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  • 1. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Nyström, Marcus
    Holmqvist, Kenneth
    Fors, Carina
    Sandberg, David
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fit-for-duty test for estimation of drivers' sleepiness level: Eye movements improve the sleep/wake predictor2013Ingår i: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 26, s. 20-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver sleepiness contributes to a considerable proportion of road accidents, and a fit-for-duty test able to measure a driver’s sleepiness level might improve traffic safety. The aim of this study was to develop a fit-for-duty test based on eye movement measurements and on the sleep/wake predictor model (SWP, which predicts the sleepiness level) and evaluate the ability to predict severe sleepiness during real road driving. Twenty-four drivers participated in an experimental study which took place partly in the laboratory, where the fit-for-duty data were acquired, and partly on the road, where the drivers sleepiness was assessed. A series of four measurements were conducted over a 24-h period during different stages of sleepiness. Two separate analyses were performed; a variance analysis and a feature selection followed by classification analysis. In the first analysis it was found that the SWP and several eye movement features involving anti-saccades, pro-saccades, smooth pursuit, pupillometry and fixation stability varied significantly with different stages of sleep deprivation. In the second analysis, a feature set was determined based on floating forward selection. The correlation coefficient between a linear combination of the acquired features and subjective sleepiness (Karolinska sleepiness scale, KSS) was found to be R = 0.73 and the correct classification rate of drivers who reached high levels of sleepiness (KSS ⩾ 8) in the subsequent driving session was 82.4% (sensitivity = 80.0%, specificity = 84.2% and AUC = 0.86). Future improvements of a fit-for-duty test should focus on how to account for individual differences and situational/contextual factors in the test, and whether it is possible to maintain high sensitive/specificity with a shorter test that can be used in a real-life environment, e.g. on professional drivers.

  • 2. Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Jansson, Herman
    Finér, Svitlana
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Real-Time Adaptation of Driving Time and Rest Periods in Automated Long-Haul Trucking: Development of a System Based on Biomathematical Modelling, Fatigue and Relaxation Monitoring2022Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 4758-4766Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hours of service regulations govern the working hours of commercial motor vehicle drivers, but these regulations may become more flexible as highly automated vehicles have the potential to afford periods of in-cab rest or even sleep while the vehicle is moving. A prerequisite is robust continuous monitoring of when the driver is resting (to account for reduced time on task) or sleeping (to account for the reduced physiological drive to sleep). The overall aims of this paper are to raise a discussion of whether it is possible to obtain successful rest during automated driving, and to present initial work on a hypothetical data driven algorithm aimed to estimate if it is possible to gain driving time after resting under fully automated driving. The presented algorithm consists of four central components, a heart rate-based relaxation detection algorithm, a camera-based sleep detection algorithm, a fatigue modelling component taking time awake, time of day and time on task into account, and a component that estimates gained driving time. Real-time assessment of driver fitness is complicated, especially when it comes to the recuperative value of in-cab sleep and rest, as it depends on sleep quality, time of day, homeostatic sleep pressure and on the activities that are carried out while resting. The monotony that characterizes for long-haul truck driving is clearly interrupted for a while, but the long-term consequences of extended driving times, including user acceptance of the key stakeholders, requires further research.

  • 3.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The mediating effect of work-life interference on the relationship between work-time control and depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 46, nr 5, s. 469-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Evidence shows that work-time control (WTC) affects health but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Work-life interference (WLI) might be a step on the causal pathway. The present study examined whether WLI mediates effects on mental and physical health and contrasted these to other causal pathways.

    Methods Four biennial waves from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH, N=26 804) were used. Cross-lagged analyses were conducted to estimate if WLI mediated effects from WTC (differentiating between control over daily hours and time off) to subsequent depressive and musculoskeletal symptoms. Other causal directions (reversed mediation, direct and reversed direct effects) and robustness of mediation (by including covariates) were examined.

    Results WLI partially mediated the relationship of WTC (control over daily hours/time off) with both health outcomes. Indirect effect estimates were small for depressive symptoms (-0.053 for control over time off and -0.018 for control over daily hours) and very small for musculoskeletal symptoms (-0.007 and -0.003, respectively). While other causal directions were generally weaker than causal mediational pathways, they played a larger role for musculoskeletal compared to depressive symptoms. Estimates relating to control over time off were in general larger than for control over daily hours.

    Conclusions Our results suggest that WLI mediates part of the effect from WTC to mental/musculoskeletal symptoms, but small estimates suggest that (i) WTC plays a small but consistent role in effects on health and (ii) particularly regarding musculoskeletal disorders, other causal directions and mediators need to be further examined.

  • 4.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study2017Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 215, s. 143-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways.

    METHODS: The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested.

    RESULTS: Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048.

    LIMITATIONS: Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high.

    CONCLUSION: Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance.

  • 5.
    Albrecht, Sophie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, Swansea, UK.
    Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workers2024Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 205-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested whether gender moderates the mediating role of overtime. Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models. Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen= −0.117; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.237 to 0.003; βwomen= −0.253; 95% CI: −0.386 to −0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen= −0.199; 95% CI: −0.347 to −0.051; βwomen= −0.271; 95% CI: −0.443 to −0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 min/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours. Conclusions: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC owing to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may help prevent work–life interference and burnout.

  • 6.
    Albrecht, Sophie Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ojajärvi, Anneli
    Oksanen, Tuula
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Association of work-time control with sickness absence due to musculoskeletal and mental disorders: An occupational cohort study2020Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 62, nr 1, artikel-id e12181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Work-time control is associated with lower sickness absence rates, but it remains unclear whether this association differs by type of diagnosis and sub-dimension of work-time control (control over daily hours and control over time off) and whether certain vulnerable groups benefit more from higher levels of work-time control.

    Methods: Survey data from the Finnish 10-town study in 2004 were used to examine if baseline levels of work-time control were associated with register data on diagnose-specific sickness absence for 7 consecutive years (n = 22 599). Cox proportional hazard models were conducted, adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational status, shift work including nights, and physical/mental workload.

    Results: During follow-up, 2,818 individuals were on sick leave (>= 10 days) due to musculoskeletal disorders and 1724 due to mental disorders. Employees with high (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87; HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.70-0.82, respectively) and moderate (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.90; HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91, respectively) levels of control over daily hours/control over time off had a decreased risk of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Sub-group analyses revealed that especially workers who were older benefitted the most from higher levels of work-time control. Neither sub-dimension of work-time control was related to sickness absence due to mental disorders.

