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  • 1. Adams, S. M.
    et al.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Barlow, T.
    Bue, B.
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cao, Y.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Cook, D. O.
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fox, O. D.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Gezari, S.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ho, A. Y. Q.
    Hung, Tiara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Karamehmetoglu, Emir
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Kupfer, T.
    Laher, R. R.
    Masci, F. J.
    Miller, A. A.
    Neill, J. D.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walters, R.
    iPTF Survey for Cool Transients2018Inngår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 130, nr 985, artikkel-id 034202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a wide-area (2000 deg2) g and I band experiment as part of a two month extension to the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory. We discovered 36 extragalactic transients including iPTF17lf, a highly reddened local SN Ia, iPTF17bkj, a new member of the rare class of transitional Ibn/IIn supernovae, and iPTF17be, a candidate luminous blue variable outburst. We do not detect any luminous red novae and place an upper limit on their rate. We show that adding a slow-cadence I band component to upcoming surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility will improve the photometric selection of cool and dusty transients.

  • 2.
    Ahrens, Maryon
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bohm, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Conrad, Jan M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Dumm, Jonathan P.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Finley, Chad
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Flis, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hultqvist, Klas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walck, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zoll, Marcel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stanford University, USA.
    Rosswog, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wagner, Robert M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Multi-messenger Observations of a Binary Neutron Star Merger2017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 848, nr 2, artikkel-id L12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2017 August 17 a binary neutron star coalescence candidate (later designated GW170817) with merger time 12:41:04 UTC was observed through gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors. The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor independently detected a gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) with a time delay of similar to 1.7 s with respect to the merger time. From the gravitational-wave signal, the source was initially localized to a sky region of 31 deg(2) at a luminosity distance of 40(-8)(+8) Mpc and with component masses consistent with neutron stars. The component masses were later measured to be in the range 0.86 to 2.26 M-circle dot. An extensive observing campaign was launched across the electromagnetic spectrum leading to the discovery of a bright optical transient (SSS17a, now with the IAU identification of AT 2017gfo) in NGC 4993 (at similar to 40 Mpc) less than 11 hours after the merger by the One-Meter, Two Hemisphere (1M2H) team using the 1 m Swope Telescope. The optical transient was independently detected by multiple teams within an hour. Subsequent observations targeted the object and its environment. Early ultraviolet observations revealed a blue transient that faded within 48 hours. Optical and infrared observations showed a redward evolution over similar to 10 days. Following early non-detections, X-ray and radio emission were discovered at the transient's position similar to 9 and similar to 16 days, respectively, after the merger. Both the X-ray and radio emission likely arise from a physical process that is distinct from the one that generates the UV/optical/near-infrared emission. No ultra-high-energy gamma-rays and no neutrino candidates consistent with the source were found in follow-up searches. These observations support the hypothesis that GW170817 was produced by the merger of two neutron stars in NGC4993 followed by a short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) and a kilonova/macronova powered by the radioactive decay of r-process nuclei synthesized in the ejecta.

  • 3. Alp, Dennis
    et al.
    Larsson, Josefin
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Indebetouw, Remy
    Jerkstrand, Anders
    Ahola, Antero
    Burrows, David
    Challis, Peter
    Cigan, Phil
    Cikota, Aleksandar
    Kirshner, Robert P.
    van Loon, Jacco Th.
    Mattila, Seppo
    Ng, C. -Y.
    Park, Sangwook
    Spyromilio, Jason
    Woosley, Stan
    Baes, Maarten
    Bouchet, Patrice
    Chevalier, Roger
    Frank, Kari A.
    Gaensler, B. M.
    Gomez, Haley
    Janka, Hans-Thomas
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Marcaide, Jon
    Matsuura, Mikako
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sonneborn, George
    Staveley-Smith, Lister
    Zanardo, Giovanna
    Gabler, Michael
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    The 30 Year Search for the Compact Object in SN 1987A2018Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 864, nr 2, artikkel-id 174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite more than 30 years of searching, the compact object in Supernova (SN) 1987A has not yet been detected. We present new limits on the compact object in SN 1987A using millimeter, near-infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray observations from ALMA, VLT, HST, and Chandra. The limits are approximately 0.1 mJy (0.1 x 10(-26) erg s(-1) cm(-2) Hz(-1)) at 213 GHz, 1 L-circle dot (6 x 10(-29) erg s(-1) cm(-2) Hz(-1)) in the optical if our line of sight is free of ejecta dust, and 10(36) erg s(-1) (2 x 10(-30) erg s(-1) cm(-2) Hz(-1) ) in 2-10 keV X-rays. Our X-ray limits are an order of magnitude less constraining than previous limits because we use a more realistic ejecta absorption model based on three-dimensional neutrino-driven SN explosion models. The allowed bolometric luminosity of the compact object is 22 L-circle dot if our line of sight is free of ejecta dust, or 138L(circle dot) if dust-obscured. Depending on assumptions, these values limit the effective temperature of a neutron star (NS) to <4-8 MK and do not exclude models, which typically are in the range 3-4 MK. For the simplest accretion model, the accretion rate for an efficiency 77 is limited to <10(-11) eta(-1) M-circle dot yr(-1), which excludes most predictions. For pulsar activity modeled by a rotating magnetic dipole in vacuum, the limit on the magnetic field strength (B) for a given spin period (P) is B less than or similar to 10(14) P-2 G s(-2), which firmly excludes pulsars comparable to the Crab. By combining information about radiation reprocessing and geometry, we infer that the compact object is a dust-obscured thermally emitting NS, which may appear as a region of higher-temperature ejecta dust emission.

  • 4.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Brown, P. J.
    Cao, Y.
    Contreras, C.
    Dahle, H.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fynbo, J. P. U.
    Gorosabel, J.
    Guaita, L.
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Kankare, E.
    Kasliwal, M.
    Leloudas, G.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Mattila, S.
    Nugent, P.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Sandberg, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Stanishev, V.
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Asadi, Saghar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Herrero-Illana, R.
    Jensen, J. J.
    Karhunen, K.
    Lazarevic, S.
    Varenius, E.
    Santos, P.
    Sridhar, S. Seethapuram
    Wallström, S. H. J.
    Wiegert, J.
    Diversity in extinction laws of Type Ia supernovae measured between 0.2 and 2 mu m2015Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 453, nr 3, s. 3300-3328Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present ultraviolet (UV) observations of six nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, three of which were also observed in the near-IR (NIR) with Wide-Field Camera 3. UV observations with the Swift satellite, as well as ground-based optical and NIR data provide complementary information. The combined data set covers the wavelength range 0.2-2 mu m. By also including archival data of SN 2014J, we analyse a sample spanning observed colour excesses up to E(B - V) = 1.4 mag. We study the wavelength-dependent extinction of each individual SN and find a diversity of reddening laws when characterized by the total-to-selective extinction R-V. In particular, we note that for the two SNe with E(B - V) greater than or similar to 1 mag, for which the colour excess is dominated by dust extinction, we find R-V = 1.4 +/- 0.1 and R-V = 2.8 +/- 0.1. Adding UV photometry reduces the uncertainty of fitted R-V by similar to 50 per cent allowing us to also measure R-V of individual low-extinction objects which point to a similar diversity, currently not accounted for in the analyses when SNe Ia are used for studying the expansion history of the Universe.

  • 5. Arcavi, Iair
    et al.
    Howell, D. Andrew
    Kasen, Daniel
    Bildsten, Lars
    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin
    McCully, Curtis
    Wong, Zheng Chuen
    Katz, Sarah Rebekah
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Leloudas, Giorgos
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Horesh, Assaf
    Mooley, Kunal
    Rumsey, Clare
    Cenko, S. B. Radley
    Graham, Melissa L.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Nakar, Ehud
    Shaviv, Nir J.
    Bromberg, Omer
    Shen, Ken J.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ofek, Eran O.
    Cao, Yi
    Wang, Xiaofeng
    Huang, Fang
    Rui, Liming
    Zhang, Tianmeng
    Li, Wenxiong
    Li, Zhitong
    Zhang, Jujia
    Valenti, Stefano
    Guevel, David
    Shappee, Benjamin
    Kochanek, Christopher S.
    Holoien, Thomas W. -S.
    Filippenko, Alexei V.
    Fender, Rob
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Yaron, Ofer
    Kasliwal, Mansi M. .
    Sullivan, Mark
    Lagorodnova, Nadja B.
    Walters, Richard S.
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Khazov, Danny
    Andreoni, Igor
    Laher, Russ R.
    Konidaris, Nick
    Wozniak, Przemek
    Bue, Brian
    Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star2017Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, nr 7679, s. 210-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.

  • 6. Ashall, C.
    et al.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Stritzinger, M.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Morrell, N.
    Davis, S.
    Baron, E.
    Piro, A. L.
    Burns, C.
    Contreras, C.
    Galbany, L.
    Holmbo, S.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Marion, G. H.
    Sand, D. J.
    Shahbandeh, M.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Carnegie Supernova Project-II: Using Near-infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Location of the Outer Ni-56 in Type Ia Supernovae2019Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 875, nr 2, artikkel-id L14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the H-band wavelength region of 37 postmaximum light near-infrared spectra of three normal, nine transitional, and four subluminous type. Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), extending from +5. days to +20. days relative to the epoch of B-band maximum. We introduce a new observable, the blue-edge velocity, v(edge), of the prominent Fe/Co/Ni-peak H-band emission feature, which is quantitatively measured. The v(edge) parameter is found to decrease over subtype ranging from around -14,000 km s(-1) for normal SNe Ia, to -10,000 km s(-1) for transitional SNe. Ia, down to -5000 km s(-1) for the subluminous SNe. Ia. Furthermore, inspection of the +10 +/- 3 days spectra indicates that v(edge) is correlated with the color-stretch parameter, s(BV), and hence with peak luminosity. These results follow the previous findings that brighter SNe. Ia tend to have Ni-56 located at higher velocities as compared to subluminous objects. As v(edge) is a model-independent parameter, we propose it can be used in combination with traditional observational diagnostics to provide a new avenue to robustly distinguish between leading SNe. Ia explosion models.

