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  • 1. Abel, Sebastian
    et al.
    Nybom, Inna
    Maenpaa, Kimmo
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Akkanen, Jarkko
    Mixing and capping techniques for activated carbon based sediment remediation Efficiency and adverse effects for Lumbriculus variegatus2017Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 114, s. 104-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbon (AC) has been proven to be highly effective for the in-situ remediation of sediments contaminated with a wide range of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, adverse biological effects, especially to benthic organisms, can accompany this promising remediation potential. In this study, we compare both the remediation potential and the biological effects of several AC materials for two application methods: mixing with sediment (MIX) at doses of 0.1 and 1.0% based on sediment dw and thin layer capping (TLC) with 0.6 and 1.2 kg AC/m(2). Significant dose dependent reductions in PCB bioaccumulation in Lumbriculus variegatus of 35-93% in MIX treatments were observed. Contaminant uptake in TLC treatments was reduced by up to 78% and differences between the two applied doses were small. Correspondingly, significant adverse effects were observed for L. variegatus whenever AC was present in the sediment. The lowest application dose of 0.1% AC in the MIX system reduced L variegatus growth, and 1.0% AC led to a net loss of organism biomass. All TLC treatments let to a loss of biomass in the test organism. Furthermore, mortality was observed with 1.2 kg ACim(2) doses of pure AC for the TLC treatment. The addition of clay (Kaolinite) to the TLC treatments prevented mortality, but did not decrease the loss in biomass. While TLC treatments pose a less laborious alternative for AC amendments in the field, the results of this study show that it has lower remediation potential and could be more harmful to the benthic fauna.

  • 2. Abiven, Samuel
    et al.
    Hund, Andreas
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway .
    Biochar amendment increases maize root surface areas and branching: a shovelomics study in Zambia2015Inngår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 395, nr 1-2, s. 45-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive crop yield effects from biochar are likely explained by chemical, physical and/or biological factors. However, studies describing plant allometric changes are scarcer, but may be crucial to understand the biochar effect. The main aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of biochar on root architecture under field conditions in a tropical setting. The presented work describes a shovelomics (i.e., description of root traits in the field) study on the effect of biochar on maize root architecture. Four field experiments we carried out at two different locations in Zambia, exhibiting non-fertile to relatively fertile soils. Roots of maize crop (Zea mays L.) were sampled from treatments with fertilizer (control) and with a combination of fertilizer and 4 t.ha(-1) maize biochar application incorporated in the soil. For the four sites, the average grain yield increase upon biochar addition was 45 +/- 14 % relative to the fertilized control (from 2.1-6.0 to 3.1-9.1 ton ha(-1)). The root biomass was approximately twice as large for biochar-amended plots. More extensive root systems (especially characterized by a larger root opening angle (+14 +/- 11 %) and wider root systems (+20 +/- 15 %)) were observed at all biochar-amended sites. Root systems exhibited significantly higher specific surface areas (+54 +/- 14 %), branching and fine roots: +70 +/- 56 %) in the presence of biochar. Biochar amendment resulted in more developed root systems and larger yields. The more extensive root systems may have contributed to the observed yield increases, e.g., by improving immobile nutrients uptake in soils that are unfertile or in areas with prolonged dry spells.

  • 3. Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Mulder, Jan
    Smebye, Andreas
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    The role of biochar in retaining nutrients in amended tropical soils2014Inngår i: Journal of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, ISSN 1436-8730, E-ISSN 1522-2624, Vol. 177, nr 5, s. 671-680Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect of biochar amendments on the retention and availability of plant nutrients and Al in seven acidic tropical soils from Zambia and Indonesia. The experiments carried out investigated whether the adsorption capacity of NH4+ in the soils increased upon the addition of biochar and which effect biochar had on available concentrations of NO3-, K+, Mn2+, Mg2+, PO43-, and Al3+. These nutrients were selected as they represent those important to plant growth and soil quality. No significant increases or decreases in aqueous NH4+-N concentration with additions of biochar were detected. The Gaines-Thomas model was used in order to calculate selectivity coefficients for NH4+ exchange (K-gt values). Following the addition of biochar to soil, K-gt values decreased showing a reduction in the selective binding of NH4+ in the biochar amended soil compared to the control. The concentration of NO3- increased following the addition of biochar to the soils. The addition of 5 and 10% biochar to the Indonesian soil did not significantly alter (t-test confidence level 0.05) the sorption of PO43- to the soil-biochar mixtures as compared to the soil alone. However, the addition of biochar to the soil from Zambia increased the sorption of PO43- compared to the soil alone. The concentrations of K+ and Mg2+ were significantly increased for almost all soils (t-test at the 0.05 confidence level) following the addition of biochar. Addition of biochar to all but two soils significantly decreased (t-test confidence level 0.05) Mn2+ concentrations. The concentration of Al3+ in the soils decreased exponentially significantly (t-test confidence level 0.05) following the amendment of biochar in accordance with the increase in pH observed when biochar was added to the soil. These results show that biochar has the ability to release essential plant growth nutrients as well as alleviate Al toxicity in these soils.

  • 4. Amstaetter, Katja
    et al.
    Eek, Espen
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sorption of PAHs and PCBs to activated carbon: Coal versus biomass-based quality2012Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 87, nr 5, s. 573-578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) is an increasingly popular method for pollutant immobilization, and the AC material can be made of biomass or coal/fossil feedstock. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are differences between pollutant sorption to biomass and coal-based AC in the presence and absence of sediment. Through N-2 and CO2 adsorption to probe surface area and pore size it was shown that the biomass-based AC had a stronger dominance of narrow pores in the size range 3.5-15 angstrom than the anthracite-based material. In the absence of sediment, sorption isotherms for the probe compounds pyrene and PCB-101 showed stronger sorption for the biomass-based AC (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 8.15 for pyrene; 9.91 for PCB-101) than for the anthracite-based one (logarithmic Freundlich coefficients 7.20 and 9.70, respectively). In the presence of sediment, the opposite trend was observed, with the stronger sorption for anthracite-based AC. Thus, the presence of competing and/or pore-blocking sediment constituents reduces sorption to a larger extent for biomass-derived AC (factor of 5 for pyrene to almost 100 for PCB-101) than for anthracite-based AC (no reduction for pyrene to factor of 5 for PCB-101). This difference is tentatively attributed to the difference in pore size distribution, narrow pores being more prone to clogging, and could have implications for remediation feasibility with AC from different sources.

  • 5.
    Armitage, J
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Cousins, I
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Persson, N.J.
    Gustafsson, Ö
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Cornelissen, G
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Saloranta, T.
    Broman, D
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Næs, K.
    Black Carbon-Inclusive Modeling Approaches for Estimating the Aquatic Fate of Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans2008Inngår i: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 42, s. 3697-3703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Azzolina, Nicholas A.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Hawthorne, Steven B.
    Predicting Pore Water EPA-34 PAH Concentrations and Toxicity in Pyrogenic-Impacted Sediments Using Pyrene Content2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 12, s. 5139-5146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's list of 34 alkyl and parent PAHs (EPA-34) were measured in 335 sediment samples from 19 different sites impacted by manufactured gas plants, aluminum smelters and other pyrogenic sources. The total EPA-34 freely dissolved pore water concentration, C(pw,EPA-34), expressed as toxic units (TU) is currently considered one of the most accurate measures to assess risk at such sites; however, it is very seldom measured. With this data set, we address how accurately C(pw,EPA-34) can be estimated using limited 16 parent PAH data (EPA-16) commonly available for such sites. An exhaustive statistical analysis of the obtained data validated earlier observations that PAHs with more than 3 rings are present in similar relative abundances and their partitioning behavior typically follows Raoult's law and models developed for coal tar. As a result, sediment and freely dissolved pore water concentrations of pyrene and other 3- and 4-ring PAT-Is exhibit good log log correlations (r(2) > 0.8) to most individual EPA-34 PAHs and also to C(pw,EPA,34). Correlations improve further by including the ratio of high to low molecular weight PAHs, as 2-ring PAT-Is exhibit the most variability in terms of their relative abundance. The most practical result of the current work is that log Cpw,EPA-34 estimated by the recommended pyrene-based estimation techniques was similarly well correlated to % survival of the benthic amphipods Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus as directly measured log Cpw, (EPA-34) values (n = 211). Incorporation of the presented C(pw,EPA-34) estimation techniques could substantially improve risk assessments and guidelines for sediments impacted by pyrogenic residues, especially when limited data are available, without requiring any extra data or measurement costs.