    Conclusions: Over a 7-year period of follow-up, high and moderate levels of work-time control were related to lower rates of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders, but not due to mental disorders.

  • 7.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Investigating the factorial structure and availability of work time control in a representative sample of the Swedish working population2016Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 320-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Past research has often neglected the sub-dimensions of work time control (WTC). Moreover, differences in levels of WTC with respect to work and demographic characteristics have not yet been examined in a representative sample. We investigated these matters in a recent sample of the Swedish working population. Methods: The study was based on the 2014 data collection of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. We assessed the structure of the WTC measure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Differences in WTC by work and demographic characteristics were examined with independent sample t-tests, one-way ANOVAs and gender-stratified logistic regressions. Results: Best model fit was found for a two-factor structure that distinguished between control over daily hours and control over time off (root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.09; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.99). Women, shift and public-sector workers reported lower control in relation to both factors. Age showed small associations with WTC, while a stronger link was suggested for civil status and family situation. Night, roster and rotating shift work seemed to be the most influential factors on reporting low control over daily hours and time off. Conclusions: Our data confirm the two-dimensional structure underlying WTC, namely the components 'control over daily hours' and 'control over time off'. Women, public-sector and shift workers reported lower levels of control. Future research should examine the public health implications of WTC, in particular whether increased control over daily hours and time off can reduce health problems associated with difficult working-time arrangements.

  • 8.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Prospective effects of work-time control on overtime, work-life interference and exhaustion in female and male knowledge workersManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Employee-based flexible working hours are increasing, particularly among knowledge workers. Research indicates that women and men use work–time control (WTC; control over time off and daily hours) differently: while men work longer paid hours, women use WTC to counteract work–life interference. In a knowledge-worker sample, we examined associations between WTC and overtime, work–life interference and exhaustion and tested if gender moderates the mediating role of overtime.

    Methods: The sample contained 2248 Swedish knowledge workers. Employing hierarchical regression modelling, we examined effects of control over time off/daily hours on subsequent overtime hours, work–life interference and exhaustion in general and in gender-stratified samples. Using conditional process analysis, we tested moderated mediation models.

    Results: Control over time off was related to less work–life interference (βmen=-0.117; CI95%: -0.237 to 0.003; βwomen=-0.253; CI95%: -0.386 to -0.120) and lower exhaustion (βmen=-0.199; CI95%: -0.347 to -0.051; βwomen=-0.271; CI95%: -0.443 to -0.100). For control over daily hours, estimates were close to zero. While men worked more overtime (42 minutes/week), we could not confirm gender moderating the indirect effect of control over time off/daily hours on work–life interference/exhaustion via overtime. Independent of gender, effects of control over time off on work–life interference were partly explained by working fewer overtime hours.

    Conclusion: Control over time off was related to lower exhaustion and better work–life balance (in particular for women). We found no evidence for men’s work–life interference increasing with higher WTC due to working more overtime. Knowledge workers’ control over time off may aid to prevent work–life interference and burnout.

  • 9.
    Andreasson, Anna N.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health2015Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 49, s. e38-e39Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bodily signals and how these are interpreted affect self-ratings of health. It is thus reasonable that appraisals of health are affected by imminent exposures and disease primes. We aimed to investigate whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating and if changes are substantiated in persons who report more symptoms. We used data from 813 persons who completed a questionnaire daily for 21 consecutive days. The questionnaire included a one-item self-rating of health (“pre-SRH”; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of physical and mental symptoms and thereafter a second (identical) self-rating of health (“post-SRH”). Paired t-tests were used to test for differences between pre-SRH and post-SRH. Mixed effect regression models were used to calculate the interaction effect of pre-SRH and symptom score on post-SRH adjusted for gender, age and if the person had been working that day (13545 observations). SRH worsened significantly (p  <<.0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-SRH (95%CI:−2.70–2.74) to 2.77 post-SRH (95%CI:2.75–2.79). There was a significant interaction between pre-SRH and symptoms on post-SRH so that persons who reported more symptoms changed their post-SRH rating to a higher degree than those who reported fewer symptoms, irrespective of their subjective health status. The results support the notion that subjective health perception is affected by focus of attention, and that the effect depends on level of symptoms.

  • 10.
    Andreasson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Berntson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Brief report: Contemplate your symptoms and re-evaluate your health. A study on working adults2019Ingår i: Journal of Health Psychology, ISSN 1359-1053, E-ISSN 1461-7277, Vol. 24, nr 11, s. 1562-1567Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether self-ratings of health are affected by a symptom rating. A diary including a one-item self-rating of health ("pre-self-rated health"; 1 = excellent, 7 = very poor), a subsequent 26-item rating of symptoms, and thereafter a second (identical) health rating ("post-self-rated health") was completed by 820 persons 21 times. Self-rated health worsened significantly ( p < .0001) after the symptom rating, from 2.72 pre-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.70-2.74) to 2.77 post-self-rated health (95% confidence interval: 2.75-2.79) and more so in persons who reported more symptoms ( b = .058, p < .05). The results support the notion that subjective health perception is influenced by attending to symptoms, especially so in persons with a high symptom burden.

  • 11.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Swedish Defence Recruitment Agency, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. North-West University, South Africa.
    Means of Sustainable Recruitment: The Importance of Selection Factors and Psychosocial Working Conditions in Predicting Work and Health OutcomesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on selection factors often focuses on how to identify suitable candidates, while fewer studies have investigated the long-term effects of such selection factors once the suitable candidates have started working and faced the work situation. The overall aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of selection factors (general intelligence, personality, and physical fitness), measured during recruitment, and psychosocial working conditions (e.g., workload, job control, and job challenge)for four different outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, occupational retention, and health). Data came from a longitudinal study of newly hired police officers in Sweden (N = 508), including information from both the recruitment process and a three-and-a-half year follow-up. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses show that psychosocial working conditions were far more important than the selection factors in predicting the four outcomes. The strong effects of psychosocial working conditions for new officers’ work-related attitudes and health suggest that employers, to ensure sustainability, need to focus on activities facilitating the organizational and professional entrance of newcomers by providing a sound work climate.

  • 12.
    Annell, Stefan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Sustainable Recruitment: Individual Characteristics and Psychosocial Working Conditions Among Swedish Police Officers2018Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 3-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection research has typically focused on how to identify suitable candidates, while less is known regarding the long-term effects of various selection factors once the suitable candidates have start-ed working. The overall aim of this study was to examine the relative importance of selection fac-tors (measured during recruitment), and psychosocial working conditions (once candidates started working) for four outcomes, namely (1) job satisfaction, (2) organizational citizenship behavior, (3) occupational retention, and (4) health. Data came from a longitudinal study of newly hired police officers in Sweden (N = 508), including recruitment data and a follow-up after 3.5 years. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that psychosocial working conditions were more important than selection factors in predicting the four outcomes. The findings suggest that employers, to ensure sustainability, need to focus on activities that facilitate newcomers’ enter-ing in the organization and their professions by providing a sound work climate.

