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  • 1. Alfvén, G.
    et al.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, A.
    Stressor, perceived stress and recurrent pain in Swedish schoolchildren2008Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 65, s. 381-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Skolan som social arena och elevers psykiska ohälsa2012Inngår i: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social relationships and subsequent health-related behaviours: linkages between adolescent peer status and levels of adult smoking in a Stockholm cohort2012Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, nr 3, s. 629-637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Peer status reflects the extent to which an individual is accepted by the group. Some studies have reported that low peer status in adolescence is associated with a higher risk of smoking, while others found the reverse. No studies have investigated peer status influences on adult smoking. The aim of the study was therefore to examine the relationship between adolescents' peer status and the intensity of smoking in adulthood.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Setting: Stockholm, Sweden.

    Participants: A subsample (n = 2329) of the cohort with information about adult smoking.

    Measurements: Peer status was assessed sociometrically at age 13 and information on smoking was gathered through a questionnaire at age 32. Relative risks (RR) for self-reported level of smoking were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Several family-related and individual variables were included as control variables.

    Findings: Lower peer status in adolescence was associated with smoking of any intensity in adulthood. For example, the risk of heavy smoking was more than threefold (RR = 3.67) among individuals in the lowest status positions. The association with occasional smoking was abolished by controlling for factors related to adolescents' attitude to school and cognitive ability. For regular and heavy smoking the relationship was attenuated by controlling for these factors.

    Conclusions: Low peer status in adolescence appears to be a risk factor for smoking in adulthood. Part of this association may be explained by adolescents' feelings towards school and cognitive ability. However, being unpopular in adolescence remains a strong risk factor for regular and heavy smoking in adulthood.

  • 4.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Friendship network characteristics and psychological well-being in late adolescence: Exploring differences by gender and gender composition2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 2, s. 146-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between friendship networks and psychological well-being among 19-year-olds. Methods: The data used was a random sample of Swedish individuals born in 1990 who answered a questionnaire in 2009-2010. Friendship networks were considered in terms of three measures of emotional support. Six statements about the individual's emotional state were used to create a summary measure of psychological well-being. Gender and gender composition were included as potentially moderating factors. The association between friendship networks and psychological well-being was analysed by means of linear regression analysis (n = 1289). Results: The results indicate that males' and females' friendship networks were similar with regard to quality and trust, whereas males' networks were characterized by less self-disclosure and a stronger preference for same-gender friendships. Gender composition did not matter for the support levels. Emotional support was associated with psychological well-being but there were gender differences: females seemed to benefit more health-wise from having high-quality (and trusting) networks. Moreover, whereas self-disclosure among males was positively linked to well-being, this was not the case among females. None of these associations were moderated by gender composition. Conclusions: In sum, friendship networks are beneficial for the psychological well-being among late adolescents, but there are some important differences according to gender.

  • 5.
    Almquist, Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Childhood social status in society and school: implications for the transition to higher levels of education2010Inngår i: British Journal of Sociology of Education, ISSN 0142-5692, E-ISSN 1465-3346, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 31-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While research into educational inequalities emphasizes childhood socio-economic status, this study adds another dimension of status into the analysis; namely, the child's own social position among its peers. The aim was to examine whether socio-economic status and peer status can both be linked to educational transitions and, if so, whether they constitute overlapping paths. In a second step of analyses, the relationship between peer status and adult unemployment was investigated. Data were derived from a longitudinal study using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden. Our results suggest that children with higher socio-economic status and children with higher peer status are consistently more likely than their lower status peers to proceed to the next level of education, and that the effects of socio-economic status and peer status hardly overlapped at all. Furthermore, educational differences by peer status seem to involve consequences for the studied subjects' contemporary labour market opportunities. (Contains 4 tables.)

  • 6.
    Arat, Arzu
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Burström, Bo
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Social inequities in vaccination coverage among infants and pre-school children in Europe and Australia - a systematic review2019Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikkel-id 290Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Herd immunity levels of vaccine uptake are still not reached in some high-income countries, usually in countries with persisting social inequities in uptake. Previous studies have focused on factors within one health care system. This study takes a broader health care systems approach by reviewing the socioeconomic distribution of vaccination coverage on the national level in light of structural and organizational differences of primary care for children.

    Methods

    A systematic literature review of socio-economic patterns of uptake of Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) and/or Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertusis (DTP) in population based studies of children 0–5 years of age living in the 30 European Economic Area (EEA) or European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries and Australia, was carried out using the PRISMA guidelines. The health care system in the countries in the study were categorized by degree of freedom of the primary care provider (hierarchical or non-hierarchical) and whether preventive services were provided in a separate organization (well-baby clinics).

    Results

    The review identified 15 studies from 10 European countries and Australia that fulfilled the criteria. Although the heterogeneity of the socio-economic indicators did not allow for a conclusive meta-analysis, the study pointed towards lower levels of inequities in primary care models with well-baby clinics. In non-hierarchical primary care organizations that also lacked well-baby clinics, socioeconomic gaps in uptake were often found to be large.

    Conclusion

    This review indicates that structural and organizational aspects of health care systems for young children are important for equity in vaccine uptake.

  • 7.
    Arat, Arzu
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Burström, Bo
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    ADHD medication in offspring of immigrants - does the income level of the country of parental origin matter?2018Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Child psychiatric treatment facilities vary greatly worldwide and are virtually non-existent in many low-income countries. One of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood is ADHD, with an estimated prevalence of 3-5% in Sweden. Previous studies have shown a similar prevalence of ADHD in minority and majority children in Sweden and the UK. However, clinical studies demonstrated that children from immigrant families living in Sweden received less psychiatric care than those of native-born parents. We tested the hypothesis that the consumption of child psychiatric care in immigrant families would be determined by the availability of such treatment in the parents' country of origin. Patterns of medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were studied as a proxy for child psychiatric care.

    METHODS: This was a register study of dispensed stimulant medication during 2013-2014 in Swedish national birth cohorts from 1995-2009. The study population, consisting of nearly 1.4 million children, was divided by national income of the parental country of origin and whether the parents were native Swedes, European immigrants, non-European immigrants or a mixture. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios of having been dispensed at least one ADHD drug during 2013, with adjustments for gender, family status indicating whether the child is living with both parents, household income and area of residence.

    RESULTS: Having parents born in low-income (OR [95% confidence interval] 0.27 [0.24-0.29]) or middle-income (European: OR 0.23 [0.20-0.26], non-European: OR 0.39 [0.34-0.41]) countries was associated with lower ADHD treatment levels than having parents born in high-income countries (European: OR 0.60 [0.54-0.66], non-European: OR 0.68 [0.59-0.79]), when compared to children of parents born in Sweden. In families with a background in low or middle income countries, there was no significant association between household income and ADHD medication, while in children with Swedish and mixed backgrounds high level of disposable income was associated with lower levels of ADHD medication.

