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  • 1. Ahlström, Hanna
    et al.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Governance, polycentricity and the global nitrogen and phosphorus cycles2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 79, s. 54-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change and governance scholars frequently highlight polycentricity as a feature of resilient governance, but both theoretical and empirical knowledge about features and outcomes of the concept are lacking at the global scale. Here we investigate the structural properties of governance of global nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles, two processes in the 'planetary boundaries' framework. We have used a mixed-methods approach to institutional analysis, integrating polycentric theory with social network theory in environmental policy and legal studies. We include an actor collaboration case study, the Global Partnership on Nutrient Management (GPNM), to explore governance challenges associated with global N and P cycles. We set the scope for selection of relevant legal instruments using an overview of global N and P flows between Earth system 'components' (land, water, atmosphere, oceans, biosphere) and the major anthropogenic N and P perturbations. Our network analysis of citations of global N and P governance exposes the structural patterns of a loose network among the principal institutions and actors, in which legal instruments of the European Union serve as key cross-scale and cross-sectoral 'gateways'. We show that the current international regimes in place for regulating N- and P-related issues represent a gap in governance at the global level. In addition, we are able to show that the emergence of GPNM provides synergies in this context of insufficient governance. The GPNM can be viewed as a structure of polycentric governance as it involves deliberate attempts for mutual adjustments and self-organised action.

  • 2.
    Burian, Alfred
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik. University of Derby, UK.
    Karaya, Rebecca
    Wernersson, Julia E. V.
    Egberth, Mikael
    Lokorwa, Benjamin
    Nyberg, Gert
    A community-based evaluation of population growth and agro-pastoralist resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 92, s. 323-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth is considered together with climate warming as major driver of change in Sub-Saharan Africa. Research on the implications of increased population densities often utilises community knowledge but without incorporating the view of local stakeholders. In this study, we applied a community centred approach to assess direct and indirect consequences of population growth in drylands of north-western Kenya. Combined social, agricultural and geo-spatial analyses allowed us to identify major system transitions, determine their linkage to population growth and deduce consequences for local livelihoods and community resilience. Community-members reported positive and negative consequences of fourfold population growth since 1974 but evaluated its overall effect as clearly beneficial. This overall positive effect was based on both, positive developments and the successful mitigation of potential system stressors. First, food security was maintained despite high growth rates because a shift from migratory pastoralism to a more labour-intensive agro-pastoralist system helped to increase agricultural productivity. Additionally, land-use changes were linked to land privatisation and improved erosion protection on private land, decoupling population growth from environmental degradation. We detected, however also early warning signs of reduced community resilience as households were unable to fully recover livestock densities after catastrophic events. A population-growth driven reduction in household land-sizes and the decreased monetary value of agricultural production were identified as drivers of this development. The extrapolation of our results to establish a general relationship between population densities, land-use and household resilience in Sub-Saharan drylands suggest that further system transformations will be required to ensure regional food-security.

  • 3. Camps-Calvet, Marta
    et al.
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Calvet-Mir, Laura
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Ecosystem services provided by urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain: Insights for policy and planning2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 62, s. 14-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many European cities, urban gardens are seen as increasingly important components of urban green space networks. We adopt an ecosystem services framework to assess contributions of urban gardens to the quality of of their users. First, we identify and characterize ecosystem services provided by urban gardens. Secondly, we assess the demographic and socioeconomic profile of its beneficiaries and the relative importance they attribute to different ecosystem services. Next we discuss the relevance of our results in relation to critical policy challenges, such as the promotion of societal cohesion and healthy lifestyles. Data were collected through 44 semi-structured interviews and a survey among 201 users of 27 urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain, as well as from consultation meetings with local planners. We identified 20 ecosystem services, ranging from food production over pollination to social cohesion and environmental learning. Among them, cultural ecosystem services (non-material benefits people derive from their interaction with nature) stand out as the most widely perceived and as the most highly valued. The main beneficiaries of ecosystem services from urban gardens are elder, low-middle income, and migrant people. Our results about the societal importance of urban gardens were deemed highly relevant by the interviewed green space planners in Barcelona, who noted that our data can provide basis to support or expand existing gardening programs in the city. Our research further suggests that ecosystem services from urban gardens can play an important role in addressing several urban policy challenges in cities, such as promoting stewardship of urban ecosystems, providing opportunities for recreation and healthy lifestyles, and promoting social cohesion. We conclude that urban gardens and associated ecosystem services can play an important in urban policies aimed at enhancing quality of life in cities, particularly if access to their benefits is expanded to larger segments of the population.