  • 13. Anund, A.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fors, C.
    Ihlström, J.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Söderström, B.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet [Bus drivers' working hours and the relationship to fatigue]2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 14. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Rumble strips in centre of the lane and the effect on sleepy drivers2011Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, nr 5, s. 549-558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sleep loss on behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness on a road containing a milled rumble strip in the centre of the lane. Particular attention was paid to behavioural and subjective indicators of sleepiness when using the centre lane rumble strip, and to possible erratic driving behaviour when hitting a rumble strip. In total 9 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift and after a full night sleep. The order was balanced. The experiment was conducted in a moving base driving simulator on rural roads with a road width of 6.5 and 9 meters. Out of the 1,636 rumble strip hits that occurred during the study, no indications of erratic driving behaviour associated with the jolt caused by making contact with the centre lane rumble strip could be found. Comparing the alert condition with the sleep deprived condition, both the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) increased for sleepy drivers. For the two road widths, the drivers drove closer to the centre line on the 6.5-meter road. The KSS and the SDLP increased with time on task. This simulator study indicates that rumble strips in the centre of the lane may be an alternative to centreline and edgeline rumble strips on narrow roads.

  • 15. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Hallvig, David
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Observer Rated Sleepiness and Real Road Driving: An Explorative Study2013Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 5, artikel-id e64782Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore if observer rated sleepiness (ORS) is a feasible method for quantification of driver sleepiness in field studies. Two measures of ORS were used: (1) one for behavioural signs based on facial expression, body gestures and body movements labelled B-ORS, and (2) one based on driving performance e.g. if swerving and other indicators of impaired driving occurs, labelled D-ORS. A limited number of observers sitting in the back of an experimental vehicle on a motorway about 2 hours repeatedly 3 times per day (before lunch, after lunch, at night) observed 24 participant's sleepiness level with help of the two observer scales. At the same time the participant reported subjective sleepiness (KSS), EOG was recorded (for calculation of blink duration) and several driving measure were taken and synchronized with the reporting. Based on mixed model Anova and correlation analysis the result showed that observer ratings of sleepiness based on drivers' impaired performance and behavioural signs are sensitive to extend the general pattern of time awake, circadian phase and time of driving. The detailed analysis of the subjective sleepiness and ORS showed weak correspondence on an individual level. Only 16% of the changes in KSS were predicted by the observer. The correlation between the observer ratings based on performance (D-ORS) and behavioural signs (B-ORS) are high (r = .588), and the B-ORS shows a moderately strong association (r = .360) with blink duration. Both ORS measures show an association (r>0.45) with KSS, whereas the association with driving performance is weak. The results show that the ORS-method detects the expected general variations in sleepy driving in field studies, however, sudden changes in driver sleepiness on a detailed level as 5 minutes is usually not detected; this holds true both when taking into account driving behaviour or driver behavioural signs.

  • 16. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Ihlstrom, Jonas
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, s. 71-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers. The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale 8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337 s; split shift 0.347 s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 17. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Countermeasures for fatigue in transportation: A review of existing methods for drivers on road, rail, sea and in aviation2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 337-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 19. Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip--a simulator study with sleepy drivers.2008Ingår i: Accid Anal Prev, ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, nr 6, s. 1970-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The alerting effect of hitting a rumble strip--a simulator study with sleepy drivers.

    Anund A, Kecklund G, Vadeby A, Hjälmdahl M, Akerstedt T.

    Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-177 71 Stockholm, Sweden. anna.anund@vti.se

    A moving base driving simulator experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of milled rumble strips on driver fatigue. There were rumble strips both at the edge line and centre line. Four different physical designs of milled rumble strips (yielding noise values from 1.5 to 16 dBA) and two placements on shoulder were used in the experiment. Sound and vibrations from real milled rumble strips were reproduced in the simulator. In total 35 regular shift workers drove during the morning hours after a full night shift. The main results showed an increase in sleepiness indicators (EEG alpha/theta activity, eye closure duration, standard deviation of lateral position, subjective sleepiness) from start to before hitting the rumble strip, an alerting effect in most parameters (not subjective sleepiness) after hitting the strip. The alertness enhancing effect was, however, short and the sleepiness signs returned 5 min after the rumble strip hit. Essentially no effects were seen due to type of strip. It was concluded that various aspects of sleepiness are increased before hitting a rumble strip and that the effect is very short-lived. Type of strip, as used in the present study did not have any effect.

  • 20. Axelsson, J.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gustavsson, P.
    Rudman, A.
    Selection into shift and night work2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ingre, Michael
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wright, Kenneth P.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; New York University, USA.
    Sleepiness as motivation: a potential mechanism for how sleep deprivation affects behavior2020Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 43, nr 6, artikel-id zsz291Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine how sleepiness and sleep deprivation drive the motivation to engage in different behaviors.

    METHODS: We studied the sleepiness of 123 participants who had been randomized to sleep deprivation or normal sleep, and their willingness to engage in a range of everyday behaviors.

    RESULTS: Self-reported sleepiness was a strong predictor of the motivation to engage in sleep-preparatory behaviors such as shutting one's eyes (OR=2.78, 95%CI: 2.19-3.52 for each step up on the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and resting (OR=3.20, CI: 2.46-4.16). Sleepiness was also related to the desire to be cared for by a loved one (OR=1.49, CI: 1.22-1.82), and preparedness to utilize monetary and energy resources to get to sleep. Conversely, increased sleepiness was associated with a decreased motivation for social and physical activities (e.g., be with friends OR=0.71, CI: 0.61-0.82; exercise OR=0.65, CI: 0.56-0.76). Sleep deprivation had similar effects as sleepiness on these behaviors. Neither sleepiness nor sleep deprivation had strong associations with hunger, thirst, or food preferences.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that sleepiness is a dynamic motivational drive that promotes sleep-preparatory behaviors and competes with other drives and desired outcomes. Consequently, sleepiness may be a central mechanism by which impaired alertness, e.g., due to insufficient sleep, contributes to poor quality of life and adverse health. We propose that sleepiness helps organize behaviors toward the specific goal of assuring sufficient sleep, in competition with other needs and incentives. A theoretical framework on sleepiness and its behavioral consequences are likely to improve our understanding of several disease mechanisms.

