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  • 101. Dahlstedt, Magnus
    et al.
    Olson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education. Högskolan Dalarna, Sverige.
    Utbildning, demokrati, medborgarskap2019 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildning är inte bara en fråga om kunskaper och färdigheter, utan också om att forma morgondagens medborgare. Vilken roll har utbildning i samhällsbygget och vilken roll bör den ha? Vad är det för slags medborgare som ska fostras och för vilket samhälle?

    Den här boken handlar om utbildning som medborgarfostran och vilken sorts samhälle denna skapar. Med utgångspunkt i efterkrigstidens Sverige visar författarna hur medborgarfostran har tagit form och hur den har förändrats över tid. Boken gör nedslag vid fyra olika tidpunkter: 1940-talet, 1960-talet, 1990-talet och tidigt 2000-tal. Vid var och en av dessa tidpunkter visar författarna vilken slags medborgare utbildningen fostrar till, hur det går till och vilket samhälle individen fostras för.

    Utbildning, demokrati, medborgarskap bidrar inte bara med kunskaper om det förflutna utan även till en ökad förståelse av samtiden och de vägval som pedagoger står inför. Den nya upplagan är uppdaterad utifrån aktuella samhällsförändringar och debatter om migration, växande populism, kunskapsmätningar och marknadsstyrning.

  • 102.
    Dessen Jankell, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Sandahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Örbring, David
    Organising concepts in geography education: a model2021In: Geography, ISSN 0016-7487, E-ISSN 2043-6564, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 66-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a model for organising geographical concepts that aims to support teachers’ choices of what to teach and how to organise a cohesive and appropriate teaching plan for school geography. The model is a result of a collaborative research process between researchers and Swedish teachers. The purpose was to explore how the core concepts of geography, which are implicit in the Swedish syllabus (Örbring, 2017), can be used in teaching as powerful tools for learning (Brooks, 2018) and to develop epistemic teaching practices for school geography to counterbalance the traditional focus on content (Eriksson and Lindberg, 2016; Knorr-Cetina, 1999). During professional development seminars, teachers’ experiences were linked to procedural concepts in geography (i.e. concepts that mediate specific geographical ways of thinking and doing (Lambert, 2011)), used at an organisational level in line with models introduced by Taylor (2008). This article describes a model that integrates geographical concepts and suggests how they could be used as tools in relation to each other as well as to specific content. Here, we present the considerations behind the structure and functions of the model, and teachers’ reflections on producing and using it in class as a way to develop students’ geographical knowing.

  • 103.
    Dessen Jankell, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Sandahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Örbring, David
    Powerful Geographical Knowledge and Geographical Thinking Concepts: Lessons from History Education2019In: NOFA7 Abstracts: Stockholm University, 13 - 15 May 2019, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2019, p. 60-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For almost a decade there has been an ongoing discussion about the question of powerful knowledge in geography education (Lambert, 2011; Roberts, 2015; Maude, 2017; Taylor, 2018) and there are several conceptual models trying to describe what might be considered powerful knowledge in a school context. However, these models have mainly addressed philosophical, epistemological and pedagogical issues in its focus on (a) the characteristics of powerful knowledge, and (b) what kind of power does it give those who possess it. Building upon the extensive work made in history education (Lee, 2005; Seixas & Morton, 2013) this paper suggests a shift in focus towards a conceptual model describing knowledge as first and second order concepts. The argument is that powerful geographical knowledge as geocapabilities mainly can be understood from the second order level and that these can be useful for teachers in order to make tacit knowledge more explicit in learning activities. Departing from the discussions in geography education, a framework of six geographical thinking concepts are suggested.

  • 104.
    Dessen Jankell, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Sandahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Örbring, David
    Tankeredskap som stöd för geografiundervisning2020In: Geografididaktik för lärare 4-9 / [ed] Lotta Dessen Jankell, David Örbring, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2020, p. 55-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 105.
    Edmark, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Förlags- och skolperspektiv på läromedel i samhällskunskap: - Fallstudie i Stockholms län2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka läromedel i samhällskunskap som köps in och sedan används av lärare på gymnasieskolor i Stockholms län. Intresset riktas mot varför vissa läromedel väljs och vilka ramarna för valprocessen kan vara. Undersökningen har genomförts genom enkäter till kommuner och gymnasieskolor i Stockholms län. Svaren har sedan följts upp, sedan kompletterats med intervjuer med författare, projektledare, en pedagogisk webbdesigner och en säljchef. De kompletterande uppgifter som hämtats in tjänar till att förstå de olika författarfilosofierna och förlagens marknadsstrategier.

    Forskning om svenska läromedel och har gåtts igenom. Rönen här pekar mot att skolor och lärare har ett begränsat valutrymme inför val av läromedel i samhällskunskap på grund av givna juridiska, ekonomiska och ideologiska ramar. Det finns inom forskningen en oro för att teknik ska styra mer än didaktik. Osäkerhet råder också om den betydelse som digitalisering av skolan får för läromedelssituationen. Uppsatsens analys har gjorts med stöd av ramfaktorteorin, som först gås igenom i viss detalj. Resultaten från enkäten till gymnasierna visar att det sortiment av läromedel som säljer är begränsat. Nästan uteslutande är det en del av produkterna från de stora förlagen som säljer.

    Det enda hotet på marknaden kommer från en konkurrent med ”hard bargain”-profil.. En tendens till marknadskoncentration existerar. I stort är priskonkurrensen mycket måttlig trots goda vinstmarginaler i branschen och att läromedelsbudgetarna på en monopson köparsida är under press. Skälet till detta kan sökas i olika ramfaktorer. Hos gymnasieskolor med Stockholm stad som huvudman har året före pandemin tillgänglig ekonomi för läromedelsinköp minskat med ungefär 10 %. Likadan ekonomisk utveckling för läromedelskontot kan konstateras i flera andra kommuner. Generellt läggs mindre pengar på läromedlen för samhällskunskap än genomsnittet. Nästan alla gymnasier verkar dock ha tillgång till inköpta läromedel som inte är föråldrade. Interaktiva (digitala) läromedel är på papperet ofta billigare än de läromedel som framställs i tryckpress, men uppvisar inte någon dominans i undersökningen. 

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  • 106.
    Ekendahl, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Nohagen, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Sandahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Undervisa i samhällskunskap: en ämnesdidaktisk introduktion2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undervisa i samhällskunskap är en ämnesdidaktisk introduktion till undervisning och lärande i skolämnet samhällskunskap. Med utgångspunkt i vardagsnära beslutssituationer synliggörs hur ämnesdidaktiken kan fungera som en reflektionsarena för läraren inför de frågor och utmaningar som samhällsundervisningen ställer.

  • 107.
    Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    'How Much Politics Is There'? Exploring Students' Experiences of Values and Impartiality from an Epistemic Perspective2021In: Journal of Political Science Education, ISSN 1551-2169, E-ISSN 1551-2177, Vol. 17, no SUP1, p. 616-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we report findings of students’ conceptions of values and impartiality in political science teaching in relation to research on epistemic beliefs. This field of research concerns students’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge in different disciplines; beliefs that are central to learning disciplinary knowledge. Interviews were conducted with students after one semester of political science education, focusing on their experiences of values in teaching. Results show that students give contradicting answers regarding values and impartiality in political science teaching. They oscillate between different epistemic beliefs and they have an unclear understanding of the nature of knowledge in the discipline. Questions on the nature and limits of knowledge, therefore, need to be prioritized in political science education. If students are to become literate within their field, they need to become aware of the multiple epistemological underpinnings inherent in the discipline, and the ways these influence the discipline.