  • 4.
    Cornell, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Bristol, England.
    Berkhout, Frans
    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae
    Opening up knowledge systems for better responses to global environmental change2013Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 28, s. 60-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linking knowledge with action for effective societal responses to persistent problems of unsustainability requires transformed, more open knowledge systems. Drawing on a broad range of academic and practitioner experience, we outline a vision for the coordination and organization of knowledge systems that are better suited to the complex challenges of sustainability than the ones currently in place. This transformation includes inter alia: societal agenda setting, collective problem framing, a plurality of perspectives, integrative research processes, new norms for handling dissent and controversy, better treatment of uncertainty and of diversity of values, extended peer review, broader and more transparent metrics for evaluation, effective dialog processes, and stakeholder participation. We set out institutional and individual roadmaps for achieving this vision, calling for well-designed, properly resourced, longitudinal, international learning programs.

  • 5. Cvitanovic, Christopher
    et al.
    Howden, Mark
    Colvin, R. M.
    Norström, Albert
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Meadow, Alison M.
    Addison, P. F. E.
    Maximising the benefits of participatory climate adaptation research by understanding and managing the associated challenges and risks2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 94, s. 20-31Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory research approaches are increasingly advocated as an effective means to produce usable climate adaptation science, and increase the likelihood that it will be beneficially incorporated into decision-making processes. However, while the implementation of participatory research approaches, such as those associated with knowledge co-production, have become increasingly commonplace, to date there has been little consideration given to the challenges and subsequent risks associated with their use. To start to address this gap we review the literature on participatory research in climate adaptation science. In doing so we identify and articulate several challenges, and subsequent risks, created by participatory research approaches to adaptation (i) science, (ii) scientists and scientific institutions, (iii) decision-makers and decision-making institutions and (iv) research funders. Based on this we identify seven strategies to help manage these challenges and reduce the associated risks: (a) choose participants carefully; (b) monitor team composition and adjust as necessary; (c) set clear expectations, and agreed conflict resolution mechanisms; (d) use different modes of scientific inquiry that can account for different knowledges and biases; (e) incorporate mechanisms for independent review at all stages of research; (f) reimagine professional development for adaptation researchers, and (g) ensure that appropriate institutional support is in place. These strategies can help to increase the likelihood that participatory research approaches will achieve their goal of generating knowledge that will help society successfully navigate modern day sustainability challenges, such as those posed by climate change.

  • 6.
    Goodness, Julie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Urban landscaping choices and people’s selection of plant traits in Cape Town, South Africa2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 85, s. 182-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As cities increasingly become the dominant settlement form across the world, it is critical to gain a deeper insight into their dynamics, in order to better direct environmental management towards enhancing urban sustainability and environmental quality. People are a key driver shaping the ecological makeup of cities, not least through landscaping actions and choices. In this study, we explore social factors shaping plant selection in Cape Town, South Africa through interviews with stakeholders responsible for managing and landscaping across three land use types: private residential gardens, public parks and open space, and conservation areas. We combine an interdisciplinary, multi-scalar framework on residential landscape dynamics and a plant traits lens to structure our approach to examining the influence of social factors on plant selection across spatial and institutional scales in the city, from a bottom-up perspective. Residents name a variety of reasons for plant selection at the household scale related to plant traits, including aesthetics, utility (e.g., food provision), environmental suitability, and personal symbolic meanings. Parks managers select for ecological suitability as well as aesthetic concerns, and conservation managers select chiefly for ecological integrity. All stakeholders describe factors at other scales (e.g., property structure, government policies) that influence their plant selection. We indicate that a complementary patchwork of private gardens and public open spaces could serve as a source of trait diversity and provide a variety of ecosystem functions and services in the urban landscape, and suggest that management and policy efforts can focus on leveraging synergies towards this end. This study contributes to a greater understanding of the social-ecological dynamics in a global south city and biodiversity hotspot.

