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  • 101.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Challenging the notion of an early-onset of cognitive decline2009In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 521-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Salthouse claims that cognitive aging starts around 20 years of age. The basis for this claim is cross-sectional data. He dismisses longitudinal data, which typically show the cognitive decline to start much later, around 60 years of age. He states that longitudinal data cannot be trusted because they are flawed. There is a confounding between the effects of maturation and retest effects. We challenge Salthouse's strong claim on four accounts.

  • 102.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderlund, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Berger, K
    Breteler, M
    de Ridder, M
    Dufouil, C
    Fuhrer, R
    Giampaoli, S
    Hofman, A
    Pajak, A
    Sans, S
    Schmidt, R
    Launer, L J
    Cognitive test battery of CASCADE: Tasks and data.2005In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 32-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the cognitive test battery used in the CASCADE Study (Cardiovascular Determinants of Dementia) for examining the consequences of cerebral white matter lesions and atrophy. The test battery includes nine different tasks assessing memory, executive function, and global cognitive function. Three episodic memory tasks were used in combinations to assess the role of attention and speed on encoding. Estimates of short- and long-term memory capacity were also derived from these three memory tasks. Semantic memory production / frontal lobe functions were assessed by means of a word fluency test. The Letter Digit Substitution test and the Stroop test were used to assess speed of processing and attention. Motor speed was measured with the Purdue Pegboard test, and global cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination. Overall performance data for the whole CASCADE sample and for each of eight study centers are presented for each test. Possible reasons for performance differences among study centers are discussed.

  • 103. Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Andersson, Micael
    Forsgren, Lars
    Jakobsson-Mo, Susanna
    Larsson, Anne
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Bäckman, Lars
    Striatal dopamine D2 binding is related to frontal BOLD response during updating of long-term memory representations2009In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 1194-1199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-modal brain imaging was used to examine the relation between individual differences in resting-state striatal dopamine D2 binding and the magnitude of prefrontal BOLD activation during updating of long-term memory (LTM) representations. Increased activity in the left prefrontal cortex was observed when LTM updating was required, and there was a positive correlation between striatal D2 activity and the magnitude of left prefrontal activity during updating. These findings support predictions from neurocomputational models of a relation of dopaminergic neurotransmission to transient cognitive operations and related brain activity.

  • 104. Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Andersson, Micael
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Lundquist, Anders
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Umeå center for Functional Brain Imaging, Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden; Umeå center for Functional Brain Imaging, Sweden.
    Age-related and Genetic Modulation of Frontal Cortex Efficiency2014In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dorsolateral pFC (DLPFC) is a key region for working memory. It has been proposed that the DLPFC is dynamically recruited depending on task demands. By this view, high DLPFC recruitment for low-demanding tasks along with weak DLPFC upregulation at higher task demands reflects low efficiency. Here, the fMRI BOLD signal during working memory maintenance and manipulation was examined in relation to aging and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met status in a large representative sample (n = 287). The efficiency hypothesis predicts a weaker DLPFC response during manipulation, along with a stronger response during maintenance for older adults and COMT Val carriers compared with younger adults and COMT Met carriers. Consistent with the hypothesis, younger adults and met carriers showed maximal DLPFC BOLD response during manipulation, whereas older adults and val carriers displayed elevated DLPFC responses during the less demanding maintenance condition. The observed inverted relations support a link between dopamine and DLPFC efficiency.

  • 105.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalpouzos, Grégoria
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lind, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Pudas, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå, Sweden.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Longitudinal evidence for diminished frontal-cortex function in aging2010In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 107, no 52, p. 22682-22686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional estimates of age-related changes in brain structure and function were compared with 6-y longitudinal estimates. The results indicated increased sensitivity of the longitudinal approach as well as qualitative differences. Critically, the cross-sectional analyses were suggestive of age-related frontal overrecruitment, whereas the longitudinal analyses revealed frontal underrecruitment with advancing age. The cross-sectional observation of overrecruitment reflected a select elderly sample. However, when followed over time, this sample showed reduced frontal recruitment. These findings dispute inferences of true age changes on the basis of age differences, hence challenging some contemporary models of neurocognitive aging, and demonstrate age-related decline in frontal brain volume as well as functional response.