    CONCLUSION: The use of child psychiatric care by immigrant families in Sweden was largely associated with the income level of the country of origin.

  • 8.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Students' accounts of school-performance stress: a qualitative analysis of a high-achieving setting in Stockholm, Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 16, nr 7, s. 932-949Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine students' experiences of school performance as a stressor. Accounts of school-performance stress at both the individual level and in relation to group mechanisms are studied through qualitative interviews with eighth-grade students in a high-performing school in Stockholm, Sweden (n=49). Using qualitative content analysis, three overarching themes emerged. Students' aspirations include accounts of students whose own high standards are a source of stress, in particular among girls. High performance as a part of their identity is a recurring topic, as well as striving for high marks for the future. External expectations comprise students' views of parents' and teachers' expectations. Generally, students feel that parents are supportive and have reasonable expectations. Students often compare themselves with high-performing siblings, which may be seen as a way of meeting indirect parental expectations. Few students mention teachers' expectations as a source of stress. The high-performing context shows that respondents bear witness to an MVG culture' meaning that many students aim for the highest possible marks. Girls in particular tend to drive up stress levels by talking to each other about pressure at school. Students also compare themselves with each other, which is experienced as competitive and stressful.

  • 9.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: a study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 456-462Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents’ homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. Methods: The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15–16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Results: Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. Conclusions: The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types.

  • 10.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    National data study showed that adolescents living in poorer households and with one parent were more likely to be bullied2017Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, nr 12, s. 2048-2054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to assess whether sociodemographic household characteristics were associated with which Swedish adolescents were more likely to be bullied.

    Methods

    The data were derived from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey and its child supplements from the survey years 2008-2011. The analyses included information on 3,951 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Exposure to bullying was reported by adolescents and information on sociodemographic household characteristics was reported by parents and obtained from official registers. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data.

    Results

    Adolescents were more likely to be bullied if they lived in households with no cash margin, defined as the ability to pay an unexpected bill of 8,000 Swedish Kronor or about 800 Euros, and if they lived with just one custodial parent. In the unadjusted analyses, elevated risks were identified if adolescents lived in working class households and had unemployed and foreign-born parents. However, these associations were at least partly accounted for by other sociodemographic household characteristics, in particular the lack of a cash margin.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that Swedish adolescents living in households with more limited financial resources had an increased risk of being bullied, supporting results from previous international research.

  • 11.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sociodemographic inequalities in adolescents’ health-related behaviours: The case of Sweden2016Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Earlier research suggests that socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours exist among young people, but with less clearcut patterns than among adults. The aim of the study is to examine to what extent sociodemographic inequalities in health behaviours in terms of alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, and regularly skipping breakfast and lunch, exist among adolescents in Sweden.

    Methods

    The data were obtained from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey (ULF) and its child supplements (Child-ULF) from 2008-2011 (n = 4001). Health-related behaviours were reported by adolescents aged 10-18 years and information on sociodemographic characteristics was derived from parents and from official registers. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results

    Clear sociodemographic inequalities in health-related behaviours were shown. Compared with their peers with parents in upper non-manual occupations, adolescents in working-class households were more likely to smoke (OR 1.53, p = 0.033), to be physically inactive (OR 1.54, p = 0.004), and to regularly skip breakfast (OR 1.78, p = 0.000) and lunch (OR 1.42, p = 0.011). Adolescents in households lacking a cash margin were more inclined to smoke (OR 1.47, p = 0.033) and to skip breakfast (OR 1.62, p = 0.000) as well as to skip lunch (OR 1.31, p = 0.041) than those in better off households. Not living in a nuclear family was linked with a higher risk of drinking alcohol (OR 1.57, p = 0.002), smoking (OR 2.32, p = 0.000), and skipping breakfast (OR 1.54, p = 0.000) and lunch (OR 1.55, p = 0.000). Adolescents with foreign-born parents were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 1.67, p = 0.001) and to regularly skip breakfast (OR 1.55, p = 0.002) compared with those whose parents were born in Sweden.

    Conclusions

    Sociodemographic inequalities in health-related behaviours clearly exist among adolescents in Sweden, along lines of household social class, financial strain, family structure and parental country of birth.

  • 12.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cyberbullying and subjective health: A large-scale study of students in Stockholm, Sweden2013Inngår i: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 112-119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in the use of mobile phones and the Internet has given rise to new opportunities for people to meet and communicate. However, there are also dark sides to these new forms of communication. One of these is cyberbullying, i.e. bullying via mobile phone and the Internet. Given that cyberbullying is a relatively new phenomenon, empirical knowledge is still limited and particularly so in Sweden, which in international comparison has reported low rates of bullying in general. The aim of the study is to investigate: 1) the prevalence of cyberbullying among students in Stockholm, Sweden; 2) the overlap between cyberbullying and traditional forms of school bullying, and 3) the association between the experience of cyberbullying and subjective health. The study uses the Stockholm School Survey of 2008 which is a total population survey of students in grade 9 of compulsory school (i.e. aged 15-16) and in the second year of upper secondary school (i.e. aged 17-18) in Stockholm and eighteen of its surrounding municipalities (N=22,544). About 5% of the students are victims of cyberbullying, 4% are perpetrators, and 2% are both victims and perpetrators. There is some overlap between cyberbullying and traditional bullying: those who are victims of traditional bullying are at increased risk of also being victims of cyberbullying; while being a traditional bully is strongly associated with the likelihood of also being a cyberbully. However, many students who are involved in cyberbullying are not involved in traditional bullying. OLS regression analyses show that being a victim of cyberbullying remains associated with worse subjective health when being the victim of traditional bullying and socioeconomic factors are taken into account. In addition, perpetrators of cyberbullying as well as students who are both victims and bullies, have worse subjective health than those who are not involved in cyberbullying.

  • 13.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hoven, Hanno
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Effort-reward imbalance in the school setting: associations with Somatic pain and self-rated health2015Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 123-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: According to the workplace theory of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), individuals who perceive a lack of reciprocity between their effort spent at work and the rewards received in turn are at an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. It is also assumed that being overcommitted to work is linked to an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. This study applies the effort-reward imbalance model to the school setting. It aims to analyse the associations that effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment share with somatic pain and self-rated health among adolescents. Methods: Data are from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), involving students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2010 (n=403). Information on effort-reward imbalance and health outcomes was gathered from self-report questionnaires. An adjusted short version of ERI was used. Factor analysis showed that extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment constitute three distinct dimensions. The designed measures demonstrated sound psychometric properties both for the full sample and for subgroups. Ordered logistic regressions were conducted. Results: The analyses showed that low reward and higher overcommitment were associated with greater somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Furthermore, effort-reward imbalance was linked with an elevated risk of somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions: Students are more likely to experience stress-related ill-health when they perceive an imbalance between their effort and rewards. In addition, high overcommitment is associated with an increased risk of ill-health among students.

