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  • 1. Buijsman, Stefan
    et al.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Spatial-numerical associations: Shared symbolic and non-symbolic numerical representations2019Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 72, nr 10, s. 2423-2436Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, there have been a large number of studies into the number-related abilities of humans. As a result, we know that humans and non-human animals have a system known as the approximate number system that allows them to distinguish between collections based on their number of items, separately from any counting procedures. Dehaene and others have argued for a model on which this system uses representations for numbers that are spatial in nature and are shared by our symbolic and non-symbolic processing of numbers. However, there is a conflicting theoretical perspective in which there are no representations of numbers underlying the approximate number system, but only quantity-related representations. This perspective would then suggest that there are no shared representations between symbolic and non-symbolic processing. We review the evidence on spatial biases resulting from the activation of numerical representations, for both non-symbolic and symbolic tests. These biases may help decide between the theoretical differences; shared representations are expected to lead to similar biases regardless of the format, whereas different representations more naturally explain differences in biases, and thus behaviour. The evidence is not yet decisive, as the behavioural evidence is split: we expect bisection tasks to eventually favour shared representations, whereas studies on the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect currently favour different representations. We discuss how this impasse may be resolved, in particular, by combining these behavioural studies with relevant neuroimaging data. If this approach is carried forward, then it may help decide which of these two theoretical perspectives on number representations is correct.

  • 2.
    Larsson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    A Meta-Analysis of Odor Thresholds and Odor Identification in Autism Spectrum Disorders2017Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 679Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are often accompanied by atypical visual, auditory, and tactile sensory behavior. Evidence also suggests alterations of the olfactory system, but the pattern of findings appears mixed. To quantify this pattern systematically, we conducted a meta-analysis. Studies were included if they examined olfactory function (i.e., odor threshold, or odor identification) in ASD compared with healthy age-matched control groups. We also coded for the potential moderators gender, age, and IQ. Articles were identified through computerized literature search using Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases. A total of 11 articles compared odor threshold and/or odor identification between cases and controls (for threshold, n = 143 ASD and 148 controls; and for identification, n = 132 ASD and 139 controls). Effects sizes showed a substantial heterogeneity. As a result, the 95% prediction intervals were wide and ranged between a large negative and a large positive effect size for odor threshold, [-1.86, 2.05], and for odor identification, [-1.51, 2.52]. Exploratory analyses suggested that age and IQ may be potential moderators. To conclude, the large heterogeneity is consistent with the notion of both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity in individuals with ASD. However, future research needs to predict and test the specific direction of the effect to provide convincing evidence for atypical olfactory functions in ASD.

  • 3. Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    et al.
    Arshamian, Artin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Ospina, Raydonal
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    The Allocation of Valenced Percepts Onto 3D Space2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 352Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the metaphorical mapping of valenced concepts onto space indicates that positive, neutral, and negative concepts are mapped onto upward, midward, and downward locations, respectively. More recently, this type of research has been tested for the very first time in 3D physical space. The findings corroborate the mapping of valenced concepts onto the vertical space as described above but further show that positive and negative concepts are placed close to and away from the body; neutral concepts are placed midway. The current study aimed at investigating whether valenced perceptual stimuli are positioned onto 3D space akin to the way valenced concepts are positioned. By using a unique device known as the cognition cube, participants placed visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory stimuli on 3D space. The results mimicked the placing of valenced concepts onto 3D space; i.e., positive percepts were placed in upward and close-to-the-body locations and negative percepts were placed in downward and away-from-the-body locations; neutral percepts were placed midway. These pattern of results was more pronounced in the case of visual stimuli, followed by auditory, tactile, and olfactory stimuli. Significance Statement Just recently, a unique device called the cognition cube (CC) enabled to find that positive words are mapped onto upward and close-to-the-body locations and negative words are mapped onto downward and away-from-the-body locations; neutral words are placed midway. This way of placing words in relation to the body is consistent with an approach-avoidance effect such that good and bad things are kept close to and away from one's body. We demonstrate for the very first time that this same pattern emerges when visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory perceptual stimuli are placed on 3D physical space. We believe these results are significant in that the CC can be used as a new tool to diagnose emotion-related disorders.