  • 106.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Wilson, Donald
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nordin, Steven
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є42016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 85, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memoryand olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45–90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10–20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by >1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.

  • 107.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Hedner, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Odor identification impairment in carriers of ApoE-epsilon 4 is independent of clinical dementia2010In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 567-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ApoE acme is expressed in olfactory brain structures and is believed to play a role in neuronal regenerative processes as well as in development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia The epsilon 4 allele lots been reported to be associated with compromised odor identification ability in the elderly, and this deficit has been interpreted as a sign of pre-diagnostic AD However, because it has not been demonstrated that the relationship between the epsilon 4 allele and odor identification is mediated by dementia, it is possible that the epsilon 4 allele may have an effect on odor identification over and above any effects of dementia. The present study investigated effects of ApoE-status on odor identification in a lame, population-based sample (n =1236) of adults (45-80 years), who were assessed for dementia at time of testing and 5 years later The results showed that the epsilon 4 allele was associated with an odor identification deficit among, elderly participants (75-80) Critically. this effect remained after current and pre-diagnostic dementia, vocabulary, global cognitive status and health variables were partialled out The present results suggest that the ApoE gene plays a role in olfactory functioning that is independent of dementia conversion within 5 years

  • 108.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Umeå University.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odor Identification Deficit as a Predictor of Five-Year Global Cognitive Change: Interactive Effects with Age and ApoE-ε42009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments are present in common neurodegenerative disorders and predict conversion to dementia in non-demented individuals with cognitive impairment. In cognitively intact elderly, evidence is sparse regarding the role of olfactory deficits in predicting cognitive impairment. The present study investigated predictors of 5-year prospective decline in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a large (n = 501), population-based sample of elderly (65–90 years) individuals. All participants were genotyped for the ApoE gene, assessed for health factors, and were non-demented at the baseline assessment. After partialling out the influences of demographic and health-factors at baseline and dementia at follow-up, poor odor identification ability in combination with older age and the ApoE-ε4 allele predicted larger prospective global cognitive decline. This effect could not be produced by a vocabulary test. In sum, the findings suggest that an olfactory deficit can dissociate between benign and malign global cognitive development in non-demented, very old ε4-carriers, who are at high risk of developing dementia.

  • 109. Persson, J
    et al.
    Lind, J
    Larsson, A
    Ingvar, M
    Cruts, M
    Van Broeckhoven, C
    Adolfsson, R
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, L
    Altered brain white-matter integrity in non-demented carriers of the APOE ε4 allele: A risk for Alzheimer’s disease.2006In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 1029-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) represent genetic risk factors for dementia and for cognitive impairment in the elderly. The neural mechanisms by which these genetic variations influence behavioral performance or clinical severity are not well understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate ultrastructural properties in brain white-matter to detect pathological processes that modify tissue integrity. Sixty participants were included in the study of which 30 were homozygous for the APOE ε3 allele, 10 were homozygous for the APOE ε4 allele, and 20 had the APOE ε34 allele combination. All individuals were non-demented, and the groups were matched on demographic variables and cognitive performance. The results showed a decline in fractional anisotropy, a marker for white-matter integrity, in the posterior corpus callosum of ε4 carriers compared to non-carriers. Additional sites of altered white-matter integrity included the medial temporal lobe. Conclusions: Although the mechanism underlying vulnerability of white matter tracts in APOE ε4 carriers is still unknown, our findings suggest that increased genetic risk for developing AD is associated with changes in microscopic white-matter integrity well before the onset of dementia.