  • 14.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Pros and cons of social relations: An analysis of adolescents’ health complaints2006Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 611-623Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the association between social relations and psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, among adolescents in Sweden. We focused on relationships with parents, as well as relationships with peers in school and in leisure time. Both the structure and the content of relations were analysed. For the latter, we looked at supportive as well as strained relations. The data was the pooled child supplements of the Swedish welfare surveys conducted in 2000–2003. This constitutes a nationally representative, cross-sectional sample of 10–18-year-olds (n=5137), where information was collected from both adolescents and their parents. Results showed that young people's social relations with parents and peers clearly covaried with their health complaints. With regard to family relations and psychological complaints, the association was more pronounced for relational content than for relational structure. For instance, whether relations with parents were strained or not seemed more relevant than family structure and parental working hours. Moreover, strained relations were more strongly associated with health complaints, especially psychosomatic complaints, than were supportive relations. This applied to relationships with parents as well as with peers in school.

  • 15.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychological complaints in adolescence: do they track into young adulthood?2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl. 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychological complaints, such as feeling sad or nervous, are common among adolescents, especially girls. The prevalence also appears to have risen during the last decades in Sweden, in particular among girls. Yet, knowledge about whether there are long-term associations with adverse health outcomes later in life is scarce. The aim of the current study is to assess to what extent psychological complaints in adolescence track into young adulthood, and whether there are gender differences.

    Methods

    The data used were derived from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is a prospective study based on a nationally representative sample with survey information from adolescents aged 10-18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20-28 years in 2010 (n = 792). Information on household characteristics at baseline was provided by parents. Psychological complaints in adolescence were measured by self-reported items on feeling sad and down, tense and nervous, and grouchy and irritated. Psychological complaints in young adulthood were measured by self-reported items on anxiety and depression. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression.

    Results

    Psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with an excess risk of psychological complaints in young adulthood (OR = 2.08, p = 0.003) also when adjusting for sex, age group, and family structure and household social class at baseline. Gender-separate analyses revealed that the association was statistically significant for females (OR = 2.22, p = 0.007) but not for males (OR = 1.83, p = 0.148).

    Conclusions

    For females, psychological complaints in adolescence predicted psychological complaints in young adulthood. This underlines the importance that adolescents who suffer from this type of health problems should be identified and provided support, for instance through the school health services.

  • 16.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School climate and exposure to bullying: a multilevel study2017Inngår i: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 153-164Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates associations between aspects of school climate, measured by students’ assessments aggregated to the class level, and exposure to bullying, measured at the individual level. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey of 2006–2010 with information from 16,418 ninth-grade students (aged 15–16 years) distributed over 871 classes and 259 schools. Three-level binary logistic regression was applied. Two of the studied school climate aspects in particular were linked with the occurrence of bullying: In classes where a high proportion of students claimed to be aware of the school rules and in classes where a high proportion of students stated that adults intervene against bullying, fewer students reported having been bullied. The findings imply that striving toward a school climate characterized by transparent rules and clear disapproval of harassments may help to reduce bullying.

  • 17.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School Leadership and Cyberbullying: A Multilevel Analysis2017Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 10, artikkel-id 1226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying, with both similarities and differences to traditional bullying. While earlier research has examined associations between school-contextual characteristics and traditional bullying, fewer studies have focused on the links to students’ involvement in cyberbullying behavior. The aim of the present study is to assess whether school-contextual conditions in terms of teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are associated with the occurrence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among students. The data are derived from two separate data collections performed in 2016: The Stockholm School Survey conducted among students in the second grade of upper secondary school (ages 17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey which was carried out among teachers in the same schools. The data include information from 6067 students distributed across 58 schools, linked with school-contextual information based on reports from 1251 teachers. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are measured by students’ self-reports. Teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are captured by an index based on 10 items; the mean value of this index was aggregated to the school level. Results from binary logistic multilevel regression models show that high teacher ratings of the school leadership are associated with less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. We conclude that a strong school leadership potentially prevents cyberbullying behavior among students.

  • 18.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Viveca, Östberg
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    How do self-reported stress and self-esteem relate to diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol in mid-adolescent girls and boysManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA), that reflect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) activity and sympathetic activity within the autonomic nervous system (ANS) respectively, are biomarkers with pronounced diurnal rhythms. While research on salivary cortisol is increasing, less is known about the diurnal rhythm of sAA, particularly in adolescents. Also, the linkages between individual factors, such as self-esteem, stress and the biomarkers cortisol and sAA and their combinations remain to be investigated. Besides detailing the diurnal rhythms of salivary cortisol and sAA in 14-16 year-old girls and boys, this study investigated how self-reported stress and self-esteem relate to aggregate measures of salivary cortisol and sAA and their combinations. In addition to self-reports in questionnaires, self-administered salivary samples were collected from 47 girls and 23 boys during a school day. Results showed that girls had higher levels of morning cortisol than did boys, while there were no differences in sAA. Moreover, self-esteem and stress were associated with cortisol and sAA measures, but for girls only. Taken together, the findings suggest that both stress and self-esteem are linked to both separate and combined measures of ANS and HPA-axis activity, particularly among mid-adolescent girls.

  • 19.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Economic vulnerability and adolescent health: Fragile family finances and health functioning among Swedish adolescents2010Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine: The Offical Journal of the International Society of Behavioral Medcine / [ed] Joost Dekker, Springer , 2010, s. S275-S275Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While adult health is known to vary by socioeconomic status (SES) and gender, less is known about the linkages between socioeconomic circumstances and various aspects of health in adolescents.

    Aim: This study set out to investigate how household financial insecurity relates to different aspects of health in adolescent girls and boys aged 10-18.

    Method: Data came from the Swedish Child LNU and Child-Ulf studies of 2000-2003 that include approximately 5400 children aged 10-18 who answered questions relating to health. Parents were also asked to report "cash-margin" a frequently used single-item measure asking whether parents can access 12,000 SEK in a week's time if they have to.

