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  • 1.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Class origin effects on downward career mobility in Sweden 1982-20012007Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 415-430Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Does Class Matter Equally for Men and Women? A Study of the Impact of Class on Wage Growth in Sweden 1999-20032008Ingår i: Journal of Sociology, ISSN 1440-7833, E-ISSN 1741-2978, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 522-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that class schemas are appropriate for analysing class relations among men but not among women.This article examines wage growth patterns, i.e. a crucial aspect of class relations. There are several reasons why class would be less effective as a predictor of wage growth for women than for men: for example, that factors such as discrimination blur this association for women; and that women are over-represented in occupational sectors where this association is less strong.The analyses are based on a Swedish panel data set of employees (age 30—35 years) in large private firms and in the public sector who had the same employer in 1999 and 2003 (N about 99,000). Class is measured using the European Socio-economic Classification — ESeC. Contrary to some expectations class patterns of wage growth are similar for women and men and for different sectors of the labour market.

  • 3.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nya möjligheter för stratifieringsforskning i Sverige: Internationella yrkesklassificeringar och stratifieringsmått över tid2007Ingår i: Sociologisk forskning, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 52-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rosemary Crompton: Class and Stratification2009Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 176-191Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Könsskillnader i karriärer. Utveckling för kvinnor och män födda från 1925 till 19812014Ingår i: Ojämlikhetens dimensioner: uppväxtvillkor, arbete och hälsa i Sverige / [ed] Marie Evertsson & Charlotta Magnusson, Stockholm: Liber, 2014, s. 212-234Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The direct and indirect effects of social background on occupational positions in Sweden: new evidence on old questions2016Ingår i: Education, occupation and social origin: a comparative analysis of the transmission of socio‐economic inequalities / [ed] Ballarino, G, and Bernardi, F., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, s. 182-198Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter looks at Sweden, long extolled as an egalitarian society with low economic inequalities and high levels of equality of opportunity (e.g., Björklund and Jäntti 2011). Our research questions follow those of the broader project. First, we ask whether direct class background effects are found in Sweden. The second question concerns whether the effects of social background have changed over time. Third, we ask whether direct class background effects are weaker among persons with a tertiary education. Fourth, we are interested in whether class-of-origin effects are stronger or weaker at labour market entry, when employers have less information on potential workers and vice versa, than at later career stages. Finally, we analyse whether direct social origin effects vary by gender. In section 12.2, we discuss the Swedish context and its relevant institutions and characteristics. Then in section 12.3 we review the previous studies pertaining to our research questions. Thereafter, in section 12.4, we present our data. In section 12.5 we present our findings, while section 12.6 provides a discussion.

  • 7.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Lambert, Paul
    Can class and status really be disentangled2018Ingår i: Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, ISSN 0276-5624, E-ISSN 1878-5654, Vol. 58, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tak Wing Chan and John Goldthorpe (CG) have argued that it makes theoretical and empirical sense to use indicators of both class and status in analyses of cultural consumption, political attitudes and labour market outcomes in order to disentangle different mechanisms of stratification. However, we argue that class and status measured by occupationally based stratification variables are too strongly mutually associated for this to be a reliable approach. We provide empirical analyses, using secondary survey data from the UK’s BHPS, that indicate that the measures of class and status largely tap the same form of stratification. It turns out that class accounts for around 75% and more of the variation in status and even more if excluding outliers. Moreover, class and status are similarly associated with earnings, have similar experience-earnings curves, and patterns in relevant model residuals are not consistent with the theoretical differences between class and status. In conclusion we point out alternative and more accurate usages of Weber’s concepts of status and also suggest a more realistic and pragmatic view on occupationally based stratification variables.