  • 7. Bellm, Eric C.
    et al.
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    Graham, Matthew J.
    Dekany, Richard
    Smith, Roger M.
    Riddle, Reed
    Masci, Frank J.
    Helou, George
    Prince, Thomas A.
    Adams, Scott M.
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Barlow, Tom
    Bauer, James
    Beck, Ron
    Belicki, Justin
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Blagorodnova, Nadejda
    Bodewits, Dennis
    Bolin, Bryce
    Brinnel, Valery
    Brooke, Tim
    Bue, Brian
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Burruss, Rick
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Chang, Chan-Kao
    Connolly, Andrew
    Coughlin, Michael
    Cromer, John
    Cunningham, Virginia
    De, Kishalay
    Delacroix, Alex
    Desai, Vandana
    Duev, Dmitry A.
    Eadie, Gwendolyn
    Farnham, Tony L.
    Feeney, Michael
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Flynn, David
    Franckowiak, Anna
    Frederick, S.
    Fremling, C.
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Gezari, Suvi
    Giomi, Matteo
    Goldstein, Daniel A.
    Golkhou, V. Zach
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Groom, Steven
    Hacopians, Eugean
    Hale, David
    Henning, John
    Ho, Anna Y. Q.
    Hover, David
    Howell, Justin
    Hung, Tiara
    Huppenkothen, Daniela
    Imel, David
    Ip, Wing-Huen
    Ivezic, Zeljko
    Jackson, Edward
    Jones, Lynne
    Juric, Mario
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Kaspi, S.
    Kaye, Stephen
    Kelley, Michael S. P.
    Kowalski, Marek
    Kramer, Emily
    Kupfer, Thomas
    Landry, Walter
    Laher, Russ R.
    Lee, Chien-De
    Lin, Hsing Wen
    Lin, Zhong-Yi
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Giomi, Matteo
    Mahabal, Ashish
    Mao, Peter
    Miller, Adam A.
    Monkewitz, Serge
    Murphy, Patrick
    Ngeow, Chow-Choong
    Nordin, Jakob
    Nugent, Peter
    Ofek, Eran
    Patterson, Maria T.
    Penprase, Bryan
    Porter, Michael
    Rauch, Ludwig
    Rebbapragada, Umaa
    Reiley, Dan
    Rigault, Mickael
    Rodriguez, Hector
    van Roestel, Jan
    Rusholme, Ben
    van Santen, Jakob
    Schulze, S.
    Shupe, David L.
    Singer, Leo P.
    Soumagnac, Maayane T.
    Stein, Robert
    Surace, Jason
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Szkody, Paula
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Terek, Scott
    Van Sistine, Angela
    van Velzen, Sjoert
    Vestrand, W. Thomas
    Walters, Richard
    Ward, Charlotte
    Ye, Quan-Zhi
    Yu, Po-Chieh
    Yan, Lin
    Zolkower, Jeffry
    The Zwicky Transient Facility: System Overview, Performance, and First Results2019Inngår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, nr 995, artikkel-id 018002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a new optical time-domain survey that uses the Palomar 48 inch Schmidt telescope. A custom-built wide-field camera provides a 47 deg(2) field of view and 8 s readout time, yielding more than an order of magnitude improvement in survey speed relative to its predecessor survey, the Palomar Transient Factory. We describe the design and implementation of the camera and observing system. The ZTF data system at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center provides near-real-time reduction to identify moving and varying objects. We outline the analysis pipelines, data products, and associated archive. Finally, we present on-sky performance analysis and first scientific results from commissioning and the early survey. ZTF's public alert stream will serve as a useful precursor for that of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  • 8. Blagorodnova, N.
    et al.
    Kotak, R.
    Polshaw, J.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Cao, Y.
    Cody, A. M.
    Doran, G. B.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fraser, M.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Gonzalez-Fernandez, C.
    Harmanen, J.
    Jencson, J.
    Kankare, E.
    Kudritzki, R. -P.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Magnier, E.
    Manulis, I.
    Masci, F. J.
    Mattila, S.
    Nugent, P.
    Ochner, P.
    Pastorello, A.
    Reynolds, T.
    Smith, K.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Terreran, G.
    Tomasella, L.
    Turatto, M.
    Vreeswijk, P. M.
    Wozniak, P.
    Zaggia, S.
    COMMON ENVELOPE EJECTION FOR A LUMINOUS RED NOVA IN M1012017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 834, nr 2, artikkel-id 107Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared observations of M101 OT2015-1 (PSN J14021678+ 5426205), a luminous red transient in the Pinwheel galaxy (M101), spanning a total of 16 years. The light curve showed two distinct peaks with absolute magnitudes M-r <= -12.4 and M-r similar or equal to -12, on 2014 November 11 and 2015 February 17, respectively. The spectral energy distributions during the second maximum show a cool outburst temperature of approximate to 3700 K and low expansion velocities (approximate to -300 km s(-1)) for the H I, Ca II, Ba II, and K I lines. From archival data spanning 15-8 years before the outburst, we find a single source consistent with the optically discovered transient, which we attribute to being the progenitor; it has properties consistent with being an F-type yellow supergiant with L similar to 8.7 x 10(4) L-circle dot, T-eff approximate to 7000. K, and an estimated mass of M1= 18 +/- 1 M-circle dot. This star has likely just finished the H-burning phase in the core, started expanding, and is now crossing the Hertzsprung gap. Based on the combination of observed properties, we argue that the progenitor is a binary system, with the more evolved system overfilling the Roche lobe. Comparison with binary evolution models suggests that the outburst was an extremely rare phenomenon, likely associated with the ejection of the common envelope of a massive star. The initial mass of the primary fills the gap between the merger candidates V838 Mon (5-10 M-circle dot) and NGC. 4490-OT. (30M(circle dot)).

  • 9. Cao, Yi
    et al.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Howell, D. Andrew
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Valenti, Stefano
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Horesh, Assaf
    Sagiv, Ilan
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Arcavi, Iair
    Surace, Jason
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Moody, Daniela I.
    Rebbapragada, Umaa D.
    Bue, Brian D.
    Gehrels, Neil
    A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova2015Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 521, nr 7552, s. 328-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type Ia supernovae(1) are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs(2,3). Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances(4-6), the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious(3). One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion(3,7,8). Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star(9), and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

  • 10.
    Chandra, Poonam
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India.
    Nayana, A. J.
    Björnsson, Claes-Ingvar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Ray, Alak K.
    Shappee, Benjamin J.
    Type Ib Supernova Master OT J120451.50+265946.6: Radio-emitting Shock with Inhomogeneities Crossing through a Dense Shell2019Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 877, nr 2, artikkel-id 79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present radio observations of Type Ib supernova (SN) Master OT J120451.50+265946.6. Our low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) data, taken when the SN was in the optically thick phase for observed frequencies, reveal inhomogeneities in the structure of the radio-emitting region. The high-frequency Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array data indicate that the shock is crossing through a dense shell between similar to 47 and similar to 87 days. The data >= 100 days onward are reasonably well fit with the inhomogeneous synchrotron self-absorption model. Our model predicts that the inhomogeneities should smooth out at late times. Low-frequency GMRT observations at late epochs will test this prediction. Our findings suggest the importance of obtaining well-sampled wide-band radio data in order to understand the intricate nature of the radio emission from young supernovae.

  • 11. Chen, T.-W.
    et al.
    Inserra, C.
    Fraser, M.
    Moriya, T. J.
    Schady, P.
    Schweyer, T.
    Filippenko, A.
    Perley, D. A.
    Ruiter, A. J.
    Seitenzahl, I.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Anderson, J. P.
    Foley, R. J.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Ngeow, C.-C.
    Pan, Y.-C.
    Pastorello, A.
    Points, S.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Smith, K. W.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Wienlan, P.
    Young, D. R.
    Benetti, S.
    Berton, M.
    Bufano, F.
    Clark, P.
    Della Valle, M.
    Galbany, L.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Gromadzki, M.
    Gutierrez, C. P.
    Heinze, A.
    Kankare, E.
    Kilpatrick, C. D.
    Kuncarayakti, H.
    Leloudas, G.
    Lin, Z.-Y.
    Maguire, K.
    Mazzali, P.
    McBrien, O.
    Prentice, S. J.
    Rau, A.
    Rest, A.
    Siebert, M. R.
    Stalder, B.
    Tonry, J. L.
    Yu, P.-C.
    SN 2017ens: The Metamorphosis of a Luminous Broadlined Type Ic Supernova into an SN IIn2018Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 867, nr 2, artikkel-id L31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations of supernova (SN) 2017ens, discovered by the ATLAS survey and identified as a hot blue object through the GREAT program. The redshift z = 0.1086 implies a peak brightness of M-g = -21.1 mag, placing the object within the regime of superluminous supernovae. We observe a dramatic spectral evolution, from initially being blue and featureless, to later developing features similar to those of the broadlined Type Ic SN 1998bw, and finally showing 2000 km s(-1) wide H alpha and H beta emission. Relatively narrow Balmer emission (reminiscent of a SN IIn) is present at all times. We also detect coronal lines, indicative of a dense circumstellar medium. We constrain the progenitor wind velocity to similar to 50-60 km s(-1) based on P-Cygni profiles, which is far slower than those present in Wolf-Rayet stars. This may suggest that the progenitor passed through a luminous blue variable phase, or that the wind is instead from a binary companion red supergiant star. At late times we see the similar to 2000 km s(-1) wide H alpha emission persisting at high luminosity (similar to 3 x 10(40) erg s(-1)) for at least 100 day, perhaps indicative of additional mass loss at high velocities that could have been ejected by a pulsational pair instability.

  • 12. Childress, M. J.
    et al.
    Scalzo, R. A.
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Vogt, F. P. A.
    Zhou, G.
    SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF SN 2012fr: A LUMINOUS, NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA WITH EARLY HIGH-VELOCITY FEATURES AND A LATE VELOCITY PLATEAU2013Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 770, nr 1, s. 29-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si lambda 6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity photospheric component. This Si lambda 6355 HVF fades by phase - 5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of similar to 12,000 km s(-1) until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v approximate to 12,000 km s(-1) with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v approximate to 31,000 km s(-1) two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the shallow silicon and core-normal subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the low velocity gradient group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  • 13. Corsi, A.
    et al.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Frail, D. A.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Cao, Y.
    Horesh, A.
    Palliyaguru, N.
    Perley, D. A.
    Laher, R. R.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Leloudas, G.
    Maguire, K.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Sollerman, J.
    Sullivan, M.
    RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF BROAD-LINE TYPE IC SUPERNOVAE DISCOVERED BY PTF/IPTF: A SEARCH FOR RELATIVISTIC EXPLOSIONS2016Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 830, nr 1, artikkel-id 42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Long duration gamma-ray bursts are a rare subclass of stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae (SNe) that launch collimated relativistic outflows (jets). All gamma-ray-burst-associated SNe are spectroscopically Type Ic, with broadlines, but the fraction of broad-lined SNe Ic harboring low-luminosity gamma-ray bursts remains largely unconstrained. Some SNe should be accompanied by off-axis gamma-ray burst jets that initially remain invisible, but then emerge as strong radio sources (as the jets decelerate). However, this critical prediction of the jet model for gamma-ray bursts has yet to be verified observationally. Here, we present K. G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of 15 broad-lined SNe of Type Ic discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory in an untargeted manner. Most of the SNe in our sample exclude radio emission observationally similar to that of the radio-loud, relativistic SN 1998bw. We constrain the fraction of 1998bw-like broad-lined SNe Ic to be less than or similar to 41% (99.865% confidence). Most of the events in our sample also exclude off-axis jets similar to GRB 031203 and GRB 030329, but we cannot rule out off-axis gamma-ray bursts expanding in a low-density wind environment. Three SNe in our sample are detected in the radio. PTF11qcj and PTF14dby show late-time radio emission with average ejecta speeds of approximate to 0.3-0.4 c, on the dividing line between relativistic and ordinary SNe. The speed of PTF11cmh radio ejecta is poorly constrained. We estimate that less than or similar to 85% (99.865% confidence) of the broad-lined SNe Ic in our sample may harbor off-axis gamma-ray bursts expanding in media with densities in the range probed by this study.