    Results: A majority, 85% of the parents were able to access 12,000 SEK in a week if necessary while 15% were unable to do so. Analyses performed separately for girls and boys showed significant main effects of cash margin on somatic health, negative functioning and positive functioning for both groups. There was no significant age x cash margin interactions. Cash margin was significantly related to stomach ache, insomnia, difficulties concentrating, irritability, short temperedness, sadness, tension/nervousness, belief in the future, endurance and happy mood in both girls and boys. Girls with no cash margin reported more headache while boys with no cash margin reported higher levels of self-assurance. No other significant relationships emerged.

    Discussion: While most previous studies use symptom and problem indices, this study covers multiple aspects of health functioning. To conclude, fragile family finances during adolescence as reflected in poor positive functioning and high levels of negative functioning suggest stressful living conditions that may influence academic achievement, life-choices and future health.

  • 20.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Riva, Roberto
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Single and aggregate salivary cortisol measures during two schooldays in midadolescent girls and boys2014Inngår i: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0252, E-ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 121-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including its regulation of cortisol, is central to bodily functioning and salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker that reflects the functioning of the HPA axis. However, knowledge of diurnal cortisol rhythms in healthy adolescents is limited and few studies have examined patterns in midadolescent girls and boys across single and aggregate cortisol measures. To fill this gap, the present study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures reflecting diurnal rhythms in 14 to 16-year-old girls and boys. Self-administered salivary samples from 79 girls and 42 boys were collected during two schooldays at four timepoints: (a) immediately at awakening, (b) 30 min after waking up, (c) 60 min after waking up, and (d) at 8:00 p.m. Additionally, diary data including time of awakening, sampling times, and other potential confounders were analyzed. As for single measures, both girls and boys exhibited a typical diurnal cortisol profile with high levels in the morning that decreased throughout the day. However, girls had higher morning cortisol than did boys with significant differences at time of awakening, and at 30 and 60 min postawakening. For the aggregate measures, girls had a larger total level of cortisol in terms of cortisol awakening response (CARG), area under the curve (AUCG), and rise over run (slopeawake to last), while no differences emerged for reactivity measures. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in single and aggregate cortisol measures between midadolescent girls and boys. Such differences in diurnal cortisol between pubertal girls and boys may play a role for the differential health trajectories typically found among adult women and men.

  • 21.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The Living Conditions of Children with Shared Residence – the Swedish Example2018Inngår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 861-883Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Among children with separated parents, shared residence–i.e., joint phys-ical custody where the child is sharing his or her time equally between two custodialparents’homes–is increasing in many Western countries and is particularly commonin Sweden. The overall level of living among children in Sweden is high; however, thepotential structural differences between children in various post-separation familyarrangements have not been sufficiently studied. Potential risks for children with sharedresidence relate to the daily hassles and stress when having two homes. This study aimsat investigating the living conditions of children with shared residence compared withchildren living with two custodial parents in the same household and those living withone custodial parent, respectively. Swedish national survey data collected from childrenaged 10–18 years (n≈5000) and their parents were used. The outcomes were groupedinto: Economic and material conditions, Social relations with parents and peers, Healthand health behaviors, Working conditions and safety in school and in the neighbor-hood, and Culture and leisure time activities. Results from a series of linear probabilitymodels showed that most outcomes were similar for children with shared residence andthose living with two custodial parents in the same household, while several outcomeswere worse for children living with one parent. However, few differences due to livingarrangements were found regarding school conditions. This study highlights the in-equalities in the living conditions of Swedish children, with those living with oneparent having fewer resources compared with other children.

  • 22.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Exploring salivary cortisol and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents living in two homes2014Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, s. S23-S23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Every year, around 50.000 children in Sweden experience a separation between their parents. Joint physical custody (JPC), where the child alternates homes between the parents for about equal amount of time, has become a common living arrangement after parental separation. Children living in two homes can benefit from everyday contact with both parents and access to both parents’ financial resources. However, children can also experience stress from constantly moving and from exposure to any parental conflict. Yet, research on JPC and stress-related biological functioning is limited. The aimof this study was to investigate how living arrangements (intact family/JPC) relate toHPA-axis activity and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents. Methods: Mid-adolescents (106 girls and 51 boys) provided demographic details, self-reports of recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) and salivary samples. Salivary cortisol samples were collected: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) +30 minutes, 3) +60 minutes, and 4) at 8 p.m. Results: Hierarchical regressions showed that living arrangements did not predict morning cortisol levels, the diurnal cortisol rhythm nor recurrent pain. However, sex was significantly associated with both morning cortisol and recurrent pain. Conclusion: Living arrangements were not linked to HPA-axis activity or recurrent pain in this group of well-functioning mid-adolescents. Although this is the first study investigating how living arrangements relate to HPA-axis functioning, which means that additional research is needed, the findings suggest that these mid-adolescents have adapted to their living arrangements and that other factors seem more pertinent for HPA-functioning and subjective health complaints.

  • 23.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Exploring salivary cortisol and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents living in two homes2014Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-7, artikkel-id 46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Each year, around 50.000 children in Sweden experience a separation between their parents. Joint physical custody (JPC), where the child alternates homes between the parents for about equal amount of time, has become a common living arrangement after parental separation. Children in two homes could benefit from everyday contact with both parents and access to both parents' financial resources. However, children could experience stress from being constantly moving and potentially exposed to parental conflicts. Still, studies on JPC and biological functioning related to stress, are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate how living arrangements (intact family/JPC) relate to HPA-axis activity and recurrent pain in mid-adolescents.

    METHODS: Mid-adolescents (106 girls and 51 boys) provided demographic details, self-reports of recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) and salivary samples. Salivary cortisol samples were collected: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) +30 minutes, 3) +60 minutes, and 4) at 8 p.m. The cortisol awakening response (CAR) was computed using an established formula. Additionally, the diurnal decline between the waking and 8 p.m. samples was computed.

    RESULTS: Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that living arrangements (intact family/JPC) was not associated with morning cortisol (CAR), the diurnal cortisol decline or with recurrent pain. However, sex was a significant predictor of both cortisol measures and recurrent pain with girls exhibiting a higher cortisol awakening response and a greater diurnal decline value as well as reporting more recurrent pain than did boys.

    CONCLUSIONS: Living arrangements were not associated with HPA-axis activity or recurrent pain in this group of well-functioning mid-adolescents. Although this study is the first to investigate how living arrangements relate to HPA-axis functioning and additional studies are needed, the tentative findings suggest that these mid-adolescents have adapted to their living arrangements and that other factors play a more pertinent role for HPA-functioning and subjective health.