  • 110. Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Bringlöv, E
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Herbal extracts and memory enhancement: Response to Scholey et al.2005In: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, Vol. 179, no 3, p. 708-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reply by the current author to the comments made by Scholey et al. (see record 2005-04969-023) on the original article (see record 2004-13858-010). The letter by Scholey et al. contains several accounts of criticism. The principal claim that they make is that, although negative findings of cognition-enhancing effects have been found in several studies, this is not enough evidence to conclude that these products do not improve cognitive performance. The authors emphasize that the methods used in these studies need careful examination and they identify a number of criteria that, preferably, should be met for these studies to be "adequately powered". The problem is (and this is also discussed by Scholey et al.) that even if these criteria are met, there are still negative findings.

  • 111.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kalpouzos, Gregoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Nyberg, Lars
    Preserved Hippocampus Activation in Normal Aging as Revealed by fMRI2011In: Hippocampus, ISSN 1050-9631, E-ISSN 1098-1063, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 753-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hippocampus is deteriorated in various pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and such deterioration has been linked to memory impairment. By contrast, the structural and functional effects of normal aging on the hippocampus is a matter of debate, with some findings suggesting deterioration and others providing evidence of preservation. This constitutes a crucial question since many investigations on AD are based on the assumption that the deterioration of the hippocampus is the breaking point between normal and pathological aging. A growing number of fMRI studies specifically aimed at investigating hippocampal engagement in various cognitive tasks, notably memory tasks, but the results have been inconclusive. Here, we optimized the episodic face-name paired-associates task in order to test the functioning of the hippocampus in normal aging. Critically, we found no difference in the activation of the hippocampus between the young and a group of older participants. Analysis of individual patterns of activation substantiated this impression. Collectively, these findings provide evidence of preserved hippocampal functioning in normal aging.

  • 112.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, J.
    Larsson, A.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Sleegers, K.
    Van Broeckhoven, C.
    Adolfsson, R.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Altered deactivation in individuals with genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease2008In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1679-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regions that show task-induced deactivations may be part of a default-mode network related to processes that are more engaged during passive than active task conditions. Alteration of task-induced deactivations with age and dementia is indicated by atypical engagement of default-mode network regions. Genetic studies show a relation between the apolipoprotein E4 (<i>APOE4</i>) allele and the common form of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and altered functional brain activation has been observed in non-demented <i>APOE4</i> carriers compared to non-carriers. Here we investigate the hypothesis of altered default-mode network brain responses in individuals with genetic risk for AD. Functional MRI was used to assess task-induced deactivation in 60 subjects of which 30 carried at least one copy of the <i>APOE4</i> allele, and 30 non-carriers. Subjects were scanned while performing a semantic categorization task shown to promote episodic memory encoding. The results show patterns of deactivation consistent with the default-mode network. We also found reduced deactivation in non-demented <i>APOE4</i> carriers compared to non-carriers, suggesting alterations in the default-mode network in the absence of dementia. These results implicate possibilities for investigatin altered properties of task-induced deactivations in individuals with genetic risk for AD, and may prove useful for pre-clinical identification of individuals susceptible to memory problems and AD.

  • 113. Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Lind, Johanna
    Larsson, Anne
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Structure –Function correlates of cognitive decline in aging2006In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 907-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore neural correlates of cognitive decline in aging, we used longitudinal behavioral data to identify two groups of older adults (n= 40) that differed with regard to whether their performance on tests of episodic memory remained stable or declined over a decade. Analysis of structural and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed a heterogeneous set of differences associated with cognitive decline. Manual tracing of hippocampla volume showed significant reduction in those older adults with a declining memory performance as did DTI-measured fractional anisotropy in the anterior corpus callosum. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during incidental episodic encoding revealed increased activation in left prefrontal cortex for both groups and additional right prefrontal activation for the elderly subjects with the greatest decline in memory performance. Moreover, mean DTI measures in the anterior corpus callosum correlated negatively with activation in right prefrontal cortex. These results demonstrate that cognitive decline is associated with differences in the structure as well as function of the aging brain, and suggest that increased activation is either caused by structural disruption or is a compensatory response to such disruption.

