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  • 1.
    de Jong, Jasper
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Fischer, Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Petrovic, Natasa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Brown adipose tissue in physiologically humanized mice phenocopies human brown fatManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Fischer, Alexander W.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.
    Csikasz, Robert I.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    No insulating effect of obesity2016Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 311, nr 1, s. e202-e213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of obesity may be aggravated if obesity itself insulates against heat loss and thus diminishes the amount of food burnt for body temperature control. This would be particularly important under normal laboratory conditions where mice experience a chronic cold stress (at approximate to 20 degrees C). We used Scholander plots (energy expenditure plotted against ambient temperature) to examine the insulation (thermal conductance) of mice, defined as the inverse of the slope of the Scholander curve at subthermoneutral temperatures. We verified the method by demonstrating that shaved mice possessed only half the insulation of non-shaved mice. We examined a series of obesity models [mice fed high-fat diets and kept at different temperatures, classical diet-induced obese mice, ob/ob mice, and obesity-prone (C57BL/6) vs. obesity-resistant (129S)mice]. We found that neither acclimation temperature nor any kind or degree of obesity affected the thermal insulation of the mice when analyzed at the whole mouse level or as energy expenditure per lean weight. Calculation per body weight erroneously implied increased insulation in obese mice. We conclude that, in contrast to what would be expected, obesity of any kind does not increase thermal insulation in mice, and therefore, it does not in itself aggravate the development of obesity. It may be discussed as to what degree of effect excess adipose tissue has on insulation in humans and especially whether significant metabolic effects are associated with insulation in humans.

  • 3.
    Fischer, Alexander W.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany.
    Csikasz, Robert I.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Reply to letter to the editor: at thermoneutrality, neither the lean nor the obese freeze2016Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 311, nr 3, s. E639-E639Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Luijten, Ineke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Feldmann, Helena
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    In the absence of UCP1-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity is augmented even in the obesity-resistant 129S mouse strainManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The attractive tenet that recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1) could counteract the development of obesity and its comorbidities in humans has been experimentally corroborated mainly by experiments demonstrating that UCP1-ablated mice on a C57Bl/6 background (housed exempt from thermal stress) become more obese when fed a high-fat diet. However, concerns may be raised that this outcome of UCP1 ablation is restricted to this very special inbred and particularly obesity-prone mouse strain. We have therefore examined to which degree UCP1 ablation has similar metabolic effects in a mouse strain known tobe obesity resistant: the 129S strain. For this, male 129S2/sv or 129SV/Pas mice and corresponding UCP1-KO mice were fed chow, or a high-fat or a cafeteria diet for 4 weeks. The absence of UCP1 augmented obesity (weight gain, body fat mass, % body fat, fat depot size) in high-fat diet- and cafeteria-fed mice, with a similar or lower food intake, indicating that, when present, UCP1 indeed decreases metabolic efficiency. The increased obesity was due to a decrease in energy expenditure. The consumption of a high-fat or cafeteria diet increased total BAT UCP1 protein levels in wild-type mice, and correspondingly, high-fat diet and cafeteria diet-fed mice demonstrated increased norepinephrine-induced oxygen consumption. There was a positive correlation between body fat and total BAT UCP1 protein content. No evidence for diet-induced adrenergic thermogenesis was found in UCP1-ablated mice. Thus, the obesity-reducing effect of UCP1 is not restricted to a particular, and perhaps not representative, mouse strain. 

  • 5.
    Luijten, Ineke H. N.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Feldmann, Helena M.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    In the absence of UCP1-mediated diet-induced thermogenesis, obesity is augmented even in the obesity-resistant 129S mouse strain2019Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 316, nr 5, s. E729-E740Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The attractive tenet that recruitment and activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) could counteract the development of obesity and its comorbidities in humans has been experimentally corroborated mainly by experiments demonstrating that UCP1-ablated mice on a C57B1/6 background (exempt from thermal stress) become more obese when fed a high-fat diet. However, concerns may be raised that this outcome of UCP1 ablation is restricted to this very special inbred and particularly obesity-prone mouse strain. Therefore, we have examined to which degree UCP1 ablation has similar metabolic effects in a mouse strain known to be obesity resistant: the 129S strain. For this, male 129S2/sv or 129SV/Pas mice and corresponding UCP1-knockout mice were fed chow or a high-fat or a cafeteria diet for 4 w.k. The absence of UCP1 augmented obesity (weight gain, body fat mass, %body fat, fat depot size) in high-fat diet- and cafeteria-fed mice, with a similar or lower food intake, indicating that, when present, UCP1 indeed decreases metabolic efficiency. The increased obesity was due to a decrease in energy expenditure. The consumption of a high-fat or cafeteria diet increased total BAT UCP1 protein levels in wild-type mice, and correspondingly. high-fat diet and cafeteria diet-fed mice demonstrated increased norepinephrine-induced oxygen consumption. There was a positive correlation between body fat and total BAT UCP1 protein content. No evidence for diet-induced adrenergic thermogenesis was found in UCP1-ablated mice. Thus, the obesity-reducing effect of UCP1 is not restricted to a particular, and perhaps not representative, mouse strain.