  • 24.
    Fransson, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Turunen, Jani
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychological complaints among children in joint physical custody and other family types: Considering parental factors2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 177-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Increasing proportions of Scandinavian children and children in other Western countries live in joint physical custody, moving between parents’ homes when parents live apart. Children and parents in non-intact families are at risk of worse mental health. The potential influence of parental ill-health on child well-being in the context of differing living arrangements has not been studied thoroughly. This study investigates the psychological complaints of children in joint physical custody in comparison to children in sole parental care and nuclear families, while controlling for socioeconomic differences and parental ill-health. Methods: Data were obtained from Statistics Sweden’s yearly Survey of Living Conditions 2007–2011 and child supplements with children 10–18 years, living in households of adult participants. Children in joint physical custody (n=391) were compared with children in sole parental care (n=654) and children in nuclear families (n=3,639), using a scale of psychological complaints as the outcome measure. Results: Multiple regression modelling showed that children in joint physical custody did not report higher levels of psychological complaints than those in nuclear families, while children in sole parental care reported elevated levels of complaints compared with those in joint physical custody. Adding socioeconomic variables and parental ill-health only marginally attenuated the coefficients for the living arrangement groups. Low parental education and parental worry/anxiety were however associated with higher levels of psychological complaints. Conclusions: Psychological complaints were lower among adolescents in joint physical custody than in adolescents in sole parental care. The difference was not explained by parental ill-health or socioeconomic variables.

  • 25. Hjern, A.
    et al.
    Alvfén, G.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School stressors, psychological complaints and psychosomatic pain2008Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, Vol. 97, s. 112-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26. Jablonska, Beata
    et al.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindberg, Lene
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A national cohort study of parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour-the mediating role of school performance2012Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A link between low parental socioeconomic status and mental health problems in offspring is well established in previous research. The mechanisms that explain this link are largely unknown. The present study investigated whether school performance was a mediating and/or moderating factor in the path between parental socioeconomic status and the risk of hospital admission for non-fatal suicidal behaviour.

    Methods: A national cohort of 447 929 children born during 1973-1977 was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the end of their ninth and final year of compulsory school until 2001. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and linear regression analyses were performed to test whether the association between parental socioeconomic status and non-fatal suicidal behaviour was mediated or moderated by school performance.

    Results: The results of a series of multiple regression analyses, adjusted for demographic variables, revealed that school performance was as an important mediator in the relationship between parental socioeconomic status and risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, accounting for 60% of the variance. The hypothesized moderation of parental socioeconomic status--non-fatal suicidal behaviour relationship by school performance was not supported.

    Conclusions: School performance is an important mediator through which parental socioeconomic status translates into a risk for non-fatal suicidal behaviour. Prevention efforts aimed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among young people will need to consider socioeconomic inequalities in school performance.

  • 27. Jablonska, Beata
    et al.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindberg, Lene
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School effects on risk of non-fatal suicidal behaviour: a national multilevel cohort study2014Inngår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 49, nr 4, s. 609-618Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Research has demonstrated school effects on health, over and above the effects of students’ individual characteristics. This approach has however been uncommon in mental health research. The aim of the study was to assess whether there are any school-contextual effects related to socioeconomic characteristics and academic performance, on the risk of hospitalization from non-fatal suicidal behaviour (NFSB).

    Methods

    A Swedish national cohort of 447,929 subjects was followed prospectively in the National Patient Discharge Register from the completion of compulsory school in 1989–93 (≈16 years) until 2001. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between school-level characteristics and NFSB.

    Results

    A small but significant share of variation in NFSB was accounted for by the school context (variance partition coefficient <1 %, median odds ratio = 1.26). The risk of NFSB was positively associated with the school’s proportion of students from low socioeconomic status (SES), single parent household, and the school’s average academic performance. School effects varied, in part, by school location.

    Conclusion

    NFSB seems to be explained mainly by individual-level characteristics. Nevertheless, a concentration of children from disadvantaged backgrounds in schools appears to negatively affect mental health, regardless of whether or not they are exposed to such problems themselves. Thus, school SES should be considered when planning prevention of mental health problems in children and adolescents.

  • 28.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Studying Young People's Level of Living: The Swedish Child-LNU2010Inngår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 47-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a strategy for studying the level of living of young people based on survey information from children themselves, combined with information from parents and administrative records. In this way, children become the prime informants of their own conditions, at the same time as we get reliable information on their family context, such as the household economy and parental characteristics, from other sources. We base our over-arching theoretical idea on a definition of level of living in terms of command over resources in several areas of life; resources with which children can actively shape their own lives, according to age and maturity. The focus on scope of action leads us to prefer descriptive rather than evaluative indicators. We define empirical indicators along eight broad dimensions of the level of living of young people which we use in a survey of 10–18-year-olds, the Swedish Child-LNU (n = 1,304, response rate = 76,6%), connected to the Level-of-Living Survey, LNU2000, done on adults, i.e., the children’s parents. We report descriptive results showing that the overall level of living of young people in Sweden is very high, but that children to lone parents and immigrants lag behind on some indicators. A worry for the future is the relatively high incidence of poor psychological well-being and psychosomatic problems.

  • 29.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Perceived stress, recurrent pain, and aggregate salivary cortisol measures in mid-adolescent girls and boys2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 36-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of perceived stress have been criticized for theoretical inconsistency. However, the validated pressure activation stress scale has been suggested as a theoretically sound alternative. But it is unclear how pressure and activation stress relate to objective and subjective measures including commonly used aggregate cortisol measures and health complaints respectively. Specifically, this study aimed at investigating how pressure and activation stress were related to aggregate salivary cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-reports in questionnaires on activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomach ache, neck/shoulder and back pain). Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: (1) immediately at awakening; (2) 30 minutes after waking up; (3) 60 minutes after waking up, and (4) at 8 p.m. These samples were analyzed for cortisol. Hierarchical regressions showed no statistically significant associations between activation and pressure stress and cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. However, activation and pressure stress were significantly associated with recurrent pain but only for girls. The findings may relate to subjective and objective measures reflecting distinct aspects of stress-related functioning. However, the study participants included mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still relatively unaffected by the strain of their daily stress perceptions. To conclude, the non-significant relationships between activation and pressure stress and commonly used aggregate measures of cortisol adds to the understanding of how perceived stress may relate to physiological functioning in the daily life of adolescents when using such aggregate measures.