  • 7. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Elmquist Kruså, Marie
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Grabanski, Carol B.
    Miller, David J.
    Hawthorne, Steven B.
    Review of polyoxymethylene passive sampling methods for quantifying freely dissolved porewater concentrations of hydrophobic organic contaminants2015Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 710-720Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods involving polyoxymethylene (POM) as a passive sampler are increasing in popularity to assess contaminant freely dissolved porewater concentrations in soils and sediments. These methods require contaminant-specific POM-water partition coefficients, K-POM. Certain methods for determining K-POM perform reproducibly (within 0.2 log units). However, other methods can give highly varying K-POM values (up to 2 log units), especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To account for this variation, the authors tested the influence of key methodological components in K-POM determinations, including POM thickness, extraction procedures, and environmental temperature and salinity, as well as uptake kinetics in mixed and static systems. All inconsistencies in the peer-reviewed literature can be accounted for by the likelihood that thick POM materials (500m or thicker) do not achieve equilibrium (causing negative biases up to 1 log unit), or that certain POM extraction procedures do not ensure quantitative extraction (causing negative biases up to 2 log units). Temperature can also influence K-POM, although all previous literature studies were carried out at room temperature. The present study found that K-POM values at room temperature are independent (within 0.2 log units) of POM manufacture method, of thickness between 17m and 80m, and of salinity between 0% and 10%. Regarding kinetics, monochloro- to hexachloro-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were within 0.2 log units of equilibrium after 28d in the mixed system, but only dichloro-PCBs achieved near equilibrium after 126d in the static system. Based on these insights, recommended methods and K-POM values to facilitate interlaboratory reproducibility are presented.

  • 8. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Enell, Anja
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: Their Soil-Porewater Partitioning Behavior, Bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and Bioavailability2014Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 19, s. 11187-11195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, C-pw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, K-TOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed K-TOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native K-TOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, C-pw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, C-lipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than C-pw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically contaminated soils despite expectations from PAH spiked reference soils. Worm reproducibility weakly correlated to C-lipid of PACs, though the contributing influence of metal concentrations and soil texture could not be taken into account. The good agreement of POM-derived C-pw with independent soil and lipid partitioning models further supports that soil risk assessments would improve by accounting for bioavailability. Strategies for including bioavailability in soil risk assessment are presented.

  • 9. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Villers, Frederic
    Lepland, Aivo
    Kalaitzidis, Stavros
    Christanis, Kimon
    Oen, Amy M. P.
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    INFLUENCE OF HISTORICAL INDUSTRIAL EPOCHS ON PORE WATER AND PARTITIONING PROFILES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN OSLO HARBOR, NORWAY, SEDIMENT CORES2011Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 843-851Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminant levels in urban harbor sediments vary with contaminant emission levels, sedimentation rates, and sediment resuspension processes such as propeller wash. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are decreasing in many urban harbors, as heavily contaminated sediments that accumulated during past decades are being buried by less-contaminated sediments. However, PAHs and PCBs remain a concern in areas where burial is slow or resuspension processes re-expose heavily contaminated older layers. Chronostratigraphic sediment core studies typically characterize contaminant level histories by using total sediment concentrations, C(sed), and do not determine the freely dissolved porewater concentrations, C(pw), which provide a better measure of bioavailability. Here both C(sed) and C(pw) profiles were established for PAHs and PCBs in dated sediment cores from diverse areas of Oslo Harbor, Norway. Sediment-porewater partitioning profiles were established alongside profiles of various sorbing carbonaceous phases, including total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon, and diverse carbonaceous geosorbents identified by petrographic analysis. Stratigraphic trends in carbonaceous phases and C(sed) could be associated with different industrial epochs: hydropower (post- 1960, approximately), manufactured gas (similar to 1925-1960), coal (similar to 1910-1925), and early industry (similar to 1860-1910). Partitioning was highly variable and correlated best with the TOC. Hydropower-epoch sediments exhibit decreasing C(sed) with time and a relatively strong sorption capacity compared with the manufactured-gas epoch. Sediments from the manufactured-gas epoch exhibit substantial PAH and metal contamination, large amounts of coke and char, and a low sorption capacity. Reexposure of sediments of this epoch increases risks to local benthic species. Implications on natural recovery as a sediment management strategy are discussed.

  • 10. Arp, H.P.H.
    et al.
    Breedveld, G.D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Estimating the in situ Sediment-Porewater Distribution of PAHs and Chlorinated Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Anthropogenic Impacted Sediments2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 15, s. 5576-5585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It has become increasingly apparent that the in situ sediment-porewater distribution behavior of organic compounds within anthropogenic impacted sediments is quite diverse, and challenging to generalize. Traditional models based on octanol-water partitioning generally overestimate native porewater concentrations, and modern approaches accounting for multiple carbon fractions, including black carbon, appear sediment specific. To assess the diversity of this sorption behavior, we collected all peer-reviewed total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized in situ sediment-porewater distribution coefficients, K-TOC, for impacted sediments. This entailed several hundreds of data for PAHs, PCBs, PCDO/Fs, and chlorinated benzenes, covering a large variety of sediments, locations, and experimental methods. Compound-specific K-TOC could range up to over 3 orders of magnitude. Output from various predictive models for individual carbonaceous phases found in impacted sediments, based on peer-reviewed polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs), Raoult's Law, and the SPARC online-calculator, were tested to see if any of the models could consistently predict literature K-TOC values within a factor of 30 (i.e., similar to 1.5 orders of magnitude, or half the range of K-TOC values), The Raoult's Law model and coal tar PP-LFER achieved the sought-after accuracy for all tested compound classes, and are recommended for general, regional-scale modeling purposes. As impacted sediment-porewater distribution models are unlikely to get more accurate than this, this review underpins that the only way to accurately obtain accurate porewater concentrations is to measure them directly, and not infer them from sediment concentrations

  • 11. Brandli, Rahel C.
    et al.
    Breedveld, Gijsbert D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Tributyltin Sorption to Marine Sedimentary Black Carbon and to Amended Activated Carbon2009Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 503-508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Under marine conditions, tributyltin (TBT) is speciated mainly as an uncharged hydroxyl complex (TBTOH) that is expected to have a similar fate to hydrophobic organic contaminants. Earlier studies indicated that for the later compounds, sorption to black carbon (BC) can be more than two orders of magnitude stronger than sorption to organic carbon, notably at low and environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sorption strength of spiked TBT to a sediment and its BC isolate. It was observed that carbon-normalized sorption coefficients were in the same range for the sediment total organic carbon (TOC) and for its BC (log K-TOC 5.05 L/kg(TOC) and log K BC 5.09 L/kg(BC), respectively). This indicates that TBT does not sorb as strongly to BC as other hydrophobic organic contaminants. Activated carbon (AC), a strong man-made sorbent, has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated sediments and soils, in particular for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the present study, both granular and powdered AC were found to strongly sorb TBT under marine conditions, with a log sorption coefficient of 6.8 L/kg(carbon). Tributyl- and dibutyltin concentrations in the pore water of a natively contaminated sediment were reduced by more than 70% on addition of 2% of powdered AC, whereas granular AC did not show a similar reduction. The results indicate that powdered AC might be a feasible remediation agent for sediments contaminated by organotins.

  • 12. Brandli, Rahel C.
    et al.
    Hartnik, Thomas
    Henriksen, Thomas
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sorption of native polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to black carbon and amended activated carbon in soil2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 73, nr 11, s. 1805-1810Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic pollutants (e.g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) strongly sorb to carbonaceous sorbents such as black carbon and activated carbon (BC and AC, respectively). For a creosote-contaminated soil (Sigma 15PAH 5500 mg kg(dry weight(dw))-(1)) and an urban soil with moderate PAH content (Sigma 15PAH 38 mg kg(-1)), dry dw total organic carbon-water distribution coefficients (K-TOC) were up to a factor of 100 above values for amorphous (humic) organic carbon obtained by a frequently used Linear-Free-Energy Relationship. This increase could be explained by inclusion of BC (urban soil) or oil (creosote-contaminated soil) into the sorption model. AC is a manufactured sorbent for organic pollutants with similar strong sorption properties as the combustion by-product BC. AC has the potential to be used for in situ remediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The addition of small amounts of powdered AC (2%) to the moderately contaminated urban soil reduced the freely dissolved aqueous concentration of native PAH in soil/water suspensions Lip to 99%. For granulated AC amended to the urban soil, the reduction in freely dissolved concentrations was not as strong (median 64%), especially for the heavier PAH. This is probably due to blockage of the pore system of granulated AC resulting in AC deactivation by soil components. For powdered and granulated AC amended to the heavily contaminated creosote soil, median reductions were 63% and 4%, respectively, probably due to saturation of AC sorption sites by the high PAH concentrations and/or blockage of sorption sites and pores by oil.

