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  • 1. Batidzirai, B.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Energy Security, Agroindustrial Development, and International Trade: The Case of Sugarcane in Southern Africa2012Inngår i: Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations / [ed] Alexandros Gasparatos; Per Stromberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, s. 254-277Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For most of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries, energy security is a key developmental issue, given the limited capacity and supply of modern energy services. Fortunately, the region is bequeathed with abundant natural resources that can potentially be developed to support a thriving biomass energy industry. The development of modern biomass energy is likely to contribute to solving energy security concerns, improving rural livelihoods, and mitigating a number of environmental and socioeconomic impacts of current energy systems. This chapter explores the numerous opportunities and challenges associated with an expansion of biofuel production from the sugar industry as well as potential international trade implications. Current analysis shows that land is not a limiting constraint to bioenergy production from sugar resources. This chapter discusses possible implementation mechanisms to maximize the benefits of sugar resources through multiproduct strategies. One of the key issues to emerge from the analysis is the implementation of regional biofuel strategies to take better advantage of the complementarities in local, regional, and global biofuel markets.

  • 2.
    Bößner, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Suljada, Tim
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Bruno, Aina
    Rodriguez Morales, Jorge
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia och internationella relationer.
    Hu, Mengyin
    Lakshmi Bhamidipati, Padmasai
    Haselip, James
    Policy transfer processes and renewable energy penetration: a comparative analysis of Peru, Thailand, and Uganda2020Inngår i: Sustainable Earth, E-ISSN 2520-8748, Vol. 3, artikkel-id 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Low-carbon technologies must be widely adopted at a large scale to address climate change and enhance access to affordable, reliable and sustainable energy. The uptake of those technologies is often supported by specific policies developed at a national or regional level and those policies, like the technologies themselves, can diffuse from one place to another. This paper sheds some light on this ‘policy transfer’ and investigates the dynamics, the actors and the processes involved. We illustrate what happens when renewable energy support policies in one country inspire renewable support policies in another country using three case studies in Peru, Thailand and Uganda as examples.

    Results

    Using an adapted version of the policy transfer framework first elaborated by Dolowitz and Marsh (Polit Stud 44:343–57, 1996; Governance 13:5–23, 2000), we describe the policy transfer process in the three case study countries according to several criteria. We find that policy transfer is not a straightforward process where a ‘borrower’ country simply adopts policies from a ‘lender’ country, but instead a complex process where many actors - national and international – interact to shape the outcome of the process. And while experiences particularly in the EU as well as international developments have influenced the policy transfer in case study countries significantly, domestic issues also play a key role in shaping the transferred policies and in adapting them to local contexts. Moreover, the policy transfer process is not an one-off event, but a continuous process where iterative learning helps the policies to evolve over time.

    Conclusions

    Policy transfer is a complex matter, involving many stakeholders during a continuous process over time. The Dolowitz and Marsh framework proved useful to analyse policy transfer and the actors involved although questions for further research remain. For instance, against what kind of criteria should the ‘success’ of a policy transfer be measured? Moreover, while comparing three illustrative case studies is a first, useful step, having a larger set of case studies and data might enhance our understanding of the details of the processes involved even further.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3. Hurlbert, Margot
    et al.
    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Rodríguez-Morales, Jorge E.
    Zommers, Zinta
    Risk Management and Decision making in Relation to Sustainable Development2019Inngår i: Climate Change and Land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems / [ed] P.R. Shukla; J. Skea; E. Calvo Buendia; V. Masson-Delmotte; H.-O. Pörtner; D.C. Roberts; P. Zhai; R. Slade; S. Connors; R. van Diemen; M. Ferrat; E. Haughey; S. Luz; S. Neogi; M. Pathak; J. Petzold; J. Portugal Pereira; P. Vyas; E. Huntley; K. Kissick; M. Belkacemi; J. Malley, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , 2019, s. 673-800Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Land is integral to human habitation and livelihoods, providing food and resources, and also serves as a source of identity and cultural meaning. However, the combined impacts of climate change, desertification, land degradation, and food insecurity pose obstacles to resilient development and the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This chapter reviews and assesses the literature on risk and uncertainty surrounding land and climate change, policy instruments and decision-making addressing those risks and uncertainties, and governance practices that advance response options with co-benefits identified in Chapter 6, lessen the socio-economic impacts of climate change and reduce trade-offs, and advance sustainable land management.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Batidzirai, Bothwell
    Renewable resources from sugar cane: the energy, environment and development context for Africa2012Inngår i: Bioenergy for sustainable development and international competitiveness / [ed] F.X. Johnson and V. Seebaluck, Routledge, 2012, s. 1-15Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pacini, Henrique
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Smeets, Edward
    Transformations in EU biofuels markets under the Renewable Energy Directive and the implications for land use, trade and forests2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Seebaluck, Vikram
    Bioenergy for sustainable development and international competitiveness: the role of sugar cane in Africa2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Seebaluck, Vikram
    Conclusion2012Inngår i: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development and International Competitiveness: The Role of Sugar Cane in Africa / [ed] Francis X. Johnson; Vikram Seebaluck, Routledge, 2012, s. 417-425Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Stockholm Environment Institute, Oxford, UK.
    Economics of Modern and Traditional Bioenergy in African Households: Consumer Choices for Cook Stoves2012Inngår i: Bioenergy for sustainable development in Africa / [ed] R. Janssen and D. Rutz, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, s. 375-388Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overwhelming majority of African households use traditional biomass in the form of wood-fuel or charcoal to meet their daily cooking needs. Modern options such as LPG or ethanol can provide considerable benefits for health and environment. The case of ethanol is interesting as a renewable source with lower GHG emissions and also having the potential to be a locally produced resource. The purchase cost of such stoves is considerably higher whilst the fuel costs will generally be lower. Previous research on household adoption of new cook stoves has tended to focus on demographic or socio-economic factors such as education and income in trying to explain consumer choice. Such variables change only slowly and thus generally cannot support rapid introduction of improved stoves. A discrete choice model was developed aimed at focusing more on the characteristics of the cook stoves themselves and the way in which they are used, which are referred to as “product-specific” attributes. The methodology is outlined here followed by a brief summary of the model applications in three countries: Ethiopia, Mozambique and Tanzania. This approach could improve the understanding of the underlying economic issues and thereby contribute to better design of cook stove programmes and help stimulate a market transformation towards cleaner and more efficient cook stoves.