  • 8.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Social stratifiering och social klass2012Ingår i: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanna Toivanen, Liber, 2012, s. 28-45Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Social stratifiering och social klass2018Ingår i: Den orättvisa hälsan: om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Mikael Rostila, Susanne Toivanen, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, 2, s. 32-49Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The Effectiveness of ESeC and EGP in Clustering Occupations: A study of occupational wage growth in Sweden: Rose, D. and Harrison, E. (eds.)2010Ingår i: Social Class in Europe: An introduction to the European Socio-economic Classification, London and New York: Abingdon (Oxon): Routledge , 2010, s. 181-190Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 11.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Erikson, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Social Class and Employment Relations: Comparisons between the ESeC and EGP class schemas using European data2010Ingår i: Social Class in Europe: An introduction to the European Socio-economic Classification: Rose, D. and Harrison, E. (eds.), London and New York: Abingdon(Oxon): Routledge , 2010, s. 89-113Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 12.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Class Origin and Elite Position of Men in Business Firms in Sweden, 1993-2007: The Importance of Education, Cognitive Ability, and Personality2013Ingår i: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 939-954Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish registry data, we study the impact of class origin on becoming part of the business elite between 1993 and 2007 for men aged 35–44 years. The elite is defined as the top 1 per cent of wage earners within large firms. We find a clear working class disadvantage and, with time, a polarization between those of working class origin and others. Decomposition analyses indicate that differences in educational attainment levels cause a large part of the gap, but less so over time. Differences in personality traits measured at around the age of 18 years also help explain the class origin differentials, and more so over time. The decomposition analyses indicate that the net effect of cognitive abilities is small. The results suggest a change in the value of education and personality in the labour market over time, but as men of working class origins have disadvantages in both domains, the relative disadvantage of coming from the working class was rather stable during the period 1993–2007.

  • 13.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kvinnor och män i topplönepositioner i svenska privata företag, 1993-20072014Ingår i: Yrke, karriär och lön: kvinnors och mäns olika villkor på den svenska arbetsmarknaden, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2014, s. 135-163Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    The gender gap in the business elite: stability and change in characteristics of Swedish top wage earners in large private companies, 1993-20072014Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 57, nr 2, s. 119-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using unique Swedish register data on all employees in large private companies, we study trends in the gender composition of top wage employees from 1993 to 2007. The analyses reveal that the likelihood of women holding top wage positions has more than doubled since the early 1990s, but men are still markedly over-represented in this group of employees. We focus on educational choices, considering level and field of study as well as university attended. One important conclusion is that, although education is important in reaching a top wage position, field of education and university attended only marginally explain the gender  gap. However, relative to other women, having a career signalling degree (i.e. economics, law or engineering) from a more prestigious university helps women. Dividing the sample into different cohorts indicates that the gender gap is partly a cohort effect, i.e. it is smaller among those born in the 1960s compared to cohorts born in the 1940s and 1950s. It should be noted that there is still a gender gap among employees born in the 1960s and that the gap widens after age 30. Future studies should focus more deeply on this family-related ‘period of divergence’.

  • 15.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Vem rekryteras till eliten? Betydelsen av familjeband och kompetens i privat och offentlig sektor2018Ingår i: Eliter i Sverige: Tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv på makt, status och klass / [ed] Bengt Eriksson, Mikael Holmqvist, Lena Sohl, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, s. 217-246Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Åberg, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Elite mobility among college graduated men in Sweden: Skills, personality and family ties2017Ingår i: Acta Sociologica, ISSN 0001-6993, E-ISSN 1502-3869, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 291-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using Swedish registry data, we study the chances of mobility into the Swedish labour market elite for men who graduated in the years 1985-2005. The elite is defined as top earners within mid- and large sized firms and within the public sector organisations (henceforth, we use organisation for both firms and public organisations). Using discrete time event history models, we study the incidence of elite entry in terms of external recruitment and internal promotion. The choice of field of study and of college or university are important, as are personality and, to a limited extent, cognitive ability. What is most striking is that having kin in elite positions increases the chance of elite entry in general, and having parents in top positions in the same organisation increases the likelihood of internal promotion. In sum, elite entry among college-educated males is associated with a diversity of factors, suggesting that complex explanations for labour market success should be considered, where skills, personality, and family ties all seem to matter.