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  • 108. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    How much politics is there? Exploring students’ views on values and impartiality in political science from an epistemic cognition perspective2018In: Programme and Book of Abstracts, 2018, p. 70-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research aims

    In a review of research on teaching and learning political science, Craig (2014) calls for a more genuine intersection of political science and learning, and a stronger focus on learning processes. Studies of other disciplinary fields have pointed to the fact that epistemic beliefs are an important aspect of students’ learning processes (Maggioni, Fox & Alexander, 2010), and in this paper we focus in particular on students’ epistemic beliefs in political science.

    Students’ epistemic beliefs are difficult to grasp and analyse “head on”. In the study, students’ epistemological beliefs were analysed through students’ experiences of values and impartiality in teaching and classroom dialogues (c.f. Hofer & Pintrich 1997).

    Theoretical framework

    The research field on epistemic beliefs takes an interest in students’ beliefs about knowledge and the nature of the discipline they are taught. Focus is on “how individuals come to know, the theories and beliefs they hold about knowing, and the manner in which such epistemological premises are a part of and an influence on the cognitive processes of thinking and reasoning” (Hofer 2000: 378). Hence, students’ understandings of what knowledge is, and how knowledge is produced, are of interest. These two aspects have been operationalized into four dimensions (certainty of knowledge, simplicity of knowledge, source of knowledge and justification of knowledge (Hofer 2000: 380) that aim to capture ‘the nature of the discipline’ (Mason 2016).

    These dimensions might shed light on potential disciplinary differences when it comes to for example university students’ beliefs about the certainty of knowledge (c.f. Hofer 2000). They may also add to our understanding of students’ learning in the academic discipline of political science (c.f. Craig 2014; Maggioni et al. 2010). By investigating student experiences within a framework of epistemic cognition in a social science discipline, we hope to contribute to current discussions concerning epistemic beliefs being domain general or specific (Muis et al 2006). As of yet, studies have been conducted in psychology (Peter et al 2015) and history (VanSledright & Maggioni 2016), but to our knowledge not in other social science disciplines.

    Methodology

    We conducted 13 interviews with students after one semester of studies. The interviews were open-ended and conversational (Kvale 1996: 19) and transcribed and analysed using abductive thematic analysis (c.f. Fereday et al. 2006). This hybrid process of inductive and deductive thematic analysis is a methodological approach that aims to integrate data-driven coding with theory-driven coding. The four dimensions - certainty of knowledge, simplicity of knowledge, source of knowledge and justification of knowledge (Hofer 2000: 380) - were theory-driven codes.

    Results

    Results show that the students are uncertain about the epistemology of political science. For example, students oscillate between different ways of making sense of the existence of values.

    Values are seen both as something that constitute a threat toward objective knowledge, and at the same time, as a natural part of the discipline. In regard to certainty of knowledge, students are unsure of whether certain knowledge is possible or not in the discipline.

    Students suggest the use of different but equally unproductive strategies to handle the existence of values; they wish for teachers to promote values that students themselves sympathize with, and for teachers to promote values in a hidden way. This can be seen as justifying the production of knowledge in the classroom. The production of “biased knowledge” on behalf of the teachers is accepted if it students themselves sympathize with this knowledge, or, if it is introduced in the classroom in a subtle way.

    Interestingly, the results relate to epistemological tensions in political science. The epistemology – or theory of knowledge – of the discipline may not be totally fixed (Marsh & Stoker 2010), which can complicate students’ efforts to understand what constitutes knowledge in the discipline. While these results can be regarded as discipline specific epistemic beliefs, we believe that disciplines with multiple, or dominant but existing multiple epistemologies, can potentially bring about similar challenges.

    Conclusion

    From a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes to current discussions concerning epistemic beliefs being domain general or specific (Hofer 2000; Muis et al 2006). From an empirical perspective, the results contribute to our understanding of subject discipline epistemological beliefs, and to our understanding of teaching and learning processes in political science.

  • 109. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    How much politics is there? Students’ understandings of the role of values in political science2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 110. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    How much politics is there? Students’ understandings of the role of values in political science2017In: Nofa6: Abstracts, Odense: Institut for Kulturvidenskaber, Syddansk Universitet , 2017, p. 211-213Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political science is in its nature closely connected to values and normative questions and there has therefore been a long debate on whether these questions should, and can, be kept outside the discipline (e.g. Gormley-Heenan 2012). This characteristic poses a range of challenges for everyone involved in political science teaching. However, research in the intersection of teaching and learning, and political science, is yet underdeveloped (Craig 2014). Research on conceptual change in economics (Lundholm & Davies, 2013) show that the aspect of values has two dimensions; firstly it concerns students’ values and emotions, and therefore challenges learning, and secondly, research point to the value dimension within the social sciences that students need to handle. In January 2015, at the end of their first semester, students enrolled in political science at Stockholm University took part in a survey, which focused upon students’ knowledge, values, and attitudes to various environmental policy instruments in relation to climate change. Based on outcomes of the survey, open-ended interviews were conducted with students, in all 13, on their experiences of the existence of values in political science teaching. Students were asked to think-aloud on how they viewed the existence of values and ideologies within political science education (c.f. Bernstein 2010). The interviews were taped and transcribed and analysed thematically (Braun & Clarke 2006). The results show how students oscillate between different ways of making sense of values in teaching and use different - equally unproductive - strategies to handle the dilemma. These findings are important for advancing our understanding of learning political science, and in particular, in identifying specific learning challenges in this domain. By conducting empirical research in this area, the study also contributes to a wider discussion on the scholarship of teaching and learning political science (Craig 2014) in a fruitful way.

  • 111. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    How much politics is there? Students’ understandings of the role of values in political science2017In: EARLI 2017 Book of Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    "What’s Positive About Positive Rights?" Students’ Everyday Understandings and the Challenges of Teaching Political Science2018In: Journal of Political Science Education, ISSN 1551-2169, E-ISSN 1551-2177, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of research into teaching and learning in political science education concludes that this literature emphasizes student outcomes and “show and tell” descriptions of pedagogical interventions (Craig 2014 Craig, John. 2014. “What Have We Been Writing About? Patterns and Trends in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Political Science.” Journal of Political Science Education 10 (1):23–36.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]). The present study instead aims to open the “black box” of conceptual learning in political science, illustrating the ambiguous role that everyday understandings of core concepts may play in the learning process. Starting from the conceptual change literature, we present findings on how everyday understandings influence learning regarding the concepts of “positive rights” and “anarchy,” resulting in various learning difficulties. The results suggest that teaching needs to explore and explain differences in meaning between scientific and everyday understandings.