  • 30.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Folkesson Hellstadius, Lisa
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Perceived stress, recurrent pain and salivary cortisol in mid-adolescent girls and boys2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Lindfors, Petra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Linking self-reported stress to aggregate cortisol measures and recurrent pain in midadolescent girls and boys2014Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 21, nr S1, s. S179-S180, artikkel-id P605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous research has developed an 11-item self-report measure assessing activation and pressure stress among adolescents. However, the biological correlates of this measure are unclear. Considering this, the present study investigated how perceived stress relates to aggregate cortisol measures and recurrent pain in mid-adolescent girls and boys. Methods: Mid-adolescents (119 girls and 56 boys) provided self-ratings of activation and pressure stress and recurrent pain (headache, stomachache, neck/shoulder and back pain) in questionnaires. Additionally, adolescents sampled saliva during an ordinary school day: 1) immediately at awakening, 2) 30 minutes after waking up, 3) 60minutes after waking up, and 4) at 8 p.m. Aggregate cortisol measures including ground and increase measures of the area under the curve and a diurnal slope measure were computed. Hierarchical regression analyseswere performed for girls and boys respectively. Results: Activation and pressure were significantly associated with recurrent pain in girls but not in boys. However, there were no significant associations between self-ratings of stress and salivary cortisol, neither for girls nor for boys. Conclusion:While self-rated activation and pressure stress were related to recurrent pain in girls, but not in boys, neither activation nor pressure was linked to any of the aggregate cortisol measures. The differences between subjective and objective measures perhaps relate to these measures reflecting distinct and unrelated aspects of functioning. However, the findings may also result from the participants being mid-adolescents whose bodily systems are flexible and still unaffected by daily activation and pressure stress.

  • 32.
    Liu, Can
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cnattingius, S.
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Prenatal parental depression and preterm birth: a national cohort study2016Inngår i: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 123, nr 12, s. 1973-1982Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To investigate the effects of maternal and paternal depression on the risk for preterm birth.

    Design

    National cohort study.

    Setting

    Medical Birth Register of Sweden, 2007–2012.

    Population

    A total of 366 499 singleton births with linked information for parents’ filled drug prescriptions and hospital care.

    Methods

    Prenatal depression was defined as having filled a prescription for an antidepressant drug or having been in outpatient or inpatient hospital care with a diagnosis of depression from 12 months before conception until 24 weeks after conception. An indication of depression after 12 months with no depression was defined as ‘new depression’, whereas all other cases were defined as ‘recurrent depression’.

    Main outcome measures

    Odds ratios (ORs) for very preterm (22–31 weeks of gestation) and moderately preterm (32–36 weeks of gestation) births were estimated using multinomial logistic regression models.

    Results

    After adjustment for maternal depression and sociodemographic covariates, new paternal prenatal depression was associated with very preterm birth [adjusted OR (aOR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04–1.83], whereas recurrent paternal depression was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Both new and recurrent maternal prenatal depression were associated with an increased risk of moderately preterm birth (aOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.22–1.46, and aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.32–1.53, respectively).

    Conclusions

    New paternal and maternal prenatal depression are potential risk factors for preterm birth. Mental health problems in both parents should be addressed for the prevention of preterm birth.

  • 33.
    Liu, Can
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Juarez, Sol
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cnattingius, Sven
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Out-of-Home Care and Subsequent Preterm Delivery: An Intergenerational Cohort Study2018Inngår i: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 142, nr 2, artikkel-id e20172729Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Adverse early-life experience may affect preterm delivery later in life through priming of stress response. We aim to investigate the links between out-of-home care (OHC) experience in childhood, as a proxy of severe adversities, on subsequent risk of preterm delivery. METHODS: A register-based national cohort of all women born in Sweden between 1973 and 1977 (N = 175 821) was crosslinked with information on these women's subsequent deliveries as recorded in the Swedish medical birth register. During 1986-2012, 343 828 livebirths of these women were identified. The associations between women's OHC experience and her risk of preterm delivery were analyzed through logistic regression models, adjusting for women's own preterm birth, intrauterine growth, and childhood socioeconomic situation. RESULTS: Compared with women that never entered OHC, women with OHC experience up to and after age 10 were both associated with increased risks of preterm delivery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.23 [95% confidence interval 1.08-1.40] and aOR = 1.29 [1.13-1.48], respectively). Women who experienced OHC before or at 10 years of age had increased risk of both spontaneous and medically indicated preterm delivery (aOR = 1.19 [1.03-1.38] and aOR = 1.27 [1.02-1.59], respectively). Women who experienced OHC after age 10 had a more pronounced risk of medically indicated preterm delivery (aOR = 1.76 [1.44-2.16]) than for spontaneous preterm delivery (aOR = 1.08 [0.92-1.27]). CONCLUSIONS: Women who were placed in OHC in childhood had increased risk of preterm delivery independent from their own perinatal history. Stress response, as 1 consequence of early life adversities, may take its toll on women's reproductive health and their offspring, calling for integrative efforts in preventing early life adversity.

  • 34.
    Miething, Alexander
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood: A gender-specific structural equation modeling approach2016Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 4, artikkel-id 34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The importance of supportive social relationships for psychological well-being has been previously recognized, but the direction of associations between both dimensions and how they evolve when adolescents enter adulthood have scarcely been addressed. The present study aims to examine the gender-specific associations between self-reported friendship network quality and psychological well-being of young people during the transition from late adolescence to young adulthood by taking into account the direction of association.

    Methods

    A random sample of Swedes born in 1990 were surveyed at age 19 and again at age 23 regarding their own health and their relationships with a maximum of five self-nominated friends. The response rate was 55.3 % at baseline and 43.7 % at follow-up, resulting in 772 cases eligible for analysis. Gender-specific structural equation modeling was conducted to explore the associations between network quality and well-being. The measurement part included a latent measure of well-being, whereas the structural part accounted for autocorrelation for network quality and for well-being over time and further examined the cross-lagged associations.

    Results

    The results show that network quality increased while well-being decreased from age 19 to age 23. Females reported worse well-being at both time points, whereas no gender differences were found for network quality. Network quality at age 19 predicted network quality at age 23, and well-being at age 19 predicted well-being at age 23. The results further show positive correlations between network quality and well-being for males and females alike. The strength of the correlations diminished over time but remained significant at age 23. Simultaneously testing social causation and social selection in a series of competing models indicates that while there were no cross-lagged associations among males, there was a weak reverse association between well-being at age 19 and network quality at age 23 among females.

    Conclusions

    The study contributes to the understanding of the direction of associations between friendship networks and psychological well-being from late adolescence to young adulthood by showing that while these dimensions are closely intertwined among males and females alike, females’ social relationships seem to be more vulnerable to changes in health status.