  • 7.
    Hoppe, Sabina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Garmo, Öyvind A.
    Leppanen, Matti. T.
    Borg, Hans
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Ndungu, Kuria
    Soft and sour: The challenge of setting environmental quality standards for bioavailable metal concentration in Fennoscandinavian freshwaters2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 54, s. 210-217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires member states to ensure that all inland and coastal waters achieve 'good' water quality status. To this end, the WFD has set environmental quality standards (EQS) or Water quality criteria (WQC) for priority pollutants that include the four metals Cd, Ni, Pb and Hg. Many states have also chosen to set EQS for Cu and Zn. The use of bioavailability models to set EQS, paves the way for accepting higher local metal concentrations in waters where metal bioavailability is deemed low. The Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) concept has been proposed as a tool for estimating metal bioavailability and for calculating local EQS in the EU guidance document. The BLM estimates metal bioavailability based on the dissolved metal concentration and key ancillary water chemistry parameters (acidity, hardness and organic carbon content). The BLMs developed so far, have only been validated for water chemistry input parameters typical of Central Europe. However, the pH, alkalinity and dissolved organic carbon levels of a significant fraction of Fennoscandinavian (Finland, Norway and Sweden) freshwaters are outside the calibration range of currently available BLMs. The levels of Ca2+, alkalinity and pH in 75%, 29% and 22%, respectively, of the ca. 2500 Fennoscandinavian freshwater bodies investigated in this survey were outside the calibration range of tested BLMs. Moreover, a comparison of the ability of the tested BLMs to predict the acute and chronic copper toxicity to Daphnia magma and Rainbow trout indicated that the BLMs should be used with caution outside their current validation range. We conclude that more work is needed to extend the application of BLMs in the practical risk assessment to encompass a broader range of European freshwater bodies.

  • 8.
    Ituarte-Lima, Claudia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oxford, England.
    McDermott, Constance L.
    Mulyani, Mari
    Assessing equity in national legal frameworks for REDD plus: The case of Indonesia2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 44, s. 291-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Schemes for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+) have raised concerns about their effects on forest communities and social equity more generally. National legal frameworks play a critical role in mediating these concerns within different country contexts, from the definition of fundamental constitutional rights to the articulation of specific REDD+ legislation. However, the complexity of REDD+ and its associated legal frameworks makes assessing the balance of rights, responsibilities, benefits and costs challenging indeed. This paper draws on a case study of Indonesia to illustrate how the application of an equity framework can help navigate this complexity. The paper applies the McDermott et al. (2013) Equity Framework to assess core legal texts at multiple scales, including key articles of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, as well as Indonesia's Constitution, its REDD+ strategy and selected legislation. We find that these selected legal instruments address the procedural issue of who is considered a relevant REDD+ stakeholder, including forest-dependent communities and private and public actors. Policies in the form of Ministerial Decrees also prescribe the distribution of carbon payments. However, the current legislation does not address critical contextual dimensions, including the distribution of bundles of rights and obligations regarding land and forest entitlements of forest-dependent people. Likewise, while there are Ministerial Decrees that spell out the distribution of rights and duties of different levels of government (central, provincial and local), there is no clear indication if the resources needed to ensure their respective attributions are equitably allocated. These results highlight the importance of adopting comprehensive frameworks for assessing equity that situate detailed analysis of specific REDD+-related laws within their broader legal and fiscal contexts.

  • 9.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Environment Institute. Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research and Department of Thematic Studies, Linköping University.
    Juhola, Sirkku
    A framework for Nordic actor-oriented climate adaptation research2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 40, s. 101-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Kløcker Larsen, Rasmus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Gerger Swartling, Åsa
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Powell, Neil
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    May, Brad
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Simonsson, Louise
    Osbeck, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    A framework for facilitating dialogue between policy planners and local climate change adaptation professionals: cases from Sweden, Canada and Indonesia2012Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 23, s. 12-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant approach to mainstreaming climate adaptation into sectoral policies relies on an ‘upscaling’ model in which it is envisaged to extract lessons from local change processes to inspire generic sub-national and national policies. One of the central methodological questions, which remain unanswered in climate change adaptation research, is exactly how public policy can learn from highly contextual experiences of community-based adaptation and what role should be played by case study research. In this paper we undertake a comparison between three large research projects in Sweden, Canada and Indonesia, which aim to study and/or foster local adaptation in selected case studies through a process of social learning. We present a novel framework based on mapping of ‘sense-making perspectives’, which enables analysis of the multiple ways case study research can support local climate adaptation and link such efforts to higher level public policy. The analysis demonstrates how methodological choices shape how case study research works at the interface between planned (steered/regulatory policy) and self-organised adaptation of stakeholders (non-coercive policy). In this regard, there is a need for a high degree of transparency from the research community to enable local professionals to decide on their stakes and interests when inviting researchers into their grounded activities. We conclude that case study research can achieve new significance if viewed as a platform to leverage stakeholder competencies when informing existing social structures and enable the implementation of political objectives, but equally driving the very reinvention and improvement of these institutions.