  • 17.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ohls, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Are women over-represented in dead-end jobs?: A Swedish study using empirically derived measures of dead-end jobs2007Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, Vol. 84, nr 2, s. 159-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Bihagen, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ohls, Marita
    Dead-End Jobs2014Ingår i: Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research / [ed] Alex C. Michalos., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, s. 1461-1464Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19. Griffiths, D
    et al.
    Lambert, P
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Measuring the potential power elite in the UK and Sweden2014Ingår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 16, nr 5, s. 742-762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 20. Hiyoshi, Ayako
    et al.
    Udumyan, Ruzan
    Osika, Walter
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Fall, Katja
    Montgomery, Scott
    Stress resilience in adolescence and subsequent antidepressant and anxiolytic medication in middle aged men: Swedish cohort study2015Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 134, s. 43-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is unclear whether psychological resilience to stress in adolescence represents a persistent characteristic relevant to the subsequent risk for depression and anxiety in later adulthood. We aimed to test whether low psychological stress resilience assessed in adolescence is associated with an increased risk of receiving medication for depression and anxiety in middle age. We utilized Swedish register-based cohort study. Men born between 1952 and 1956 (n = 175,699), who underwent compulsory assessment for military conscription in late adolescence were followed to examine subsequent risk of pharmaceutically-treated depression and anxiety in middle age, from 2006 to 2009 corresponding to ages between 50 and 58 years, using Cox regression. The associations of stress resilience with prescription of antidepressant and anxiolytics medication through potential mediating factors cognitive and physical function and adult socioeconomic factors were calculated. Low stress resilience was associated with elevated risks for antidepressant (hazard ratio (HR):1.5 (95% CI 1.4 1.6)) and anxiolytics (HR:2.4 (CI 2.0 2.7)) medication. Adjustment for measures of childhood living circumstances attenuated the associations somewhat. Around a third of association with low stress resilience, and a half of that with moderate resilience, was mediated through cognitive and physical function in adolescence and adult socioeconomic factors. The magnitude of the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication was eliminated among those with low stress resilience. These results indicate that low stress resilience in adolescence is associated with an increased risk for antidepressant and anxiolytics medication over 30 years later, in part mediated through developmental factors in adolescence and socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood, and low stress resilience can diminish or eliminate the inverse association of higher cognitive function with antidepressant medication.

  • 21.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Occupational Attainment and Career Progression in Sweden2011Ingår i: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 451-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze occupational attainment and career progression over the life course for Swedish men and women, born in 1925–1974. Careers progress (measured as improvements in occupational prestige) fast during the first 5–10 years in the labour market, and flatten out afterwards (approximately between 30–40 years of age). This is in line with the occupational status maturation hypothesis. Both class origin and educational attainment affect occupational attainment. The effects of educational attainment vary more over the career, but depend on the educational attainment level in question. Successive cohorts of women gain higher occupational prestige, and continue to gain in occupational prestige longer across their careers. We also find that cohorts that entered the labour market in times of economic downturns and restructuring (the oil crisis years and the early 1990s) had more difficulties in establishing their careers. Returns to education generally increase across cohorts, while class background differences decrease, as has been reported in earlier research.

  • 22.
    Härkönen, Juho
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Manzoni, Anna
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Gender inequalities in occupational prestige across the working life: An analysis of the careers of West Germans and Swedes born from the 1920s to the 1970s2016Ingår i: Advances in life course research, ISSN 1040-2608, Vol. 29, nr SI, s. 41-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using retrospective occupational biography data from West Germany and Sweden we analyze gender inequalities in occupational careers in three birth cohorts (1920s to early 1940s, mid-1940s to early 1960s, and mid-1960s to late 1970s). We ask whether gender inequalities are generated at labour market entry, whether career progression and parenthood weaken or strengthen such gender inequalities, and how they differ across cohorts in the two countries. With data from the German Life History Study and the Swedish Level of Living Surveys, we used growth curve analysis to model career developments in occupational prestige. We find less change in occupational prestige across careers in Germany than in Sweden. In both countries a clear female disadvantage in occupational prestige in the oldest cohort has turned into a female advantage in the youngest cohort. This is only partially explained by changes in educational attainment levels. We also find a substantial motherhood penalty in careers in both countries, which has shifted to a fatherhood premium in Sweden over time.