  • 113. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    What's positive about positive rights? Students' everyday understandings and the challenges of teaching political science2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 114. Ekström, Linda
    et al.
    Lundholm, Cecilia H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    What's positive about positive rights? Students' everyday understandings and the challenges of teaching political science2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines undergraduate students’ understandings and learning difficulties concerning political science core concepts. A review of research on teaching and learning in political science education concludes on a dominating focus on students’ outcomes and "show and tell" of pedagogical interventions (Craig 2014). We believe it is important to enhance our knowledge of students’ learning processes, and possible learning difficulties, as political knowledge is a key component in civic engagement. Departing in the conceptual change literature, we present findings on how everyday understanding influences learning of the concepts ”positive rights” and ”anarchic world order”, causing various learning difficulties. The implications of the results suggest that teaching needs to address and explicate the differences between scientific and everyday understanding and language.

  • 115.
    Engdahl, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    The Transtemporality of Online Performance2016In: Performance Research, ISSN 1352-8165, E-ISSN 1469-9990, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 107-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines notions of temporality of online performance as a way to rethink earlier debates about performance ontologies. Today, online, and increasingly mobile, technological activities such as photo and video sharing, instant messaging, blogging and social networking organise around performance practitioners' day-to-day existence. In this networked society, performances are constantly mediated through the prism of myriads of digital platforms. Because performances are enacted within or supported by digitally mediated networks and, this is crucial, they incessantly expand temporally, I will refer to online performance in terms of transtemporality, rather than depend on an ontology of unmediation and presence. I depart from Rebecca Schneider's Performance Remains (2011) where she argues how notions of performance, reiteration and documentation are intertwined and contingent, and from the recent performative answers to the logic of the archive found in Amelia Jones's and Adrian Heathfield's anthology Perform Repeat Record: Live Art in History (2012). I argue, by illustrations of Adam Weinert's performance work (2013-2014) as well as my own (2010-2012), that online performance is never fully present but immanently distended through remediation. Performances participate in inherently ruptured transtemporal networks (tweets, reperformances, blogging, video sharing) through which they are continuously remediated and transformed. I propose that online performance even might suggest that performance continuously escapes a sense of Being. Performance's ontology, or rather its ontogenesis proposed by Heathfield (2012), resides with the elements of transformation inherent in its online remediations.

  • 116.
    Eriksson, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Dalarna University, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Learning actions indicating algebraic thinking in multilingual classrooms2021In: Educational Studies in Mathematics, ISSN 0013-1954, E-ISSN 1573-0816, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 363-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses algebraic thinking regarding positive integers and rational numbers when students, 6 to 9 years old in multilingual classrooms, are engaged in an algebraic learning activity proposed by the El’konin and Davydov curriculum. The main results of this study indicate that young, newly arrived students, through tool-mediated joint reflective actions as suggested in the ED curriculum, succeeded in analysing arithmetical structures of positive integers and rational numbers. When the students participated in this type of learning activity, they were able to reflect on the general structures of numbers established as additive relationships (addition and subtraction) as well as multiplicative relationships (multiplication and division) and mixtures thereof, thus a core foundation of algebraic thinking. The students then used algebraic symbols, line segments, verbal, written, and gesture language to elaborate and construct models related to these relationships. This is in spite of the fact that most of the students were second language learners. Elaborated in common experiences staged in the lessons, the learning models appeared to bridge the lack of common verbal language as the models visualized aspects of the relationships among numbers in a public manner on the whiteboard. These learning actions created rich opportunities for bridging tensions in relation to language demands in the multilingual classroom.

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  • 117. Eriksson, Helena
    et al.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Matematik som teoretiskt arbete - utveckling av matematiska modeller för rationella tal i åk 42016In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 6-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The teaching of rational numbers to young students (grade 4-6) is known to be difficult. It is for instance difficult for students to understand that fractions and decimal numbers may represent the same value, or that fraction has a specific place on the number line, i.e. that it is a number among other numbers. The purpose of this article is to discuss and exemplify how students can be involved in a theoretical exploration of fractions as numbers. The basis of the students’ exploration was a designed situation where they were to make measurements of wooden rods where the measurements did not make an equal, i.e. “a little bit” was missing. With these measurements students in joint discussions were able to design a general model for fractions. Such a model could be used as a tool in discussions of “the whole” and “its parts” in fractions. The article is based on data from a series of Learning studies conducted in a grade 4 in an intercultural school in 2012-2013.

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  • 118.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Att synliggöra algebraiska idéer i klassrummet med hjälp av lärandemodeller – ett exempel från åk 1 i Skola 912020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jane Schmittau och Anne Morris (2004), som troligen är de första forskarna som har prövat på Davydovs (2008) matematiska program utanför en rysk kontext, beskriver att idén är att elever först behöver utveckla ett sådant teoretiskt tänkande som Vygotsky säger utgör essensens i algebra, t.ex. behöver eleverna lära sig lösa ekvationer genom att uppmärksamma dess underliggande struktur och att förstå att en bokstav i ett uttryck representerar ett godtyckligt tal. Om nu elever tidigt behöver utveckla ett algebraiskt tänkande rörande exempelvis ekvationer så ställer det speciella krav på undervisningen. Davydov (2008) utvecklade vad som idag kallas lärandeverksamhet och centralt i denna är a) principen om att eleverna genom att först förstå det generella (strukturella och relationell) i ett fenomen senare med förtrogenhet kan tillämpa detta på olika konkreta situationer (ascend from the abstract to the concrete, a.a. s. 101); b) att de abstrakta strukturerna/relationerna behöver visualiseras i så kallade lärandemodeller för elevernas kollektiva utforskande; c) att teoretiskt tänkande bygger på reflektioner och att en reflektion alltid (i någon mening) först är social, vilket motiverar ett kollektivt arbete; d) att läraren kan inte ge ett problem åt eleverna utan eleverna behöver utveckla agens genom att själva (med lärarens stöd) identifiera vad det är som är problematiskt i det som läraren presenterar.

    Det övergripande syftet med detta paper är att exemplifiera och diskutera hur lärandemodeller kan bidra till att elevers kollektiva reflektioner kan synliggöras och vidareutvecklas i helklassdiskussioner. 

    Frågeställningar: Vilka algebraiska idéer relaterat till ekvationer, såsom relationen helhet-delar och begreppet okänt tal kan visualiseras i en lärandemodell och därmed utforskas i en lärandeverksamhet? Vilka aspekter av lärarens och eleverna gemensamma handlingar främjar elevernas förståelse av de strukturella aspekterna som finns inbäddat i en lärandemodell?

    Data utgörs av en videofilmad och transkriberad matematiklektion i åk 1 i Skola 91 i Moskva våren 2017. Materialet analyserats i ett lärandeverksamhetsteoretiskt perspektiv av mig och Natalia Tabachnikova (den lärare som varit med och utveckla Davydovs program för de yngsta). Hela lektionen organiserades kring tre schematiska figurer som byggde på en och samma lärandemodell .

    Den första frågan som riktades till eleverna var: På vilket sätt är de här tre figurerna lika? När eleverna identifierat helhet-del strukturen (barnen visste redan sedan tidigare x betecknade ett okänt tal) fick de tyst välja en av figurerna och i relation till den skriva en berättelse på en konkret situation som kunde stämma med figuren de valt? Eleverna fick sedan läsa upp sin berättelse medan övriga elever skulle gissa vilken figur som stämde med berättelsen. Eleverna skulle därefter skriva ett program för en dator (en ekvationsformel) så att den skulle kunna räkna ut värdet på x. 