  • 14. Corsi, Alessandra
    et al.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Quimby, Robert
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Frail, D. A.
    Goldstein, A. M.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Connaughton, V.
    Perley, D. A.
    Singer, L. P.
    Copperwheat, C. M.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kupfer, T.
    Piascik, A. S.
    Steele, I. A.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Vedantham, H.
    Kutyrev, A.
    Palliyaguru, N. T.
    Roberts, O.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Troja, E.
    Veilleux, S.
    iPTF17cw: An Engine-driven Supernova Candidate Discovered Independent of a Gamma-Ray Trigger2017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 847, nr 1, artikkel-id 54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the discovery, classification, and radio-to-X-ray follow-up observations of iPTF17cw, a broad-lined (BL) type Ic supernova (SN) discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). Although it is unrelated to the gravitational wave trigger, this SN was discovered as a happy by-product of the extensive observational campaign dedicated to the follow-up of Advanced LIGO event GW 170104. The spectroscopic properties and inferred peak bolometric luminosity of iPTF17cw are most similar to the gamma-ray-burst (GRB)associated SN, SN 1998bw, while the shape of the r-band light curve is most similar to that of the relativistic SN, SN 2009bb. Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the iPTF17cw field reveal a radio counterpart approximate to 10 times less luminous than SN 1998bw, and with a peak radio luminosity comparable to that of SN 2006aj/GRB 060218 and SN 2010bh/GRB 100316D. Our radio observations of iPTF17cw imply a relativistically expanding outflow. However, further late-time observations with the VLA in its most extended configuration are needed to confirm fading of the iPTF17cw radio counterpart at all frequencies. X-ray observations carried out with Chandra reveal the presence of an X-ray counterpart with a luminosity similar to that of SN 2010bh/GRB 100316D. Searching the Fermi catalog for possible gamma-rays reveals that GRB 161228B is spatially and temporally compatible with iPTF17cw. The similarity to SN 1998bw and SN 2009bb, the radio and X-ray detections, and the potential association with GRB 161228B all point to iPTF17cw being a new candidate member of the rare sample of optically discovered engine-driven BL-Ic SNe associated with relativistic ejecta.

  • 15. Dall'Ora, M.
    et al.
    Botticella, M. T.
    Pumo, M. L.
    Zampieri, L.
    Tomasella, L.
    Pignata, G.
    Bayless, A. J.
    Pritchard, T. A.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Kotak, R.
    Inserra, A.
    Della Valle, M.
    Cappellaro, E.
    Benetti, S.
    Benitez, S.
    Bufano, F.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Fraser, M.
    Haislip, J. B.
    Harutyunyan, A.
    Howell, D. A.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Iijima, T.
    Kankare, E.
    Kuin, P.
    Maund, J. R.
    Morales-Garoffolo, A.
    Morrell, N.
    Munari, U.
    Ochner, P.
    Pastorello, A.
    Patat, F.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Reichart, D.
    Roming, P. W. A.
    Siviero,
    Smartt, S. J.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Valenti, S.
    Wright, D.
    THE TYPE IIP SUPERNOVA 2012aw IN M95: HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELING OF THE PHOTOSPHERIC PHASE FROM ACCURATE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC MONITORING2014Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 787, nr 2, s. 139-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an extensive optical and near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic campaign of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw. The data set densely covers the evolution of SN 2012aw shortly after the explosion through the end of the photospheric phase, with two additional photometric observations collected during the nebular phase, to fit the radioactive tail and estimate the Ni-56 mass. Also included in our analysis is the previously published Swift UV data, therefore providing a complete view of the ultraviolet-optical-infrared evolution of the photospheric phase. On the basis of our data set, we estimate all the relevant physical parameters of SN 2012aw with our radiation-hydrodynamics code: envelope mass M-env similar to 20 M-circle dot, progenitor radius R similar to 3 x 10(13) cm (similar to 430 R-circle dot), explosion energy E similar to 1.5 foe, and initial Ni-56 mass similar to 0.06 M-circle dot. These mass and radius values are reasonably well supported by independent evolutionary models of the progenitor, and may suggest a progenitor mass higher than the observational limit of 16.5 +/- 1.5 M-circle dot of the Type IIP events.

  • 16. De Cia, Annalisa
    et al.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Rubin, A.
    Leloudas, G.
    Vreeswijk, P.
    Perley, D. A.
    Quimby, R.
    Yan, Lin
    Sullivan, M.
    Flörs, A.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bersier, D.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Gal-Yam, M.
    Maguire, K.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Prentice, S.
    Schulze, S.
    Spyromilio, J.
    Valenti, S.
    Arcavi, I.
    Corsi, A.
    Howell, D. A.
    Mazzali, P.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Yaron, O.
    Light Curves of Hydrogen-poor Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory2018Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 860, nr 2, artikkel-id 100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the light-curve properties of a sample of 26 spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen- poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) in the Palomar Transient Factory survey. These events are brighter than SNe Ib/c and SNe Ic-BL, on average, by about 4 and 2. mag, respectively. The peak absolute magnitudes of SLSNe-I in rest-frame g band span -22 less than or similar to M-g less than or similar to -20 mag, and these peaks are not powered by radioactive Ni-56, unless strong asymmetries are at play. The rise timescales are longer for SLSNe than for normal SNe Ib/c, by roughly 10 days, for events with similar decay times. Thus, SLSNe-I can be considered as a separate population based on photometric properties. After peak, SLSNe-I decay with a wide range of slopes, with no obvious gap between rapidly declining and slowly declining events. The latter events show more irregularities (bumps) in the light curves at all times. At late times, the SLSN-I light curves slow down and cluster around the 56Co radioactive decay rate. Powering the late-time light curves with radioactive decay would require between 1 and 10M(circle dot) of Ni masses. Alternatively, a simple magnetar model can reasonably fit the majority of SLSNe-I light curves, with four exceptions, and can mimic the radioactive decay of 56Co, up to similar to 400 days from explosion. The resulting spin values do not correlate with the host-galaxy metallicities. Finally, the analysis of our sample cannot strengthen the case for using SLSNe-I for cosmology.

  • 17. de Jaeger, T.
    et al.
    Anderson, J. P.
    Pignata, G.
    Hamuy, M.
    Kankare, E.
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Benetti, S.
    Bufano, F.
    Elias-Rosa, N.
    Folatelli, G.
    Foerster, F.
    Gonzaez-Gaitan, S.
    Gutierrez, C. P.
    Inserra, C.
    Kotak, R.
    Lira, P.
    Morrell, N.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Tomasella, L.
    SN 2011A: A LOW-LUMINOSITY INTERACTING TRANSIENT WITH A DOUBLE PLATEAU AND STRONG SODIUM ABSORPTION2015Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 807, nr 1, artikkel-id 63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present optical photometry and spectroscopy of the optical transient SN 2011A. Our data span 140 days after discovery including BVRI u'g'r'i'z' photometry and 11 epochs of optical spectroscopy. Originally classified as a type IIn supernova (SN IIn) due to the presence of narrow Ha emission, this object shows exceptional characteristics. First, the light curve shows a double plateau, a property only observed before in the impostor SN 1997bs. Second, SN 2011A has a very low luminosity (M-V = -15.72), placing it between normal luminous SNe IIn and SN impostors. Third, SN 2011A shows low velocity and high equivalent width absorption close to the sodium doublet, which increases with time and is most likely of circumstellar origin. This evolution is also accompanied by a change in line profile; when the absorption becomes stronger, a P Cygni profile appears. We discuss SN 2011A in the context of interacting SNe IIn and SN impostors, which appears to confirm the uniqueness of this transient. While we favor an impostor origin for SN 2011A, we highlight the difficulty in differentiating between terminal and non-terminal interacting transients.

  • 18. De, K.
    et al.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Moriya, T. J.
    Burke, J.
    Cao, Y.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Doran, G. B.
    Duggan, G. E.
    Fender, R. P.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Horesh, A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Laher, R. R.
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Manulis, I.
    Masci, F.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
    Piro, A. L.
    Rumsey, C.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    A hot and fast ultra-stripped supernova that likely formed a compact neutron star binary2018Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 362, nr 6411, s. 201-206Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compact neutron star binary systems are produced from binary massive stars through stellar evolution involving up to two supernova explosions. The final stages in the formation of these systems have not been directly observed. We report the discovery of iPTF 14gqr (SN 2014ft), a type Ic supernova with a fast-evolving light curve indicating an extremely low ejecta mass (approximate to 0.2 solar masses) and low kinetic energy (approximate to 2 x 10(50) ergs). Early photometry and spectroscopy reveal evidence of shock cooling of an extended helium-rich envelope, likely ejected in an intense pre-explosion mass-loss episode of the progenitor. Taken together, we interpret iPTF 14gqr as evidence for ultra-stripped supernovae that form neutron stars in compact binary systems.

  • 19.
    Ergon, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Stritzinger, Maximilian
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hydrodynamical modelling of Type IIb SNeInngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Fransson, Claes
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Larsson, Josefin
    Migotto, Katia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pesce, Dominic
    Challis, Peter
    Chevalier, Roger A.
    France, Kevin
    Kirshner, Robert P.
    Leibundgut, Bruno
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    McCray, Richard
    Spyromilio, Jason
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Jerkstrand, Anders
    Mattila, Seppo
    Smith, Nathan
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wheeler, J. Craig
    Crotts, Arlin
    Garnavich, Peter
    Heng, Kevin
    Lawrence, Stephen S.
    Panagia, Nino
    Pun, Chun S. J.
    Sonneborn, George
    Sugerman, Ben
    THE DESTRUCTION OF THE CIRCUMSTELLAR RING OF SN 1987A2015Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 806, nr 1, artikkel-id L19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present imaging and spectroscopic observations with Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Telescope of the ring of SN 1987A from 1994 to 2014. After an almost exponential increase of the shocked emission from the hotspots up to day similar to 8000 (similar to 2009), both this and the unshocked emission are now fading. From the radial positions of the hotspots we see an acceleration of these up to 500-1000 km s(-1), consistent with the highest spectroscopic shock velocities from the radiative shocks. In the most recent observations (2013 and 2014), we find several new hotspots outside the inner ring, excited by either X-rays from the shocks or by direct shock interaction. All of these observations indicate that the interaction with the supernova ejecta is now gradually dissolving the hotspots. We predict, based on the observed decay, that the inner ring will be destroyed by similar to 2025.