  • 114.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Pudas, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lind, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Longitudinal structure – function correlates in elderly reveal MTL dysfunction with cognitive decline2012In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 2297-2304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By integrating behavioral measures and imaging data, previous investigations have explored the relationship between biological markers of aging and cognitive functions. Evidence from functional and structural neuroimaging has revealed that hippocampal volume and activation patterns in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) may predict cognitive performance in old age. Most past demonstrations of age-related differences in brain structure–function were based on cross-sectional comparisons. Here, the relationship between 6-year intraindividual change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal and change in memory performance over 2 decades was examined. Correlations between intraindividual change in fMRI signal during episodic encoding and change in memory performance measured outside of scanning were used as an estimate for relating brain–behavior changes. The results revealed a positive relationship between activation change in the hippocampus (HC) and change in memory performance, reflecting reduced hippocampal activation in participants with declining performance. Using a similar analytic approach as for the functional data, we found that individuals with declining performance had reduced HC volume compared with individuals with intact performance. These observations provide a strong link between cognitive change in older adults and MTL structure and function and thus provide insights into brain correlates of individual variability in aging trajectories.

  • 115.
    Persson, Jonas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå center for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Sweden.
    Pudas, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå center for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Longitudinal assessment of default-mode brain function in aging2014In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 35, no 9, p. 2107-2117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related changes in the default-mode network (DMN) have been identified in prior cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Here, we investigated longitudinal change in DMN activity and connectivity. Cognitively intact participants (aged 49-79 years at baseline) were scanned twice, with a 6-year interval, while performing an episodic memory task interleaved with a passive control condition. Longitudinal analyses showed that the DMN (control condition > memory task) could be reliably identified at both baseline and follow-up. Differences in the magnitude of task-induced deactivation in posterior DMN regions were observed between baseline and follow-up indicating reduced deactivation in these regions with increasing age. Although no overall longitudinal changes in within-network connectivity were found across the whole sample, individual differences in memory change correlated with change in connectivity. Thus, our results show stability of whole-brain DMN topology and functional connectivity over time in healthy older adults, whereas within-region DMN analyses show reduced deactivation between baseline and follow-up. The current findings provide novel insights into DMN functioning that may assist in identifying brain changes in patient populations, as well as characterizing factors that distinguish between normal and pathologic aging.

  • 116. Pickard, Benjamin Simon
    et al.
    Van Den Bossche, Maarten J. A.
    Malloy, Mary P.
    Johnstone, Mandy
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie
    Nordin, Annelie
    Goossens, Dirk
    St Clair, David
    Muir, Walter J.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sabbe, Bernard
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Blackwood, Douglas H. R.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Multiplex amplicon quantification screening the ABCA13 gene for copy number variation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder2012In: Psychiatric Genetics, ISSN 0955-8829, E-ISSN 1473-5873, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 269-270Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 117. Piper, Brian J.
    et al.
    Yasen, Alia L.
    Taylor, Amy E.
    Ruiz, Jonatan R.
    Gaynor, J. William
    Dayger, Catherine A.
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Kwon, Oh D.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Day, Ian N. M.
    Raber, Jacob
    Miller, Jeremy K.
    Non-replication of an association of Apolipoprotein E2 with sinistrality2013In: Laterality, ISSN 1357-650X, E-ISSN 1464-0678, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 251-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent report found that left-handed adolescents were more than three times more likely to have an Apolipoprotein (APOE) E2 allele. This study was unable to replicate this association in young adults (N=166). A meta-analysis of nine other datasets (N=360 to 7559, Power > 0.999) including that of National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center also failed to find an over-representation of E2 among left-handers indicating that this earlier outcome was most likely a statistical artefact.