  • 11.
    Langemeyer, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Gomez-Baggethun, Erik
    Haase, Dagmar
    Scheuer, Sebastian
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bridging the gap between ecosystem service assessments and land-use planning through Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 62, s. 45-56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use planning is an important determinant for green space policy in cities. It defines land covers and hence the structure and function of urban ecosystems and the benefits these provide to humans, such as air purification, urban cooling, runoff mitigation, and recreation. The ecosystem service approach has helped to attract policy attention to these benefits but the concept remains poorly implemented in urban policy and governance. To address this gap, we advance a framework to bridge ecosystem services into policy processes through Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) as decision support tool. The paper is organized in three main parts. First, we conduct a systematic literature review to assess state-of-the-art knowledge on ecosystem service assessments through MCDA. Next, we build on insights from the literature review to develop the 'ecosystem services policy-cycle', a conceptual framework that merges the 'ecosystem service cascade' and 'policy cycle' models to reinforce the link between ecosystem service assessments and practical applications in urban policy and governance. Next, we illustrate the applicability of the proposed framework along an example about conflicting interests on land use and green space planning following the closure of the Airport Tempelhof in Berlin, Germany. Our results highlight the scope of MCDA as a decision support tool for integrating ecosystem service assessments in green space governance. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of different methodological choices in the use of MCDA in ecosystem service assessments and note that a key strength of this tool in informing green space policies lies in its capacity to accommodate conflicting stakeholder perspectives and to address trade-offs between ecological, social and economic values.

  • 12. Moore, Michele-Lee
    et al.
    von der Porten, Suzanne
    Plummer, Ryan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Brock University, Canada.
    Brandes, Oliver
    Baird, Julia
    Water policy reform and innovation: A systematic review2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 38, s. 263-271Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing need for innovation in water policy is increasingly recognized within water policy and governance scholarship, but the types of innovation and changes being considered or undertaken, and the conditions that enable or hinder those changes remain unclear. A systematic review of water policy reform literature was undertaken to investigate how innovation is defined in this area of scholarship and the enabling conditions or barriers shaping the innovation process. The findings of the review demonstrated that the mainstream water policy reform scholarship that examines innovation is limited. A small portion of the water policy reform literature that addresses innovation considers different types of policy changes as innovative. Therefore, the results are used to propose a typology of water policy innovations. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that preliminary knowledge about the role of policy entrepreneurs, networks, social learning, adaptive approaches, and niche experiments in the innovation process emerge in a sub-set of the water policy reform literature.

  • 13.
    Orach, Kirill
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schlüter, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tracing a pathway to success: How competing interest groups influenced the 2013 EU Common Fisheries Policy reform2017Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 76, s. 90-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation of environmental policies to often unexpected crises is an important function of sustainable governance arrangements. However the relationship between environmental change and policy is complicated. Much research has focused on understanding institutional dynamics or the role of specific participants in the policy process. This paper draws attention to interest groups and the mechanism through which they influence policy change. Existing research offers conflicting evidence in regards to the different ways in which interest groups may affect change. This paper provides an in-depth study of the 2013 European Union Common Fisheries Policy reform a policy change characterized by active interest group participation. It traces the activity of interest group coalitions to understand how they achieved influence under a changing policy context. The study involves interviews with interest group representatives, policy experts and decision-makers, document analysis of interest group statements and EU legislative documents. Findings identify the important role of coalition building and informational lobbying for environmental interest group success in exploiting favorable sociopolitical conditions and influencing reform outcomes. An insight on interest group influence and its conditions contributes to our understanding of the complex dynamics of the environmental policy process as well as its implications for policy adaptation to environmental change.