  • 6.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Energy flow and metabolic efficiency attributed to brown adipose tissue2017Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The large capacity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) to expend energy as heat makes it an interesting potential player in weight regulation and other metabolic conditions. This is of particular interest as it has been recognized that adult humans possess BAT. The protein responsible for the heat production is uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which, as the name implies, uncouples the respiratory chain from ATP production; instead heat is produced. Cold is the strongest recruiter and activator of BAT. However, also obesogenic food has a low but nonetheless significant effect on the recruitment and activation of UCP1, although the significance of this has been discussed.

    In the present thesis, I have studied the effect of diet on BAT and the possibilities for it to be obesity-protective. This can be done by comparing responses in wild-type mice and in UCP1-ablated mice. Since the effect of diet on BAT is low, it is of importance to control the temperature and maintain thermoneutrality. Other confounding factors to keep in mind are differences in actual energy and composition of food and also cohort differences. When controlling all the parameters mentioned and giving the mice the same obesogenic diet, the mice possessing UCP1 compared to UCP1-ablated mice had higher energy expenditure, and lower weight gain, despite eating more. This confirms the presence of a UCP1-dependent diet-induced thermogenesis. Thus, the conclusion must be that possessing UCP1 does result in obesity protection at thermoneutrality. However, the relevance for human energy balance is still not established.

  • 7.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The effect of various dietary fatty acids on adaptive thermogenesis2014Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently it has been revealed that brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in adult humans and not, as thought before, only in infants and rodents. BAT, with a main function to generate heat, is also involved in energy metabolism by an adaptive response to eating, referred to as diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). When activated, BAT has a large capacity to dissipate energy, therefore being an interesting player in counteracting obesity. The aim of this review was to examine whether dietary fatty acids may have effects on BAT. There are at least 20 different dietary fatty acids containing 4 to 22 carbons. Depending on length and amount of double bonds, the fatty acids have different properties and effects on BAT. In summary, dietary short-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids have the largest effect on BAT, with a substantial anti-obesity impact. Long-chain fatty acids and conjugated fatty acids have weaker effects; however they show browning in WAT and decreased visceral fat pad sizes, but possibly need long-term duration to be effective. Nonetheless, for BAT to stay active, it has to be constantly activated, indicating a continual requirement for adequate fatty acids to be more or less chronic to obtain thermogenic effects.

    Enclosed in this thesis are the following papers:

    Paper I: Significant diet-induced thermogenesis in wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated mice

    Paper II: No obesity protection from cold-recruited brown adipose tissue, when mice are transferred to thermoneutrality

    Paper III: Replacing long-chain triglycerides with medium-chain triglycerides abolishes diet-induced obesity

  • 8.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Englund, Petter
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    At thermoneutrality, medium-chain fatty acids totally protect against diet-induced obesity in a UCP1-independent mannerManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Lindsund, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Adaptive facultative diet-induced thermogenesis in wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated mice2017Ingår i: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 313, nr 5, s. E515-E527Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) for metabolic control is still debated. Although obesogenic diets recruit UCP1 and adrenergically inducible thermogenesis, and although the absence of UCP1 may promote the development of obesity, no actual UCP1-related thermogenesis identifiable as diet-induced thermogenesis has to date been unambiguously demonstrated. Examining mice living at thermoneutrality, we have identified a process of facultative (directly elicited by acute eating), adaptive (magnitude develops over weeks on an obesogenic diet), and fully UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. We found no evidence for UCP1-independent diet-induced thermogenesis. The thermogenesis was proportional to the total amount of UCP1 protein in brown adipose tissue and was not dependent on any contribution of UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue, since no UCP1 protein was found there under these conditions. Total UCP1 protein amount developed proportionally to total body fat content. The physiological messenger linking obesity level and acute eating to increased thermogenesis is not known. Thus UCP1-dependent diet-induced thermogenesis limits obesity development during exposure to obesogenic diets but does not prevent obesity as such.

  • 10.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Lindsund, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Adaptive Facultative Diet-induced Thermogenesis in Wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated MiceManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    von Essen, Gabriella
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maldonado, Elaina
    Lindsund, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Highly recruited brown adipose tissue does not in itself protect against obesityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
1 - 11 av 11
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