  • 35.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bullying in context – an analysis of health complaints among adolescents in greater Stockholm2012Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, nr supplement 2, s. 221-221Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bullying in context: An analysis of psychosomatic complaints among adolescents in Stockholm2015Inngår i: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 382-404Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using multilevel modeling, this study examined how different types of bullying, involving both peers and teachers, relate to psychosomatic health complaints. Data were obtained via the Stockholm School Survey from 41,032 ninth- and eleventh-grade students in the years 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010. Results showed that students involved in bullying as either a bully, a victim, or both a bully and a victim displayed poorer psychosomatic health than those not involved in bullying. Victims of peer-bullying also reported significantly poorer health than perpetrators. Two class-aggregated measures of bullying remained positively associated with ninth-grade student health complaints even when their individual-level analogues were taken into account. Thus, both the proportion of victims of teacher-bullying and peer-bullying in the school class appeared to generate health problems that go beyond the directly exposed students. However, an interaction revealed that the latter association was confined to female students only.

  • 37.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Teacher Rated School Ethos and Student Reported Bullying—A Multilevel Study of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm, Sweden2017Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 12, artikkel-id 1565Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    School ethos refers to the school leadership’s purposive efforts to shape and direct the attitudes, values and behaviors needed in order to promote an active learning environment and to prevent the emergence of undesirable behaviors by creating shared meaning and common goals for the school. The aim of this study was to examine how teacher rated aspects of school ethos are linked with manifestations of bullying among 11th grade students. Five teacher-rated sub-dimensions of school ethos (staff stability, teacher morale, structure-order, student focus, and academic atmosphere) were examined in relation to student-reported perpetration of and exposure to traditional school bullying and cyberbullying. The data material combines student and teacher information from two separate data collections performed in 2016, comprising teachers and students in 58 upper secondary schools in Stockholm. Analyses showed that bullying was associated with all but one of the five sub-dimensions of school ethos, namely structure and order for dealing with bullying behaviors at the school. Results are discussed in light of this counter-intuitive finding. Our findings nevertheless lend support to the idea that the social organization of schools, as reflected in their teacher-rated ethos, can affect individual students’ attitudes in a way that prevents the emergence of bullying behavior among students.

  • 38.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Karvonen, Sakari
    Rahkonen, Ossi
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School performance, school segregation and stress-related symptoms: comparing Helsinki and Stockholm2015Inngår i: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 467-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates cross-cultural differences in the interrelation between school performance, school segregation, and stress-related health among 9th-grade students in the greater Stockholm and Helsinki areas. Contrary to the Swedish case, it has been proposed that school performance in Finland is largely independent of the specific school attended and of socioeconomic background. Finland also stands out as a contrast to Sweden considering their better performance in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) surveys. Our first 2 hypotheses explore whether there is a greater degree of school segregation in Stockholm than in Helsinki, and our second pair of hypotheses test whether Finland’s school success has come at a price in terms of increased student stress. Our results largely confirm that Stockholm schools are less “equal” and more segregated than those in Helsinki. We also find that school performance is more strongly linked to stress-related complaints among students in Helsinki than in Stockholm, especially among Finnish girls.

  • 39.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School climate and psychosomatic health: a multilevel analysis2009Inngår i: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 433-455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the importance of aspects of the school climate for adolescents' psychosomatic health using multilevel modelling. Analyses were based on 18,571 ninth-grade students distributed over 1,026 classes and 284 schools in the greater Stockholm area in 2004 and 2006. Both individual- and contextual-level associations between aspects of the school climate and student health were explored. While most of the aspects of the school climate under study were related to health at the individual level, only 2 of them seemed to convey an additional contextual effect reaching beyond the students who were directly affected. Thus, better health was found in classes where many students reported getting immediate teacher help with their schoolwork, and worse health was found in classes where harassment was more commonly reported. These findings remained when a number of school-contextual characteristics were adjusted for.

  • 40.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Childhood peer status and adult susceptibility to anxiety and depression: A 30-year hospital follow-up2011Inngår i: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 39, nr 2, s. 187-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      This study examined the extent to which sixth grade peer status could predict anxiety and/or depression in 5,242 women and 5,004 men who were born in 1953 and whose hospital records were followed up from 1973–2003. The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study. While no association could be established for men, results indicated that women who held low peer status positions in childhood were at a considerably higher risk of anxiety and/or depression later in life compared to women in average status positions. Women who held popular positions during childhood did not differ significantly from their average counterparts. These findings persisted after adjusting for family- and child-related problem-load, perceived security at school, family constellation, socioeconomic status as well as the child’s cognitive ability, ninth grade school marks and continuance to upper secondary school.

  • 41.
    Modin, Bitte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sundell, Knut
    Psychosocial working conditions, school sense of coherence and subjective health complaints: A multilevel analysis of ninth grade pupils in the Stockholm area2011Inngår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 129-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the psychosocial working conditions of 7930 Swedish 9th grade students, distributed over 475 classes and 130 schools, in relation to their subjective health using multilevel modeling. At the individual level, students with “strained” working conditions in school (i.e. those experiencing a high level of demands in combination with a low level of control) demonstrated significantly worse health compared to students in “low-strain” situations. “Strained” conditions in combination with a weak school-related sense of coherence were especially unfavourable for health. These findings remained significant when support from teachers, school marks, norm-breaking behaviours, family-relations and certain class- and school-contextual conditions were adjusted for. Thus, while demands are an essential part of school work, this study suggests that high levels of control and a strong school-related sense of coherence can protect against the more detrimental effects on health that high demands at school may cause.

  • 42.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Augustine, Lilly
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychosocial working conditions: An analysis of emotional symptoms and conduct problems amongst adolescent students2014Inngår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 407-417Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored how psychosocial features of the schoolwork environment are associated with students' mental health. Data was drawn from 3699 ninth grade (15 year-old) Swedish students participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Using Structural Equation Modelling, perceived school demands, decision control and social support from teachers, classmates and parents were examined in relation to students' emotional and conduct problems. Higher demands were associated with greater emotional symptoms and conduct problems. Although weaker social support predicted emotional symptoms and conduct problems, the relative influence of teachers, classmates and parents differed. Teacher support was more closely associated with conduct problems, particularly for girls, while classmate support was more strongly related to emotional symptoms. The findings indicate that while excessive school pressure is associated with poorer mental health, social support can assist in optimising adolescents' emotional health and adaptive behaviour, as well as shaping perceptions of demands. (C) 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  • 43.
    Plenty, Stephanie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The role of psychosocial school conditions in adolescent prosocial behaviour2015Inngår i: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 283-300Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how psychosocial conditions at school are associated with prosocial behaviour, a key indicator of positive mental health. Participants were 3,652 Swedish Grade 9 students from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that students who experience more manageable school demands and greater social support from teachers and classmates are more likely to display caring, sharing, and cooperative behaviours. However, those that feel acutely stressed, particularly girls, also reported greater prosocial behaviour. Teacher support played a greater role in girls' prosocial behaviour and perceptions of school demands than boys'. The findings extend knowledge of the importance of psychosocial work conditions for adolescent health to positive mental health.