  • 13. Brandli, R.C.
    et al.
    Bergsli, A.
    Ghosh, U.
    Hartnik, T.
    Breedveld, G.D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Quantification of activated carbon contents in soils and sediments using chemothermal and wet oxidation methods2009Inngår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 157, nr 12, s. 3465-3470Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Activated carbon (AC) strongly sorbs organic pollutants and can be used for remediation of soils and sediments. A method for AC quantification is essential to monitor AC (re)distribution. Since AC is black carbon (BC), two methods for BC quantification were tested for AC mixed in different soils and sediments: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet-chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. For three soils, the amount of AC was accurately determined by CTO at 375 degrees C. For two sediments, however, much of the AC disappeared during combustion at 375 degrees C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects by sediment constituents. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350 degrees C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation effectively functioned for AC quantification in sediments, with almost complete AC recovery (81-92%) and low remaining amounts of native organic carbon (5-16%).

  • 14.
    Cornelissen, G
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Arp, H.P.H.
    Pettersen, A.
    Hauge, A.
    Breedveld, G.D.
    Assessing PAH and PCB emissions from the relocation of harbour sediments using equilibrium passive samplers2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, Vol. 72, s. 1581-1587Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Cornelissen, G
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Cousins, I
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Wiberg, K.
    Tysklind, M.
    Holmström, H.
    Broman, D
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Black carbon-dominated PCDD/Fs sorption to soils at a former wood impregnation site2008Inngår i: Chemosphere, Vol. 72, s. 1455-1461Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Cornelissen, G
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Pettersen, A.
    Broman, D
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Mayer, P.
    Breedveld, G.D.
    Field testing of equilibrium passive samplers to determine freely dissolved native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations2008Inngår i: Environ. Toxicol. Chem., Vol. 27, s. 499-508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Cornelissen, G
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Pettersen, A.
    Nesse, E.
    Eek, E.
    Helland, A.
    Breedveld, G.D.
    The contribution of urban runoff to organic contaminant levels in harbour sediments near two Norwegian cities2008Inngår i: Mar. Pollut. Bull., Vol. 56, s. 565-573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Amstaetter, Katja
    Hauge, Audun
    Schaanning, Morten
    Beylich, Bjornar
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Oen, Amy M. P.
    Eek, Espen
    Large-Scale Field Study on Thin-Layer Capping of Marine PCDD/F-Contaminated Sediments in Grenlandfjords, Norway: Physicochemical Effects2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 21, s. 12030-12037Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large-scale field experiment on in situ thin-layer capping was carried out in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin, and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandsfjords, Norway The main focus of the,trial Was to,test the effectiveness of active caps (targeted thickness of 2.5 cm) consisting of powdered activated carbon (AC) mixed into locally dredged clean clay. Nonactive caps (targed thickness of 5 cm) consisting of clay without, AC as well as crushed limestone were also tested Fields with areas of 10 000 to 40 000 m(2) were established at 30 to 100 m water depth. Auxiliary shaken laboratory batch experiments showed that 2% of the applied powdered AC substantially reduced PCDD/F porewater concentrations, by >90% for tetra-, penta- and hexa-clorinated congeners to 60-70% for octachlorinated ones. In situ AC profiles revealed that the AC was mixed into the sediment to 3 to 5 cm depth in 20 months. Only around 25% of the AC was found inside the pilot fields. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes measured by in situ diffusion chambers were significantly lower at the capped fields than at reference fields in the same fjord, reductions being largest for the limestone (50-90%) followed by clay (50-70%), and the AC + clay (60%). Also reductions in overlying aqueous PCDD/F concentrations measured by passive samplers were significant in most cases (20-40% reduction), probably because of the large size of the trial fields. The AC was less effective in the field than in the laboratory, probably due to prolonged sediment-to-AC mass transfer times for PCDD/Fs and field factors such as integrity of the cap, new deposition Of contaminated sediment particles, and bioturbation. The present field data indicate that slightly thicker layers of limestone and dredged clay can show as good physicochemical effectiveness as thin caps of AC mixed with clay, at least for PCDD/Fs during the first two years after cap placement.

  • 19.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Naes, Kristoffer
    Freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations in the Frierfjord, Norway: comparing equilibrium passive sampling with ""active"" water sampling2010Inngår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 162-171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 55-A mu m polyoxymethylene (POM) and 170-A mu m polydimethylsiloxane were tested for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) in the pore water and overlying water of the Frierfjord, a bay in southern Norway. This fjord is heavily polluted with PCDD/Fs due to emissions from a former Mg smelter. Field exposures of both equilibrium passive sampler types yielded similar results for freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations (C (W,free)) in the overlying water. In addition, the passive sampling data deviated less than an order of magnitude from C (W,free) obtained with conventional ""active"" sampling through pumping/filtration over glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam. A similar comparison was done for the pore water, where POM passive samplers also proved to yield freely dissolved pore water concentrations (C (PW,free)) that deviated less than an order of magnitude from earlier published values measured by direct pore water extraction. The data were also used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. High sediment-to-water activity ratios (median value of 160 for 17 congeners) indicated a strong diffusion gradient between the sediment pore water and the overlying water, probably due to deposition of particle-bound PCDD/Fs in combination with low sedimentation rates.

  • 20.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Krusa, Marie Elmquist
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Eek, Espen
    Oen, Amy M. P.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Raymond, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Hedman, Jenny E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Stokland, Oystein
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Systemekologiska institutionen.
    Remediation of Contaminated Marine Sediment Using Thin-Layer Capping with Activated Carbon-A Field Experiment in Trondheim Harbor, Norway2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 14, s. 6110-6116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ amendment of contaminated sediments using activated carbon (AC) is a recent remediation technique, where the strong sorption of contaminants to added AC reduces their release from sediments and uptake into organisms. The current study describes a marine underwater field pilot study in Trondheim harbor, Norway, in which powdered AC alone or in combination with sand or clay was tested as a thin-layer capping material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated sediment. Several novel elements were included, such as measuring PAH fluxes, no active mixing of AC into the sediment, and the testing of new manners of placing a thin AC cap on sediment, such as AC+clay and AC+sand combinations. Innovative chemical and biological monitoring methods were deployed to test capping effectiveness. In situ sediment-to-water PAH fluxes were measured using recently developed benthic flux chambers. Compared to the reference field, AC capping reduced fluxes by a factor of 2-10. Pore water PAH concentration profiles were measured in situ using anew passive sampler technique, and yielded a reduction factor of 2-3 compared to the reference field. The benthic macrofauna composition and biodiversity were affected by the AC amendments, AC + clay having a lower impact on the benthic taxa than AC-only or AC + sand. In addition, AC + clay gave the highest AC recoveries (60% vs 30% for AC-only and AC + sand) and strongest reductions in sediment-to-water PAH fluxes and porewater concentrations. Thus, application of an AC-clay mixture is recommended as the optimal choice of the currently tested thin-layer capping methods for PAHs, and more research on optimizing its implementation is needed.

  • 21.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Okkenhaug, Gudny
    Breedveld, Gijsbert D.
    Sorlie, Jan-Erik
    Transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in a landfill: A novel equilibrium passive sampler to determine free and total dissolved concentrations in leachate water2009Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 369, nr 04-mar, s. 253-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Equilibrium passive sampling devices consisting of 17-mu m thick polyoxymethylene (POM) were in situ deployed as a novel technique for landfill groundwater leachate water sampling of freely dissolved poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). POM was deployed in two groundwater leachate wells (flow around 100 m y(-1)) and an effluent leachate tank. The dissipation of >90% of spiked performance reference compounds and comparison between 60 d and 140 d of equilibration confirmed that POM-water equilibrium was reached for all PAHs and most PCBs within 60 d. Comparison of total and freely dissolved concentrations yielded dissolved organic carbon-water distribution ratios that were on average 0.4 log-unit below amorphous organic carbon-water distribution ratios and in accordance with literature values. Particle-bound fractions ranged from 50% (small PAHs) to 99.9% (large PCBs), and were >95% for most compounds. It was concluded that POM-17 equilibrium passive samplers provide a facile method to measure freely dissolved concentrations of PAH and PCB in groundwater leachate, which will yield valuable information on its ecotoxicological risk for aquatic and benthic organisms. 