    Slutlige ställde läraren en fråga om hur det kom sig att de hade så många berättelser som passade till samma ekvation. 

    Det huvudsakliga resultatet visar att eleverna genom att de kollektivt kunde bygga vidare på varandras argument. Eleverna, genom att peka och förklara i lärandemodellen, kunde utforska den generella helhet-del strukturen i en ekvation men de kunde också se att en och samma ekvation kan beteckna olika situationer (ligga till grund för olika berättelser). 

    Referenser

    Davydov, V. V. (2008). Problems of developmental instruction. A theoretical and experimental psychological study. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

    Schmittau, J., & Morris, A. (2004). The development of algebra in the elementary mathematics curriculum of V. V. Davydov. The Mathematics Educator, 8(1), 60–87.

  • 119.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Delad kompetens i gymnasiesärskolans berättelseskrivande – ett sociokulturellt perspektiv på lärande och utveckling2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln syftar till att kunna fungera som ett diskussionsunderlag för lärare i arbetet med att utveckla elevers förmåga till berättelseskrivande. Utifrån ett sociokulturellt perspektiv och framför allt Vygotskijs arbete presenteras och diskuteras några möjliga konsekvenser för hur undervisning kan organiseras, i syfte att optimera elevernas lärande. Vygotskij (1963, 2001) beskriver individers lärande som i första hand en fråga om att få tillgång till kulturellt utvecklade kunskaper.

  • 120.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Från att veta vad som fungerar till att driva utveckling av undervisningen2020In: Skolutveckling i teori och praktik: / [ed] Åsa Hirsh, Anette Olin, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2020, p. 187-202Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta kapitel diskuterar jag frågor som berör uppföljning, utvärdering och utveckling – ibland omnämnts som UU-arbete – i grundskolan f-åk 9. Särskild vikt läggs på frågor som berör utveckling av undervisningen i ett professionsperspektiv. I kapitlet görs en skillnad på vad a) vardagligt UU-arbete och som sker som en mer eller mindre naturlig del av lärares dagliga arbetet, b) systematisk och kollektivt UU-arbete (ofta initierade och ledda av skolledningen) och c) lärares medverkan i (och ansvar för) undervisningsutvecklande forskning . Syftet med kapitlet är att medvetandegöra lärare på att dessa frågor är av betydelse för såväl utvecklingen av den egna undervisningen, skolutveckling mera generellt som för uppbyggnaden av professionens kunskapsbas. Vidare är syftet att skapa förutsättningar för kollektiva diskussioner och bidra till en kritisk hållning kring dessa frågor.

    Kapitlet är strukturerat på följande sätt: inledningsvis ges en bakgrund av hur fenomen kopplat till uppföljning, utvärdering och utveckling har vuxit fram under de senaste decennierna.  Därefter diskuteras i tre skilda avsnitt de tre typerna av UU-arbeten. Kapitlet avslutas med en kort reflektion om UU-arbetets roll i dagens skola.

  • 121.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lesson och Learning study: modeller för undervisningsutvecklande forskning2016In: Lesson Study i en nordisk kontekst / [ed] Bjørg Oddrun Hallås, Gerd Grimsæth, Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk, 2016, p. 14-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet diskuteras hur modellerna Lesson Study och Learning Study kan användas av lärare för ämnesdidaktisk (fagdidaktisk) undervisningsutvecklande forskning. Motivet till detta ligger framför allt i att den dominerande föreställningen är att pedagogisk och didaktisk forskning är en fråga för universitet och högskola och att lärare ska ta tillvara och tillämpa forskningsresultaten. Lärare ses således som kunskapskonsumenter. Den idag allt ökande användningen av Lesson Study och Learning Study motiveras också ofta som redskap för lärares lärande och/eller kollegialt lärande. Men båda modellerna kan också fungera som redskap för en ny typ av kvalificerad forskning som bedrivs i den praktik där problemen kan identifieras och lösningarna kan prövas. Frågor som diskuteras i kapitlet är: Vilken typ av ämnesdidaktiska kunskaper kan utvecklas i en Lesson eller Learning Study? Hur kan dessa kunskaper dokumenteras, granskas och spridas på ett sätt som motsvarar vetenskapliga krav?

  • 122.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lärandeverksamhet, lärandeuppgifter & lärandemodeller2018In: Att bli lärare / [ed] Eva Insulander, Staffan Selander, Stockholm: Liber, 2018, p. 160-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet avser jag att översiktligt introducera ett ämnesdidaktiskt ramverk – lärandeverksamhet – som ännu inte är speciellt välkänt i Sverige bland lärare eller lärarutbildare. Principerna för lärandeverksamhet har utvecklats sedan 1950-talet under ledning av Daniil B El’konin och Vasily V Davydovs och i samarbete med lärare på Skola nr 91 i Moskva, principer som i väst presenteras under benämningen ”Developmental instruction” och ”Learning activity”. Jag gjorde mina tidigaste erfarenheter av El’konins och Davydovs arbete i början av 2000-talet. Sedan 2013 har jag i olika sammanhang samverkat med den forskargrupp i Moskva som fortsatt arbetet med att utveckla deras idéer i relation till olika ämnen. Jag har också haft förmånen att tillsammans med doktorander och forskarkollegor vid flera tillfällen besöka skola 91. I skrivandets stund utforskas denna modell vid några svenska skolor kopplat till olika doktorandprojekt.

  • 123.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lärandeverksamhet som redskap i en Learning study2017In: Undervisningsutvecklande forskning: exemplet Learning study / [ed] Ingrid Carlgren, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2017, p. 61-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 124.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lärares medverkan i praktiknära forskning: Förutsättningar och hinder2018In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society there is a growing idea of the importance of teachers’ participation in practice relevant research aiming for a science-based teaching. However, there is no clear common understanding of the meaning of teachers’ participation. The aim of the article is to contribute to the discussion such a meaning through an analysis of three collaborative practice-developing research projects. What conditions facilitate or prevent teachers’ participation as members of a research group? Besides time and support from the headmaster, the analysis indicates some important aspects: a) teachers need to be involved from the start, already in identifying the problem and in the overall research planning, b) especially the researchers must take responsibility for securing that teachers can cooperate as members of the research group on equal basis, bearing in mind that it is easy for teachers to positions themselves as learners and c) the research aim needs to be shared between teachers and researchers. Further, ethical issues need to be considered thoroughly, since e.g. aspects of anonymity are challenged if teachers’ contribution are to be acknowledged.

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  • 125.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Materializing students’ algebraic arguments in classroom discussion – a learning activity perspective2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    General description on research questions, objectives and theoretical framework

    Learning activity, is a special form activity within the activity theory tradition. It was first developed by El’konin and Davydov (Davydov, 2008). The underpinning cultural historical and activity theoretical principles give us an understanding that students in order to develop knowledge must be involved in a content rich activity where they can work theoretically with general (abstract) principles and structures of the object of knowledge (Chaiklin, 2002). Further, in order to realize a learning activity, students’ (and teacher’s) actions that forms the theoretical work, must be mediated by proper tools. But which tools can enable what type of knowledge?