  • 21. Fraser, M.
    et al.
    Maund, J. R.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Botticella, M-T
    Dall'Ora, M.
    Inserra, C.
    Tomasella, L.
    Benetti, S.
    Ciroi, S.
    Eldridge, J. J.
    Ergon, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kotak, R.
    Mattila, S.
    Ochner, P.
    Pastorello, A.
    Reilly, E.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Stephens, A.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Valenti, S.
    RED AND DEAD: THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw IN M952012Inngår i: The Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 759, nr 1, s. L13-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the spectacular finale to massive stellar evolution. In this Letter, we identify a progenitor for the nearby core-collapse SN 2012aw in both ground-based near-infrared and space-based optical pre-explosion imaging. The SN itself appears to be a normal Type II Plateau event, reaching a bolometric luminosity of 10(42) erg s(-1) and photospheric velocities of similar to 11,000 km s(-1) from the position of the H beta P-Cygni minimum in the early SN spectra. We use an adaptive optics image to show that the SN is coincident to within 27 mas with a faint, red source in pre-explosion HST+WFPC2, VLT+ISAAC, and NTT+SOFI images. The source has magnitudes F555W = 26.70 +/- 0.06, F814W = 23.39 +/- 0.02, J = 21.1 +/- 0.2, K = 19.1 +/- 0.4, which, when compared to a grid of stellar models, best matches a red supergiant. Interestingly, the spectral energy distribution of the progenitor also implies an extinction of A(V) > 1.2 mag, whereas the SN itself does not appear to be significantly extinguished. We interpret this as evidence for the destruction of dust in the SN explosion. The progenitor candidate has a luminosity between 5.0 and 5.6 log L/L-circle dot, corresponding to a zero-age main-sequence mass between 14 and 26 M-circle dot (depending on A(V)), which would make this one of the most massive progenitors found for a core-collapse SN to date.

  • 22.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ergon, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Karamehmetoglu, Emir
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Arcavi, I
    Cenko, S. B.
    Clubb, K.
    De Cia, A.
    Duggan, G.
    Filippenko, A.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Graham, M. L.
    Horesh, A.
    Hosseinzadeh, G.
    Howell, D. A.
    Kuesters, D.
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). California Institute of Technology, USA.
    Matheson, T.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Quimby, R. M.
    Saunders, C.
    Oxygen and helium in stripped-envelope supernovae2018Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 618, artikkel-id A37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of 507 spectra of 173 stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe) discovered by the untargeted Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and intermediate PTF (iPTF) surveys. Our sample contains 55 Type IIb SNe (SNe 45 Type Ib SNe (SNe IIb), 56 Type Ic SNe (SNe Ic), and 17 Type Ib/c SNe (SNe Ib/c). We have compared the SE SN subtypes via measurements of the pseudo-equivalent widths (pEWs) and velocities of the He I lambda lambda 5876, 7065 and O I lambda 7774 absorption lines. Consistent with previous work, we find that SNe Ic show higher pEWs and velocities in O I lambda 7774 compared to SNe IIb and Ib. The pEWs of the He I lambda lambda 5876, 7065 lines are similar in SNe Ib and IIb after maximum light. The He I lambda lambda 5876, 7065 velocities at maximum light are higher in SNe Ib compared to SNe IIb. We identify an anticorrelation between the He I lambda 7065 pEW and O I lambda 7774 velocity among SNe IIb and Ib. This can be interpreted as a continuum in the amount of He present at the time of explosion. It has been suggested that SNe Ib and Ic have similar amounts of He, and that lower mixing could be responsible for hiding He in SNe Ic. However, our data contradict this mixing hypothesis. The observed difference in the expansion rate of the ejecta around maximum light of SNe Ic (V-m root 2E(k)/M-ej approximate to 15 000 km s(-1)) and SNe Ib (V-m approximate to 9000 km s(-1)) would imply an average He mass difference of similar to 1.4 M-circle dot, if the other explosion parameters are assumed to be unchanged between the SE SN subtypes. We conclude that SNe Ic do not hide He but lose He due to envelope stripping.

  • 23.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ergon, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fraser, M.
    Karamehmetoglu, Emir
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Valenti, S.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Arcavi, I.
    Bufano, F.
    Elias Rosa, N.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Fox, D.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Howell, D. A.
    Kotak, R.
    Mazzali, P.
    Milisavljevic, D.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pian, E.
    Smartt, S.
    PTF12os and iPTF13bvn. Two stripped-envelope supernovae from low-mass progenitors in NGC 58062016Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 593, artikkel-id A68Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We investigate two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) discovered in the nearby galaxy NGC 5806 by the (intermediate) Palomar Transient Factory [(i)PTF]. These SNe, designated PTF12os/SN 2012P and iPTF13bvn, exploded within ~520 days of one another at a similar distance from the host-galaxy center. We classify PTF12os as a Type IIb SN based on our spectral sequence; iPTF13bvn has previously been classified as Type Ib having a likely progenitor with zero age main sequence (ZAMS) mass below ~17 M. Because of the shared and nearby host, we are presented with a unique opportunity to compare these two SNe.

    Aims. Our main objective is to constrain the explosion parameters of iPTF12os and iPTF13bvn, and to put constraints on the SN progenitors. We also aim to spatially map the metallicity in the host galaxy, and to investigate the presence of hydrogen in early-time spectra of both SNe.

    Methods. We present comprehensive datasets collected on PTF12os and iPTF13bvn, and introduce a new automatic reference-subtraction photometry pipeline (FPipe) currently in use by the iPTF. We perform a detailed study of the light curves (LCs) and spectral evolution of the SNe. The bolometric LCs are modeled using the hydrodynamical code hyde. We analyze early spectra of both SNe to investigate the presence of hydrogen; for iPTF13bvn we also investigate the regions of the Paschen lines in infrared spectra. We perform spectral line analysis of helium and iron lines to map the ejecta structure of both SNe. We use nebular models and late-time spectroscopy to constrain the ZAMS mass of the progenitors. We also perform image registration of ground-based images of PTF12os to archival HST images of NGC 5806 to identify a potential progenitor candidate.

    Results. We find that our nebular spectroscopy of iPTF13bvn remains consistent with a low-mass progenitor, likely having a ZAMS mass of ~12M. Our late-time spectroscopy of PTF12os is consistent with a ZAMS mass of ~15M. We successfully identify a source in pre-explosion HST images coincident with PTF12os. The colors and absolute magnitude of this object are consistent between pre-explosion and late-time HST images, implying it is a cluster of massive stars. Our hydrodynamical modeling suggests that the progenitor of PTF12os had a compact He core with a mass of 3.25+ 0.77-0.56M at the time of the explosion, which had a total kinetic energy of 0.54+ 0.41-0.25 × 1051 erg and synthesized 0.063+ 0.020-0.011M of strongly mixed  56Ni. Spectral comparisons to the Type IIb SN 2011dh indicate that the progenitor of PTF12os was surrounded by a thin hydrogen envelope with a mass lower than 0.02M. We also find tentative evidence that the progenitor of iPTF13bvn could have been surrounded by a small amount of hydrogen prior to the explosion. This result is supported by possible weak signals of hydrogen in both optical and infrared spectra.

  • 24.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ergon, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Valenti, S.
    Arcavi, I.
    Ben-Ami, S.
    Cao, Y.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Howell, D. A.
    The rise and fall of the Type Ib supernova iPTF13bvn Not a massive Wolf-Rayet star2014Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, artikkel-id A114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We investigate iPTF13bvn, a core-collapse (CC) supernova (SN) in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5806. This object was discovered by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) very close to the estimated explosion date and was classified as a stripped-envelope CC SN, likely of Type Ib. Furthermore, a possible progenitor detection in pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images was reported, making this the only SN Ib with such an identification. Based on the luminosity and color of the progenitor candidate, as well as on early-time spectra and photometry of the SN, it was argued that the progenitor candidate is consistent with a single, massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) star. Aims. We aim to confirm the progenitor detection, to robustly classify the SN using additional spectroscopy, and to investigate if our follow-up photometric and spectroscopic data on iPTF13bvn are consistent with a single-star WR progenitor scenario. Methods. We present a large set of observational data, consisting of multi-band light curves (UBVRI, g' r' i' z') and optical spectra. We perform standard spectral line analysis to track the evolution of the SN ejecta. We also construct a bolometric light curve and perform hydrodynamical calculations to model this light curve to constrain the synthesized radioactive nickel mass and the total ejecta mass of the SN. Late-time photometry is analyzed to constrain the amount of oxygen. Furthermore, image registration of pre- and post-explosion HST images is performed. Results. Our HST astrometry confirms the location of the progenitor candidate of iPTF13bvn, and follow-up spectra securely classify this as a SN Ib. We use our hydrodynamical model to fit the observed bolometric light curve, estimating the total ejecta mass to be 1.9 M-circle dot and the radioactive nickel mass to be 0.05 M-circle dot. The model fit requires the nickel synthesized in the explosion to be highly mixed out in the ejecta. We also find that the late-time nebular r'-band luminosity is not consistent with predictions based on the expected oxygen nucleosynthesis in very massive stars. Conclusions. We find that our bolometric light curve of iPTF13bvn is not consistent with the previously proposed single massive WR-star progenitor scenario. The total ejecta mass and, in particular, the late-time oxygen emission are both significantly lower than what would be expected from a single WR progenitor with a main-sequence mass of at least 30 M-circle dot.

  • 25. Gall, C.
    et al.
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Ashall, C.
    Baron, E.
    Burns, C. R.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Mazzali, P. A.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Anderson, J. P.
    Benetti, S.
    Brown, P. J.
    Campillay, A.
    Challis, P.
    Contreras, C.
    Elias de la Rosa, N.
    Folatelli, G.
    Foley, R. J.
    Fraser, M.
    Holmbo, S.
    Marion, G. H.
    Morrell, N.
    Pan, Y. -C.
    Pignata, G.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Torres Robledo, S.
    Valenti, S.
    Two transitional type Ia supernovae located in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404: SN 2007on and SN 2011iv2018Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 611, artikkel-id A58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared observations of the fast-declining Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) 2007on and 2011iv, hosted by the Fornax cluster member NGC 1404. The B-band light curves of SN 2007on and SN 2011iv are characterised by Delta m(15)(B) decline-rate values of 1.96 mag and 1.77 mag, respectively. Although they have similar decline rates, their peak B-and H-band magnitudes di ff er by similar to 0.60 mag and similar to 0.35 mag, respectively. After correcting for the luminosity vs. decline rate and the luminosity vs. colour relations, the peak B-band and H-band light curves provide distances that di ff er by similar to 14% and similar to 9%, respectively. These findings serve as a cautionary tale for the use of transitional SNe Ia located in early-type hosts in the quest to measure cosmological parameters. Interestingly, even though SN 2011iv is brighter and bluer at early times, by three weeks past maximum and extending over several months, its B - V colour is 0.12 mag redder than that of SN 2007on. To reconcile this unusual behaviour, we turn to guidance from a suite of spherical one-dimensional Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation explosion models. In this context, Ni-56 production depends on both the so-called transition density and the central density of the progenitor white dwarf. To first order, the transition density drives the luminosity-width relation, while the central density is an important second-order parameter. Within this context, the di ff erences in the B - V colour evolution along the Lira regime suggest that the progenitor of SN 2011iv had a higher central density than SN 2007on.