  • 22.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). US Geol Survey, Denver, CO 80225 USA.
    Rutherford, David W.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Dorsch, Peter
    Kelly, Charlene N.
    Rostad, Colleen E.
    Sorption of Pure N2O to Biochars and Other Organic and Inorganic Materials under Anhydrous Conditions2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 14, s. 7704-7712Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Suppression of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil is commonly observed after amendment with biochar. The mechanisms accounting for this suppression are not yet understood. One possible contributing mechanism is N2O sorption to biochar. The sorption of N2O and carbon dioxide (CO2) to four biochars was measured in an anhydrous system with pure N2O. The biochar data were compared to those for two activated carbons and other components potentially present in soils-uncharred pine wood and peat-and five inorganic metal oxides with variable surface areas. Langmuir maximum sorption capacities (Q(max)) for N2O on the pine wood biochars (generated between 250 and 500 degrees C) and activated carbons were 17-73 cm(3) g(-1) at 20 degrees C (median 51 cm(3) g(-1)), with Langmuir affinities (b) of 2-5 atm(-1) (median 3.4 atm(-1)). Both Q(max) and b of the charred materials were substantially higher than those for peat, uncharred wood, and metal oxides [Q(max) 1-34 cm(3) g(-1) (median 7 cm(3) g(-1)); b 0.4-1.7 atm(-1) (median 0.7 atm(-1))]. This indicates that biochar can bind N2O more strongly than both mineral and organic soil materials. Q(max) and b for CO2 were comparable to those for N2O. Modeled sorption coefficients obtained with an independent polyparameterlinear free-energy relationship matched measured data within a factor 2 for mineral surfaces but underestimated by a factor of 5-24 for biochar and carbonaceous surfaces. Isosteric enthalpies of sorption of N2O were mostly between -20 and -30 kJ mol(-1), slightly more exothermic than enthalpies of condensation (-16.1 kJ mol(-1)). Q(max) of N2O on biochar (50000-130000 mu g g(-1) biochar at 20 degrees C) exceeded the N2O emission suppressions observed in the literature (range 0.5-960 mu g g(-1) biochar; median 16 mu g g(-1)) by several orders of magnitude. Thus, the hypothesis could not be falsified that sorption of N2O to biochar is a mechanism of N2O emission suppression.

  • 23.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Schaanning, Morten
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Eek, Espen
    A large-scale field trial of thin-layer capping of PCDD/F-contaminated sediments: Sediment-to-water fluxes up to 5 years post-amendment2016Inngår i: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 12, nr 2, s. 216-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The longer-term effect (3-5 y) of thin-layer capping on in situ sediment-to-surface water fluxes was monitored in a large-scale field experiment in the polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) contaminated Grenlandfjords, Norway (4 trial plots of 10000 to 40000 m(2) at 30 to 100 m water depth). Active caps (designed thickness 2.5 cm) were established in 2 fjords, consisting of dredged clean clay amended with powdered activated carbon (PAC) from anthracite. These active caps were compared to 2 nonactive caps in one of the fjords (designed thickness 5 cm) consisting of either clay only (i.e., without PAC) or crushed limestone. Sediment-to-water PCDD/F fluxes were measured in situ using diffusion chambers. An earlier study showed that during the first 2 years after thin-layer capping, flux reductions relative to noncapped reference fields were more extensive at the fields capped with nonactive caps (70%-90%) than at the ones with PAC-containing caps (50%-60%). However, the present work shows that between 3 and 5 years after thin-layer capping, this trend was reversed and cap effectiveness in reducing fluxes was increasing to 80% to 90% for the PAC caps, whereas cap effectiveness of the nonactive caps decreased to 20% to 60%. The increasing effectiveness over time of PAC-containing active caps is explained by a combination of slow sediment-to-PAC mass transfer of PCDD/Fs and bioturbation by benthic organisms. The decreasing effectiveness of nonactive limestone and clay caps is explained by deposition of contaminated particles on top of the caps. The present field data indicate that the capping efficiency of thin active caps (i.e., enriched with PAC) can improve over time as a result of slow diffusive PCDD/F transfer from sediment to PAC particles and better mixing of the PAC by bioturbation. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:216-221.

  • 24.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Broman, Dag
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Persson, Ylva
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Jonsson, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Freely Dissolved Concentrations and Sediment-Water Activity Ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the Open Baltic Sea2008Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 42, nr 23, s. 8733-8739Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aqueous concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the open sea have heretofore been measured by filtering. and extracting large amounts of water. Measurement of freely dissolved concentrations with this technique is difficult because of corrections for sorption to dissolved organic matter. In this study we use a novel, more economic technique using equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 17-mu m thin polyoxymethylene (POM-17), capable of measuring freely dissolved aqueous concentrations (C-W) in pristine (i.e., background) locations. POM-17 was employed in an extensive field campaign at five stations in the open Baltic sea to obtain C-W at two depths (1 m above the seafloor and 25 m below the surface). Median C-W in the overlying water was 2.3 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/m(3) PCDD/Fs and 15 pg/L sum 7-PCB, with generally less than a factor two variation among sites and depths. Also freely dissolved concentrations of native compounds in the surface sediment porewater (C-PW) were determined in laboratory batch experiments. The data were used to derive sediment-water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. It was found that the PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in close equilibrium between the sediment porewater and the overlying water. Comparison of C-PW with total sediment concentrations indicated that more than 90% of the compounds were sorbed to sedimentary black carbon.

  • 25. Eek, Espen
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Field Measurement of Diffusional Mass Transfer of HOCs at the Sediment-Water Interface2010Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, nr 17, s. 6752-6759Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sediment to water diffusive flux of PAHs and PCBs was measured under field conditions with a novel infinite-sink benthic flux chamber that deployed semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) as a sorbing material. Fluxes were measured before and after in situ capping of sediments in Oslo Harbour with clean clay. The fluxes of native pyrene and PCB 52 from uncapped contaminated sediment measured with the flux chamber were 0.3-1.6 mu g m(-2) d(-1) and 2-8 ng m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Fluxes from the capped sediment were reduced by 93-97%. The in situ measured fluxes were compared to fluxes independently calculated from freely dissolved concentrations in pore water and overlying water, measured using equilibrium passive samplers, diffusive boundary layer (DBL) thickness, measured by an alabaster dissolution method and literature values of diffusion coefficients. Measured fluxes from the uncapped sediment agreed well with calculated fluxes, the median of the ratio of the measured flux over the calculated flux was 0.9 with an inter quartile range of 0.5-1.6.

  • 26. Enell, Anja
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Wik, Ola
    Berggren Kleja, Dan
    Combining Leaching and Passive Sampling To Measure the Mobility and Distribution between Porewater, DOC, and Colloids of Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in Historically Contaminated Soil2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 21, s. 11797-11805Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods to quantify soil porewater concentrations of contaminants will provide different types of information. Passive sampling measurements give freely dissolved porewater concentrations (C-pw,C-free), while leaching tests provide information on the mobile concentration (C-pw,C-leach), including contaminants associated with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particles/colloids in the porewater. This study presents a novel combination of these two measurements, to study the sorption and mobility of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) to DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) in 10 historically contaminated soils. The PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs, and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs. Observed C-pw,C-leach was up to 5 orders of magnitude higher than C-pw,C-free; implying large biases when C-pw,C-leach is used to assess bioavailability or soil partitioning. Sorption of PACs to DOC and POC was important for the mobility of compounds with log K-OW > 4. Average DOC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-DOC) correlated well with KOW (log K-DOC = 0.89 x log K-OW +1.03 (r(2) = 0.89)). This relationship is likely more accurate for historically contaminated soils than previously published data, which suffer from artifacts caused by problems in measuring C-pw,C-free correctly or not using historically contaminated soils. POC/water-partitioning coefficients (K-POC) were orders of magnitude larger than corresponding K-DOC, suggesting sorption to mobile particles/colloids is the dominant mechanism for PAC mobility.

  • 27. Ghosh, Upal
    et al.
    Luthy, Richard G.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Werner, David
    Menzie, Charles A.
    In-situ Sorbent Amendments: A New Direction in Contaminated Sediment Management2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 1163-1168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28. Hale, S. E.
    et al.
    Alling, V.
    Martinsen, V.
    Mulder, J.
    Breedveld, G. D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    The sorption and desorption of phosphate-P, ammonium-N and nitrate-N in cacao shell and corn cob biochars2013Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 91, nr 11, s. 1612-1619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of PO4-P, NH4-N and NO3-N to cacao shell and corn cob biochars produced at 300-350 degrees C was quantified. The biochars were used; (i) as received (unwashed), (ii) after rinsing with Millipore water and (iii) following leaching with Millipore water. In addition to sorption, desorption of PO4-P from the unwashed biochars was quantified. There was no sorption of PO4-P to either washed or rinsed biochars, but following leaching, both biochars adsorbed PO4-P and distribution coefficients (K-d L kg(-1)) were very similar for both materials (10(1.1 +/- 0.5) for cacao shell biochar and 10(1.0 +/- 0.2) for corn cob biochar). The BET surface area and micropore volume increased 80% and 60% for the cacao shell and corn cob biochars following leaching. After 60 d, 1483 +/- 45 mg kg(-1) and 172 +/- 1 mg kg PO4-P was released from the cacao shell and corn cob biochars. NH4-N was sorbed by both unwashed biochars, albeit weakly with K-d values around 10(2) L kg(-1). We speculate that NH4-N could bind via an electrostatic exchange with other cationic species on the surface of the biochar. There was no significant release or sorption of NO3-N from or to either of the biochars.