  • 14. Pacyna, Jozef M.
    et al.
    Cousins, Ian T.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad miljövetenskap (ITM).
    Halsall, Crispin
    Rautio, Arja
    Pawlak, Janet
    Pacyna, Elisabeth G.
    Sundseth, Kyrre
    Wilson, Simon
    Munthe, John
    Impacts on human health in the Arctic owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling - The EU ArcRisk project policy outcome2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 50, s. 200-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of the EU ArcRisk project on human health impacts in the Arctic owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling are summarized in the context of their policy application. The question on how will climate change affect the transport of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPS) and mercury, both to and within the Arctic has been addressed, as well as the issue of human health impacts of these pollutants in the Arctic in relation to exposed local populations. It was concluded that better characterization of primary and secondary sources of POPs and more accurate quantification of current and future releases of POPs from these sources are needed for better prediction of environmental exposure to these contaminants and interpretation of monitoring data. Further improvement of fate and transport modeling in the physical environment is necessary in order to consider in the models not only the relatively well studied direct effects of climate change (e.g., changes in temperature, ice and snow cover, precipitation, wind speed and ocean currents) on contaminants fate and behavior but also indirect effects, e.g., alterations in carbon cycling, catchment hydrology, land use, vegetation cover, etc. Long-term environmental monitoring of POPs (at multiple sampling stations within and outside the Arctic and at regular sampling intervals facilitates temporal trend analysis) and measurements of concentrations in human milk and blood plasma are needed. Finally, more information should be gathered on the human health effects of newly identified POPs, such as perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid (PFOS), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and other substances with POP-like characteristics, particularly the effects on very young (including fetus) and elderly subgroups of the human population. The Arc Risk developed methodologies and tools that can be used in further studies to resolve various uncertainties already defined in the analysis of climate change impacts on POPs and mercury behavior and effects in the Arctic. The ArcRisk project has also developed very valuable databases that can be regarded as a starting point in further studies.

  • 15.
    Plummer, Ryan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Velaniskis, Jonas
    de Grosbois, Danuta
    Kreutzwiser, Reid D.
    de Loe, Rob
    The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water2010Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 535-548Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While new environmental policies and procedures often are developed incrementally, they can also result from crises or other significant events. In situations where policies and procedures are introduced in response to a crisis, questions about the strengths and weaknesses of existing mechanisms, and the extent to which they can be used to address concerns, may be ignored. This paper explores the complexities of introducing new policies and processes where planning systems and procedures already exist. Drinking water source protection policies that are being developed in response to the tragic events in Walkerton, Ontario, Canada serve as the context for the inquiry. Three case study watersheds were selected to reflect the diversity of municipal jurisdictions and water supply systems in Ontario. A content analysis was undertaken on regulatory and non-regulatory policy documents to determine the extent to which they addressed elements of the multi-barrier approach for drinking water safety. Findings from the research reveal considerable evidence of the multi-barrier approach in the policy and guiding documents analyzed. Policy development in response to a crisis can advance progress on the issue of drinking water safety and coincide with emerging governance strategies. Policy effectiveness may be enhanced by considering existing policies as well as contextual and jurisdictional differences.

  • 16. Rosenzweig, Bernice
    et al.
    Ruddell, Benjamin L.
    McPhillips, Lauren
    Hobbins, Robert
    McPhearson, Timon
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The New School, USA; Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, USA.
    Cheng, Zhongqi
    Chang, Heejun
    Kim, Yeowon
    Developing knowledge systems for urban resilience to cloudburst rain events2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 99, s. 150-159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to cloudbursts - short-duration, intense rainfall events which are often inadequately addressed through conventional stormwater and flood management policy. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of cloudbursts in many cities. As minor cloudburst events become more frequent and extreme events more severe, cities will need to rapidly transform their stormwater drainage and interdependent systems, and the knowledge systems that guide their infrastructure decisions and policy. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of knowledge systems to address these challenges, using three diverse cities (Phoenix, USA; Copenhagen, Denmark; and New York City, USA) as case studies. We found that partnerships between cities - even across national boundaries - can be a particularly important component of cloudburst knowledge systems. We also identified limitations in knowledge systems related to non-stationary climate, the vulnerability of private property and the representation of cloudburst infrastructure in integrated water management, which present opportunities for future research to support decision-making.