  • 9. Sinkala, Thomson
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Small-Scale Production of Jatropha in Zambia and its Implications for Rural Development and National Biofuel Policies2012Inngår i: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen, Dominik Rutz, Dordrecht: Springer, 2012, s. 41-51Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about energy security and the need to promote rural development have been key factors in the promotion of biofuels in many developing countries in Africa. At the same time, the low cost of labour and plentiful land in some regions of Africa has motivated many foreign investors to set up biofuels schemes that are aimed at export markets. Small-scale production of biofuels in a Least Developed Country (LDC) such as Zambia offers a potentially more viable alternative, or in some cases a complement, to large-scale schemes. The lower capital investment required and the fact that households and communities can use by-products allows for value-added at the local level. The case of jatropha exhibits a number of benefi ts if there is a willingness to experiment with various production schemes and develop different products. In this chapter small-scale jatropha production in Zambia is assessed using a case study at Thomro farms. The relation of small-scale schemes to national priorities and policies is reviewed and the future role of jatropha at local and national levels is discussed.

  • 10. Smeets, Edward
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Ballard-Tremeer, Grant
    Keynote introduction: Traditional and improved use of biomass for energy in Africa2012Inngår i: Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa / [ed] Rainer Janssen, Dominik Rutz, Springer, 2012, s. 3-12Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional biomass energy systems are widely used in Africa, mainly because of the low cost and lack of available alternatives in rural areas. Projections indicate that the (relative) contribution of traditional bioenergy will decrease, but that the total use of traditional biomass energy systems will increase during the coming decades. The effi ciencies of wood-fuel (fi rewood and charcoal) energy systems are usually low and the use of these systems has serious negative consequences, such as indoor air pollution and related health effects, deforestation and the labour intensive and sometimes dangerous process of fi rewood collection. Improvements in stoves, charcoal production effi ciency and switching fuels can increase the effi ciency by several tens of percent points and thereby reduce the demand for labour for the collection of fi rewood and the costs. Other advantages of improved traditional bioenergy systems are reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced indoor air pollution and reduced deforestation. Various initiatives have been successful in implementing the use of improved household stoves, although the results suggest that the success of improved traditional biomass systems depends on the local conditions and socio-economic impacts of these systems.

  • 11. Takama, Takeshi
    et al.
    Tsephel, Stanzin
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Evaluating the relative strength of product-specific factors in fuel switching and stove choice decisions in Ethiopia: A discrete choice model of household preferences for clean cooking alternatives2012Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 1763-1773Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Switching from conventional stoves to modern clean, safe, and efficient stoves will improve health and social welfare for the 2.7 billion people worldwide that lack reliable access to modern energy services. In this paper, we critically review some key theoretical dimensions of household consumer behaviour in switching from traditional biomass cooking stoves to modern efficient stoves and fuels. We then describe the results of empirical research investigating the determinants of stove choice, focusing on the relative strength of product-specific factors across three wealth groups. A stated preference survey and discrete choice model were developed to understand household decision-making associated with cooking stove choice in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study found that, with the exception of price and usage cost factors for the high wealth group, the product-specific factors that were investigated significantly affect stove and fuel choices. The relative strength of factors was assessed in terms of Marginal Willingness to Pay and provides some evidence that consumer preference for higher quality fuels and stoves tends to increase with increasing wealth.

  • 12. Tsephel, Stanzin
    et al.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Stockholm Environment Institute (Oxford).
    Lambe, Fiona
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Why perfect stoves are not always chosen: A new approach for understanding stove and fuel choice at the household level2009Inngår i: Boiling Point, ISSN 0263-3167, nr 57, s. 6-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13. Yamba, Francis D.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Brown, Gareth
    Woods, Jeremy
    Implementation, strategies and policy options for sugar cane resources and bioenergy markets in Africa2012Inngår i: Bioenergy for sustainable development and international competitiveness / [ed] Francis X. Johnson and Vikram Seebaluck, New York: Earthscan Publications Ltd., 2012, s. 212-230Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
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