  • 29. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Kupryianchyk, Darya
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    A synthesis of parameters related to the binding of neutral organic compounds to charcoal2016Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 65-74Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption strength of neutral organic compounds to charcoal, also called biochar was reviewed and related to charcoal and compound properties. From 29 studies, 507 individual Freundlich sorption.coefficients were compiled that covered the sorption strength of 107 organic contaminants. These sorption coefficients were converted into charcoal-water distribution coefficients (K-D) at aqueous concentrations of 1 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 1 mg/L. Reported log K-D values at 1 mu g/L varied from 0.38 to 8.25 across all data. Variation was also observed within the compound classes; pesticides, herbicides and insecticides, PAHs, phthalates, halogenated organics, small organics, alcohols and PCBs. Five commonly reported variables; charcoal production temperature T, surface area SA, H/C and 0/C ratios and organic compound octanolwater partitioning coefficient, were correlated with K-D values using single and multiple-parameter linear regressions. The sorption strength of organic compounds to charcoals increased with increasing charcoal production temperature T, charcoal SA and organic pollutant octanol-water partitioning coefficient and decreased with increasing charcoal O/C ratio and charcoal H/C ratio. T was found to be correlated with SA (r(2) = 0.66) and O/C (r(2) = 0.50), particularly for charcoals produced from wood feedstocks (r2 = 0.73 and 0.80, respectively). The resulting regression: log K-D = (0.18 +/- 0.06) log K-ow + (5.74 +/- 1.40) log T + (0.85 +/- 0.15) log SA + (1.60 +/- 0.29) log OC + (-0.89 +/- 0.20) log HC + (-13.20 +/- 3.69), r(2) = 0.60, root mean squared error = 0.95, n = 151 was obtained for all variables. This information can be used as an initial screening to identify charcoals for contaminated soil and sediment remediation.

  • 30. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Comment on "Partition Coefficients of Organic Contaminants with Carbohydrates2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 1158-1158Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Endo, Satoshi
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Zimmerman, Andrew R.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Sorption of the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and limonene to carbonaceous geosorbents including biochar2015Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 119, s. 881-888Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sorption of two monoterpenes, alpha pinene and limonene to the carbonaceous geosorbents graphite, bituminous coal, lignite coke, biochar and Pahokee peat was quantified. Polyethylene (PE) passive samplers were calibrated for the first time for these compounds by determining the PE-water partitioning coefficients and used as a tool to determine sorption to the carbonaceous geosorbents. Log KPE-water values were 3.49 +/- 0.58 for alpha pinene and 4.08 +/- 0.27 for limonene. The sorption of limonene to all materials was stronger than that for a pinene (differences of 0.2-13 log units between distribution coefficients for the monoterpenes). Placing K-d values in increasing order for a pinene gave biochar approximate to Pahokee peat approximate to bituminous coal approximate to lignite coke < graphite. For limonene the order was: Pahokee peat approximate to biochar approximate to bituminous coal < graphite approximate to lignite coke. Micropore (defined as pores <1.5 nm) and nanopore surface area (defined as pores 1.5 nm to 50 nm) normalised carbonaceous geosorbent-water distribution coefficients were also calculated. There was no clear correlation of these distribution coefficients with SA. Elemental composition was used to assess the degree of condensation (or alteration) of the carbonaceous geosorbents. The degree of carbonisation increased in the order; Pahokee peat < lignite coke < bituminous coal < biochar < graphite, however this was not correlated with an increase in the experimental distribution coefficients.

  • 32. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Hanley, Kelly
    Lehmann, Johannes
    Zimmerman, Andrew R.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Effects of Chemical, Biological, and Physical Aging As Well As Soil Addition on the Sorption of Pyrene to Activated Carbon and Biochar2011Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, nr 24, s. 10445-10453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the suitability of biochar and activated carbon (AC) for contaminated soil remediation is investigated by determining the sorption of pyrene to both materials in the presence and absence of soil and before as well as after aging. Biochar and AC were aged either alone or mixed with soil via exposure to (a) nutrients and microorganisms (biological), (b) 60 and 110 degrees C (chemical), and (c) freeze-thaw cycles (physical). Before and after aging, the pH, elemental composition, cation exchange capacity (CEC), microporous SA, and sorption isotherms of pyrene were quantified. Aging at 110 degrees C altered the physicochemical properties of all materials to the greatest extent (for example, pH increased by up to three units and CEC by up to 50% for biochar). Logarithmic K(Fr) values ranged from 7.80 to 8.21 (ng kg(-1)) (ng L(-1))(-nF) for AC and 5.22 to 6.21 (ng kg(-1))(ng L(-1))(-nF) for biochar after the various aging regimes. Grinding biochar to a smaller particle size did not significantly affect the sorption of d(10) pyrene, implying that sorption processes operate on the subparticle scale. Chemical aging decreased the sorption of pyrene to the greatest extent (up to 1.8 log unit for the biochar+soil). The sorption to AC was affected more by the presence of soil than the sorption to biochar was. Our results suggest that AC and biochar have a high sorption capacity for pyrene that is maintained both in the presence of soil and during harsh aging. Both materials could therefore be considered in contaminated land remediation.

  • 33. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Jensen, John
    Jakob, Lena
    Oleszczuk, Patryk
    Hartnik, Thomas
    Henriksen, Thomas
    Okkenhaug, Gudny
    Martinsen, Vegard
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Short-Term Effect of the Soil Amendments Activated Carbon, Biochar, and Ferric Oxyhydroxide on Bacteria and Invertebrates2013Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, nr 15, s. 8674-8683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the secondary ecotoxicological effects of soil amendment materials that can be added to contaminated soils in order to sequester harmful pollutants. To this end, a nonpolluted agricultural soil was amended with 0.5, 2, and 5% of the following four amendments: powder activated carbon (PAC), granular activated carbon, corn stover biochar, and ferric oxyhydroxide powder, which have previously been proven to sequester pollutants in soil. The resulting immediate effects (i.e., without aging the mixtures before carrying out tests) on the springtail Folsomia candida, the earthworm species Aporectodea caliginosa and Eisenia fetida, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri, a suite of ten prokaryotic species, and a eukaryote (the yeast species Pichia anomalia) were investigated. Reproduction of F. candida was significantly increased compared to the unamended soil when 2% biochar was added to it. None of the treatments caused a negative effect on reproduction. All amendments had a deleterious effect on the growth of A. caliginosa when compared to the unamended soil, except the 0.5% amendment of biochar. In avoidance tests, E. fetida preferred biochar compared to all other amendments including the unamended soil. All amendments reduced the inhibition of luminescence to V. fischeri, i.e., were beneficial for the bacteria, with PAC showing the greatest improvement. The effects of the amendments on the suite of prokaryotic species and the eukaryote were variable, but overall the 2% biochar dose provided the most frequent positive effect on growth. It is concluded that the four soil amendments had variable but never strongly deleterious effects on the bacteria and invertebrates studied here during the respective recommended experimental test periods.