    In mathematics for the youngest students, that I will discuss in this paper, there is a long tradition that advocate that it is of great importance to use tools that can help students to manipulate with the content in order to understand e.g. numbers – physical things like buttons, toys, fruit, etc. are often used to illustrate e.g. 4+5=. This is often talked about as concrete math-teaching supported by manipulatives. In El'konin and the Davydov program (ED), the main purpose is instead the opposite: to allow students to develop a theoretical understanding of mathematical knowledge (Davydov, 2008). In the ED-program subject specific learning models are used as mediating tools for students in their trying to grasp theoretical aspects of a specific content, e.g. a concept (Gorbov & Chudinova, 2000; Repkin, 2003; Zuckerman, 2004). Aspects that are difficult for students to grasp empirically.

    The issue for this paper is, thus, what function learning models can have in mathematical whole class discussions. What can be used as a learning model? And, how can the object of knowledge be elaborated with the help of learning models in whole-class discussions?

    Methods/methodology

    The paper is using data from several a research project[1] based on learning study as research approach (Carlgren, Eriksson & Runesson, 2017) where the aim was to develop tasks and learning models that could enhance students’ ability to reason algebraically. The research lessons was video-taped and transcribed and analyzed with the help of questions like: what in the planned situation do the students identify as a learning model and how do they use it? Do they transform the learning model and if so in what ways and for what purpose? What indicators can be identified of how the learning model facilitates the whole class discussions? What in the teachers actions, especially communicative actions, facilitate or hindrance in students discussions?

    Expected outcomes/preliminary results/implications

    In the analysis of the research lesson three functions of the learning models used in whole class discussions were identified. First, a learning model enables individuals to make his or her sometimes rather unclear verbal explanations much more comprehensible both for the student that puts forward an idea and for his or her classmates. Second, a learning model if it is available e.g. on the blackboard for the students' exploration, a verbal argument can be available to the group when the words are no longer heard. Third, the learning model itself can be transformed by the students (or by the teacher) in new ways. Such modelling can make other aspects of the content available.

    Further, the analysis also indicates that not only the construction of the learning model is demanding but also the way it is used in as a tool facilitating the classroom discussion.

    The construction requires a solid theoretical understanding of the subject. A theoretical structure is not always easy to identify and to find a way to transform such knowing into something that can function as a learning model for students can be even more demanding. In our cases we used learning models from the ED-program or let us be inspired by it (Davydov, Gorbov, Mikulina, & Saveleva, 2012). In addition, we have experienced that how the teacher act in the classroom is of great importance. One requirement, if a teaching situation will be established as a learning activity, is the teachers’ actions. The teacher cannot simply tell the student what to do, how to use the learning model or tell the students what the problem is. Instead, a learning activity will only be established if the students' experiences a need and a motive to solve the problem. A learning activity is thus is very fragile (Eriksson, 2017, Repkin, 2003).

    Concluding

    Materializing theoretical thinking helps the students to act with agency within a learning activity. In such learning activity abstract structures can be visualized and collaboratively explored.

  • 126.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Skolutveckling på vetenskaplig grund vid Stockholms universitet : Ett diskussionsunderlag baserat på erfarenheter från AkUt+-projektet2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 127.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Stockholm Teaching & Learning Study, STLS – En samverkansplattform för ämnesdidaktisk praktiknära forskning2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 128.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Talet om måluppfyllelse och dess konsekvenser för kunskapsuppdraget2018In: Lärares bedömningsarbete: förutsättningar, villkor, agens / [ed] Viveca Lindberg, Inger Eriksson, Astrid Pettersson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, p. 43-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta kapitel är att bidra till en diskussion kring vilka konsekvenser den starka fokuseringen på måluppfyllelse och att nå målen kan ha för undervisningens utformning och elevernas kunskapsutveckling i dagens svenska skola. Vad menas med högmåluppfyllelse eller att nå målen? Vad antas bidra till en högmåluppfyllelse? Vilken betydelse tillskrivs fenomen som formativ bedömning och synligt lärande, som pedagogiska lösningar för ökad måluppfyllelse? Kapitlet inleds med en kortare tillbakablick över hur de svenska lärarna har uppfattat de senaste decenniernas läroplansreformer med avseende på undervisning och bedömning. Syftet är att ge en bakgrund till hur och vad som har förändrats. Därefter presenteras en analys av olika webbaserade texter som berör måluppfyllelse. Kapitlet avlutas med en diskussion om hur måluppfyllelse och formativ bedömning kan förstås i relation till läroplanens långsiktiga mål och det kunskapsperspektiv som läroplanen vilar på.

  • 129.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning, VFU, och övningsskoleprojektet i ett professionsperspektiv : Ett diskussionsunderlag baserat på erfarenheter från AkUt+2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 130.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Teachers as lesson and learning study researchers – establishing a research environment2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the type of conditions needed if establishing a research environment for teacher driven research.

    Lesson and Learning Study (LLS) has gained a growing interest during the latest years. In most cases it is framed in relation to teachers’ professional development, teachers’ learning and school development. That is the knowledge that teachers gain from different studies are not object for dissemination and review. Thus, in most cases the aim of a LLS is not to produce knowledge outside the local context. However, LLS has a great potential to function as a research approach for teacher driven research. An approach that would make it possible for teachers to take responsibility for their own professional knowledge base (Carlgren e.g. 2012). This type of research has been compared to medical clinical research (Bulterman Bos 2008; Carlgren 2012). That is, the issues, problems and demands that teachers are trying to master in their everyday work are to be focused in the research. But further, teachers who identify such objects of research also need to be the researcher (Bulterman Bos, 2008). Several problems are related to such a research. Partly due to the lack of traditions and infrastructures, partly due to lack of teachers with formal research education. In this presentation we primarily focus on the conditions, in the form of traditions and infrastructures important to establish a research environment for teacher driven research. To date, teachers who want to conduct research on teaching and learning in their own or their colleague classrooms have to accomplish their research work under different conditions compared to university researchers. What conditions are important to establish a research environment where such research of high quality might be produced? How can teachers with little or no research training be supported to qualify their own research projects? What type of support do they need? Since teachers normally do not have access to university library resources, seminars, and workshops that are of fundamental value for university researchers (Ratkić, 2006), one issue is how such research activities may be adapted to become compatible with teachers’ work in schools? Further, how can aspects of research, such as dissemination and publications be supported and organized?

    In this paper, we provide an account of how we in Stockholm have sought to establish a dynamic research environment for teacher-driven research in an in-between space of school and university. The particular space, or platform, is called Stockholm Teaching & Learning Studies (STLS). STLS includes open seminars, subject specific networks led by senior researchers, a research conference for teachers, project research seminars, project applications and publication as a highly held value. I.e an infrastructure is built to open for discussion, verification, and refutation or modification of research findings. STLS is a platform for teachers and researchers with an interest in didactic research aiming at developing teaching. The overall objectives are to provide a research environment where teachers are offered support and opportunities to participate in didactic research and development (R&D), to develop methodological models that allow teachers to participate in conducting didactic research in school practices, to function as a ’knowledge-production-workshop’ for the processing and analyzing of data and to support and provide arenas for peer-review, writing and dissemination of research results. Some of the challenges involved in establishing STLS has concerned the creating time and resources for teachers to engage in research, developing processes of application for teachers to propose research projects and how to inviting teachers with no or very little prior experience in research.

