposal methods for materials containing flame retardants.

  • 49.
    Weiss, Jana M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Jones, Bernt
    Koekkoek, Jacco
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap.
    Lamoree, Marja H.
    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in Swedish household dust and exposure of pet cats2021Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, nr 28, s. 39001-39013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in a wide range of products and have been found ubiquitously in our indoor environment, and there is evidence that exposure to PFAS can lead to adverse endocrine effects, such as thyroid hormone disruption. Pet cats have a high dust intake due to their grooming behavior and have been shown to be a suitable sentinel species for assessment of toddler's exposure. Here we used paired household dust (n=46) and cat serum (n=27) samples to establish whether dust is a relevant exposure pathway to PFASs. An analytical method for PFAS analysis was optimized using a low volume of cat serum samples, combining solid-phase extraction and online sample cleanup. Dust was extracted with methanol by sonication and cleaned up by addition of active carbon. In total, 27 PFASs were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The correlation between PFAS levels in dust and serum, serum lipids and thyroid hormone levels, and PFAS levels in dust between different rooms were statistically evaluated. PFOS and PFDA could be quantified in all cat serum samples (median 2300 pg/mL and 430 pg/mL, respectively), followed by PFOA (median 1100 pg/mL), quantified in 96% of the samples. The levels of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs were determined in 65% and 92% of the serum samples, respectively, and were an order of magnitude lower (1.4-160 pg/mL). Household dust on the other hand was dominated by 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs, with a median of 65 ng/g dust and 49 ng/g dust, respectively. PFOS (median 13 ng/g dust) and PFOA (median 9 ng/g dust) were quantified in 93% of the dust samples. Only eight PFASs were detected (>LOD) in at least 50% of the samples of both matrices and could be paired. Significant correlations between cat serum and dust were found for PFOA (r(S)=0.32, p<0.049) and PFUnDA (r(S)=0.55, p<0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between serum total thyroxine (r(S)=0.11, p<0.05) and PFNA and between serum cholesterol and PFHpA (r(S)=0.46, p<0.01), PFUnDA (r(S)=0.40, p<0.05), PFDoDA (r(S)=0.44, p<0.01), and sum PFAS (r(S)=0.48, p<0.01). In conclusion, this study confirmed that dust is a relevant exposure pathway for the ingestion of some PFASs for cats, and the serum levels of PFASs could be of relevance for the cat's health.

  • 50.
    Wong, Fiona
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Jantunen, Liisa M.
    Papakyriakou, Tim
    Staebler, Ralf M.
    Stern, Gary A.
    Bidleman, Terry F.
    Comparison of micrometeorological and two-film estimates of air-water gas exchange for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Canadian archipelago2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 1908-1914Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The air-sea gas exchange of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) in the Canadian Arctic was estimated using a micrometeorological approach and the commonly used Whitman two-film model. Concurrent shipboard measurements of alpha-HCH in air at two heights (1 and 15 m) and in surface seawater were conducted during the Circumpolar Flaw Lead study in 2008. Sampling was carried out during eight events in the early summer time when open water was encountered. The micrometeorological technique employed the vertical gradient in air concentration and the wind speed to estimate the flux; results were corrected for atmospheric stability using the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. The Whitman two-film model used the concentrations of alpha-HCH in surface seawater, in bulk air at 1 and 15 m above the surface, and the Henry's law constant adjusted for temperature and salinity to derive the flux. Both approaches showed that the overall net flux of alpha-HCH was from water to air. Mean fluxes calculated using the micrometeorological technique ranged from -3.5 to 18 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.4), compared to 3.5 to 14 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.5) using the Whitman two-film model. Flux estimates for individual events agreed in direction and within a factor of two in magnitude for six of eight events. For two events, fluxes estimated by micrometeorology were zero or negative, while fluxes estimated with the two-film model were positive, and the reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. Improvements are needed to shorten air sampling times to ensure that stationarity of meteorological conditions is not compromised over the measurement periods. The micrometeorological technique could be particularly useful to estimate fluxes of organic chemicals over water in situations where no water samples are available.

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