  • 118.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josefsson, Maria
    de Luna, Xavier
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Brain characteristics of individuals resisting age-related cognitive decline over two decades2013In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 33, no 20, p. 8668-8677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some elderly appear to resist age-related decline in cognitive functions, but the neural correlates of successful cognitive aging are not well known. Here, older human participants from a longitudinal study were classified as successful or average relative to the mean attrition-corrected cognitive development across 15-20 years in a population-based sample (n = 1561). Fifty-one successful elderly and 51 age-matched average elderly (mean age: 68.8 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an episodic memory face-name paired-associates task. Successful older participants had higher BOLD signal during encoding than average participants, notably in the bilateral PFC and the left hippocampus (HC). The HC activation of the average, but not the successful, older group was lower than that of a young reference group (n = 45, mean age: 35.3 years). HC activation was correlated with task performance, thus likely contributing to the superior memory performance of successful older participants. The frontal BOLD response pattern might reflect individual differences present from young age. Additional analyses confirmed that both the initial cognitive level and the slope of cognitive change across the longitudinal measurement period contributed to the observed group differences in BOLD signal. Further, the differences between the older groups could not be accounted for by differences in brain structure. The current results suggest that one mechanism behind successful cognitive aging might be preservation of HC function combined with a high frontal responsivity. These findings highlight sources for heterogeneity in cognitive aging and may hold useful information for cognitive intervention studies.

  • 119.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Maintenance and Manipulation in Working Memory: Differential Ventral and Dorsal Frontal Cortex fMRI Activity2009In: Acta Psychologica Sinica, ISSN 0439-755X, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 1054-1062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A verbal working memory protocol was designed and evaluated on a group of healthy younger adults in preparation for a large-scale functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study on aging and memory. Letters were presented in two critical conditions: (i) maintenance, in which letters were to be memorized and kept in mind over a four second interval, and (ii) manipulation, in which letters were shifted forward in alphabetical order, and the new order was kept in mind. Analyses of fMRI data showed that the protocol elicited reliable activation in the frontal cortex, with manipulation producing more extensive activation patterns, both in whole-brain analyses and in predefined regions of interest (ROIs). There was also a distinction between dorsal and ventral lateral prefrontal regions, such that manipulation elicited more dorsolateral prefrontal activation. The protocol also elicited activation in various subcortical areas, previously associated with working-memory tasks. It was concluded that this working memory protocol is appropriate for investigating age-related changes in frontal-cortex functioning.

  • 120.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå universitet.
    Persson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    ARC och Umeå universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Midlife memory ability accounts for brain activity differences in healthy aging2014In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 2495-2503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions underlie individual differences in memory ability in older individuals, but it is unclear how individual differences in cognitive ability in youth contribute to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older age. Here, we investigated the relative influences of midlife memory ability and age-related memory change on memory-related BOLD-signal variability at one time point, using a sample from a longitudinal population-based aging study (N = 203, aged 55–80 years). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that midlife memory ability, assessed 15–20 years earlier, explained at least as much variance as memory change in clusters in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the bilateral hippocampus, during memory encoding. Furthermore, memory change estimates demonstrated higher sensitivity than current memory levels in identifying distinct frontal regions where activity was selectively related to age-related memory change, as opposed to midlife memory. These findings highlight challenges in interpreting individual differences in neurocognitive measures as age-related changes in the absence of longitudinal data and also demonstrate the improved sensitivity of longitudinal measures.

  • 121. Rademakers, R
    et al.
    Sleegers, K
    Theuns, J
    Van den Broeck, M
    Kacem, S Bel
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, R
    van Duijn, C M
    Van Broeckhoven, C
    Cruts, M
    Association of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and neuronal activators p35 and p39 complex in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.2005In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 1145-1151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Malfunctioning of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) through aberrant proteolytic cleavage of its neuronal activators p35 and p39 is involved in neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative brain diseases. By extensive genetic analysis of the genes encoding CDK5 (CDK5), p35 (CDK5R1) and p39 (CDK5R2), we excluded causal mutations in 70 familial early-onset AD patients. We performed an association study with five informative SNPs in CDK5 in two independent samples of early-onset AD patients and matched control individuals from The Netherlands and northern Sweden. Association was observed with g.149800G>C in intron 5 of CDK5, and a two times increased risk was observed in both patient samples for carriers of the C-allele. Our data are indicative for a role of the CDK5 molecular complex in the genetic etiology of early-onset AD, and suggest that a yet unknown functional variant in CDK5 or in a nearby gene might lead to increased susceptibility for early-onset AD.