  • 131.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Berthén, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Finnset, Torgunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    The expansive learning cycle transformed into a tool for educational design2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 112-112Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 132.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Setting an object of knowledge in motion through Davydov’s learning activity2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 111-111Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 133.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Fred, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nordin, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nyman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Enabling students’ participation in algebraic reasoning with ‘learning models’ as tools for theoretical work2019In: NOFA7 Abstracts, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this paper is to discuss conditions for students’ participation in theoretical classroom discussions. In order to develop students’ ability to reason and solve problems algebraically Lins and Kaput (2004) argue that it is important to introduce algebra early in mathematics education. In line with this, researchers working within the sociocultural tradition argue that this may start as early as in first grade (Lins & Kaput, 2004). The so-called Davydov programme (e.g. Schmittau, 2005) is referred to as a promising alternative type of teaching, enhancing young students’ capability to reason algebraically. Central to the Davydov programme is the concept of ’learning model’. Such models (not to be confused with mathematical models) are used to enable students’ elaboration of mathematical phenomena. The characteristics of a learning model is that it materialises central theoretical aspects of a content. Further, it creates specific conditions necessary for students to understand and elaborate on each other’s arguments. However, there are many demanding issues related to the design of such learning models that needs to be further developed. In this paper we address the following research question: What in students’ classroom discussions can be taken as signs of emergent ability to reason algebraically? In this paper we use data from two learning studies conducted in 2017–2018. One in grade 1 (age 7) with three iteratively designed and revised lessons, and one in grade 5 (age 11) with four iteratively designed and revised lessons. We focus especially on how students use learning models as tools to enforce and maintain a collective reasoning indifferent communicative situations. To identify possible algebraic reasoning we have analyzed the communicative situations by drawing upon Toulmin’s (2003) model of argumentation with claim, data, warrant and backing. The tentative results indicate that the ability to work with the learning models not only facilitated an individual student to clarify and substantiate his or her arguments, but also enabled other students to follow and elaborate on the reasoning. This paper also contributes with examples of tasks and especially how to set the tasks in motion to enable students’ theoretical work.

  • 134.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Fred, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nordin, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nyman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Tasks, tools, and mediated actions – promoting collective theoretical work on algebraic expressions2021In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 26, no 3–4, p. 29-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to exemplify and discuss what teachers using learning activity need to consider when planning and supporting students’ collective theoretical work on algebraic expressions. Data are from two iteratively developed research lessons in two Grade 7 classes. The analysis focuses on students’ tool-mediated actions, the mathematical content processed, how the content is dealt with, and on identifying the crucial aspects that enable collective theoretical work. The result provides examples of how the content of the task, its design, and its tools, as well as the teacher’s and students’ tool-mediated actions are crucial factors in the promotion of collective theoretical work.

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  • 135.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Designing algebraic tasks for 7-year-old students – a pilot project inspired by Davydov’s learning activity concept2017In: International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, E-ISSN 1473-0111, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 257-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of this article is to identify and discuss what conditions may be necessary to build into tasks to make it likely for students to be involved in an algebraic Learning Activity inspired by Davydov. Data from a pilot study was used in which a group of students (N=28) in grade 1 (7-year-olds) were invited to participate in discussions and laborations of how to decide whether two or more variables are equal or not, and making unequal “variables” equal by the help of measurement, abstract symbols and relational material. Three tasks were designed and from the analysis we will highlight five requirements for tasks that have the potential to enable students to engage in an algebraic learning activity.

  • 136.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Enriching learning activities with epistemic practices – enhancing students’ agency and epistemic authority2016In: Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar : En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg / [ed] Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román, Wieland Wermke, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2016, p. 82-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 137.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Enriching ‘learning activity’ with ‘epistemic practices’ – enhancing students’ epistemic agency and authority2016In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, ISSN 2002-0317, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 32432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an unchanged, re-published version of: Inger Eriksson & Viveca Lindberg, ‘Enriching learning activities with epistemic practices – enhancing students’ epistemic agency and authority’, with Maja Elmgren, Maria Folke-Fichtelius, Stina Hallsén, Henrik Román (2016), Att ta utbildningens komplexitet på allvar. En vänskrift till Eva Forsberg, Uppsala Universitet: Uppsala Studies in Education 138.

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  • 138.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Foreword2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research : Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. vii-xChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Framing the Research Project – Background, Aim and Project Description: Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 3-6Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The three year long research project, here reported, draws on cooperation between educational researchers from Tanzania and Sweden. Even though the country contexts differ in social, economicas well as educational conditions and state of teacher education and classroom standards, many recurrent education challenges are shared. These include the tendency to make educational reforms with little or no input from professionals. In both countries a number of costly reform decisions have been taken without substantially improving learning or teaching. Both countries struggle with students’ weak (in Tanzania) or declining (in Sweden) results nationally and internationally. They thus share a corresponding concern for how to improve education quality. Further, in both countries new outcomes based curricula have been implemented. These new curricula put a much higher responsibility on teachers; teachers must be able to organize teaching that enables all students to develop required abilities/competences. Thus, teachers need tools to develop knowledge that can contribute to their professional knowledge base.

  • 140.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    School Development Through Teacher Research: Lesson and Learning Studies Studies in Sweden and Tanzania2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The origination of this project lies with Dr Gunilla Höjlund, who since the beginning of the 1990s has been involved in different cooperative projects between researchers in Tanzania and Sweden. Thanks to her experiences and connections to different researchers at the University of Dodoma (UDOM), and her interest in school development, the Tanzanian-Swedish research team was brought together. The Swedish team, from Stockholm University (SU), and especially Professor Ingrid Carlgren, have since the beginning of 2000 worked with the models of Lesson and Learning Studies (LLS) and Professor Kalafunja Osaki who has experience of Lesson Study as part of his collaboration with researchers in Japan. Further, the Swedish government has along tradition of funding collaboration with researches in Tanzania. Professor Osaki and I made an application to the Swedish research program, Research Links, run by the Swedish Council for Research on behalf of the Swedish Authority for Development Cooperation. The application was approved in November 2012. The founding we got covered expenses for travels and meetings to be used over the period 2013 to 2015. The idea for the proposed project was to use Lesson and/or Learning Study as a model for research based school development. Or more precisely, as models to enhance teaching -learning in relation to different subjects. The project was centred on local cases in four different subject areas in the respective countries. In Tanzania the four cases were conducted within the established cooperation between UDOM and single municipality primary schools, and in Sweden within the established cooperation between the SU and schools in the municipalities in the Stockholm area.

  • 141.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Osaki, Kalafunja
    Teacher Owned School Development – Possibilities and Constraints2018In: School Development Through Teacher Research : Lesson and Learning Studies in Sweden and Tanzania / [ed] Inger Eriksson, Kalafunja Osaki, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers Ltd. , 2018, p. 197-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today school development with a foci on teaching has gained momentum worldwide following earlier focus on raising school scores on achievement tests, improving school inspection and supervision, initiating programs aimed at school improvement and similar projects that aimed to raise the quality of teaching and learning at school level. There is also a growing expectation that teaching is to be based on and developed in relation to educational research findings or knowledge. This implies that the knowledge needed already exists and only needs to reach out to schools and teachers. This understanding casts teachers as implementers of knowledge. An explanation to schools which fail to improve their teaching and students’ learning – still often measured by the amount of students passing exams and tests – is thus that teachers either do not know about the research findings or resist using new knowledge from available research. The problem is thereby related to the teachers’ lack of knowledge, interest or seriousness.