  • 22.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sömn och fysisk aktivitet2016Ingår i: FYSS 2017: fysisk aktivitet i sjukdomsprevention och sjukdomsbehandling, Stockholm: Läkartidningen förlag AB , 2016, 3, s. 171-183Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Axelsson, John
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tigerström, L
    Does rapid eye movement (REM) sleep prepare the brain for wakening?2014Ingår i: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16-20 September, 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24. Beckers, Debby G. J.
    et al.
    Kompier, Michiel A. J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Härmä, Mikko
    Worktime control: theoretical conceptualization, current empirical knowledge, and research agenda2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 291-297Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25. Dahlgren, A.
    et al.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kircher, A.
    Lüthöft, M.
    Barnett, M.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fatiqueat sea: a simulator study of sleepiness, sleep and neurobehavioural performance during different watch schedules2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm.
    Kecklund, Göran
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine, Stockholm.
    Overtime work and its effects on sleep, sleepiness, cortisol and blood pressure in an experimental field study2006Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 318-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Previous studies of long workhours and their effects on stress, sleep, and health show inconclusive results. This inconclusiveness may be partly due to methodological problems such as the use of between-group designs or comparisons before and after reorganizations. In addition, stress is usually a confounder. A within-person design was used to examine the effects of working 8- or 12-hour shifts in the absence of additional stress. Methods In an experimental field study, 16 white-collar workers [9 women, mean age 45.9 (SD 15) years] undertook one workweek with normal workhours (8 hours) and 1 week of overtime with 4 extra hours of regular worktasks (12 hours). The participants wore actigraphs, rated sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) and stress throughout the day, and rated workload and how exhausted they felt. Saliva samples were collected on Mondays and Thursdays for cortisol analysis. On these days, ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure were also measured for 24 hours. Results Overtime was associated with higher levels of exhaustion. Sleepiness showed a significant interaction between conditions, with higher levels at the end of the workweek featuring overtime. Total sleep time was shorter in the overtime week. There were no significant differences between ratings of stress and workload. Cortisol showed a circadian variation but no main effect of condition. Conclusions One week of overtime work with a moderate workload produced no main effects on physiological stress markers. Nevertheless, sleep was negatively affected, with shorter sleeps during overtime work and greater problems with fatigue and sleepiness.

  • 27.
    Dahlgren, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine.
    Kecklund, Göran
    National Institute for Psychosocial Medicine.
    Individual differences in the diurnal cortisol response to stress2004Ingår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 913-922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to explore individual differences associated with diverse reactions in cortisol secretion under different stress levels. This study was part of a larger project concerning working hours and health. Thirty-four whitecollar workers participated under two different conditions; one work week with a high stress level (H) and one with a lower stress level (L) as measured through self-rated stress during workdays. Based on the morning cortisol concentration during a workday subjects were divided into two groups. One group consisted of subjects whose morning level of cortisol increased in response to the high-stress week, compared to their morning levels in the low-stress condition (Group 1). The other group consisted of subjects whose morning cortisol response was the opposite, with a lower level under the high stress condition (Group 2). Subjects wore actiwatches, completed a sleep diary, and rated their sleepiness and stress for one work week in each condition, i.e., high and low stress. Saliva samples for measures of cortisol were collected on a Wednesday. Group 2 reported higher workload, fatigue, and exhaustion during both weeks. Since there were no differences in perceived stress, neither within nor between groups, the data indicate that there are other factors influencing morning cortisol. The results suggest that one component modulating the cortisol response might be the level of exhaustion, probably related to work overload. Higher levels of stress in exhausted individuals might suppress morning cortisol levels.

  • 28. de Vasconcelos, Carla Aparecida
    et al.
    Vieira, Maurilio Nunes
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Yehia, Hani Camille
    Speech Analysis for Fatigue and Sleepiness Detection of a Pilot2019Ingår i: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322, Vol. 90, nr 4, s. 415-418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Mental fatigue and sleepiness are well recognized determinants of human-error related accidents and incidents in aviation. In Brazil, according to the Center for Investigation and Prevention of Aeronautical Accidents (CENIPA), the rate of accidents in the aerial modal is 1 per 2 d. Human factors are present in 90% of these accidents. CASE REPORT: This paper describes a retrospective study of the communication between a pilot and an air traffic control tower just before a fatal accident. The objective was the detection of fatigue and sleepiness of a pilot, who complained of these signs and symptoms before the flight, by means of voice and speech analysis.The in-depth accident analysis performed by CENIPA indicated that sleepiness and fatigue most likely contributed to the accident. Speech samples were analyzed for two conditions: 1) nonsleepy data recorded 35 h before the air crash (control condition), which were compared with 2) data from samples collected about 1 h before the accident and also during the disaster (sleepy condition). Audio recording analyses provided objective measures of the temporal organization of speech, such as hesitations, silent pauses, prolongation of final syllables, and syllable articulation rate. DISCUSSION: The results showed that speech during the day of the accident had significantly low elocution and articulation rates compared to the preceding day, also indicating that the methodology adopted in this study is feasible for detection of fatigue and sleepiness through speech analysis.

  • 29. Deter, Hans-Christian
    et al.
    Meister, Reinhard
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lohse, Lukas
    Orth-Gomér, Kristina
    Fem-Cor-Risk Study group,
    Behavioral factors predict all-cause mortality in female coronary patients and healthy controls over 26 years – a prospective secondary analysis of the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study2022Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, nr 12, artikel-id e0277028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is related to its severity and cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. In women, social isolation, marital stress, sedentary lifestyle and depression predicted CAD progression and outcome within 3 to 5 years. We hypothesised that these behavioral factors would still be associated with all-cause mortality in female patients after 26 years.

    Methods

    We examined 292 patients with CAD and 300 healthy controls (mean age of 56 ± 7 y) within the Fem-Cor-Risk-Study at baseline. Their cardiac, behavioral, and psychosocial risk profiles, exercise, smoking, and dietary habits were assessed using standardized procedures. Physiological characteristics included a full lipid profile, the coagulation cascade and autonomic dysfunction (heart rate variability, HRV). A new exploratory analysis using machine-learning algorithms compared the effects of social and behavioral mechanisms with standard risk factors. Results: All-cause mortality records were completed in 286 (97.9%) patients and 299 (99.7%) healthy women. During a median follow-up of 26 years, 158 (55.2%) patients and 101 (33.9%) matched healthy controls died. The annualized mortality rate was 2.1% and 1.3%, respectively. After controlling for all available confounders, behavioral predictors of survival in patients were social integration (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99–1.0) and physical activity (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37–0.79). Smoking acted as a predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03–2.36). Among healthy women, moderate physical activity (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.74) and complete HRV recordings (≥50%) were found to be significant predictors of survival.