  • 17. Shackleton, Ross T.
    et al.
    Biggs, Reinette
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Richardson, David M.
    Larson, Brendon M. H.
    Social-ecological drivers and impacts of invasion-related regime shifts: consequences for ecosystem services and human wellbeing2018Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 89, s. 300-314Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are growing concerns that increasing global environmental pressures could lead to the exceedance of critical ecological thresholds that could trigger long-lasting regime shifts that will affect the structure and function of ecosystems and the broader social-ecological systems in which they are embedded. Biological invasions are a major driver of global change, and a number of invasive species alter key ecological feedbacks in ways that lead to regime shifts, with consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem services, livelihoods and human wellbeing. We present four case studies, chosen to represent a diverse range of ecosystems and invasive taxa, to illustrate invasion-driven regime shifts in a variety of social-ecological systems globally. The case studies are: i) wattle trees (Australian Acacia species) in fynbos shrublands in South Africa; ii) Nile perch (Lates niloticus) in Lake Victoria in East Africa; iii) chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) within broad-leaved forests of eastern North America; and iv) the floating macrophytes salvinia (Salvinia molesta) and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) in East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea. For each case we identify the social and ecological drivers and feedbacks underlying the shift, the impacts on ecosystem services and human wellbeing, and the management options for reducing impacts. We discuss the value of using causal-loop diagrams to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of shifts, and explore how concepts associated with regime shifts can inform guidelines for enhancing adaptive governance of biological invasions. Identifying species that have the potential to generate high-impact regime shifts, understanding the diversity of consequences for different environments and stakeholders, and developing robust management methods to reduce impacts and restore systems to improve social-ecological resilience and reduce vulnerability are priorities for further research.

  • 18. Sietz, D.
    et al.
    Boschütz, M.
    Klein, Richard J.T.
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Mainstreaming climate adaptation into development assistance: rationale, institutional barriers and opportunities in Mozambique2011Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 14, nr 4, s. 493-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Pauline
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Barnard, Steve
    Elliott, Michael
    Andrusaitis, Andris
    Kononen, Kaisa
    Sirola, Maija
    Towards better integration of environmental science in society: Lessons from BONUS, the joint Baltic Sea environmental research and development programme2017Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 78, s. 193-209Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of environmental science in society is impeded by the large gap between science and policy that is characterised by weaknesses in societal relevance and dissemination of science and its practical implementation in policy. We analyse experiences from BONUS, the policy-driven joint Baltic Sea research and development programme (2007-2020), which is part of the European Research Area (ERA) and involves combined research funding by eight EU member states. The ERA process decreased fragmentation of Baltic Sea science and BONUS funding increased the scientific quality and societal relevance of Baltic Sea science and strengthened the science policy interface. Acknowledging the different drivers for science producers (academic career, need for funding, peer review) and science users (fast results fitting policy windows), and realising, that most scientists aim at building conceptual understanding rather than instrumental use, bridges can be built through strategic planning, coordination and integration. This requires strong programme governance stretching far beyond selecting projects for funding, such as coaching, facilitating the sharing of infrastructure and data and iterative networking within and between science producer and user groups in all programme phases. Instruments of critical importance for successful science-society integration were identified as: (1) coordinating a strategic research agenda with strong inputs from science, policy and management, (2) providing platforms where science and policy can meet, (3) requiring cooperation between scientists to decrease fragmentation, increase quality, clarify uncertainties and increase consensus about environmental problems, (4) encouraging and supporting scientists in disseminating their results through audience-tailored channels, and (5) funding not only primary research but also synthesis projects that evaluate the scientific findings and their practical use in society - in close cooperation with science users - to enhance relevance, credibility and legitimacy of environmental science and expand its practical implementation.

  • 20.
    Sörlin, Sverker
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reconfiguring environmental expertise2013Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 28, s. 14-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the concepts 'environment' and 'expertise'. It is argued that these concepts, while having long and diverse individual histories, acquired new meaning through a process of mutual co-production which occurred largely in the period 1920-1960, thus significantly preceding the common understanding of environmentalism as a phenomenon emerging in the 1960s. It is further argued that environmental expertise is much predicated on natural science in a range of fields that were integrated into a comprehensive understanding scaling upwards from the local to the global. Quantitative analysis, observing, measuring, and monitoring rates of change of a growing set of indicators were other key features of this emerging understanding of the environmental. Yet another key aspect was the self-proclaimed ability of environmental expertise to predict rates and directions of current and, crucially, future changes of global environmental conditions, increasingly assuming that these changes were largely of human origin. In addition to thus presenting a brief history of environmental expertise the article also makes the point that the environmental was, despite changed by human action, essentially regarded as something that did not in itself belong to the human or the social and thus the implicit prerogative of the natural sciences. The article argues, on the contrary, that there is solid historical evidence to suggest that 'environment' should also, perhaps primarily, be understood as a social concept, or rather as an extension of the social into nature. As conventional environmental expertise has failed to provide the advice needed to question the driving forces behind environmental degradation and lack of sustainability it is here instead suggested that environmental expertise be fundamentally reconfigured to include the social sciences and humanities, and that concerted research efforts are directed to the understanding of the formation of environmental expertise.

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