  • 23.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Fattigdomens förändring, utbredning och dynamik2010Ingår i: Social rapport 2010, Stockholm: Socialstyrelsen , 2010, s. 90-126Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Poverty in Sweden 1991-2007. Change, dynamics, and intergenerational transmission of poverty during economic recession and growth2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    • Has poverty increased or decreased in Sweden during the last two decades? The answer to this question depends on the definition of poverty. In relative terms poverty has increased due to increasing income differences.

    • Between 5 and 11 per cent of the population ended up in absolute poverty between 1991 and 2007. The proportions were much higher for those living alone, for young adults, and for immigrants, particularly those newly arrived.

    • Half of the poor leave poverty already the year after entry. The group of poor therefore is composed to a large extent by those who are long-term poor. For those who have once been poor, the risk is high to return to poverty.

    • Poverty is strongly associated with economic recession and growth. When the macroeconomic conditions are favourable fewer become poor and the persistence in poverty decreases.

    • Long-term poverty, defined in absolute terms, has decreased but become more concentrated to those living alone and to immigrants. Among immigrants, persistence is higher than among those born in Sweden.

    • An individual’s incomes and risk of poverty are associated with the household incomes during childhood. Those who grow up poor have excess risks for ending up poor as adults. The probability of ending up as high-income earners is much higher for those who grew up under such advantaged conditions themselves as compared to others.

    • Intergenerational income mobility increased between 1995 and 2005, approximately, but whereas inequality of opportunity thus decreased the economic consequences of the income background grew.

  • 25.
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). University of Oxford, England, UK.
    Mood, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Poverty trends during two recessions and two recoveries: Lessons from Sweden 1991—20132016Ingår i: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 5, artikel-id 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study cross-sectional and long-term poverty in Sweden over a period spanning two recessions, and discuss changes in the policy context. We find large increases in absolute poverty and deprivation during the 1990’s recession but much smaller increases in 2008-2010. While increases in non-employment contributed to increasing poverty in the 1990’s, the temporary poverty increase 2008-2010 was entirely due to growing poverty among non-employed. Relative poverty has increased with little variation across business cycles. Outflow from poverty and long-term poverty respond quickly to macro-economic recovery, but around one percent of the working-aged are quite resistant to such improvements.

  • 26. Lagergren, Jesper
    et al.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Talbäck, Mats
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Härkönen, Juho
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Feychting, Maria
    Ljung, Rickard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Marital status, education, and income in relation to the risk of esophaegal and gastric cancer by histological type and site2016Ingår i: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 122, nr 2, s. 207-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Marital status, income, and education might influence the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer, but the literature is limited. A large study addressing subtypes of these tumors was used to clarify these associations.

    METHODS

    A nationwide, Swedish population–based cohort study from 1991 to 2010 included individuals who were 50 years old or older. Data on exposures, covariates, and outcomes were obtained from well-maintained registers. Four esophagogastric tumor subtypes were analyzed in combination and separately: esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cardia adenocarcinoma, and noncardia gastric adenocarcinoma. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounders.

    RESULTS

    Among 4,734,227 participants (60,634,007 person-years), 24,095 developed esophageal or gastric cancer. In comparison with individuals in a long marriage, increased IRRs were found among participants who were in a shorter marriage or were never married, remarried, divorced, or widowed. These associations were indicated for each tumor subtype but were generally stronger for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Higher education and income were associated with decreased IRRs in a seemingly dose-response manner and similarly for each subtype. In comparison with the completion of only primary school, higher tertiary education rendered an IRR of 0.64 (95% CI, 0.60-0.69) for men and an IRR of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.61-0.75) for women. Comparing participants in the highest and lowest income brackets (highest 20% vs lowest 20%) revealed an IRR of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.70-0.79) for men and an IRR of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.76-0.91) for women.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Divorce, widowhood, living alone, low educational attainment, and low income increase the risk of each subtype of esophageal and gastric cancer. These associations require attention when high-risk individuals are being identified.