  • 122. Rolandsson, Olov
    et al.
    Backeström, Anna
    Eriksson, Sture
    Hallmans, Göran
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Increased glucose levels are associated with episodic memory in non-diabetic women2007In: DiabetesArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 123. Rolandsson, Olov
    et al.
    Backeström, Anna
    Eriksson, Sture
    Hallmans, Göran
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Increased Glucose Levels are Associated with Episodic Memory in Nondiabetic Women2008In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 440-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE. Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of a reduction in cognitive function. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma glucose is associated with a reduction in episodic and/or semantic memory already in nondiabetic subjects.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS. We linked two large population-based datasets in Sweden: the Betula study, in which a random sample from the population aged 35–85 years was investigated for cognitive function, including episodic and semantic memory; and the Västerbotten Intervention Program, a health survey with subjects aged 40, 50, and 60 years, that includes measuring of fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, along with other risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We identified 411 (179 men and 232 women, mean age 50.6 ± 8.0 years) nondiabetic subjects, free from dementia, who had participated in the two surveys within 6 months.

    RESULTS. Women had better episodic (score 7.37 ± 1.42) and semantic memory (score 16.05 ± 2.76) than men (score 6.59 ± 1.29 and 15.15 ± 2.92, respectively, P < 0.001 for both). In an adjusted multivariate model, fasting plasma glucose (fPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory (fPG: B –0.198, SE 0.068, β –0.209, P = 0.004; and 2hPG: B –0.061, SE 0.031, β –0.148, P = 0.048, respectively) in women but not in men. The association was not found in relation to semantic memory.

    CONCLUSIONS. We conclude that an increase in plasma glucose is associated with impairment in episodic memory in women. This could be explained by a negative effect on the hippocampus caused by raised plasma glucose levels.

  • 124. Rolandsson, Olov
    et al.
    Backeström, Anna
    Eriksson, Sture
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Increased glucose levels are associated with episodic memory in nondiabetic women2007In: Diabetologica, Vol. 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of a reduction in cognitive function. We investigated the hypothesis that plasma glucose is associated with a reduction in episodic and/or semantic memory already in nondiabetic subjects. We linked two large population-based data sets in Sweden. Firstly, the Betula study where a random sample from the population aged 35–85 years was investigated for cognitive function including episodic and semantic memory. Secondly, the Västerbotten Intervention Program, a health survey with subjects aged 40, 50 and 60 years. It includes measuring of fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose, along with other risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We identified 411 (M/F 179/232, mean age 50.6 ±8.0 years) nondiabetic subjects, free from dementia, who had participated in the two surveys within a six months. Women had better episodic (score 7.37 ±1.42) and semantic memory (score 16.05 ± 2.76) compared to men (score 6.59 ±1.29 and 15.15 ± 2.92, respectively, p<0.001 for both). In an adjusted multivariate model fPG and 2hPG were significantly negatively associated with episodic memory (fPG: B –0.198, SE 0.068, Beta –0.209, p=0.004 and 2hPG: B –0.061, SE 0.031, Beta –0.148, p=0.048, respectively) in women but not in men. The association was not found in relation to semantic memory. We conclude that an increase in plasma glucose is associated with impairment in episodic memory in women. This could be explained by a negative effect on the hippocampus caused by raised plasma glucose levels.

  • 125. Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Rudner, Mary
    Arlinger, Stig
    Sternäng, Ola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hearing Loss Is Negatively Related to Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory but Not to Short-Term Memory2011In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 705-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To test the relationship between degree of hearing loss and different memory systems in hearing aid users. Method: Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to study the relationship between auditory and visual acuity and different cognitive and memory functions in an age-hetereogenous subsample of 160 hearing aid users without dementia, drawn from the Swedish prospective cohort aging study known as Betula (L.-G. Nilsson et al., 1997). Results: Hearing loss was selectively and negatively related to episodic and semantic long-term memory (LTM) but not short-term memory (STM) performance. This held true for both ears, even when age was accounted for. Visual acuity alone, or in combination with auditory acuity, did not contribute to any acceptable SEM solution. Conclusions: The overall relationships between hearing loss and memory systems were predicted by the ease of language understanding model (J. Rönnberg, 2003), but the exact mechanisms of episodic memory decline in hearing aid users (i.e., mismatch/disuse, attentional resources, or information degradation) remain open for further experiments. The hearing aid industry should strive to design signal processing algorithms that are cognition friendly.