  • 26. Gal-Yam, Avishay
    et al.
    Arcavi, I.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Ben-Ami, S.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Cao, Y.
    Yaron, O.
    Tal, D.
    Silverman, J. M.
    Horesh, A.
    De Cia, A.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Perley, D.
    Vreeswijk, P. M.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Wheeler, J. C.
    A Wolf-Rayet-like progenitor of SN 2013cu from spectral observations of a stellar wind2014Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 509, nr 7501, s. 471-+Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The explosive fate of massive Wolf-Rayet stars(1) (WRSs) is a key open question in stellar physics. An appealing option is that hydrogen-deficient WRSs are the progenitors of some hydrogen-poor supernova explosions of types IIb, Ib and Ic (ref. 2). A blue object, having luminosity and colours consistent with those of some WRSs, has recently been identified in pre-explosion images at the location of a supernova of type Ib (ref. 3), but has not yet been conclusively determined to have been the progenitor. Similar work has so far only resulted in non-detections(4). Comparison of early photometric observations of type Ic supernovae with theoretical models suggests that the progenitor stars had radii of less than 1012 centimetres, as expected for some WRSs(5). The signature of WRSs, their emission line spectra, cannot be probed by such studies. Here we report the detection of strong emission lines in a spectrum of type IIb supernova 2013cu (iPTF13ast) obtained approximately 15.5 hours after explosion (by 'flash spectroscopy', which captures the effects of the supernova explosion shock breakout flash on material surrounding the progenitor star). We identify Wolf-Rayet-like wind signatures, suggesting a progenitor of the WN(h) subclass (those WRSs with winds dominated by helium and nitrogen, with traces of hydrogen). The extent of this dense wind may indicate increased mass loss from the progenitor shortly before its explosion, consistent with recent theoretical predictions(6).

  • 27.
    Goobar, Ariel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Johansson, Joel
    Steidel, C.
    Law, D.
    Mörtsell, Edvard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Quimby, Robert
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Brandeker, A.
    Cao, Y.
    Cooray, A.
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hangard, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kasliwai, M.
    Kupfer, T.
    Lunnan, R.
    Masci, F.
    Miller, A. A.
    Nayyeri, H.
    Neill, J. D.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Papadogiannakis, Seméli
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ravi, V.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sullivan, M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walters, R.
    Wilson, D.
    Yan, L.
    Yaron, O.
    iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova2017Inngår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 356, nr 6335, s. 291-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

  • 28.
    Goobar, Ariel
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kromer, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Siverd, R.
    Stassun, K. G.
    Pepper, J.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kasliwal, M.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF THE FIRST LIGHT FROM SN 2014J2015Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 799, nr 1, s. 106-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the very early light curve of supernova 2014J (SN 2014J) using the high-cadence broad-band imaging data obtained by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope, which fortuitously observed M 82 around the time of the explosion, starting more than 2 months prior to detection, with up to 20 observations per night. These observations are complemented by observations in two narrow-band filters used in an Ha survey of nearby galaxies by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory that also captured the first days of the brightening of the supernova. The evolution of the light curves is consistent with the expected signal from the cooling of shock heated material of large scale dimensions, greater than or similar to 1R(circle dot). This could be due to heated material of the progenitor, a companion star or pre-existing circumstellar environment, e.g., in the form of an accretion disk. Structure seen in the light curves during the first days after explosion could also originate from radioactive material in the outer parts of an exploding white dwarf, as suggested from the early detection of gamma-rays. The model degeneracy translates into a systematic uncertainty of +/- 0.3 days on the estimate of the first light from SN 2014J.

  • 29. Graham, Matthew J.
    et al.
    Barbarino, Cristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Feindt, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Biswas, Rahul
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Bulla, Mattia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zolkower, Jeffry
    The Zwicky Transient Facility: Science Objectives2019Inngår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, nr 1001, artikkel-id 078001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF), a public-private enterprise, is a new time-domain survey employing a dedicated camera on the Palomar 48-inch Schmidt telescope with a 47 deg(2) field of view and an 8 second readout time. It is well positioned in the development of time-domain astronomy, offering operations at 10% of the scale and style of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) with a single 1-m class survey telescope. The public surveys will cover the observable northern sky every three nights in g and r filters and the visible Galactic plane every night in g and r. Alerts generated by these surveys are sent in real time to brokers. A consortium of universities that provided funding (partnership) are undertaking several boutique surveys. The combination of these surveys producing one million alerts per night allows for exploration of transient and variable astrophysical phenomena brighter than r similar to 20.5 on timescales of minutes to years. We describe the primary science objectives driving ZTF, including the physics of supernovae and relativistic explosions, multi-messenger astrophysics, supernova cosmology, active galactic nuclei, and tidal disruption events, stellar variability, and solar system objects.

  • 30. Gromadzki, M.
    et al.
    Hamanowicz, A.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Sokolovsky, K. V.
    Fraser, M.
    Kozłowski, Sz.
    Guillochon, J.
    Arcavi, I.
    Trakhtenbrot, B.
    Jonker, P. G.
    Mattila, S.
    Udalski, A.
    Szymański, M. K.
    Soszyński, I.
    Poleski, R.
    Pietrukowicz, P.
    Skowron, J.
    Mróz, P.
    Ulaczyk, K.
    Pawlak, M.
    Rybicki, K. A.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Onori, F.
    Young, D. R.
    Maguire, K.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Inserra, C.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Rau, A.
    Chen, T. -W.
    Angus, C. R.
    Buckley, D. A. H.
    Discovery and follow-up of the unusual nuclear transient OGLE17aaj2019Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 622, artikkel-id L2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We report on the discovery and follow-up of a peculiar transient, OGLE17aaj, which occurred in the nucleus of a weakly active galaxy. We investigate whether it can be interpreted as a new candidate for a tidal disruption event (TDE).

    Methods. We present the OGLE-IV light curve that covers the slow 60-day-long rise to maximum along with photometric, spectro-scopic, and X-ray follow-up during the first year.

    Results. OGLE17aaj is a nuclear transient exhibiting some properties similar to previously found TDEs, including a long rise time, lack of colour-temperature evolution, and high black-body temperature. On the other hand, its narrow emission lines and slow post-peak evolution are different from previously observed TDEs. Its spectrum and light-curve evolution is similar to F01004-2237 and AT 2017bgt. Signatures of historical low-level nuclear variability suggest that OGLE17aaj may instead be related to a new type of accretion event in active super-massive black holes.

  • 31. Gutiérrez, C. P.
    et al.
    Anderson, J. P.
    Sullivan, M.
    Dessart, L.
    González-Gaitan, S.
    Galbany, L.
    Dimitriadis, G.
    Arcavi, I.
    Bufano, F.
    Chen, T. -W.
    Dennefeld, M.
    Gromadzki, M.
    Haislip, J. B.
    Hosseinzadeh, G.
    Howell, D. A.
    Inserra, C.
    Kankare, E.
    Leloudas, G.
    Maguire, K.
    McCully, C.
    Morrell, N.
    Olivares E, F.
    Pignata, G.
    Reichart, D. E.
    Reynolds, T.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Takáts, K.
    Terreran, G.
    Valenti, S.
    Young, D. R.
    Type II supernovae in low-luminosity host galaxies2018Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 479, nr 3, s. 3232-3253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analysis of a new sample of type II core-collapse supernovae (SNe II) occurring within low-luminosity galaxies, comparing these with a sample of events in brighter hosts. Our analysis is performed comparing SN II spectral and photometric parameters and estimating the influence of metallicity (inferred from host luminosity differences) on SN II transient properties. We measure the SN absolute magnitude at maximum, the light-curve plateau duration, the optically thick duration, and the plateau decline rate in the V band, together with expansion velocities and pseudo-equivalent-widths (pEWs) of several absorption lines in the SN spectra. For the SN host galaxies, we estimate the absolute magnitude and the stellar mass, a proxy for the metallicity of the host galaxy. SNe II exploding in low-luminosity galaxies display weaker pEWs of Fe II lambda 5018, confirming the theoretical prediction that metal lines in SN II spectra should correlate with metallicity. We also find that SNe II in low-luminosity hosts have generally slower declining light curves and display weaker absorption lines. We find no relationship between the plateau duration or the expansion velocities with SN environment, suggesting that the hydrogen envelope mass and the explosion energy are not correlated with the metallicity of the host galaxy. This result supports recent predictions that mass-loss for red supergiants is independent of metallicity.

  • 32. Holmbo, S.
    et al.
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Shappee, B. J.
    Tucker, M. A.
    Zheng, W.
    Ashall, C.
    Phillips, M. M.
    Contreras, C.
    Filippenko, A.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Huber, M.
    Piro, A. L.
    Wang, X. F.
    Zhang, J-J
    Anais, J.
    Baron, E.
    Burns, C. R.
    Campillay, A.
    Castellon, S.
    Corco, C.
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Morrell, N.
    Nielsen, M. T. B.
    Persson, S. E.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Tomasella, L.
    Zhang, T-M
    Zhao, X-L
    Discovery and progenitor constraints on the Type Ia supernova 2013gy2019Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 627, artikkel-id A174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an early-phase g-band light curve and visual-wavelength spectra of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN) 2013gy. The light curve is constructed by determining the appropriate S-corrections to transform KAIT natural-system B- and V-band photometry and Carnegie Supernova Project natural-system g-band photometry to the Pan-STARRS1 g-band natural photometric system. A Markov chain Monte Carlo calculation provides a best-fit single power-law function to the first ten epochs of photometry described by an exponent of 2.16(-0.06)(+0.06) and a time of first light of MJD 56629.4(-0.1)(+0.1), which is 1.93(-0.13)(+0.12) days (i.e., <48 h) before the discovery date (2013 December 4.84 UT) and -19.10(-0.13)(+0.12) days before the time of B- band maximum (MJD 56648.5 +/- 0.1). The estimate of the time of first light is consistent with the explosion time inferred from the evolution of the Si II lambda 6355 Doppler velocity. Furthermore, discovery photometry and previous nondetection limits enable us to constrain the companion radius down to R-c <= 4 R-circle dot. In addition to our early-time constraints, we used a deep +235 day nebular-phase spectrum from Magellan/IMACS to place a stripped H-mass limit of <0.018 M-circle dot. Combined, these limits effectively rule out H-rich nondegenerate companions.