  • 34. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Lehmann, Johannes
    Rutherford, David
    Zimmerman, Andrew R.
    Bachmann, Robert T.
    Shitumbanuma, Victor
    O'Toole, Adam
    Sundqvist, Kristina L.
    Arp, Hans Peter H.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Quantifying the Total and Bioavailable Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Dioxins in Biochars2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 2830-2838Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochar soil amendment is advocated to mitigate climate change and improve soil fertility. A concern though, is that during biochar preparation PAHs and dioxins are likely formed. These contaminants can possibly be present in the biochar matrix and even bioavailable to exposed organisms. Here we quantify total and bioavailable PAHs and dioxins in a suite of over 50 biochars produced via slow pyrolysis between 250 and 900 degrees C, using various methods and biomass from tropical, boreal, and temperate areas. These slow pyrolysis biochars, which can be produced locally on farms with minimum resources, are also compared to biochar produced using the industrial methods of fast pyrolysis and gasification. Total concentrations were measured with a Soxhlet extraction and bioavailable concentrations were measured with polyoxymethylene passive samplers. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 0.07 mu g g(-1) to 3.27 mu g g(-1) for the slow pyrolysis biochars and were dependent on biomass source, pyrolysis temperature, and time. With increasing pyrolysis time and temperature, PAH concentrations generally decreased. These total concentrations were below existing environmental quality standards for concentrations of PAHs in soils. Total PAH concentrations in the fast pyrolysis and gasification biochar were 0.3 mu g g(-1) and 45 mu g g(-1), respectively, with maximum levels exceeding some quality standards. Concentrations of bioavailable PAHs in slow pyrolysis biochars ranged from 0.17 ng L-1 to 10.0 ng L-1 which is lower than concentrations reported for relatively clean urban sediments. The gasification produced biochar sample had the highest bioavailable concentration (162 +/- 71 ng L-1). Total dioxin concentrations were low (up to 92 mu g g(-1)) and bioavailable concentrations were below the analytical limit of detection. No clear pattern of how strongly PAHs were bound to different biochars was found based on the biochars' physicochemical properties.

  • 35. Hale, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Oen, Amy M. P.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Jonker, Michiel T. O.
    Waarum, Ivar-Kristian
    Eek, Espen
    The role of passive sampling in monitoring the environmental impacts of produced water discharges from the Norwegian oil and gas industry2016Inngår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 111, nr 1-2, s. 33-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stringent and periodic iteration of regulations related to the monitoring of chemical releases from the offshore oil and gas industry requires the use of ever changing, rapidly developing and technologically advancing techniques. Passive samplers play an important role in water column monitoring of produced water (PW) discharge to sea-water under Norwegian regulation, where they are used to; i) measure aqueous concentrations of pollutants, ii) quantify the exposure of caged organisms and investigate PW dispersal, and iii) validate dispersal models. This article summarises current Norwegian water column monitoring practice and identifies research and methodological gaps for the use of passive samplers in monitoring. The main gaps are; i) the range of passive samplers used should be extended, ii) differences observed in absolute concentrations accumulated by passive samplers and organisms should be understood, and iii) the link between PW discharge concentrations and observed acute and sub-lethal ecotoxicological end points in organisms should be investigated.

  • 36. Hansen, Mona C.
    et al.
    Borresen, Marion H.
    Schlabach, Martin
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Sorption of perfluorinated compounds from contaminated water to activated carbon2010Inngår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 179-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFC) are toxic and bioaccumulative compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment. It is important to develop effective techniques to remove PFC from water. This study is the first to investigate sorption of PFC to activated carbon (AC) at environmentally relevant nanogram per liter concentrations. Batch AC sorption isotherms were measured for water from a contaminated groundwater well, for three perfluorosulfonates and five perfluoroacetic acids. For perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid Freundlich sorption coefficients, log K (iF), for powdered activated carbon (PAC) were 4.0 and 3.8 (ng/g)(ng/L)(-n) , respectively, and for granular activated carbon (GAC) were 2.7 and 2.3 (ng/g)(ng/L)(-n) , respectively. Sorption was nonlinear, with Freundlich n coefficients generally around 0.5. The K (iF) on both GAC and PAC were PFC chain-length dependant, with increasing number of carbon yielding increasing K (iF). This chain-length dependence appeared stronger for perfluorosulfonates than for perfluoroacetic acids. Tests with short (10 min) adsorption times still yielded substantial PFC removal (20-40% for GAC, 60-90% for PAC) and revealed that AC is probably suitable for PFC removal in flow-through systems. A perfluorinated polymer, Teflon, was also tested as a PFC removal agent but proved not to be effective for PFC-contaminated water purification.

  • 37. Hilber, Isabel
    et al.
    Bastos, Ana Catarina
    Loureiro, Susana
    Soja, Gerhard
    Marsz, Aleksandra
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NGI, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Bucheli, Thomas D.
    THE DIFFERENT FACES OF BIOCHAR: CONTAMINATION RISK VERSUS REMEDIATION TOOL2017Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, ISSN 1648-6897, E-ISSN 1822-4199, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 86-104Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the different aspects of biochar as source and sink of organic and inorganic contaminants. Biochar can contain organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or heavy metals. As the distribution coefficients of the biochar especially for contaminants are high, the freely dissolved concentrations are low and with that also the bioavailability. The link between biochar's inherent contaminants and toxicity to soil meso- and macro-fauna remains unclear, with data being often contradictory and influenced by feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. The biochar's potential to remediate contaminated soils has mainly been addressed in lab studies, but rarely in the field. This far, results have been contradicting. Many studies reported successful immobilization of contaminants but some not. In summary, the ambivalent face of the biochar with regard to contaminants prevails. In future, long term field studies are needed to properly address the sustainability of biochar in this respect.

  • 38. Hilber, Isabel
    et al.
    Mayer, Philipp
    Gouliarmou, Varvara
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NGI, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Schmidt, Hans-Peter
    Bucheli, Thomas D.
    Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from (post-pyrolytically treated) biochars2017Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 174, s. 700-707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioaccessibility data of PAHs from biochar produced under real world conditions is scarce and the influence of feedstock and various post-pyrolysis treatments common in agriculture, such as co composting or lacto-fermentation to produce silage fodder, on their bioavailability and bioaccessibility has hardly been studied. The total (C-total), and freely dissolved (i.e., bioavailable) concentrations (C-free) of the sum of 16 US EPA PAHs of 43 biochar samples produced and treated in such ways ranged from 0.4 to almost 2000 mg/kg, and from 12 to 81 ng/L, respectively, which resulted in very high biochar-water partition coefficients (4.2 < log K-D < 8.8 L/kg) for individual PAHs. Thirty three samples were incubated in contaminant traps that combined a diffusive carrier and a sorptive sink. Incubations yielded samples only containing desorption-resistant PAHs (C-res). The desorption resistant PAH fraction was dominant, since only eight out of 33 biochar samples showed statistically significant bioaccessible fractions (f(bioaccessible) = 1 - C-res/C-total). Bioavailability correlated positively with C-total/surface area. Other relationships of bioavailability and accessibility with the investigated post-pyrolysis processes or elemental composition could not be found. PAH exposure was very limited (low C-free, high C-res) for all samples with low to moderate C-total whereas higher exposure was determined in some biochars with C-total > 10 mg/kg.

  • 39. Jakob, Lena
    et al.
    Hartnik, Thomas
    Henriksen, Thomas
    Elmquist, Marie
    Brandli, Rahel C.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    PAH-sequestration capacity of granular and powder activated carbon amendments in soil, and their effects on earthworms and plants2012Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, nr 6, s. 699-705Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A field lysimeter study was carried out to investigate whether the amendment of 2% powder and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC) to a soil with moderate PAH contamination had an impact on the PAH bioaccumulation of earthworms and plants, since AC is known to be a strong sorbent for organic pollutants. Furthermore, secondary effects of AC on plants and earthworms were studied through growth and nutrient uptake, and survival and weight gain. Additionally, the effect of AC amendments on soil characteristics like pH, water holding capacity, and the water retention curve of the soil were investigated. Results show that the amendment of 2% PAC had a negative effect on plant growth while the GAC increased the growth rate of plants. PAC was toxic to earthworms, demonstrated by a significant weight loss, while the results for GAC were less clear due to ambiguous results of a field and a parallel laboratory study. Both kinds of AC significantly reduced biota to soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of PAHs in earthworms and plants. The GAC reduced the BSAFs of earthworms by an average of 47 +/- 44% and the PAC amendment reduced them by 72 +/- 19%. For the investigated plants the BSAFs were reduced by 46 +/- 36% and 53 +/- 22% by the GAC and PAC, respectively.

  • 40. Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Karlsson, O. Magnus
    Malmaeus, J. Mikael
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Wiberg, Karin
    Structure-related distribution of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and HCB in a river-sea system2011Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 83, nr 2, s. 85-94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water concentrations of PCDD/Fs, HCB, and non-ortho, mono-ortho, and non-dioxin-like PCBs were measured four times during 1 year in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea, to investigate background levels and distribution behaviour. Sampling sites included two rivers, an estuary, and the sea. Particulate and apparently dissolved concentrations were determined using active sampling (filters + PUFs), while freely dissolved concentrations were determined using passive sampling (POM-samplers). The distribution between particulate + colloidal and freely dissolved phases, in the form of TOC-normalized distribution ratios (K(roc)), was found to be near or at equilibrium. The observed Kroc were not significantly different between sampling sites or seasons. For PCDD/Fs, the concentrations were significantly correlated to suspended particulate matter (SPM), while no correlation to organic carbon (TOC) was observed. In the estuary and the sea, PCB concentrations were correlated to TOC. The sorption of various congeners to SPM and TOC appeared to be related to both hydrophobicity and 3D-structure. The PCDD/F concentration in the sea decreased to one third in May, likely connected to the increased vertical flux of particles during the spring bloom.