  • 44.
    Rostila, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Edling, Christofer
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden2013Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 10, nr 12, s. 6517-6533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network) on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695) with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54) if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00) if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network) and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems): positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily smoking than were men with many smoking friends. Hence, it is important to consider the interplay between peer smoking and other network characteristics on the risk of smoking, where features of networks which traditionally are seen as constructive may occasionally provide the impetus to smoke. Future studies should use longitudinal data to study whether these findings reflect peer selection or peer influence.

  • 45.
    Wells, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Physical Inactivity From Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Relevance of Various Dimensions of Inequality in a Swedish Longitudinal Sample2017Inngår i: Health Education & Behavior, ISSN 1090-1981, E-ISSN 1552-6127, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 376-384Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e., gender, immigrant background), associate with physical inactivity at two time points in youth. Longitudinal data were drawn from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 765) and analysed by gender-stratified logistic regression. Among girls, low parental social class (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.28, 5.42]) and income (OR = 2.28, 95% [CI 1.12, 4.65]) were associated with physical inactivity, while immigrant background (OR = 2.33, 95% CI [1.03, 5.23]) and a low level of parental education (OR = 3.38, 95% CI [1.15, 9.95]) predicted physical inactivity among women. Among boys, low parental income (OR = 3.27, 95% CI [1.39, 7.69]) was associated with physical inactivity, whereas immigrant background (OR = 2.29, 95% CI [1.04, 5.03]) predicted physical inactivity among men. Our results suggest that physical inactivity is socially patterned, but different dimensions of social stratification should not be considered interchangeable as they may operate independently, through intersection with gender, and at different time points in youth in increasing the risk of physical inactivity.

  • 46.
    Wells, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Parental education differentially predicts young adults' frequency and quantity of alcohol use in a longitudinal Swedish sample2018Inngår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 6, s. 91-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Alcohol consumption contributes to health inequalities, but few studies have examined how socially differentiated alcohol use develops across the life course. In this study, we examine how one aspect of childhood socioeconomic position (parental education) relates to two often-conflated young adult drinking patterns: drinking frequency and quantity per occasion. Using a life course perspective, we also explore whether parental drinking patterns or young adults’ own educational attainment might account for such associations.

    Methods

    This study used longitudinal data from the nationally representative Swedish Level of Living Surveys (LNU). Young adults’ (aged 20–28, n = 803) drinking patterns and educational attainment were determined through the LNU 2010 and official registers. A decade earlier, parents self-reported their education and drinking patterns in the LNU 2000 and Partner-LNU 2000.

    Results

    Logistic regression models showed that high parental education predicted young adult frequent drinking, while low parental education predicted young adult high quantity drinking. Drinking patterns were associated inter-generationally, but parental alcohol use did not account for differences in young adult drinking patterns by parental education. Young adults’ own education similarly predicted their drinking patterns but did not account for differences in drinking frequency by parental education. Differences in drinking quantity by parental education were no longer significant when young adults’ own education was included in the final model.

    Conclusions

    Findings suggest that parental education constitutes an early-life structural position that confers differential risk for young adult drinking patterns. Young adults whose parents had low education were less likely to drink frequently but were more likely to drink heavily per occasion, a drinking pattern that may place more disadvantaged young adults at a greater health risk.

  • 47.
    Åberg Yngwe, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The family's economic resources and adolescents' health complaints - do adolescents' own economic resources matter? 2013Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 24-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The present study focuses on the relevance of economic resources to psychological and psychosomatic health complaints during adolescence. It explores the link between the family's and the adolescent's economic resources and investigates whether or not differences in health complaints by the family's financial situation can be explained by adolescents' own economic resources. Methods: Drawing on data from two Swedish surveys on living conditions during adolescence (in the age group 10-18 years) conducted in 2002-03, logistic regressions were used to assess the associations between adolescents' own and household economic resources on two measures of health complaints. Results: The association between family economic hardship (i.e. lack of cash margin) and adolescents' health complaints largely disappeared when controlling for adolescents' own economic resources. Three measures of own absolute and relative economic resources were used. Out of these, the ability (or not) to buy things that others have was connected with both psychological [Odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.6-2.9] and psychosomatic complaints (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.3-2.1), irrespective of age and gender. The importance of lacking a personal cash margin or not being able to join friends seemed to differ between age groups and genders. Conclusions: The importance of different aspects of economic resources seems to vary across age groups and gender. However, not being able to buy things that others have was clearly associated with health complaints irrespective of age and gender. Family economic hardship was associated with adolescents' health complaints, and this association was largely explained by adolescents' own economic resources.

  • 48.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    De ojämlika barnaåren – med fokus på välfärdsforskning, barnperspektiv och familjeekonomi2008Inngår i: Ojämlikhet och utanförskap: Rapport från forskningsseminarium i Umeå, 2008, s. 63-69Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ojämlikhet i levnadsvillkor och hälsa – resultat från Välfärdsundersökningarna för barn och ungdomar2018Inngår i: Barn och föräldrar i socialförsäkringen: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 17–18 januari 2018, Försäkringskassan , 2018, , s. 12s. 85-96Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 50.
    Östberg, Viveca
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Folkesson, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Complexity of Stress in Mid-Adolescent Girls and Boys2015Inngår i: Child Indicators Research, ISSN 1874-897X, E-ISSN 1874-8988, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 403-423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many Western countries adolescents, especially girls, report high levels of stress and stress-related health complaints. In this study we investigate the concept of stress in a group of 14-15 year-olds (grade 8 in two Stockholm schools) using a multiple methods approach. The aim is to analyse stress, and gender differences in stress, as indicated by a measure of perceived stress (questionnaires, n = 212), the diurnal variation in the biomarker cortisol (saliva samples, n = 108) and the students' own accounts of stress (semi-structured interviews, n = 49). The results were generated within the traditional framework of each method and integrated at the point of interpretation. The hypothesis that adolescent girls experience more stress than boys was confirmed by all methods used. In the questionnaire, the most commonly experienced aspects of perceived stress were the same among girls and boys, but girls consistently reported higher frequencies. The saliva samples showed that girls had greater cortisol output in the morning. In the individual semi-structured interviews, girls and boys discussed stress in similar ways but both acknowledged a gender gap to the disadvantage of girls. The results as a whole suggests an interpretation of gender differences that focuses girls' attitudes, perceived expectations and coping strategies in relation to school performance, with their focus on achievement, marks, hard work, and worries about the future. The findings point to a need of an increased awareness about the role of perceived expectations in the stress process, and that these expectations and their impact on stress may differ by the gender of the student.

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