    Conclusions

    CAD patients with adequate social integration, who do not smoke and are physically active, have a favorable long-term prognosis. The exact survival times confirm that behavioral risk factors are associated with all-cause mortality in female CAD patients and healthy controls.

  • 30. Di Milia, Lee
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The distribution of sleepiness, sleep and work hours during a long distance morning trip: A comparison between night- and non-night workers2013Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 53, s. 17-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined the extent of driver sleepiness during a long distance morning trip. Sleepiness at this time may be high because of night work, waking early to commence work or travel, sleep disorders and the monotony of driving long distances. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness score ≥10) and sleep restriction (≤5h) in a sample of 649 drivers. Participants driving between 08:00 and 10:00 on three highways in regional Australia participated in a telephone interview. Approximately 18% of drivers reported chronic sleepiness. The proportions of night workers (NW) and non-night workers (NNW) with chronic sleepiness were not significantly different but males reported a significantly greater proportion of chronic sleepiness than females. The NW group had a significantly greater proportion of drivers with ≤5h of sleep in the previous 24 and 48h, fewer nights of full sleep (≤4), acute sleepiness and longer weekly work hours. The NW group reported driving a significantly longer distance at Time 1 (Mean=140.29±72.17km, versus 117.55±89.74km) and an additional longer distance to complete the journey (Mean=89.33±95.23km, versus 64.77±94.07km). The high proportions of sleep restriction and acute sleepiness among the NW group, and the amount of chronic sleepiness in the NW and NNW groups reported during a long distance morning trip may be of concern for driver safety.

  • 31. Filtness, Ashleigh J.
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Ahlström, Christer
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Sleep-related eye symptoms and their potential for identifying driver sleepiness2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 568-575Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of individuals appear to have insight into their own sleepiness, but there is some evidence that this does not hold true for all, for example treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Identification of sleep-related symptoms may help drivers determine their sleepiness, eye symptoms in particular show promise. Sixteen participants completed four motorway drives on two separate occasions. Drives were completed during daytime and night-time in both a driving simulator and on the real road. Ten eye symptoms were rated at the end of each drive, and compared with driving performance and subjective and objective sleep metrics recorded during driving. 'Eye strain', 'difficulty focusing', 'heavy eyelids' and 'difficulty keeping the eyes open' were identified as the four key sleep-related eye symptoms. Drives resulting in these eye symptoms were more likely to have high subjective sleepiness and more line crossings than drives where similar eye discomfort was not reported. Furthermore, drivers having unintentional line crossings were likely to have 'heavy eyelids' and 'difficulty keeping the eyes open'. Results suggest that drivers struggling to identify sleepiness could be assisted with the advice 'stop driving if you feel sleepy and/or have heavy eyelids or difficulty keeping your eyes open'.

  • 32. Garde, Anne Helene
    et al.
    Begtrup, Luise
    Bjorvatn, Bjørn
    Bonde, Jens Peter
    Hansen, Johnni
    Hansen, Åse Marie
    Härmä, Mikko
    Aarrebo Jensen, Marie
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kolstad, Henrik A.
    Dyreborg Larsen, Ann
    Lie, Jenny Anne
    Moreno, Claudia R. C.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten
    Sallinen, Mikael
    How to schedule night shift work in order to reduce health and safety risks2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 557-569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This discussion paper aims to provide scientifically based recommendations on night shift schedules, including consecutive shifts, shift intervals and duration of shifts, which may reduce health and safety risks. Short-term physiological effects in terms of circadian disruption, inadequate sleep duration and quality, and fatigue were considered as possible links between night shift work and selected health and safety risks, namely, cancer, cardio-metabolic disease, injuries, and pregnancy-related outcomes.

    Method In early 2020, 15 experienced shift work researchers participated in a workshop where they identified relevant scientific literature within their main research area.

    Results Knowledge gaps and possible recommendations were discussed based on the current evidence. The consensus was that schedules which reduce circadian disruption may reduce cancer risk, particularly for breast cancer, and schedules that optimize sleep and reduce fatigue may reduce the occurrence of injuries. This is generally achieved with fewer consecutive night shifts, sufficient shift intervals, and shorter night shift duration.

    Conclusions Based on the limited, existing literature, we recommend that in order to reduce the risk of injuries and possibly breast cancer, night shift schedules have: (i) ≤3 consecutive night shifts; (ii) shift intervals of ≥11 hours; and (iii) ≤9 hours shift duration. In special cases – eg, oil rigs and other isolated workplaces with better possibilities to adapt to daytime sleep – additional or other recommendations may apply. Finally, to reduce risk of miscarriage, pregnant women should not work more than one night shift in a week.

  • 33.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gershagen, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Platts, Loretta G.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    How does work impact daily sleep quality? A within-individual study using actigraphy and self-reports over the retirement transition2022Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 31, nr 3, artikel-id e13513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how the cessation of work at retirement affects daily measures of actigraphy-measured and self-rated sleep quality. Time in bed or asleep and stress at bedtime were examined as potential mechanisms. In total 117 employed participants who were aged 60-72 years and planned to retire soon were recruited to the Swedish Retirement Study. Sleep quality was measured in a baseline week using accelerometers, diaries, and questionnaires. Subjective sleep measures were sleep quality, restless sleep, restorative sleep, getting enough sleep, estimated wake after sleep onset, difficulties falling asleep, too early final awakening, and difficulties waking up. Actigraphy measures were sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and average awakening length. After 1 and 2 years, the measurements were repeated for the now retired participants. Daily variations in sleep quality before and after retirement were analysed using multilevel modelling, with time in bed or asleep and stress at bedtime as potential mediators. We found that several self-reports of sleep improved (e.g., +0.2 standard deviations for sleep quality and +0.5 standard deviations for restorative sleep) while objective sleep quality remained unchanged or decreased slightly with retirement (e.g., -0.8% for sleep efficiency). Increased time in bed or asleep and stress at bedtime accounted partially for the improvements in self-rated sleep quality at retirement. In conclusion, actigraph-measured and self-reported sleep quality do not change in concert at retirement, highlighting the interest of studying both outcomes. The main effects of retirement from work concern subjective experiences of recovery more than sleep quality per se.