  • 41.
    Josko, Izabela
    et al.
    Marie Curie Sklodowska Univ, Dept Environm Chem, PL,Lublin, Poland.
    Oleszczuk, Patryk
    Marie Curie Sklodowska Univ, Dept Environm Chem, PL, Lublin, Poland.
    Pranagal, Jacek
    Univ Life Sci, Inst Soil Sci & Environm Engn Management, PL, Lublin, Poland.
    Lehmann, Johannes
    Cornell Univ, Dept Crop & Soil Sci, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Xing, Baoshan
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Plant Soil & Insect Sci, Amherst, MA, USA.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotech Inst NGI, Dept Environm Engn, Oslo, Norway.
    Effect of biochars, activated carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes on phytotoxicity of sediment contaminated by inorganic and organic pollutants2013Inngår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 60, s. 50-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the risk related with the presence of contaminants in sediments, methods based on the use of adsorbents (mainly activated carbon) are applied. Adsorbents neutralise the contaminants by reducing their mobility, bioavailability and toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the toxicity of sediment contaminated with organic compounds and heavy metals with and without the addition of selected adsorbents. In the study three carbonaceous materials (CM) potentially useful in remediation were applied: activated carbon (AC), biochars (BC1, BC2), and multi- walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The effect of the dose, particle diameter and time of contact between sediment and CM on the effectiveness of the detoxification were estimated. Ecotoxicological assessment was made based on the Phytotoxkit FTM test, using Lepidium sativum as the test plant. The materials tested reduced the negative effect of sediment on L. sativum. The highest effectiveness was achieved after the application of AC (70% reduction of seed germination inhibition, 27.5% reduction of root growth inhibition). The reduction of phytotoxicity of the sediment as a result of addition of BC1, BC2 and CNT varied within the range from 30 to 40% (reduction of seed germination inhibition) and from 17.7 to 28.9% (reduction of root growth inhibition). The reduction of sediment toxicity decreased with decreasing diameter of the biochars applied. Probably because of increasing fouling extension of the time of contact between CM and sediment had an unfavourable effect on the reduction of root growth inhibition in the case of all materials tested.

  • 42. Kerré, B.
    et al.
    Bravo, C. T.
    Leifeld, J.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Smolders, E.
    Historical soil amendment with charcoal increases sequestration of non-charcoal carbon: a comparison among methods of black carbon quantification2016Inngår i: European Journal of Soil Science, ISSN 1351-0754, E-ISSN 1365-2389, Vol. 67, nr 3, s. 324-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have shown previously that soil with historical (>150 years) applications of charcoal had larger recent (C4-maize derived) carbon content than adjacent soil; however, we could not determine whether there was an effect on older, C3-plant-derived, soil organic carbon (SOC). Therefore, we assessed the effect of historical additions of charcoal on the sequestration of recent and older SOC with a combination of delta C-13 analysis and different quantification techniques for black carbon (BC): dichromate oxidation (Cr2O7), chemo-thermal oxidation (CTO-285) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Topsoils cropped with maize (Zea mays) under former charcoal production sites (N = 12) were identified in the field as black spots and had a larger (3.5%, P < 0.05) percentage of organic carbon (OC) contents than adjacent soil outside these spots (2.0%). The charcoal content varied with the detection technique used as follows: CTO-285 > DSC > Cr2O7. Black spots contained 1.6-1.7 times more (P < 0.05) maize-derived OC content than adjacent soil, irrespective of the BC quantification technique. The content of non-charcoal OC was 1.0-1.4 times larger in black spots than in adjacent soil, but differences were significant only for the Cr2O7 method. Soil physicochemical fractionation showed that at charcoal production sites more OC was recovered in the particulate organic matter and silt and clay fractions. The delta C-13 analysis suggested that additional maize-OC in black spots was in the physically more protected silt and clay fraction. Overall, this study shows that historical charcoal amendment in soil enhances the accumulation of recent maize-derived OC in a temperate climate without replacing the older C stocks.

  • 43. Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Treatment of sites contaminated with perfluorinated compounds using biochar amendment2016Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 142, s. 35-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and polyfiuorinated compounds (PFCs) have been attracting increasing attention due to their considerable persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Here, we studied the sorption behavior of three PFCs, viz. perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanecarboxylic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), on one activated carbon (AC) and two biochars from different feedstocks, viz, mixed wood (MW) and paper mill waste (PMW). In addition, we explored the potential of remediating three natively PFC contaminated soils by the addition of AC or biochar. The sorption coefficient i.e. Freundlich coefficients LogK(F), (mu g/kg)/(mu g/L)(n), for the two biochars were 4.61 +/- 0.11 and 4.41 +/- 0.05 for PFOS, 3.02 +/- 0.04 and 3.01 +/- 0.01 for PFOA, and 3.21 +/- 0.07 and 3.18 +/- 0.03 for PFHxS, respectively. The AC sorbed the PFCs so strongly that aqueous concentrations were reduced to below detection limits, implying that the LogK(F) values were above 5.60. Sorption capacities decreased in the order: AC > MW > PMW, which was consistent with the material's surface area and pore size distribution. PFC sorption to MW biochar was near-linear (Freundlich exponent n(F) of 0.87-0.90), but non-linear for PMW biochar (0.64-0.73). Addition of the AC to contaminated soils resulted in almost complete removal of PFCs from the water phase and a significant (i.e. 1-3 Log unit) increase in soil-water distribution coefficient LogK(d). However, small to no reduction in pore water concentration, and no effect on LogK(d) was found for the biochars. We conclude that amendment with AC but not biochar can be a useful method for in situ remediation of PFC-contaminated soils.

  • 44. Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Hale, Sarah
    Zimmerman, Andrew R.
    Harvey, Omar
    Rutherford, David
    Abiven, Samuel
    Knicker, Heike
    Schmidt, Hans-Peter
    Rumpel, Cornelia
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds to a diverse suite of carbonaceous materials with emphasis on biochar2016Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, s. 879-887Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonaceous materials like biochars are increasingly recognized as effective sorbent materials for sequestering organic pollutants. Here, we study sorption behavior of two common hydrophobic organic contaminants 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB52) and phenanthrene (PHE), on biochars and other carbonaceous materials (CM) produced at a wide range of conditions and temperatures from various feedstocks. The primary aim was to establish structure-reactivity relationships responsible for the observed variation in CM and biochar sorption characteristics. CM were characterized for their elemental composition, surface area, pore size distribution, aromaticity and thermal stability. Freundlich sorption coefficients for CB52 and PHE (i.e. LogK(F,CB52) and K-F,K-PHE, respectively) to CM showed a variation of two to three orders of magnitude, with LogK(F,CB52) ranging from 5.12 +/- 0.38 to 8.01 +/- 0.18 and LogK(F,PHE) from 5.18 +/- 0.09 to 7.42 +/- 1.09. The highest LogK(F) values were observed for the activated CM, however, non-activated biochars produced at high temperatures (>700 degrees C) sorbed almost as strongly (within 0.2-0.5 Log units) as the activated ones. Sorption coefficients significantly increased with pyrolysis temperature, CM surface area and pore volume, aromaticity, and thermal stability, and decreased with H/C, O/C, (O + N)/C content. The results of our study contribute to the understanding of processes underlying HOC sorption to CM and explore the potential of CM as engineered sorbents for environmental applications.

  • 45. Kupryianchyk, Darya
    et al.
    Rakowska, Magdalena I.
    Reible, Danny
    Harmsen, Joop
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    van Veggel, Marc
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Grotenhuis, Tim
    Koelmans, Albert A.
    Positioning Activated Carbon Amendment Technologies in a Novel Framework for Sediment Management2015Inngår i: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, ISSN 1551-3777, E-ISSN 1551-3793, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 221-234Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Contaminated sediments can pose serious threats to human health and the environment by acting as a source of toxic chemicals. The amendment of contaminated sediments with strong sorbents like activated C (AC) is a rapidly developing strategy to manage contaminated sediments. To date, a great deal of attention has been paid to the technical and ecological features and implications of sediment remediation with AC, although science in this field still is rapidly evolving. This article aims to provide an update on the recent literature on these features, and for the first time provides a comparison of sediment remediation with AC to other sediment management options, emphasizing their full-scale application. First, a qualitative overview of advantages and disadvantages of current alternatives to remediate contaminated sediments is presented. Subsequently, AC treatment technology is critically reviewed, including current understanding of the effectiveness and ecological safety for the use of AC in natural systems. Finally, this information is used to provide a novel framework for supporting decisions concerning sediment remediation and beneficial reuse.

