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  • 1. Baumann, Chris
    et al.
    Winzar, Hume
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    East Asian wisdom and relativity: Inter-ocular testing of Schwartz values from WVS with extension of the ReVaMB model2018Ingår i: Cross cultural & strategic management, ISSN 2059-5794, E-ISSN 2059-5808, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 210-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is threefold. First, the paper demonstrates how inter-ocular testing (looking at the data) of Schwartz values from world values study (WVS) provides a surprisingly different picture to what the authors would expect from traditional mean comparison testing (t-tests, analysis of variance (ANOVA)). Second, the authors suggest that the ReVaMB model can be applied to an East Asian philosophical perspective. Relativity, the authors argue, is a factor when East Asian wisdom, philosophies and ideologies (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Legalism) drive outcomes such as work ethic. Third, the paper serves as an editorial to a special issue in CCSM on East Asian wisdom and its impact on business culture and performance in a cross-cultural context. Common themes are Yin Yang, how different cultures deal with paradox, and Zhong Yong, with accompanying concerns of how to conceptualise and deal with balance of opposites. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopted ten variables of the Schwartz values scales used in the WVS and subjected them to principle components analysis to reduce the number of variables. The authors found a two-factor solution: one relating to personal material success and adventure and excitement; another relating to success and personal recognition. The authors labelled these factors as Altruism and Hedonism. The analysis is based on an overall sample of 84,692 respondents in 60 countries. In addition to traditional statistical testing, the authors conduct inter-ocular testing. The authors also suggest that the ReVaMB model can be applied to East Asian wisdom. Findings Three recommendations help to arrive at more accurate conclusions when comparing groups: the authors recommend to aspire to consistent look and statistic. If the data distribution does not agree with the statistics, then the researcher should take a closer look. To avoid misinterpreting statistics and other analysis, the authors recommend inter-ocular testing, i.e. eyeballing data in a scientific fashion. The authors provide specific examples how to do that. The authors recommend to test for common-language effect size (CLE), and also recommend a new rule of thumb, i.e. a split of 60/40 as minimum difference to make any generalisation; 70/30 is worth considering. The rule of thumb contributes to better differentiation between real and not real differences. Originality/value The authors introduce two concepts: the inter-ocular test, which simply means to look at your data, and the Chinese word, ?? (Cujue) which roughly translates to illusion, wrong impression, or misconception. This study argues against accepting simplistic averages for data analysis. The authors provide evidence that an inter-ocular test provides a more comprehensive picture of data when comparing groups rather than simply relying on traditional statistical mean comparison testing. The word of caution is to avoid premature conclusions on group comparisons with statistical testing alone. The authors also propose an extension of the original ReVaMB model from a confucian orientation to a broad East Asian philosophical perspective. Culture does determine attitudes and behaviour which in turn contribute to the shaping of cultures, depending on situation, context, location and time. The context for a situation to occur should be tested as moderators, for example, between East Asian wisdom (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Legalism) and behavioural or attitudinal dimensions such as work ethic.

  • 2.
    Fang, Tony
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Tung, Rosalie L.
    Berg, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Nematshahi, Nazanin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Parachuting internationalization: a study of four Scandinavian firms entering China2017Ingår i: Cross cultural & strategic management, ISSN 2059-5794, E-ISSN 2059-5808, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 554-589Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a parachuting internationalization metaphor as an alternative strategy that firms may choose to enter foreign markets compared to Uppsala Model and Born Global Model. This proposed new metaphor seeks to integrate the Uppsala and the Born Global Models to show that firms can attain success in the age of globalization if they are adept at devising creative strategies that help them overcome the challenges in a psychically distant environment. Design/methodology/approach - This is a research paper that develops theoretical perspectives inspired by the Yin Yang thinking as well as the thick descriptive multiple case studies. Findings - Parachuting internationalization embraces essential elements of the Born Global and the Uppsala Models and refers to a firm's strategic targeting of markets with great potentials, correct positioning, swift actions, and fast learning, thus enabling the firm to circumvent the conventional wisdom of liability of foreignness, cultural distance, and psychic distance. Parachuting internationalization is essentially a GLOCAL approach which can be implemented in practice in terms of global vision, location, opportunity, capital, accelerated cultural learning and quick action, and logistics. Research limitations/implications - The parachuting internationalization metaphor is derived from interviews with four Scandinavian firms' experiences that have entered into the Chinese market. This research reveals that two seemingly opposite approaches, i.e., the Born Global and the Uppsala Models, can be fruitfully combined and reconciled to generate a third novel approach. Originality/value - To date, there has been little attempt to reconcile and/or integrate the Born Global and the Uppsala Models of internationalization. The paper enriches the ongoing debate on the internationalization of firms in the international business literature that has relied primarily on the Uppsala Model or Born Global Model. The study shows that a third way, i.e. the parachuting internationalization is both theoretically innovative and practically feasible.

  • 3. Pauluzzo, Rubens
    et al.
    Guarda, Marta
    De Pretto, Laura
    Fang, Tony
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Managing paradoxes, dilemmas, and change: A case study to apply the Yin Yang wisdom in Western organizational settings2018Ingår i: Cross cultural & strategic management, ISSN 2059-5794, E-ISSN 2059-5808, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 257-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Drawing on Fang's (2012) Yin Yang theory of culture while taking up the roadmap proposed by Li (2016) for applying the epistemological system of Yin Yang balancing to complex issues in management research, in general, and to paradoxical issues, in particular, the purpose of this paper is to explore how organizations and individuals in the West can balance cultural paradoxes and manage culture dilemmas through the lens of Yin Yang wisdom. Design/methodology/approach The paper is based on a qualitative case study. Data are gathered through interviews, documents, and field observations in four subsidiaries of an Italian insurance multinational corporation and were analyzed according to the three parameters, i.e., situation, context, and time (Fang, 2012). Findings The findings show how the integration and learning from seemingly opposite cultures and sets of values lead the organization and individuals to balancing cultural paradox and managing cultural dilemma effectively. With regard to situation, the authors find that both organizations and customers choose the most relevant value(s) to take advantage of specific events or circumstances, and that different value orientations can coexist. As for context, the authors show that organizations can adapt their values either through suppression and/or promotion, which can foster individuals to find new balancing within the paradox. In terms of time, the authors show that the process of learning from other cultures over time can play a role in the shift of people's and organizations' choices of attitudes and value orientations. Originality/value The paper suggests the relevance and usefulness of adopting Yin Yang wisdom to uncover the dynamic process of cultural learning in Western scenarios.

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