  • 142.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Polotskaia, Elena
    Editorial2017In: International Journal for Mathematics Teaching and Learning, E-ISSN 1473-0111, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 132-135Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue is devoted to Vasily Davydov and the ground-breaking work that he introduced together with Daniil Elkonin. Their work, substantiated by many years of rigorous experiments, presents a theoretical extension and an educational concretisation of foremost Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky’s cultural historical theory and Alexei Leontiev’s activity theory. In the West, the curriculum in mathematics for the youngest students stemming from Davydov’s longitudinal series of experimentsis most known as the Davydov curriculumor program. Jean Schmittau together with her colleague Ann Morris is perhaps among the first to “import” the Davydov program into the US (Schmittau & Morris, 2004). There are other established implementations of the Davydov curriculume specially in the US, such as the project “Measure up” in Hawaii led by Barbara Dougherty (Dougherty & Slovin, 2004). More recently, Martin Simon (Simon & Placa, 2012) has been leading a five-year research project inquiry into the mechanisms of mathematics conceptual learning, where the Davydov curriculum is used as the main framework to shift the curriculum in mathematics education in the US. To date, the program has become known in other countries as well and a growing number of researchers are exploring its tenets and potential implications in mathematics education. Interestingly, the Davydov program is more frequently referred to within the research field of early algebraisation (see for e.g.,Cai & Knuth, 2011) and researchers are looking to Davydov’s heritage as a source of inspiration for new developments and new perspectives on what and how to teach elementary mathematics, thus introducing a new paradigm of psychological, mathematical, and pedagogical knowledge in the field of mathematics education.

  • 143.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Tabachnikova, Natalia
    “Learning models”: Utilising young students’ algebraic thinking about equations2022In: LUMAT: International Journal on Math, Science and Technology Education, E-ISSN 2323-7112, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 215-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this article is to exemplify and analyse how some algebraic aspects of equations can be theoretically explored and reflected upon by young students in collaboration with their teacher. The article is based upon an empirical example from a case study in a grade 1 in a primary school. The chosen lesson is framed by the El’konin-Davydov curriculum (ED Curriculum) and learning activity theory in which the concept of a learning model is crucial. Of the 23 participating students, 12 were girls and 11 boys, approximately seven to eight years old. The analysis of data focuses on the use of learning models and reflective elaboration and discussions exploring algebraic structures of whole and parts. The findings indicate that it is possible to promote the youngest students’ algebraic understanding of equations through the collective and reflective use of learning models, and we conclude that the students had opportunity to develop algebraic thinking about equations as a result of their participation in the learning activity. 

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  • 144.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Fred, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nordin, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Nyman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Tambour, Torbjörn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics.
    Materialisering av algebraiska uttryck i helklassdiskussioner med lärandemodeller som medierande redskap i årskurs 1 och 52019In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, NOMAD: [Nordic Studies in Mathematics Education], ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 24, no 3-4, p. 81-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this article, which draws upon on data from a design research project based on Davydov’s principles of learning activity, is to discuss which functions learning models can have to promote students’ collective discussions on algebraic expressions. The data is comprised of videotaped lessons in Grade 1 and 5 respectively. The analysis focuses on conditions for qualifying whole-class discussions and the functions learning models can have for the students’ collective exploration of mathematical structures and relationships in algebraic expressions. The result indicates that learning models as mediating tools enable the students to conduct creative and reflective discussions on algebraic expressions and their components.

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    Materialisering
  • 145.
    Eriksson, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Wettergren, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Nordin, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Fred, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Fermsjö, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Nyman, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Gerholm, Werner
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Same critical aspects regardless of age – indicating lack of experiences of algebraic expressions2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this paper is to discuss what can explain that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching. Data comes from a three-year-long learning study project conducted in four different Swedish schools, in K–9: preschool, grade 4, 6 and 9 respectively.  

    Understanding what students yet need to learn in relation to a specific content is of importance if to organize a teaching situation where students can work in a zone of proximal development (Vygotsky, 1986). Within the theory of variation the concept of critical aspects is regarded as bearing such information for teachers to use when designing teaching (Marton, 2005; Runesson, 2013).

    In the research project we used phenomenography as a theoretical framework in search for critical aspects. Phenomenography is a research approach aiming to understand qualitatively different ways of experiencing a phenomenon. A basic assumption is that we, on the basis of what we have experienced in life, what situations and problems we encountered, experience a phenomenon in a specific way (Marton, 1981; Eriksson, 1999). But the ways we experience a phenomenon do not vary very much. This is believed to be because the contexts and activities do not vary at all. A phenomenographical analysis tends to result in a limited but qualitatively different way of experiencing a phenomenon (Eriksson, 1999). Critical aspects can be identified when comparing different ways of experiencing a phenomenon.

    The research question addressed in this paper is what possible explanations can be found that students in different grades seem to experience a phenomenon in more or less the same way and thus, need to discern the same critical aspects in teaching.

    In order to identify critical aspects groups of students from each grade were interviewed when presented algebraic expressions and some possible answers. The interviews were transcribed and phenomenographically analysed.

    The results indicates that regardless of earlier schooling the students experienced the phenomenon of algebraic expressions in a similar way and thus same critical aspects were identified as needed to discern for the students in the four grades. Based on the analysis three different critical aspects were identified. Students from preschool class and grade 4 were interviewed during the first project year and the students from Grade 6 and 10 the second project year. The analysis from the first project year resulted in critical aspects common for the students and that was not so surprising since we knew that these students had not yet experienced algebraic expressions. However almost the same critical aspects were identified in the analysis of the interviewed students in Grade 6 and 9 during second project year. This was more of a surprise since the students had met algebraic expressions in school.

    The discussion will focus on these findings in relation to what possible experiences student may have of discerning aspects of algebraic expressions in relation to the content of mathematical education.

  • 146.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Constructing Resistance - Negotiations of Femininity, Race and Age in Swedish Visual Arts Education2019In: Nofa7 Abstracts, Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University, 2019, p. 67-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following paper discusses two paradoxes in Swedish schools Visual Arts Education. The first one concerning that while a norm critical perspective more commonly is implemented in Swedish school settings by a growing number of teachers, many classrooms remain color mute. However, the active effort to keep the race issue silenced confirms its very importance (Castagno 2008). The second paradox concerning that even though gender equality is an important aspect of the Swedish National Curriculum, and my field studies was conducted in whatthe teachers and pupils commonly referred to as a feminist aware school, where girls where expected to have a strong voice and make resistance, gender equality still was overruled in the interaction between the male teacher in his forties and the female pupils. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at an urban upper secondary school with a national Visual Arts program, I video recorded a group of pupils working with an art film assignment. The theme for the task was “power and resistance”, and the pupils selected a non-white, feminine body in order to represent the position of the subordinate, the one, as the pupils put it, in need to learn how to resist oppression. My study show how femininity, race and age are enacted, for example by styling the casted pupil Vendela in a mixture of traditional female Asian clothing, and accessories to promote an East Asian look orienting her body as non-white. I examine how oppressed femininity is performed and encouraged to be negotiated and problematized in formal education, by teachers and pupils and how inequalities are both reproduced and challenged. But at the same time as the pupils perform these subject positions there issomething more going on; a hint of something unspoken that participants still assign significance. There seems to be aspects of the visualization of bodies that may not be articulated in words, but still is employed as a resource when pupils uses their own bodies and appearance to create an aesthetic utterance about subordination. Thus, I analyze how gender, race and age interact as discursive and aesthetic practices, in some young people's visual arts assignment. The theories of use are gender theory with an intersectional approach, critical race theory and the perspective of visual culture theory.

