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  • 1.
    Kuhry, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Bárta, Jiří
    Blok, Daan
    Elberling, Bo
    Faucherre, Samuel
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Jørgensen, Christian J.
    Richter, Andreas
    Šantrůčková, Hana
    Weiss, Niels
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi.
    Lability classification of soil organic matter in the northern permafrost region2020Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 361-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The large stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) in soils and deposits of the northern permafrost region are sensitive to global warming and permafrost thawing. The potential release of this carbon (C) as greenhouse gases to the atmosphere does not only depend on the total quantity of soil organic matter (SOM) affected by warming and thawing, but it also depends on its lability (i.e., the rate at which it will decay). In this study we develop a simple and robust classification scheme of SOM lability for the main types of soils and deposits in the northern permafrost region. The classification is based on widely available soil geochemical parameters and landscape unit classes, which makes it useful for upscaling to the entire northern permafrost region. We have analyzed the relationship between C content and C-CO2 production rates of soil samples in two different types of laboratory incubation experiments. In one experiment, ca. 240 soil samples from four study areas were incubated using the same protocol (at 5 degrees C, aerobically) over a period of 1 year. Here we present C release rates measured on day 343 of incubation. These long-term results are compared to those obtained from short-term incubations of ca. 1000 samples (at 12 degrees C, aerobically) from an additional three study areas. In these experiments, C-CO2 production rates were measured over the first 4 d of incubation. We have focused our analyses on the relationship between C-CO2 production per gram dry weight per day (mu gC-CO2 gdw(-1) d(-1)) and C content (%C of dry weight) in the samples, but we show that relationships are consistent when using C = N ratios or different production units such as mu gC per gram soil C per day (mu gC-CO2 gC(-1) d(-1)) or per cm(3) of soil per day (mu gC-CO2 cm(-3) d(-1)). C content of the samples is positively correlated to C-CO2 production rates but explains less than 50% of the observed variability when the full datasets are considered. A partitioning of the data into landscape units greatly reduces variance and provides consistent results between incubation experiments. These results indicate that relative SOM lability decreases in the order of Late Holocene eolian deposits to alluvial deposits and mineral soils (including peaty wetlands) to Pleistocene yedoma deposits to C-enriched pockets in cryoturbated soils to peat deposits. Thus, three of the most important SOC storage classes in the northern permafrost region (yedoma, cryoturbated soils and peatlands) show low relative SOM lability. Previous research has suggested that SOM in these pools is relatively undecomposed, and the reasons for the observed low rates of decomposition in our experiments need urgent attention if we want to better constrain the magnitude of the thawing permafrost carbon feedback on global warming.

  • 2. Natali, Susan M.
    et al.
    Watts, Jennifer D.
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Potter, Stefano
    Ludwig, Sarah M.
    Selbmann, Anne-Katrin
    Sullivan, Patrick F.
    Abbott, Benjamin W.
    Arndt, Kyle A.
    Birch, Leah
    Björkman, Mats P.
    Bloom, A. Anthony
    Celis, Gerardo
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Christiansen, Casper T.
    Commane, Roisin
    Cooper, Elisabeth J.
    Crill, Patrick
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Czimczik, Claudia
    Davydov, Sergey
    Du, Jinyang
    Egan, Jocelyn E.
    Elberling, Bo
    Euskirchen, Eugenie S.
    Friborg, Thomas
    Genet, Hélène
    Göckede, Mathias
    Goodrich, Jordan P.
    Grogan, Paul
    Helbig, Manuel
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jastrow, Julie D.
    Kalhori, Aram A. M.
    Kim, Yongwon
    Kimball, John S.
    Kutzbach, Lars
    Lara, Mark J.
    Larsen, Klaus S.
    Lee, Bang-Yong
    Liu, Zhihua
    Loranty, Michael M.
    Lund, Magnus
    Lupascu, Massimo
    Madani, Nima
    Malhotra, Avni
    Matamala, Roser
    McFarland, Jack
    McGuire, A. David
    Michelsen, Anders
    Minions, Christina
    Oechel, Walter C.
    Olefeldt, David
    Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.
    Pirk, Norbert
    Poulter, Ben
    Quinton, William
    Rezanezhad, Fereidoun
    Risk, David
    Sachs, Torsten
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Niels M.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Semenchuk, Philipp R.
    Shaver, Gaius
    Sonnentag, Oliver
    Starr, Gregory
    Treat, Claire C.
    Waldrop, Mark P.
    Wang, Yihui
    Welker, Jeffrey
    Wille, Christian
    Xu, Xiaofeng
    Zhang, Zhen
    Zhuang, Qianlai
    Zona, Donatella
    Large loss of CO2 in winter observed across the northern permafrost region2019Ingår i: Nature Climate Change, ISSN 1758-678X, E-ISSN 1758-6798, Vol. 9, nr 11, s. 852-857Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter(1-3), greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO2)(4). However, the amount of CO2 released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates(5,6). Here we synthesize regional in situ observations of CO2 flux from Arctic and boreal soils to assess current and future winter carbon losses from the northern permafrost domain. We estimate a contemporary loss of 1,662 TgC per year from the permafrost region during the winter season (October-April). This loss is greater than the average growing season carbon uptake for this region estimated from process models (-1,032 TgC per year). Extending model predictions to warmer conditions up to 2100 indicates that winter CO2 emissions will increase 17% under a moderate mitigation scenario-Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5-and 41% under business-as-usual emissions scenario-Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Our results provide a baseline for winter CO2 emissions from northern terrestrial regions and indicate that enhanced soil CO2 loss due to winter warming may offset growing season carbon uptake under future climatic conditions.

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