  • 34.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Work and sleep – a prospective study of psychosocial work factors, physical work factors and work scheduling2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, nr S1, s. 218-218, artikel-id P706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Work and sleep – the effects of stress, physical work environment and work hours: A prospective study using the SLOSH database2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    METHODS: Data was derived from two waves of SLOSH (The Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health), a representative sample of the working population in Sweden. Respondents in the present study sample were gainfully employed in both 2008 (T1) and in 2010 (T2), and without sleep disturbances at T1 (n=5741, 54 % women, 46 % men, aged 24-72 years). Between T1 and T2 a total number of 441 people (8 %) developed sleep disturbances. Logistic regression was made in five hierarchical models with new cases of disturbed sleep as the dependent variable. Factors studied were changes in physical work environment, work hours, demands, control, support and stress between T1 and T2; increased or decreased levels of exposure, as well as consistently high or low levels. RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, stress showed the strongest association with new cases of disturbed sleep. Increased stress levels had an OR of 2.9 (95% CI 2.0-4.3) and consistently high levels of stress had an OR of 2.8 (1.9-4.2). Increased levels of demands showed a weaker association, OR=1.8 (1.2-2.6), whereas consistently high levels of demands did not show significant results. Decreased levels of social support showed an increased OR of 2.3 (1.6-3.3), as did consistently low levels of social support with an OR of 1.6 (1.1-2.3). Neither changes in control nor changes in work hours showed any significant results. Increased exposure to excessive heat, cold or draught showed a OR of 1.7 (1.1-2.8) whereas changes in heavy physical labour, noise at work, and poor or excessively bright light did not show an association with new cases of sleep disturbances in the fully adjusted model.

  • 36.
    Garefelt, Johnna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gershagen, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Platts, Loretta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    How does cessation of work affect sleep? Prospective analyses of sleep duration, timing and efficiency from the Swedish Retirement Study2021Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 30, nr 3, artikel-id e13157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several strands of research indicate that work competes for time with sleep, but to what extent the timing and duration of sleep is affected by work is not known. Retirement offers a quasi-experimental life transition to study this in a within-individual study design. The few existing studies report that people sleep longer and later after retirement but mainly rely on self-reported data or between-individual analyses. We recruited 100 participants aged 61–72 years who were in paid work but would soon retire and measured them in a baseline week with accelerometers, diaries and questionnaires. After 1 and 2 years, the measurements were repeated for the now retired participants. Changes in sleep duration, timing, efficiency, chronotype and social jetlag were analysed using multilevel modelling. Gender, chronotype at baseline and partner's working status were analysed as potential effect modifiers. Sleep duration increased by 21 min, whereas sleep efficiency remained similar. Time of sleep onset and final awakening were postponed by 26 and 52 min, respectively, pushing midsleep forward from 03:17 to 03:37 hours. Changes in duration and timing of sleep were driven by weekday sleep, whereas weekend sleep stayed about the same. Social jetlag decreased but still occurred after retirement. Changes at retirement in sleep duration and timing were smaller for participants with a later chronotype and who had full-time working partners. These findings indicate that paid work generates sleep loss and hinders people from sleeping in line with their biological time.

  • 37.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Emotional working memory in older adults after total sleep deprivation2017Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, nr Suppl. 1, s. e110-e110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though the occurrence of sleep problems increases with age, few studies have focused on the cognitive effects of acute sleep deprivation in elderly. Most previous research indicate that, compared to young, older adults show less impairment in e.g. attention after sleep deprivation. However, little is known of whether the same pattern holds for higher cognitive functions. In addition, while old age is usually related to a general decrease in working memory abilities, performance on working memory tasks may differ depending on the emotional valence of the stimuli, where positive stimuli seem to be beneficial for working memory performance in older adults. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on emotional working memory in older adults using two levels of working memory load.

    Materials and methods: A healthy sample of 48 old adults (MAge=66.69 years, SDAge=3.44 years) was randomized into a total sleep deprivation group (TSD; n=24) or a sleep control group (SC; n=24). They performed a working memory task (n-back) containing positive, negative and neutral pictures in a low (1-back) and a high (3-back) working memory load condition. Performance was measured as Accuracy (d'), Omissions and Reaction Time (RT).

    Results: For the d' and Omissions we performed two separate 2x2x3 (sleep, working memory load, valence) repeated measures analyses of variance (rmANOVA). For the RTs, we applied a mixed-effects model. For both d' and RT we found no effect of sleep deprivation (Ps > .05). For valence, we found main effects on both d' (F1,46 = 5.56, P=.005) and RT (F1,95.7 = 4.84, P=.01). d' did not differ for positive and neutral pictures, but was in both cases significantly better than for negative pictures. RTs were significantly faster for positive pictures. However, a working memory loadvalence interaction (F1,95.7 = 4.50, P=.01) further revealed an effect of valence in the low, but not in the high load condition. In the low load condition, RTs were faster for positive than for neutral pictures and faster for neutral than for negative pictures. There was no significant effect of Omissions.

    Conclusions: Our results showed that emotional working memory performance was not significantly affected by one night of sleep deprivation in older adults, which contrast what we found in a sample of young adults from the same project. In line with previous research, our results indicate a beneficial effect of positive stimuli on working memory in older adults. This effect was present in both groups and most pronounced for reaction times in the condition with a lower cognitive demand. We can conclude that, among older adults, the working memory performance is not impaired by sleep deprivation and that the benefits of positive stimuli on working memory seem intact. These findings contribute to a better understanding of older adults' cognitive functioning after sleep deprivation.

  • 38.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Positivity Effect and Working Memory Performance Remains Intact in Older Adults After Sleep Deprivation2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Older adults perform better in tasks which include positive stimuli, referred to as the positivity effect. However, recent research suggests that the positivity effect could be attenuated when additional challenges such as stress or cognitive demands are introduced. Moreover, it is well established that older adults are relatively resilient to many of the adverse effects of sleep deprivation. Our aim was to investigate if the positivity effect in older adults is affected by one night of total sleep deprivation using an emotional working memory task.

    Methods: A healthy sample of 48 older adults (60-72 years) was either sleep deprived for one night (n = 24) or had a normal night's sleep (n = 24). They performed an emotional working memory n-back (n = 1 and 3) task containing positive, negative and neutral pictures.

    Results: Performance in terms of accuracy and reaction times was best for positive stimuli and worst for negative stimuli. This positivity effect was not altered by sleep deprivation. Results also showed that, despite significantly increased sleepiness, there was no effect of sleep deprivation on working memory performance. A working memory load x valence interaction on the reaction times revealed that the beneficial effect of positive stimuli was only present in the 1-back condition.

