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  • 1.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. KI, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Cognitive decline from estimated premorbid status predicts neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease2009Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 117-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between premorbid and current cognitive function with respect to the clinical features of patients with various types of neurodegeneration in the form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), as compared with a healthy control group (C). Clinical features (MMSE, cognitive and depressive symptoms), genetics (apolipoprotein E; APOE) and measures of neurodegeneration (Aβ-sub(42), t-tau, and p-tau) were examined, as well as present cognitive function. Various methods of assessing premorbid cognitive function were compared, including a Swedish NART-analogous test (Irregularly Spelled Words; ISW), a Swedish lexical decision test (SLDT), a Hold test (Information in WAIS-R), Best current performance test, and combined demographic characteristics. Results showed that cognitive decline (premorbid minus current cognitive function) based on SLDT and ISW was a significant predictor for MMSE and Aβ-sub(42), whereas corresponding associations for present cognitive function and decline measures based on other methods were less powerful. Results also showed that specific verbal abilities (e.g., SLDT and ISW) were insensitive to AD and that these abilities indicated premorbid cognitive function in retrospect. In conclusion, cognitive decline from premorbid status reflects the disease processes.

  • 2.
    Bellander, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Bäckman, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Liu, Tian
    Schjeide, Brit-Maren M.
    Bertram, Lars
    Schmiedek, Florian
    Lindenberger, Ulman
    Lövdén, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Germany.
    Lower baseline performance but greater plasticity of working memory for carriers of the val allele of the comt val158met polymorphism2015Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 247-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Little is known about genetic contributions to individual differences in cognitive plasticity. Given that the neurotransmitter dopamine is critical for cognition and associated with cognitive plasticity, we investigated the effects of 3 polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes (LMX1A, DRD2, COMT) on baseline performance and plasticity of working memory (WM), perceptual speed, and reasoning. Method: One hundred one younger and 103 older adults underwent approximately 100 days of cognitive training, and extensive testing before and after training. We analyzed the baseline and posttest data using latent change score models. Results: For working memory, carriers of the val allele of the COMT polymorphism had lower baseline performance and larger performance gains from training than carriers of the met allele. There was no significant effect of the other genes or on other cognitive domains. Conclusions: We relate this result to available evidence indicating that met carriers perform better than val carriers in WM tasks taxing maintenance, whereas val carriers perform better at updating tasks. We suggest that val carriers may show larger training gains because updating operations carry greater potential for plasticity than maintenance operations.

  • 3.
    de Frias, Cindy M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Dixon, Roger A.
    University of Alberta.
    Strauss, Esther
    University of Victoria.
    Characterizing executive functioning in older special populations: From cognitively elite to cognitively impaired2009Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 778-791Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LISREL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models (“Inhibition”: Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; “Shifting”: Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D’Elia et al., 1996]; and “Updating”: Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability.

  • 4.
    Laukka, Erika J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Starr, John M.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Lower Ankle-Brachial Index Is Related to Worse Cognitive Performance in Old Age2014Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 281-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We aimed to study the associations between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) and performance in a range of cognitive domains in nondemented elderly persons. Methods: Data were collected within the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 and 1936 studies. These are two narrow-age cohorts at age 87 (n = 170) and 73 (n = 748) years. ABI was analyzed as a dichotomous (PAD vs. no PAD) and a continuous measure. PAD was defined as having an ABI less than 0.90. Measures of nonverbal reasoning, verbal declarative memory, verbal fluency, working memory, and processing speed were administered. Both samples were screened for dementia. Results: We observed no significant differences in cognitive performance between persons with or without PAD. However, higher ABI was associated with better general cognition (beta = .23, p = .02, R-2 change = .05) and processing speed (beta = .29, p < .01, R-2 change = .08) in the older cohort and better processing speed (beta = .12, p < .01, R-2 change = .01) in the younger cohort. This was after controlling for age, sex, and childhood mental ability and excluding persons with abnormally high ABI (>1.40) and a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion: Lower ABI is associated with worse cognitive performance in old age, especially in the oldest old (>85 years), possibly because of long-term exposure to atherosclerotic disease. Interventions targeting PAD in persons free of manifest cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease may reduce the incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia.

  • 5.
    Lewin, Catharina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wolgers, G
    Herlitz, A
    Sex differences favoring women in verbal but not in visuospatial episodic memory2001Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 165-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences favoring women have been found in a number of studies of episodic memory. This study examined sex differences in verbal, nonverbal, and visuospatial episodic memory tasks. Results showed that although women performed at a higher level on a composite verbal and nonverbal episodic memory score, men performed at a higher level on a composite score of episodic memory tasks requiring visuospatial processing. Thus, men can use their superior visuospatial abilities to excel in highly visuospatial episodic memory tasks, whereas women seem to excel in episodic memory tasks in which a verbalization of the material is possible.

  • 6. Lundqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Svärd, Joakim
    Michelgård Palmquist, Åsa
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Svenningsson, Per
    Patients with Parkinson’s disease display a dopamine therapy related negative bias and an enlarged range in emotional responses to facial emotional stimuli2017Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 605-612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The literature on emotional processing in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients shows mixed results. This may be because of various methodological and/or patient-related differences, such as failing to adjust for cognitive functioning, depression, and/or mood. Method: In the current study, we tested PD patients and healthy controls (HCs) using emotional stimuli across a variety of tasks, including visual search, short-term memory (STM), categorical perception, and emotional stimulus rating. The PD and HC groups were matched on cognitive ability, depression, and mood. We also explored possible relationships between task results and antiparkinsonian treatment effects, as measured by levodopa equivalent dosages (LED), in the PD group. Results: The results show that PD patients use a larger emotional range compared with HCs when reporting their impression of emotional faces on rated emotional valence, arousal, and potency. The results also show that dopaminergic therapy was correlated with stimulus rating results such that PD patients with higher LED scores rated negative faces as less arousing, less negative, and less powerful. Finally, results also show that PD patients display a general slowing effect in the visual search tasks compared with HCs, indicating overall slowed responses. There were no group differences observed in the STM or categorical perception tasks. Conclusions: Our results indicate a relationship between emotional responses, PD, and dopaminergic therapy, in which PD per se is associated with stronger emotional responses, whereas LED levels are negatively correlated with the strength of emotional responses.

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