  • 147.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Estetiska preferenser och jag - en studie om ungas konstruktioner och förhandlingar av estetiska ideal2013In: I rörelse / On the Move / [ed] Johanna Dahlin, Tove Andersson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 57-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Följande paper, som utgår från ett pågående etnografiskt fältarbete vid en gymnasieskola med estetiskt program, intresserar sig för visualitet och ungas konstruktioner och förhandlingar av estetiska ideal. Ungdomars förhandlingar kring smak och bildpreferenser kan undersökas som en estetisk och diskursiv praktik, men även som en del av ett ständigt pågående identitetsarbete. Estetiska ideal förhandlas mellan unga i min studie exempelvis i internetmiljöer, webbaserade sociala nätverk, och medie- och populärkulturen, likväl som i skolans bildundervisning. Det är studiens utgångspunkt att i dessa kommunicerade estetiska ideal, konstrueras även subjektspositioner; ett jag. Skolan är en arena där kulturell fostran görs explicit i undervisning och styrdokument, inte minst vad gäller smak och estetiska preferenser. Aure (2011) och Elsner (2000) beskriver emellertid ett vanligt förekommande ”glapp” mellan ungdomars och bildpedagogers estetiska preferenser, ett glapp som min pågående studie utforskar vidare. Min etnografi visar, liksom annan tidigare forskning, att skolan som institution är långt ifrån den enda eller kanske ens den främsta arenan för ungas estetiska influenser. Unga påverkar och påverkas av varandra och andra kontexter än skolan när det gäller smak och vilka bilddiskurser som kan användas i identitetskonstruktion. Jag presenterar ett exempel där informanten Sonja förhandlar estetiska ideal såväl under bildlektionerna som i sin privata bilddagbok och på nätet, på ett sätt som utmanar möjliga föreställningar om unga som ensidiga mottagare av skolans estetiska kanon. Paperet lämnar därmed ett bidrag till förståelsen av ungas förhandling av estetiska värden, och till betydelsen av sociala nätverksfora, där egna och andras bilder utgör en viktig del av kommunikationen – inte minst om det egna jaget.

  • 148.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Flickblickar: Visuella berättelser om, av och genom gymnasieelevers kroppar2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates enactments of femininities, bodies and images among young women in two art and design classes at urban Swedish upper-secondary schools. The theoretical framework combines visual culture, performativity and new materialism, contributing to art education research and girlhood studies. Based on a nine-month ethnographic field study, including the collection of a) ethnographic field notes, b) photo documentation of the participants’ images created in classrooms and during spare time, and c) photo-elicitation-based interviews, the study explores students’ everyday engagement with images, referred to as visual narratives. These were investigated in relation to norms surrounding the becoming of girls, at a time when the schools in the study were both strongly promoting gender equality and some public debates suggested a postfeminist condition, i.e. that feminism has moved beyond the balance of equality. The thesis suggests that the relationships between visual narratives and bodies revolve around a particular type of gaze: the girl gaze, i.e. practices of looking, a communicative and aesthetic activity, in which the participants see themselves, their bodies and the world around them. Girl gazes consist of other gazes, such as the female gaze, the oppositional gaze, the transgender gaze or the white gaze. Each of these is investigated in three analytical chapters. In the chapter ‘White gazes’, theories of visual culture theory are combined with critical whiteness studies to analyse how certain bodies will not pass as white in a white school space in art teaching. Whilst talk about race in the Swedish antiracist classroom is taboo and silenced, race is indeed visible. For example, a subordinated non-white femininity is a theme in one actual school assignment. Colour-blindness, in a Swedish school context, should thus be understood not as a problem of seeing colour but as a taboo-laden silence when faced with stereotypes. The chapter ‘Screen gazes’ investigates how emotions circulate when visual narratives are produced on screens. Social media is often talked about as a female arena, and the making of selfies as narcissistic. However, allowing images that explore femininity and emotions to flow on social media might be a way to give femininity a place in the limelight. The study also discusses the humorous side of girl gazes, which may work as feminist counter-narratives by ridiculing gender norms. Finally, the chapter ‘Future gazes’ deals with aspirational identities – the embodiment of aesthetic ideals and future gazes. Tattoo culture, fitness culture and feminist statements in the form of art bricolage are studied as examples of work on bodies in relation to aesthetic ideals. These examples also came together in a common desire among the participants to become someone – to become known and recognised. In sum, in this thesis, the media-oriented term girl gaze – hitherto found with a hashtag in front of it, revealing its connection not with a scientific sphere but with social media – is a gaze constructed by gender and generation and other intersectional nexus points of social categories. Despite the commitment to gender equality in the classroom, the results show that equality is rather contested and continuously negotiated. The concept of the girl gaze can help to direct the analytical focus towards what is not yet visible, and to bring paradoxes surrounding girlhood and femininity to the surface.

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  • 149.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Looking into the future: Becoming Feminine Gendered Bodywork among Swedish upper secondary School Girls2019In: Rethinking Knowledge Regimes: Solidarities and Contestations, Gothenburg: Swedish Secretariat for Gender Research , 2019, p. 55-56Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 150.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences Education.
    Synlig tystnad: Visuella gestaltningar av femininintet och ras i bilddidaktiska praktiker2019In: NEÄL 2019: Aesthetic Experiences in Education, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här papret lyfts ett empiriskt exempel kring bildundervisning på gymnasienivå i svensk skolkontext vilket analyserar blickar, kroppar och vithet i en bildundervisning fylld av färg. Genom att ta kritiska vithetsstudier med intresse för skola i bruk konstaterar jag hur en urban skola med högt söktryck är ett s.k. vitt rum (jfr Ahmed, 2011), men också hur tal om hudfärg eller kroppar fysiska yttre i en antirasistisk kontext blir riskabelt. Empirin omfattar eleversoch lärares interaktioner kring en skoluppgift på temat förtryck och motstånd, och består av elevernas bildarbete –en konstfilm –min egen videodokumentation av bildlektionerna samt fältanteckningar. För att undersöka vithetens rum, vita blickar och kroppars färg använder jag det antiessentialistiska begrepp ras som analytiskt verktyg. Papret ger en analys av hur ras brukas genom blickar och visuell gestaltning inom skolans formella praktik men aktivt tystas när lärare och elever talar om det visuella uttrycket. Genom att belysa lärandesituationerna vill jag i det här papret diskutera hur elevernas kroppar estetiseras, tillskrivs föreställningar och brukas som visuella resurser. Jag vill uppmärksamma ett didaktiskt dilemma där feministiska och antirasistiska intentioner i bilddidaktisk praktik kan locka fram visuellt uppmuntrad andrefiering parad med tystnad.

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