    Conclusion: While the positivity effect and general working memory abilities in older adults are intact after one night of sleep deprivation, increased cognitive demand attenuates the positivity effect on working memory speed.

  • 39.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Positivity effect in older adults after sleep deprivation2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The effect of sleep loss on emotional working memory2016Ingår i: Abstracts, 2016, Vol. 25(S1), s. 17-18Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Emotional stimuli differently affect working memory (WM) performance. As sleep deprivation has a known impact on both emotion and WM our aim was to investigate how one night without sleep affects emotional WM performance. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 56; age 18–30 years) were randomized to a total sleep deprivation (TSD) or a rested control (RC) condition. Subjects rated their affective state and performed a 1 and a 3-back WM task consisting of neutral, positive and negative pictures at 3 pm or 6 pm (balanced) the day after sleep manipulation. Accuracy (d’) and target response time (RT) were used as outcomes. Results: In the TSD condition, subjects rated themselves as less positive (P = 0.006) but not more negative than in the RC condition. In the WM task, TSD had a detrimental effect on accuracy (P = 0.03) regardless of difficulty. Moreover, accuracy was higher in the 1-back than in the 3-back (P < 0.001) and higher for neutral compared to both negative and positive stimuli (Ps < 0.05). RT was faster for positive compared to negative and neutral stimuli (Ps < 0.05). The latter effect was particularly pronounced in the TSD condition as shown by a condition*valence interaction (P < 0.03). Conclusions: One night of total sleep loss impaired emotional WM accuracy. Noticeable, RT was faster for positive stimuli compared to negative and neutral stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced after sleep loss. This suggests that sleep loss strengthens the opposing effects of positive and negative stimuli on WM performance, possibly due to increased emotion reactivity.

  • 41. Greubel, Jana
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The impact of organizational changes on work stress, sleep, recovery and health2011Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 353-364Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study objective was to investigate the impact of different kinds of organizational changes, as well as anticipation of such changes, on work-related stress, sleep, recovery and health. It was hypothesized that impaired sleep and recovery increase the adverse health consequences of organizational changes. The data consisted of cross sectional questionnaire data from a random sample of 1,523 employees in the Swedish police force. It could be shown that extensive organizational changes including downsizing or a change in job tasks were associated with a small increase in work stress, disturbed sleep, incomplete recovery and health complaints. However, less extensive organizational changes like relocation did not affect these outcome variables. Anticipation of extensive organizational changes had almost the same effect as actual changes. Furthermore a moderating effect of sleep and work stress on gastrointestinal complaints and depressive symptoms was found. Thus, like former studies already suggested, extensive organizational changes resulted in increased stress levels, poorer health and impaired sleep and recovery. Furthermore, organizational instability due to anticipation of changes was as negative as actual changes. There was also some evidence that disturbed sleep increased these adverse health effects, in particular with respect to anticipation of organizational changes.

  • 42. Hall, A. L.
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Work schedule and prospective antidepressant prescriptions in the swedish workforce: a 2-year study using national drug registry data2018Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, Vol. 75, s. A482-A483Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Mood disorders affect millions of individuals worldwide and contribute to substantial morbidity and disability. A better understanding of modifiable work-related risk factors for depression could inform and advance prevention efforts in this area. This study used a large Swedish longitudinal occupational survey to prospectively examine the effect of self-reported work schedule on registry-based antidepressant prescriptions over a two-year period.

    Methods The analytic sample (n=8643) was obtained from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sex-stratified and unstratified analyses were conducted using logistic regression. For exposure, 8 categories were used to describe work schedule in 2008: ‘regular days’ (3 categories: night work history=none,≤3 years, or 4+years) ‘night work (regular, rostered, or rotating)’, ‘regular shift work (no nights)’, ‘rostered work (no nights)’, ‘flexible/non-regulated hours’, and ‘other’. For the outcome, all prescriptions coded N06A according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical System were obtained from the Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register and dichotomized into ‘any’ or ‘no’ prescriptions between 2008 and 2010. Estimates were adjusted for potential sociodemographic, health, and work confounders, and for prior depressive symptoms.

    Results In unadjusted analyses, an increased odds ratio for depression was observed for ‘Other’ work hours in unstratified (OR=1.75, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.51) and female (OR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.05 to 2.51) models; in adjusted models effects persisted but confidence intervals widened to non-significance at the p=0.05 level. In models adjusted for previous depressive symptoms, females in ‘flexible/non-regulated’ schedules showed an increased odds ratio for depression (OR=2.01, 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.76), while a decreased odds ratio was observed for the unstratified model ‘regular shift work (no nights)’ category (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.97).

    Discussion This study’s findings support prospective relationships between work schedule and antidepressant prescriptions in the Swedish workforce. Future research should continue to assess sex-stratified relationships, using detailed shift work exposure categories and objective registry data where possible.

  • 43.
    Hall, Amy L.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. International Agency for Research on Cancer, France.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, UK.
    Effect of work schedule on prospective antidepressant prescriptions in Sweden: a 2-year sex-stratified analysis using national drug registry data2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id e023247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Depression-related mood disorders affect millions of people worldwide and contribute to substantial morbidity and disability, yet little is known about the effects of work scheduling on depression. This study used a large Swedish survey to prospectively examine the effects of work schedule on registry-based antidepressant prescriptions in females and males over a 2-year period. Methods The study was based on an approximately representative sample (n= 3980 males, 4663 females) of gainfully employed participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Sex-stratified analyses were conducted using logistic regression. For exposure, eight categories described work schedule in 2008: ` regular days' (three categories of night work history: none, <= 3 years, 4+ years), 'night shift work', 'regular shift work (no nights)', 'rostered work (no nights)', 'flexible/non-regulated hours' and 'other'. For the primary outcome measure, all prescriptions coded N06A according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical System were obtained from the Swedish National Prescribed Drug Register and dichotomised into 'any' or 'no' prescriptions between 2008 and 2010. Estimates were adjusted for potential sociodemographic, health and work confounders, and for prior depressive symptoms. Results In 2008, 22% of females versus 19% of males worked outside of regular daytime schedule. Registered antidepressant prescription rates in the postsurvey period were 11.4% for females versus 5.8% for males. In fully adjusted models, females in 'flexible/non-regulated' schedules showed an increased OR for prospective antidepressant prescriptions (OR= 2.01, 95% CI= 1.08 to 3.76). In males, odds ratios were most increased in those working 'other' schedules (OR= 1.72, 95% CI= 0.75 to 3.94) and 'Regular days with four or more years' history of night work' (OR= 1.54, 95% CI= 0.93 to 2.56). Conclusions This study's findings support a relationship between work schedule and prospective antidepressant prescriptions in the Swedish workforce. Future research should continue to assess sex-stratified relationships, using detailed shift work exposure categories and objective registry data where possible.