  • 33. Hosseinzadeh, Griffin
    et al.
    Arcavi, Iair
    Valenti, Stefano
    McCully, Curtis
    Howell, D. Andrew
    Johansson, Joel
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pastorello, Andrea
    Benetti, Stefano
    Cao, Yi
    Cenko, S. Bradley
    Clubb, Kelsey I.
    Corsi, Alessandra
    Duggan, Gina
    Elias-Rosa, Nancy
    Filippenko, Alexei V.
    Fox, Ori D.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Horesh, Assaf
    Karamehmetoglu, Emir
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kasliwal, Mansi
    Marion, G. H.
    Ofek, Eran
    Sand, David
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Zheng, WeiKang
    Fraser, Morgan
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Inserra, Cosimo
    Laher, Russ
    Masci, Frank
    Rebbapragada, Umaa
    Smartt, Stephen
    Smith, Ken W.
    Sullivan, Mark
    Surace, Jason
    Woźniak, Przemek
    Type Ibn Supernovae Show Photometric Homogeneity and Spectral Diversity at Maximum Light2017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 836, nr 2, artikkel-id 158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe) are a small yet intriguing class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines with little to no evidence for hydrogen. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material (CSM). We report optical observations of six new SNe Ibn: PTF11rfh, PTF12ldy, iPTF14aki, iPTF15ul, SN 2015G, and iPTF15akq. This brings the sample size of such objects in the literature to 22. We also report new data, including a near-infrared spectrum, on the Type Ibn SN 2015U. In order to characterize the class as a whole, we analyze the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the full Type Ibn sample. We find that, despite the expectation that CSM interaction would generate a heterogeneous set of light curves, as seen in SNe IIn, most Type Ibn light curves are quite similar in shape, declining at rates around 0.1 mag day(-1) during the first month after maximum light, with a few significant exceptions. Early spectra of SNe Ibn come in at least two varieties, one that shows narrow P Cygni lines and another dominated by broader emission lines, both around maximum light, which may be an indication of differences in the state of the progenitor system at the time of explosion. Alternatively, the spectral diversity could arise from viewing-angle effects or merely from a lack of early spectroscopic coverage. Together, the relative light curve homogeneity and narrow spectral features suggest that the CSM consists of a spatially confined shell of helium surrounded by a less dense extended wind.

  • 34. Hsiao, E. Y.
    et al.
    Phiilips, M. M.
    Marion, G. H.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Morrell, N.
    Sand, D. J.
    Burns, C. R.
    Contreras, C.
    Hoeflich, P.
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Valenti, S.
    Anderson, J. P.
    Ashall, C.
    Baltay, C.
    Baron, E.
    Banerjee, D. P. K.
    Davis, S.
    Diamond, T. R.
    Folatelli, G.
    Freedman, Wendy L.
    Forster, F.
    Galbany, L.
    Gall, C.
    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hamuy, M.
    Holmbo, S.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Krisciunas, K.
    Kumar, S.
    Lidman, C.
    Lu, J.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Perlmutter, S.
    Persson, S. E.
    Piro, A. L.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Roth, M.
    Ryder, S. D.
    Schmidt, B. P.
    Shahbandeh, M.
    Suntzeff, N. B.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Uddin, S.
    Wang, L.
    Carnegie Supernova Project-II: The Near-infrared Spectroscopy Program2019Inngår i: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, ISSN 0004-6280, E-ISSN 1538-3873, Vol. 131, nr 995, artikkel-id 014002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting the focus of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology to the near infrared (NIR) is a promising way to significantly reduce the systematic errors, as the strategy minimizes our reliance on the empirical width-luminosity relation and uncertain dust laws. Observations in the NIR are also crucial for our understanding of the origins and evolution of these events, further improving their cosmological utility. Any future experiments in the rest-frame NIR will require knowledge of the SN Ia NIR spectroscopic diversity, which is currently based on a small sample of observed spectra. Along with the accompanying paper, Phillips et al., we introduce the Carnegie Supernova Project-II (CSP-II), to follow-up nearby SNe Ia in both the optical and the NIR. In particular, this paper focuses on the CSP-II NIR spectroscopy program, describing the survey strategy, instrumental setups, data reduction, sample characteristics, and future analyses on the data set. In collaboration with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) Supernova Group, we obtained 661 NIR spectra of 157 SNe Ia. Within this sample, 451 NIR spectra of 90 SNe Ia have corresponding CSP-II follow-up light curves. Such a sample will allow detailed studies of the NIR spectroscopic properties of SNe Ia, providing a different perspective on the properties of the unburned material; the radioactive and stable nickel produced; progenitor magnetic fields; and searches for possible signatures of companion stars.

  • 35. Inserra, C.
    et al.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Chambers, K. C.
    Ergon, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Leloudas, Georgios
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesca
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Waters, C.
    Young, D.
    SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL2013Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 770, nr 2, artikkel-id 128Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I lambda 10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of Co-56, and would require 1-4 M-circle dot of Ni-56 to produce the luminosity. These Ni-56 masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 less than or similar to E(10(51) erg) less than or similar to 6.9 and ejecta masses of 2.3 less than or similar to M-ej(M-circle dot) less than or similar to 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx-the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far-points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

  • 36. Jerkstrand, A.
    et al.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Fraser, M.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi.
    Kotak, R.
    The nebular spectra of SN 2012aw and constraints on stellar nucleosynthesis from oxygen emission lines2014Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 439, nr 4, s. 3694-3703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present nebular-phase optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the Type IIP supernova SN 2012aw combined with non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer calculations applied to ejecta from stellar evolution/explosion models. Our spectral synthesis models generally show good agreement with the ejecta from a M-ZAMS = 15 M-circle dot progenitor star. The emission lines of oxygen, sodium, and magnesium are all consistent with the nucleosynthesis in a progenitor in the 14-18 M-circle dot range. We also demonstrate how the evolution of the oxygen cooling lines of [O i] lambda 5577, [O i] lambda 6300, and [O i] lambda 6364 can be used to constrain the mass of oxygen in the non-molecularly cooled ashes to < 1 M-circle dot, independent of the mixing in the ejecta. This constraint implies that any progenitor model of initial mass greater than 20 M-circle dot would be difficult to reconcile with the observed line strengths. A stellar progenitor of around M-ZAMS = 15 M-circle dot can consistently explain the directly measured luminosity of the progenitor star, the observed nebular spectra, and the inferred pre-supernova mass-loss rate. We conclude that there is still no convincing example of a Type IIP supernova showing the nucleosynthesis products expected from an M-ZAMS > 20 M-circle dot progenitor.

  • 37.
    Karamehmetoglu, Emir
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Schmidl, S.
    Fraser, Morgan
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Greiner, J.
    Inserra, Cosimo
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Maguire, K.
    Smartt, S.
    Sullivan, M.
    Young, D. R.
    OGLE-2014-SN-131: A long-rising Type Ibn supernova from a massive progenitor2017Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 602, artikkel-id A93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Type Ibn supernovae (SNe Ibn) are thought to be the core-collapse explosions of massive stars whose ejecta interact with He-rich circumstellar material (CSM). Aims. We report the discovery of a SN Ibn, with the longest rise-time ever observed, OGLE-2014-SN-131. We discuss the potential powering mechanisms and the progenitor nature of this peculiar stripped-envelope (SE), circumstellar-interacting SN. Methods. Optical photometry and spectroscopy were obtained with multiple telescopes including VLT, NTT, and GROND. We compare light curves and spectra with those of other known SNe Ibn and Ibc. CSM velocities are derived from the spectral analysis. The SN light curve is modeled under di ff erent assumptions about its powering mechanism (56Ni decay, CSM-interaction, magnetar) in order to estimate the SN progenitor parameters. Results. OGLE-2014-SN-131 spectroscopically resembles SNe Ibn such as SN 2010al. Its peak luminosity and post-peak colors are also similar to those of other SNe Ibn. However, it shows an unprecedentedly long rise-time and a much broader light curve compared to other SNe Ibn. Its bolometric light curve can be reproduced by magnetar and CSM-interaction models, but not by a 56Ni-decay powering model. Conclusions. To explain the unusually long rise-time, the broad light curve, the light curve decline, and the spectra characterized by narrow emission lines, we favor a powering mechanism where the SN ejecta are interacting with a dense CSM. The progenitor of OGLE-2014-SN-131 was likely a Wolf-Rayet star with a mass greater than that of a typical SN Ibn progenitor, which expelled the CSM that the SN is interacting with.

  • 38. Kelly, P. L.
    et al.
    Brammer, G.
    Selsing, J.
    Foley, R. J.
    Hjorth, J.
    Rodney, S. A.
    Christensen, L.
    Strolger, L. -G.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Treu, T.
    Steidel, C. C.
    Strom, A.
    Riess, A. G.
    Zitrin, A.
    Schmidt, K. B.
    Bradac, M.
    Jha, S. W.
    Graham, M. L.
    McCully, C.
    Graur, O.
    Weiner, B. J.
    Silverman, J. M.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    SN REFSDAL: CLASSIFICATION AS A LUMINOUS AND BLUE SN 1987A-LIKE TYPE II SUPERNOVA2016Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 831, nr 2, artikkel-id 205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have acquired Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Very Large Telescope near-infrared spectra and images of supernova (SN) Refsdal after its discovery as an Einstein cross in fall 2014. The HST light curve of SN Refsdal has a shape consistent with the distinctive, slowly rising light curves of SN. 1987A-like SNe, and we find strong evidence for a broad H alpha P-Cygni profile and Na I D absorption in the HST grism spectrum at the redshift (z = 1.49) of the spiral host galaxy. SNe. IIn, largely powered by circumstellar interaction, could provide a good match to the light curve of SN Refsdal, but the spectrum of a SN IIn would not show broad and strong H alpha and Na I D absorption. From the grism spectrum, we measure an H alpha expansion velocity consistent with those of SN. 1987A-like SNe at a similar phase. The luminosity, evolution, and Gaussian profile of the H alpha emission of the WFC3 and X-shooter spectra, separated by similar to 2.5 months in the rest frame, provide additional evidence that supports the SN. 1987A-like classification. In comparison with other examples of SN. 1987A-like SNe, photometry of SN Refsdal favors bluer B - V and V - R colors and one of the largest luminosities for the assumed range of potential magnifications. The evolution of the light curve at late times will provide additional evidence about the potential existence of any substantial circumstellar material. Using MOSFIRE and X-shooter spectra, we estimate a subsolar host-galaxy metallicity (8.3 +/- 0.1 dex and <8.4 dex, respectively) near the explosion site.