  • 126. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970–19932013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18–19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970–1979 or SEB80; 1980–1993), each composed of four subtests. The results revealed significant Flynn effects, with estimated gains of 1.2–1.5 IQ-units per decade. The effect seem to hold across ability levels, even though tendencies of more pronounced effects in the lower half of the ability distribution was observed. The largest gains were for visuospatial tests (Paper Form Board and Metal Folding), with little change, even slight losses during the second sub-period, for tests of verbal knowledge (Concept Discrimination and Synonyms) and a mixed pattern for a test of technical comprehension (losses followed by gains). Finally, comparisons of trends in cognitive performance and in standing height show that the gains in cognitive performance over the years from 1980 to 1993 occurred in the absence of overall gains in height, which speaks against nutrition as the cause of the Flynn effects.

  • 127. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cross-sectional versus longitudinal age gradients of Tower of Hanoi performance: The role of practice effects and cohort differences in education2007In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, Vol. 14, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 128. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Lövdén, Martin
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Age Gradients of Tower of Hanoi Performance: The Role of Practice Effects and Cohort Differences in Education2007In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 40-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined 5-year longitudinal changes in Tower of Hanoi (TOH) performance in a population-based sample of adults (35-85 years initially; n = 1480). An age-matched sample (n = 433) was included to estimate practice effects. The longitudinal age gradients differed substantially from the cross-sectional age gradients. This was the case even when practice effects, that were substantial in magnitude across the young/middle-aged groups, were controlled for. Instead of a continuous age-related deficit in performance from 35 and onwards, longitudinal data showed slowing of performance and increases of illegal moves past age 65. Cohort-related differences in educational attainment did not account for this discrepancy. Further analyses revealed a positive relation between practice-related gains and explicit memory of having performed the task at the first test occasion and a positive association between latent changes in TOH and Block Design, in line with cross-sectional findings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate a pattern of age-related changes indicating a late-onset decline of TOH performance and underscore the need to control for retest effects in longitudinal aging research.

  • 129. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35–90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  • 130. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adult life-span patterns in WAIS block design performance: Cross-sectional versus longitudinal age gradients and relations to demographic predictors.2006In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging pattern in WAIS-R Block Design test (BDT) performance were examined cross-sectionally and longitudinally. One sample (35-80 years, n = 1000) was assessed in 1988-1990 and five years later (836 returned). An independent cohort-matched sample (n = 974) was included at Time 2 to estimate the magnitude of practice effects. Relations between BDT performance, gender, and education were also examined. The cross-sectional analyses indicated a gradual age-related deterioration from 35 to 55, even when minor practice effects were adjusted for. Decline was apparent for the older cohorts, regardless of estimation method. Education-adjusted cross-sectional differences showed a similar pattern. A minor age- and time-invariant gender difference favoring males was observed. Education predicted some time-related change, such as higher education was associated with lesser decline. Collectively, the results demonstrate the nedd to control for cohort and retest effects in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and reveal interesting relations between BDT performance and demographic variables.

  • 131.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors2009In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 2174-2180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined the extent to which time-related gains in cognitive performance, so-called Flynn effects, generalize across sub-factors of episodic memory (recall and recognition) and semantic memory (knowledge and fluency). We conducted time-sequential analyses of data drawn from the Betula prospective cohort study, involving four age-matched samples (35–80 years; N = 2996) tested on the same battery of memory tasks on either of four occasions (1989, 1995, 1999, and 2004). The results demonstrate substantial time-related improvements on recall and recognition as well as on fluency and knowledge, with a trend of larger gains on semantic as compared with episodic memory [Rönnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. -G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence], but highly similar gains across the sub-factors. Finally, the association with markers of environmental change was similar, with evidence that historical increases in quantity of schooling was a main driving force behind the gains, both on the episodic and semantic sub-factors. The results obtained are discussed in terms of brain regions involved.