  • 44. Hallvig, David
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Johan G.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator-A comparison2012Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 50, s. 44-50Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepiness has been identified as one of the most important factors contributing to road crashes. However, almost all work on the detailed changes in behavior and physiology leading up to sleep related crashes has been carried out in driving simulators. It is not clear, however, to what extent simulator results can be generalized to real driving. This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during night and day driving for 10 participants. The real road was emulated in the simulator. The results show that the simulator was associated with higher levels of subjective and physiological sleepiness than real driving. However, both for real and simulated driving, the response to night driving appears to be rather similar for subjective sleepiness and sleep physiology. Lateral variability was more responsive to night driving in the simulator, while real driving at night involved a movement to the left in the lane and a reduction of speed, both of which effects were absent in the simulator. It was concluded that the relative validity of simulators is acceptable for many variables, but that in absolute terms simulators cause higher sleepiness levels than real driving. Thus, generalizations from simulators to real driving must be made with great caution.

  • 45.
    Hallvig, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Real driving at night - predicting lane departures from physiological and subjective sleepiness2014Ingår i: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 101, s. 18-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Only limited information is available on how driving performance relates to physiological and subjective sleepiness on real roads. This relation was the focus of the present study. 33 volunteers drove for 90min on a rural road during the afternoon and night in an instrumented car, while electroencephalography and electrooculography and lane departures were recorded continuously and subjective ratings of sleepiness were made every 5min (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale - KSS). Data was analyzed using Bayesian multilevel modeling. Unintentional LDs increased during night driving, as did KSS and long blink durations(LBD). Lateral position moved to the left . LDs were predicted by self-reported sleepiness and LBDs across time and were significantly higher in individuals with high sleepiness. Removal of intentional LDs, enhanced the KSS/LD relation. It was concluded that LDs, KSS, and LBDs are strongly increased during night driving and that KSS predicts LDs.

  • 46. Harma, Mikko
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tucker, Philip
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Working hours and health - key research topics in the past and future2024Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 233-243Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This paper discusses the past and present highlights of working hours and health research and identifies key research needs for the future. Method: We analyzed over 220 original articles and reviews on working hours and health in the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health published during the last 50 years. Key publications from other journals were also included. Results: The majority of identified articles focussed on the effects of shift and night work, with fewer studying long and reduced working hours and work time control. We observed a transition from small-scale experimental and intensive field studies to large-scale epidemiological studies utilizing precise exposure assessment, reflecting the recent emergence of register -based datasets and the development of analytic methods and alternative study designs for randomized controlled designs. The cumulative findings provide convincing evidence that shift work and long working hours, which are often associated with night work and insufficient recovery, increase the risk of poor sleep and fatigue, sickness absence, occupational injuries, and several chronic health conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The observed risks are strongly modified by individual and work -related factors. Conclusions: Although the observed health risks of shift work and long working hours are mostly low or moderate, the widespread prevalence of exposure and the hazardousness of the many associated potential outcomes makes such working time arrangements major occupational health risks. Further research is needed to identify exposure-response associations, especially in relation to the chronic health effects, and to elucidate underlying pathways and effective personalized intervention strategies.

  • 47.
    Hellgren, Johnny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Psychosocial risk assessment and prevention in Sweden2013Ingår i: International Yearbook on Psychosocial Risk Prevention and Quality of Life at Work / [ed] J.M. Peirò & C. Molina, Secretary of Labour Health and Environment UGT-CEC , 2013, s. 171-192Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern working life involves higher demands on individual responsibility, blurrier lines between work and private life, increasing flexibility as regards the scheduling of work hours including a high variability from week-to-week or day-today, temporary employment contracts and job insecurity, and unstable organizational conditions. This development has raised concerns regarding job-related stress in Sweden, as well as in other countries, and underscored the need to create sustainable psychosocial work conditions for economic competitiveness and occupational health and safety. This chapter aims to provide an overview of psychosocial risk factors characterizing the contemporary Swedish working life, to describe the institutional frameworks that regulate work environment issues, and to describe how various actors work to prevent psychosocial risk factors. The following section outlines work environment trends and the Swedish system in terms of legislation, various actors on the labor market and so on. Drawing on this, we highlight four sets of psychosocial risk factors (flexible work, working hours, new demands at work, and organizational restructuring) before describing activities related to prevention, health promotion at work and healthy work practices.

  • 48.
    Holding, Benjamin C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sundelin, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schiller, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sleepiness, sleep duration, and human social activity: An investigation into bidirectionality using longitudinal time-use data2020Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, nr 35, s. 21209-21217Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Daytime sleepiness impairs cognitive ability, but recent evidence suggests it is also an important driver of human motivation and behavior. We aimed to investigate the relationship between sleepiness and a behavior strongly associated with better health: social activity. We additionally aimed to investigate whether a key driver of sleepiness, sleep duration, had a similar relationship with social activity. For these questions, we considered bidirectionality, time of day, and differences between workdays and days off. Over 3 wk, 641 working adults logged their behavior every 30 min, completed a sleepiness scale every 3 h, and filled a sleep diary every morning (rendering >292,000 activity and >70,000 sleepiness datapoints). Using generalized additive mixed-effect models, we analyzed potential nonlinear relationships between sleepiness/sleep duration and social activity. Greater sleepiness predicted a substantial decrease in the probability of social activity (odds ratio 95% CI = 0.34 to 0.35 for days off), as well as a decreased duration of such activity when it did occur. These associations appear especially robust on days off and in the evenings. Social duration moderated the typical time-of-day pattern of sleepiness, with, for example, extended evening socializing associated with lower sleepiness. Sleep duration did not robustly predict next-day social activity. However, extensive social activity (>5 h) predicted up to 30 min shorter subsequent sleep duration. These results indicate that sleepiness is a strong predictor of voluntary decreases in social contact. It is possible that bouts of sleepiness lead to social withdrawal and loneliness, both risk factors for mental and physical ill health.

  • 49. Ihlström, Jonas
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers2017Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 531-538Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention.

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport.

    METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered.

    RESULTS: In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  • 50.
    Ingre, Michael
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Second generation three process model (TMP) of alertness for better assessment of individual risks2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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