  • 39. Khazov, D.
    et al.
    Yaron, O.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Manulis, I.
    Rubin, A.
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Arcavi, I.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Cao, Y.
    Perley, D.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Horesh, A.
    Sullivan, M.
    Filippenko, A. V.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Howell, D. A.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Silverman, J. M.
    Ebeling, H.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Laher, R. R.
    Surace, J.
    Rebbapragada, U. D.
    Wozniak, P. R.
    Matheson, T.
    FLASH SPECTROSCOPY: EMISSION LINES FROM THE IONIZED CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL AROUND < 10-DAY-OLD TYPE II SUPERNOVAE2016Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 818, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Supernovae (SNe) embedded in dense circumstellar material (CSM) may show prominent emission lines in their early-time spectra (<= 10 days after the explosion), owing to recombination of the CSM ionized by the shock-breakout flash. From such spectra (flash spectroscopy), we can measure various physical properties of the CSM, as well as the mass-loss rate of the progenitor during the year prior to its explosion. Searching through the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF and iPTF) SN spectroscopy databases from 2009 through 2014, we found 12 SNe II showing flash-ionized (FI) signatures in their first spectra. All are younger than 10 days. These events constitute 14% of all 84 SNe in our sample having a spectrum within 10 days from explosion, and 18% of SNe. II observed at ages <5 days, thereby setting lower limits on the fraction of FI events. We classified as blue/featureless (BF) those events having a first spectrum that is similar to that of a blackbody, without any emission or absorption signatures. It is possible that some BF events had FI signatures at an earlier phase than observed, or that they lack dense CSM around the progenitor. Within 2 days after explosion, 8 out of 11 SNe in our sample are either BF events or show FI signatures. Interestingly, we found that 19 out of 21 SNe brighter than an absolute magnitude M-R = -18.2 belong to the FI or BF groups, and that all FI events peaked above M-R = -17.6 mag, significantly brighter than average SNe II.

  • 40.
    Kromer, Markus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pakmor, R.
    Taubenberger, S.
    Amanullah, Rahman
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Cenko, S. B.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Leloudas, G.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Roepke, F. K.
    Seitenzahl, I. R.
    Sim, S. A.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    The peculiar Type Ia supernova iPTF14atg: Chandrasekhar-mass explosion or violent merger?2016Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 459, nr 4, s. 4428-4439Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    iPTF14atg, a subluminous peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) similar to SN 2002es, is the first SN Ia for which a strong UV flash was observed in the early-time light curves. This has been interpreted as evidence for a single-degenerate (SD) progenitor system, where such a signal is expected from interactions between the SN ejecta and the non-degenerate companion star. Here, we compare synthetic observables of multidimensional state-of-the-art explosion models for different progenitor scenarios to the light curves and spectra of iPTF14atg. From our models, we have difficulties explaining the spectral evolution of iPTF14atg within the SD progenitor channel. In contrast, we find that a violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with 0.9 and 0.76 M-aS (TM), respectively, provides an excellent match to the spectral evolution of iPTF14atg from 10 d before to several weeks after maximum light. Our merger model does not naturally explain the initial UV flash of iPTF14atg. We discuss several possibilities like interactions of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium and surface radioactivity from an He-ignited merger that may be able to account for the early UV emission in violent merger models.

  • 41. Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo
    et al.
    Maeda, Keiichi
    Ashall, Christopher J.
    Prentice, Simon J.
    Mattila, Seppo
    Kankare, Erkki
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Pastorello, Andrea
    Leloudas, Giorgos
    Anderson, Joseph P.
    Benetti, Stefano
    Bersten, Melina C.
    Cappellaro, Enrico
    Cartier, Regis
    Denneau, Larry
    Della Valle, Massimo
    Elias-Rosa, Nancy
    Folatelli, Gaston
    Fraser, Morgan
    Galbany, Lluis
    Gall, Christa
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Gutierrez, Claudia P.
    Hamanowicz, Aleksandra
    Heinze, Ari
    Inserra, Cosimo
    Kangas, Tuomas
    Mazzali, Paolo
    Melandri, Andrea
    Pignata, Giuliano
    Rest, Armin
    Reynolds, Thomas
    Roy, Rupak
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), India.
    Smartt, Stephen J.
    Smith, Ken W.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Somero, Auni
    Stalder, Brian
    Stritzinger, Maximilian
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Tomasella, Lina
    Tonry, John
    Weiland, Henry
    Young, David R.
    SN 2017dio: A Type-Ic Supernova Exploding in a Hydrogen-rich Circumstellar Medium2018Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 854, nr 1, artikkel-id L14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SN 2017dio shows both spectral characteristics of a type-Ic supernova (SN) and signs of a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Prominent, narrow emission lines of H and He are superposed on the continuum. Subsequent evolution revealed that the SN ejecta are interacting with the CSM. The initial SN Ic identification was confirmed by removing the CSM interaction component from the spectrum and comparing with known SNe Ic and, reversely, adding a CSM interaction component to the spectra of known SNe Ic and comparing them to SN 2017dio. Excellent agreement was obtained with both procedures, reinforcing the SN Ic classification. The light curve constrains the pre-interaction SN Ic peak absolute magnitude to be around M-g = -17.6 mag. No evidence of significant extinction is found, ruling out a brighter luminosity required by an SN Ia classification. These pieces of evidence support the view that SN 2017dio is an SN Ic, and therefore the first firm case of an SN Ic with signatures of hydrogen-rich CSM in the early spectrum. The CSM is unlikely to have been shaped by steady-state stellar winds. The mass loss of the progenitor star must have been intense, M similar to 0.02 (epsilon(H alpha)/0.01)(-1) (nu(wind)/500 km s(-1)) (nu(shock)/10,000 km s(-1))M--3(circle dot) yr(-1), peaking at a few decades before the SN. Such a high mass-loss rate might have been experienced by the progenitor through eruptions or binary stripping.

  • 42. Larsson, Josefin
    et al.
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Spyromilio, J.
    Leibundgut, B. .
    Challis, P.
    Chevalier, R. A.
    France, K.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Kirshner, R. P.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Matsuura, M.
    McCray, R.
    Smith, N.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Garnavich, P.
    Heng, K.
    Lawrence, S.
    Mattila, S.
    Migotto, Katia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sonneborn, G.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Wheeler, J. C.
    THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF EJECTA IN SUPERNOVA 1987A AT 10,000 DAYS2016Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 833, nr 2, artikkel-id 147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to its proximity, SN. 1987A offers a unique opportunity to directly observe the geometry of a stellar explosion as it unfolds. Here we present spectral and imaging observations of SN. 1987A obtained similar to 10,000 days after the explosion with HST/STIS and VLT/SINFONI at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. These observations allow us to produce the most detailed 3D map of Ha to date, the first 3D maps for [Ca II] lambda lambda 7292, 7324, [O I] lambda lambda 6300, 6364, and Mg. II lambda lambda 9218, 9244, as well as new maps for [Si I]+[Fe II] 1.644 mu m and He I 2.058 mu m. A comparison with previous observations shows that the [Si I]+[Fe II] flux and morphology have not changed significantly during the past ten years, providing evidence that this line is powered by Ti-44. The time evolution of Ha shows that it is predominantly powered by X-rays from the ring, in agreement with previous findings. All lines that have sufficient signal show a similar large-scale 3D structure, with a north-south asymmetry that resembles a broken dipole. This structure correlates with early observations of asymmetries, showing that there is a global asymmetry that extends from the inner core to the outer envelope. On smaller scales, the two brightest lines, Ha and [Si I]+[Fe II] 1.644 mu m, show substructures at the level of similar to 200-1000 km s(-1) and clear differences in their 3D geometries. We discuss these results in the context of explosion models and the properties of dust in the ejecta.

  • 43.
    Leloudas, Georgios
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Hsiao, E. Y.
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Maeda, K.
    Moriya, T. J.
    Nordin, J.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Silverman, J. M.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Xu, D.
    Supernova spectra below strong circumstellar interaction2015Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 574, artikkel-id A61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct spectra of supernovae (SNe) interacting strongly with a circumstellar medium (CSM) by adding SN templates, a black-body continuum, and an emission-line spectrum. In a Monte Carlo simulation we vary a large number of parameters, such as the SN type, brightness and phase, the strength of the CSM interaction, the extinction, and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the observed spectrum. We generate more than 800 spectra, distribute them to ten different human classifiers, and study how the different simulation parameters affect the appearance of the spectra and their classification. The SNe IIn showing some structure over the continuum were characterized as SNe IInS to allow for a better quantification. We demonstrate that the flux ratio of the underlying SN to the continuum f(v) is the single most important parameter determining whether a spectrum can be classified correctly. Other parameters, such as extinction, S/N, and the width and strength of the emission lines, do not play a significant role. Thermonuclear SNe get progressively classified as Ia-CSM, IInS, and IIn as f(v) decreases. The transition between Ia-CSM and IInS occurs at f(v) similar to 0.2-0.3. It is therefore possible to determine that SNe Ia-CSM are found at the (un-extincted) magnitude range -19.5 > M > -21.6, in very good agreement with observations, and that the faintest SN IIn that can hide a SN Ia has M = -20.1. The literature sample of SNe Ia-CSM shows an association with 91T-like SNe Ia. Our experiment does not support that this association can be attributed to a luminosity bias (91T-like being brighter than normal events). We therefore conclude that this association has real physical origins and we propose that 91T-like explosions result from single degenerate progenitors that are responsible for the CSM. Despite the spectroscopic similarities between SNe Ibc and SNe Ia, the number of misclassifications between these types was very small in our simulation and mostly at low S/N. Combined with the SN luminosity function needed to reproduce the observed SN Ia-CSM luminosities, it is unlikely that SNe Ibc constitute an important contaminant within this sample. We show how Type II spectra transition to IIn and how the H alpha profiles vary with f(v). SNe IIn fainter than M = -17.2 are unable to mask SNe IIP brighter than M = -15. A more advanced simulation, including radiative transfer, shows that our simplified model is a good first order approximation. The spectra obtained are in good agreement with real data.

  • 44.
    Lundqvist, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Johansson, Joel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kozma, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Lundqvist, N.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fransson, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Garnavich, P. M.
    Kromer, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Shappee, B. J.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    No trace of a single-degenerate companion in late spectra of supernovae 2011fe and 2014J2015Inngår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, artikkel-id A39Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. This study aims at constraining the origin of the nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe), 2011fe and 2014J. The two most favoured scenarios for triggering the explosion of the white dwarf supernova progenitor is either mass loss from a non-degenerate companion or merger with another white dwarf. In the former, there could be a significant amount of leftover material from the companion at the centre of the supernova. Detecting such material would therefore favour the single-degenerate scenario. Methods. The left-over material from a possible non-degenerate companion can reveal itself after about one year, and in this study such material was searched for in the spectra of SN 2011fe (at 294 days after the explosion) using the Large Binocular Telescope and for SN 2014J using the Nordic Optical Telescope (315 days past explosion). The observations were interpreted using numerical models simulating the expected line emission from ablated material from the companion star. The spectral lines sought for are H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, and [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291,7324, and the expected width of these lines is similar to 1000 km s(-1), which in the case of the [Ca II] lines blend to a broader feature. Results. No signs of H alpha, [O I] lambda 6300, or [Ca II] lambda lambda 7291, 7324 could be traced for in any of the two supernovae. When systematic uncertainties are included, the limits on hydrogen-rich ablated gas are 0 : 003 M-circle dot in SN 2011fe and 0 : 0085 M-circle dot in SN 2014J, where the limit for SN 2014J is the second lowest ever, and the limit for SN 2011fe is a revision of a previous limit. Limits are also put on helium-rich ablated gas, and here limits from [O I] lambda 6300 provide the upper mass limits 0 : 002 M-circle dot and 0 : 005 M-circle dot for SNe 2011fe and 2014J, respectively. These numbers are used in conjunction with other data to argue that these supernovae can stem from double-degenerate systems or from single-degenerate systems with a spun-up/spun-down super-Chandrasekhar white dwarf. For SN 2011fe, other types of hydrogen-rich donors can very likely be ruled out, whereas a main-sequence donor system with large intrinsic separation is still possible for SN 2014J. Helium-rich donor systems cannot be ruled out for any of the two supernovae, but the expected short delay time for such progenitors makes this possibility less likely, especially for SN 2011fe. Published data for SNe 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am, and 2005cf are used to constrain their origin. We emphasise that the results of this study depend on the sought-after lines emerging unattenuated from the central regions of the nebula. Detailed radiative transfer calculations with longer line lists than are presently used are needed to confirm that this is, in fact, true. Finally, the broad lines of SNe 2011fe and 2014J are discussed, and it is found that the [Ni II] lambda 7378 emission is redshifted by similar to+ 1300 km s(-1), as opposed to the known blueshift of similar to-1100 km s(-1) for SN 2011fe. [Fe II] lambda 7155 is also redshifted in SN 2014J. SN 2014J belongs to a minority of SNe Ia that both have a nebular redshift of [Fe II] lambda 7155 and [Ni II] lambda 7378, and a slow decline of the Si II lambda 6355 absorption trough just after B-band maximum.