  • 4. Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    et al.
    Khatin-Zadeh, Omid
    Yazdani-Fazlabadi, Babak
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sagi, Eyal
    Embodied concept mapping Blending structure-mapping and embodiment theories2017Inngår i: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 164-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphors are cognitive and linguistic tools that allow reasoning. They enable the understanding of abstract domains via elements borrowed from concrete ones. The underlying mechanism in metaphorical mapping is the manipulation of concepts. This article proposes another view on what concepts are and their role in metaphor and reasoning. That is, based on current neuroscientific and behavioural evidence, it is argued that concepts are grounded in perceptual and motor experience with physical and social environments. This definition of concepts is then embedded in the Structure-Mapping Theory (SMT), a model for metaphorical processing and reasoning. The blended view of structure-mapping and embodied cognition offers an insight into the processes through which the target domain of a metaphor is embodied or realised in terms of its base domain. The implications of the proposed embodied SMT model are then discussed and future topics of investigation are outlined.

  • 5. Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    et al.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Arshamian, Edward
    Iván Vélez, Jorge
    Arshamian, Artin
    The allocation of valenced concepts onto 3D space2018Inngår i: Cognition & Emotion, ISSN 0269-9931, E-ISSN 1464-0600, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 709-718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The valence-space metaphor research area investigates the metaphorical mapping of valenced concepts onto space. Research findings from this area indicate that positive, neutral, and negative concepts are associated with upward, midward, and downward locations, respectively, in the vertical plane. The same research area has also indicated that such concepts seem to have no preferential location on the horizontal plane. The approach-avoidance effect consists in decreasing the distance between positive stimuli and the body (i.e. approach) and increasing the distance between negative stimuli and the body (i.e. avoid). Thus, the valence-space metaphor accounts for the mapping of valenced concepts onto the vertical and horizontal planes, and the approach-avoidance effect accounts for the mapping of valenced concepts onto the depth plane. By using a cube conceived for the study of allocation of valenced concepts onto 3D space, we show in three studies that positive concepts are placed in upward locations and near the participants' body, negative concepts are placed in downward locations and far from the participants' body, and neutral concepts are placed in between these concepts in both planes.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Tirado, Carlos
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Szychowska, Malina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Psychoacoustic evidence for stronger discrimination suppression of spatial information conveyed by lag-click interaural time than interaural level differences2019Inngår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 145, nr 1, s. 512-524Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Listeners have limited access to spatial information in lagging sound, a phenomenon known as discrimination suppression. It is unclear whether discrimination suppression works differently for interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs). To explore this, three listeners assessed the lateralization (left or right) and detection (present or not) of lag clicks with a large fixed ITD (350 mu s) or ILD (10 dB) following a diotic lead click, with inter-click intervals (ICIs) of 0.125-256 ms. Performance was measured on a common scale for both cues: the lag-lead amplitude ratio [dB] at 75% correct answers. The main finding was that the lateralization thresholds, but not detection thresholds, were more strongly elevated for ITD-only than ILD-only clicks at intermediate ICIs (1-8 ms) in which previous research has found the strongest discrimination suppression effects. Altogether, these findings suggest that discrimination suppression involves mechanisms that make spatial information conveyed by lag-click ITDs less accessible to listeners than spatial information conveyed by lag-click ILDs.

  • 7.
    Tirado, Carlos
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Khatin-Zadeh, Omid
    Gastelum, Melina
    Jones, Nathan Leigh
    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando
    The strength of weak embodiment2018Inngår i: International Journal of Psychological Research, ISSN 2011-2084, E-ISSN 2011-7922, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 77-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While popular within some cognitive science approaches, the embodiment approach has still found resistance, particularly in light of evidence arguing against strong forms of embodiment. Among other things, the embodiment approach breaks away from the Cartesian ontology of the modulatory system. We claim that the advantages of the embodiment approach are: a) it grounds cognition into modal experience, b) it is harmonious with a materialist philosophy of mind (emergent materialism), and c) it is supported by experimental research in various fields. However, embodiment must still address abstractions, theoretical misunderstandings (representations vs non-representations) and neuroscientific findings that challenge the extension and relevance of sensorimotor properties into cognitive processes. While the strong version of embodiment is seriously challenged by conceptual and physiological setbacks, its weak version is supported by compelling evidence. We suggest future research focus on the psychophysiological bases of grounded cognition and redirect efforts towards the field of cross-modal correspondence.

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