  • 27.
    Lambert, Paul S.
    et al.
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Stratification Research and Occupation-based Classifications2012Ingår i: Social Stratification: Trends and Processes. / [ed] P. S. Lambert, R. Connelly, R. M. Blackburn & V. Gayle (eds.), Aldershot: Ashgate, 2012, s. 13-28Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 28. Lambert, Paul S.
    et al.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Using occupation-based social classifications2014Ingår i: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 481-494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupation-based social classifications are important social indicators, but are easily misunderstood. Using survey data from the UK and Sweden, we summarize the empirical relations between a number of alternative occupation-based social classifications. Results indicate similarity between most measures, though there are often quite considerable differences in the properties of related classifications according to the level of detail at which they have been operationalized (such as the number of categories). While these findings may seem unsurprising, they are in conflict with canonical theoretical interpretations attributed to occupation-based measures, where the level of detail is often overlooked, whereas the concepts associated with different measures are emphasized.

  • 29.
    Mood, Carina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jonsson, Jan O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Socioeconomic persistence across generations: cognitive and noncognitive processes2012Ingår i: From parents to children: the intergenerational transmission of advantage / [ed] John Ermisch, Markus Jäntti, Timothy M. Smeeding, New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2012, s. 53-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter analyses the role of cognitive ability, personality traits, and physical characteristics in transmission of socioeconomic status – measured as the intergenerational correlation between father’s and sons’ income and educational attainment, respectively. We find that the intergenerational educational correlation is mostly mediated by cognitive ability, while personality traits and physical characteristics are of little importance. The income correlation is mediated by cognitive ability too, but also by personality traits – and our analyses suggest that characteristics such as social maturity, emotional stability, and leadership capacity gain their importance directly in the labour market rather than through schooling. An interesting finding is that father’s income has a persistent and non-negligible effect on sons’ income despite very extensive controls for other parental characteristics (such as education, social class and occupation) and for other important mediators.

  • 30. Olén, Ola
    et al.
    Bihagen, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Ludvigsson, Jonas F.
    Socioeconomic position and education in patients with coeliac disease2012Ingår i: Digestive and Liver Disease, ISSN 1590-8658, E-ISSN 1878-3562, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 471-476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Socioeconomic position and education are strongly associated with several chronic diseases, but their relation to coeliac disease is unclear. We examined educational level and socioeconomic position in patients with coeliac disease. Methods: We identified 29,096 patients with coeliac disease through biopsy reports (defined as Marsh 3: villous atrophy) from all Swedish pathology departments (n=28). Age- and sex-matched controls were randomly sampled from the Swedish Total Population Register (n=145,090). Data on level of education and socioeconomic position were obtained from the Swedish Education Register and the Occupational Register. We calculated odds ratios for the risk of having coeliac disease based on socioeconomic position according to the European Socioeconomic Classification (9 levels) and education. Results: Compared to individuals with high socioeconomic position (level 1 of 9) coeliac disease was less common in the lowest socioeconomic stratum (routine occupations = level 9 of 9: adjusted odds ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.94) but not less common in individuals with moderately low socioeconomic position: (level 7/9: adjusted odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence interval = 0.91-1.02; and level 8/9: adjusted odds ratio = 0.99; 95% confidence interval = 0.93-1.05). Coeliac disease was not associated with educational level. Conclusions: In conclusion, diagnosed coeliac disease was slightly less common in individuals with low socioeconomic position but not associated with educational level. Coeliac disease may be unrecognised in individuals of low socioeconomic position.

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