  • 45. Lyman, J. D.
    et al.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Stritzinger, M. D.
    Galbany, L.
    Leloudas, G.
    Anderson, J. P.
    Eldridge, J. J.
    James, P. A.
    Krühler, T.
    Levan, A. J.
    Pignata, G.
    Stanway, E. R.
    Investigating the diversity of supernovae type Iax: a MUSE and NOT spectroscopic study of their environments2018Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 473, nr 1, s. 1359-1387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SN 2002cx-like Type Ia supernovae (also known as SNe Iax) represent one of the most numerous peculiar SN classes. They differ from normal SNe Ia by having fainter peak magnitudes, faster decline rates and lower photospheric velocities, displaying a wide diversity in these properties. We present both integral-field and long-slit visual-wavelength spectroscopy of the host galaxies and explosion sites of SNe Iax to provide constraints on their progenitor formation scenarios. The SN Iax explosion-site metallicity distribution is similar to that of core-collapse SNe and metal poor compared to either normal SNe Ia or SN 1991T-like events. Fainter members, speculated to form distinctly from brighter SN Iax, are found at a range of metallicities, extending to very metal poor environments. Although the SN Iax explosion-sites' ages and star formation rates are comparatively older and less intense than the distribution of star-forming regions across their host galaxies, we confirm the presence of young stellar populations (SPs) at explosion environments for most SNe Iax, expanded here to a larger sample. Ages of the young SPs (several x 10(7) to 10(8) yr) are consistent with predictions for young thermonuclear and electron-capture SN progenitors. The lack of extremely young SPs at the explosion sites disfavours very massive progenitors such as Wolf-Rayet explosions with significant fallback. We find weak ionized gas in the only SN Iax host without obvious signs of star formation. The source of the ionization remains ambiguous but appears unlikely to be mainly due to young, massive stars.

  • 46. Maguire, K.
    et al.
    Sullivan, M.
    Patat, F.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Hook, I. M.
    Dhawan, S.
    Howell, D. A.
    Mazzali, P.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Pan, Y. -C
    Podsiadlowski, P.
    Simon, J. D.
    Sternberg, A.
    Valenti, S.
    Baltay, C.
    Bersier, D.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Chen, T. -W
    Ellman, N.
    Feindt, U.
    Foerster, F.
    Fraser, M.
    Gonzalez-Gaitan, S.
    Graham, M. L.
    Gutierrez, C.
    Hachinger, S.
    Hadjiyska, E.
    Inserra, C.
    Knapic, C.
    Laher, R. R.
    Leloudas, Georgios
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC). Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen.
    Margheim, S.
    McKinnon, R.
    Molinaro, M.
    Morrell, N.
    Ofek, E. O.
    Rabinowitz, D.
    Rest, A.
    Sand, D.
    Smareglia, R.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Walker, E. S.
    Walton, N. A.
    Young, D. R.
    A statistical analysis of circumstellar material in Type Ia supernovae2013Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 436, nr 1, s. 222-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A key tracer of the elusive progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is the detection of narrow blueshifted time-varying Na I D absorption lines, interpreted as evidence of circumstellar material surrounding the progenitor system. The origin of this material is controversial, but the simplest explanation is that it results from previous mass-loss in a system containing a white dwarf and a non-degenerate companion star. We present new single-epoch intermediate-resolution spectra of 17 low-redshift SNe Ia taken with XShooter on the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope. Combining this sample with events from the literature, we confirm an excess (similar to 20 per cent) of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features compared to redshifted Na I D features. The host galaxies of SNe Ia displaying blueshifted absorption profiles are skewed towards later-type galaxies, compared to SNe Ia that show no Na I D absorption and SNe Ia displaying blueshifted narrow Na I D absorption features have broader light curves. The strength of the Na I D absorption is stronger in SNe Ia displaying blueshifted Na I D absorption features than those without blueshifted features, and the strength of the blueshifted Na I D is correlated with the B - V colour of the SN at maximum light. This strongly suggests the absorbing material is local to the SN. In the context of the progenitor systems of SNe Ia, we discuss the significance of these findings and other recent observational evidence on the nature of SN Ia progenitors. We present a summary that suggests that there are at least two distinct populations of normal, cosmologically useful SNe Ia.

  • 47. Maund, J. R.
    et al.
    Fraser, M.
    Smartt, S. J.
    Botticella, M. T.
    Barbarino, C.
    Childress, M.
    Gal-Yam, A.
    Inserra, C.
    Pignata, G.
    Reichart, D.
    Schmidt, B.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Tomasella, L.
    Valenti, S.
    Yaron, O.
    Supernova 2012ec: identification of the progenitor and early monitoring with PESSTO2013Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 431, nr 1, s. l102-L106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the identification of the progenitor of the Type IIP SN 2012ec in archival pre-explosion Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel F814W images. The properties of the progenitor are further constrained by non-detections in pre-explosion WFPC2 F450W and F606W images. We report a series of early photometric and spectroscopic observations of SN 2012ec. The r' -band light curve shows a plateau with M-r' = -17.0. The early spectrum is similar to the Type IIP SN 1999em, with the expansion velocity measured at Ha absorption minimum of -11 700 km s(-1) (at 1 d post-discovery). The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of SN 2012ec shows it to be a Type IIP SN, discovered only a few days post-explosion (<6 d). We derive a luminosity for the progenitor, in comparison with MARCS model spectral energy distributions, of log L/L-circle dot = 5.15 +/- 0.19, from which we infer an initial mass range of 14-22M(circle dot). This is the first SN with an identified progenitor to be followed by the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO).

  • 48. Miller, A. A.
    et al.
    Cao, Y.
    Piro, A. L.
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Bue, B. D.
    Cenko, S. B.
    Dhawan, Suhail
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Ferretti, Raphael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Fox, O. D.
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Howell, D. A.
    Hosseinzadeh, G.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Laher, R. R.
    Lunnan, R.
    Masci, F. J.
    McCully, C.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Fransesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing2018Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 852, nr 2, artikkel-id 100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15 +/-(0.15)(0.07) days before our first detection. In the similar to 24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by similar to 2mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for. greater than or similar to 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after similar to 7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the (B - V)(0) colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive Ni-56 in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  • 49. Miller, A. A.
    et al.
    Kasliwal, M. M.
    Cao, Y.
    Adams, S. M.
    Goobar, Ariel
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Knezevic, S.
    Laher, R. R.
    Lunnan, R.
    Masci, F. J.
    Nugent, P. E.
    Perley, D. A.
    Petrushevska, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Fysikum. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Quimby, R. M.
    Rebbapragada, U. D.
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Kulkarni, S. R.
    Color Me Intrigued: The Discovery of iPTF 16fnm, an SN 2002cx-like Object2017Inngår i: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 848, nr 1, artikkel-id 59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    0 Modern wide-field, optical time-domain surveys must solve a basic optimization problem: maximize the number of transient discoveries or minimize the follow-up needed for the new discoveries. Here, we describe the Color Me Intrigued experiment, the first from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) to search for transients simultaneously in the g(PTF') and R-PTF bands. During the course of this experiment, we discovered iPTF 16fnm, a new member of the 02cx-like subclass of Type Ia supernovae (SNe). iPTF 16fnm peaked at Mg-PTF = -15.09 +/- 0.17 mag, making it the second-least-luminous known SN Ia. iPTF 16fnm exhibits all the hallmarks of the 02cx-like class: (i) low luminosity at peak, (ii) low ejecta velocities, and (iii) a non-nebular spectrum several months after peak. Spectroscopically, iPTF 16fnm exhibits a striking resemblance to two other low-luminosity 02cx-like SNe: SN. 2007qd and SN 2010ae. iPTF 16fnm and SN 2005hk decline at nearly the same rate, despite a 3 mag difference in brightness at peak. When considering the full subclass of 02cx-like SNe, we do not find evidence for a tight correlation between peak luminosity and decline rate in either the g ' or r ' band. We measure the relative rate of 02cx-like SNe to normal SNe Ia and find r(N02cx/NIa) = 33(-25)(+158)%. We further examine the g ' - r ' evolution of 02cx-like SNe and find that their unique color evolution can be used to separate them from 91bg-like and normal SNe Ia. This selection function will be especially important in the spectroscopically incomplete Zwicky Transient Facility/Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) era. Finally, we close by recommending that LSST periodically evaluate, and possibly update, its observing cadence to maximize transient science.

  • 50. Moriya, Takashi J.
    et al.
    Maeda, Keiichi
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för astronomi. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Oskar Klein-centrum för kosmopartikelfysik (OKC).
    Blinnikov, Sergei I.
    Sorokina, Elena I.
    An analytic bolometric light curve model of interaction-powered supernovae and its application to Type IIn supernovae2013Inngår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 435, nr 2, s. 1520-1535Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an analytic model for bolometric light curves which are powered by the interaction between supernova ejecta and a dense circumstellar medium. This model is aimed at modelling Type IIn supernovae to determine the properties of their supernova ejecta and circumstellar medium. Our model is not restricted to the case of steady mass loss and can be applied broadly. We only consider the case in which the optical depth of the unshocked circumstellar medium is not high enough to affect the light curves. We derive the luminosity evolution based on an analytic solution for the evolution of a dense shell created by the interaction. We compare our model bolometric light curves to observed bolometric light curves of three Type IIn supernovae (2005ip, 2006jd, 2010jl) and show that our model can constrain their supernova ejecta and circumstellar medium properties. Our analytic model is supported by numerical light curves from the same initial conditions.

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