  • 46. Manickam, Theeba
    et al.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Bachmann, Robert T.
    Ibrahim, Illani Z.
    Mulder, Jan
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Biochar Application in Malaysian Sandy and Acid Sulfate Soils: Soil Amelioration Effects and Improved Crop Production over Two Cropping Seasons2015Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 7, nr 12, s. 16756-16770Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biochar as an agricultural soil improvement was tested in acid sulfate and sandy soils from Malaysia, cropped with rice and corn. Malaysia has an abundance of waste rice husks that could be used to produce biochar. Rice husk biochar was produced in a gasifier at a local mill in Kelantan as well as in the laboratory using a controlled, specially designed, top lift up draft system (Belonio unit). Rice husk biochar was applied once to both soils at two doses (2% and 5%), in a pot set up that was carried out for two cropping seasons. Positive and significant crop yield effects were observed for both soils, biochars and crops. The yield effects varied with biochar type and dosage, with soil type and over the cropping seasons. The yield increases observed for the sandy soil were tentatively attributed to significant increases in plant-available water contents (from 4%-5% to 7%-8%). The yield effects in the acid sulfate soil were likely a consequence of a combination of (i) alleviation of plant root stress by aluminum (Ca/Al molar ratios significantly increased, from around 1 to 3-5) and (ii) increases in CEC. The agricultural benefits of rice husk biochar application to Malaysian soils holds promise for its future use.

  • 47. Martinsen, V.
    et al.
    Alling, V.
    Nurida, N. L.
    Mulder, J.
    Hale, S. E.
    Ritz, C.
    Rutherford, D. W.
    Heikens, A.
    Breedveld, G. D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils2015Inngår i: Soil science and plant nutrition (Tokyo), ISSN 0038-0768, E-ISSN 1747-0765, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 821-834Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil acidity may severely reduce crop production. Biochar (BC) may increase soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) but reported effects differ substantially. In a systematic approach, using a standardized protocol on a uniquely large number set of 31 acidic soils, we quantified the effect of increasing amounts (0-30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30tonsha(-1), the estimated increase in soil pH from the initial mean pH of 4.7 was about 0.5 units for the cacao shell BC, whereas this was only 0.05 and 0.04 units for the oil palm shell and rice husk BC, respectively. Besides depending on BC type, the increase in soil pH upon the addition of each of the three BCs was mainly dependent on soil CEC (low CEC resulting in stronger pH increase), and to a lesser extent on initial soil pH (higher initial pH resulting in stronger pH increase). Addition of BC also increased the amount of exchangeable base cations (cacao shell >> oil palm and rice husk) and CEC. Through this systematic screening of the effect of BC on pH and CEC of acidic soils, we show that a small addition of BC, in particular if made of cacao shell, to acidic agricultural soils increases soil pH and CEC. However, the response is highly dependent on the type, quality and amount of the added BC as well as on intrinsic soil properties, mainly CEC.

  • 48. Martinsen, Vegard
    et al.
    Mulder, Jan
    Shitumbanuma, Victor
    Sparrevik, Magnus
    Borresen, Trond
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    Farmer-led maize biochar trials: Effect on crop yield and soil nutrients under conservation farming2014Inngår i: Journal of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, ISSN 1436-8730, E-ISSN 1522-2624, Vol. 177, nr 5, s. 681-695Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In extensive farmer-led trials practicing conservation farming (CF) in three regions of Zambia (Mongu: sandy soils; Kaoma: sandy or loamy sand soils; Mkushi: sandy loam or loamy soils), we studied the effects of biochar made of maize cobs (0, 2, and 6 t ha(-1) corresponding to 0, 0.8, and 2.5% per basin) at different fertilizer rates of NPK and urea on crop yield of maize (Zea mays) and groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea). Conservation farming in this case combines minimum tillage (how basins), crop rotation and residue retention. For the first time, the effect of biochar on in situ soil nutrient supply rates [determined by buried Plant Root Simulator (PRS (TM)) exchange resins] was studied, as well as the effects of biochar on elemental composition of maize. Effects of 0-10% (w:w) biochar addition on soil physical and soil chemical properties were determined in the laboratory. At all sites there was a consistent positive response in crop yield upon the addition of biochar. However, due to a great variability between farms there were no significant differences in absolute yields between the treatments. In the sandy soils at Mongu, relative yields (i.e., percentage yield with biochar relative to the same fertilizer rate without biochar) of maize grains and maize stover were significantly increased at recommended fertilizer rates (232 +/- 60%) and at half the recommended rate (128 +/- 6%), respectively. In addition, biochar significantly increased concentrations of K and P in maize stover. In situ soil nutrient supply rates as measured by PRS (TM)-probes were highly spatially variable with no consistent effects of the different treatments in the three regions. By contrast, the fraction of plant available water (Vol.-%) significantly increased upon the addition of biochar in all three soils. The increase caused by 10% biochar addition was of factor 2.5 in Mongu (from 4.5% to 11.2%) and 1.2 in both Kaoma (from 14.7% to 18.2%) and Mkushi (from 18.2% to 22.7%). Cation exchange capacity, pH, and exchangeable K significantly increased upon the addition of 10% (w: w) biochar in all three regions with a subsequent increase in base saturation and decrease of available Al3+. Our findings suggest that the addition of biochar in combination with CF might have a positive impact on crop growth and that this positive effect is mainly caused by increases in plant-available water and decreased available Al.

  • 49. Mayer, Philipp
    et al.
    Hilber, Isabel
    Gouliarmou, Varvara
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM). Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NGI, Norway; Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway.
    Bucheli, Thomas D.
    How to Determine the Environmental Exposure of PAHs Originating from Biochar2016Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 1941-1948Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochars are obtained by pyrolyzing biomass materials and are increasingly used within the agricultural sector. Owing to the production process, biochars can contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the high mg/kg range, which makes the determination of the environmental exposure of PAHs originating from biochars relevant. However, PAH sorption to biochar is characterized by very high (10(4)-10(6) L/kg) or extreme distribution coefficients (K-D) (>10(6) L/kg), which makes the determination of exposure scientifically and technically challenging. Cyclodextrin extractions, sorptive bioaccessibility extractions, Tenax extractions, contaminant traps, and equilibrium sampling were assessed and selected methods used for the determination of bioavailability parameters for PAHs in two model biochars. Results showed that: (1) the K-D values of typically 10(6)-10(9) L/kg made the biochars often act as sinks, rather than sources, of PAHs. (2) Equilibrium sampling yielded freely dissolved concentrations (pg-ng/L range) that were below or near environmental background levels. (3) None of the methods were found to be suitable for the direct measurement of the readily desorbing fractions of PAHs (i.e., bioacessibility) in the two biochars. (4) The contaminant-trap method yielded desorption-resistant PAH fractions of typically 90-100%, implying bioaccessibility in the high mu g/kg to low mg/kg range.

  • 50. Meynet, Paola
    et al.
    Hale, Sarah E.
    Davenport, Russell J.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Breedveld, Gijs D.
    Werner, David
    Effect of activated carbon amendment on bacterial community structure and functions in a pah impacted urban soil2012Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, nr 9, s. 5057-5066Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We collected urban soil samples impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a sorbent-based remediation field trial to address concerns about unwanted side-effects of 2% powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) activated carbon amendment on soil microbiology and pollutant biodegradation. After three years, total microbial cell counts and respiration rates were highest in the GAC amended soil. The predominant bacterial community structure derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) shifted more strongly with time than in response to AC amendment. DGGE band sequencing revealed the presence of taxa with closest affiliations either to known PAR degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus jostii RHA-1, or taxa known to harbor PAR degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus erythropolis, in all soils. Quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction yielded similar dioxygenases gene copy numbers in unamended, PAC-, or GAC-amended soil. PAH availability assessments in batch tests showed the greatest difference of 75% with and without biocide addition for unamended soil, while the lowest PAH availability overall was measured in PAC-amended, live soil. We conclude that AC had no detrimental effects on soil microbiology, AC-amended soils retained the potential to biodegrade PAHs, but the removal of a available pollutants by biodegradation was most notable in unamended soil.

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