  • 132. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Betula Study: Reliabilities and long-term stabilities of memory test performances over the adult lifespan.2006In: Baltic Journal of Psychology, Vol. 7, p. 6-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Major characteristics of the Betula study on memory, health, and aging (Nilsson et al., 1997, 2004) were presented. In addition, reliability and stability coefficient (5 and 10 years) were computed for individual measures of episodic memory and semantic memory (and for Block

    Design and MMSE) and for unit-weighted composites (min. n = 1000, 830, and 643 for T1, T2, and T3, respectively). Reliability estimates ranged from .42 to .88 overall. Stability coefficients were substantial at the composite level (r = 77-.83) and did not differ for younger (35-55 years) and older adults (60-80 years). Finally, the stability coefficients decreased minimally over retest intervals, regardless of age. Together, the results indicate considerable stability of inter-individual differences of declarative memory across age and time, suggesting that the heterogenity of the aging processes, at least as reflected at the behavioral level, may be less prominent than is often asserted. This indication of relative lack of diversity needs to be supplemented with careful analyses of differences/changes in variance across age and time.

  • 133. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study2008In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 192-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To estimate Flynn effects (FEs) on forms of declarative memory (episodic, semantic) and visuospatial ability (Block Design) time-sequential analyses of data for Swedish adult samples (35–80 years) assessed on either of four occasions (1989, 1994, 1999, 2004; <i>n</i> = 2995) were conducted. The results demonstrated cognitive gains across occasions, regardless of age, with no evidence of narrowing gender gaps. Across the entire range of birth cohorts (1909–1969) the estimated gain approached 1 SD unit. Over most cohorts the gains were largest for semantic memory, with a tendency of decelerating gains on the memory factors, but not on Block Design, across more recent cohorts (1954–1969). Together, differences in education, body height, and sibsize predicted virtually all (> 94%) of the time-related differences in cognitive performance. Whereas education emerged as the main factor, the need to consider changes multiple factors to account for FEs is underscored. Their relative influence likely depends on which constellations of ability factors and stages in ontogenetic and societal development are considered.

  • 134. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The magnitude, generality, and determinants of the Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study2007In: Intelligence, Vol. 35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 135. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Bäckman, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stability, Growth, and Decline in Adult Life Span Development of Declarative Memory: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data From a Population-Based Study2005In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five-year changes in episodic and semantic memory were examined in a sample of 829 participants (35-80 years). A cohort-matched sample (N=967) was assessed to control for practice effects. For episodic memory, cross-sectional analyses indicated gradual age-related decrements, whereas the longitudinal data revealed no decrements before age 60, even when practice effects were adjusted for. Longitudinally, semantic memory showed minor increments until age 55, with smaller decrements in old age as compared with episodic memory. Cohort differences in educational attainment appear to account for the discrepancies between cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Collectively, the results show that age trajectories for episodic and semantic memory differ and underscore the need to control for cohort and retest effects in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, respectively.

  • 136. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Sundström, Anna
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Subjective memory impairment in older adults predicts future dementia independent of baseline memory performance: Evidence from the Betula prospective cohort study2015In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1385-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The objective was to examine whether subjective memory impairment (SMI) predicts all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a population-based study with long-term followup (median = 10 years).

    Methods: A total of 2043 initially dementia-free participants (>= 60 years) made three memory ratings (compared with others, compared with five years ago, and complaints from family/friends) at baseline. During follow-up, 372 participants developed dementia (208 with AD).

    Results: Cox regression revealed that subjective memory impairment ratings predicted all-cause dementia in models adjusting for age and sex (hazard ratio or HR from 2.04 to 3.94), with even higher values for AD (HR from 2.29 to 5.74). The result persisted in models including other covariates, including baseline episodic memory performance, and in analyses restricted to participants with long time to dementia diagnosis (>= 5 years).

    Discussion: The findings underscore the usefulness of subjective memory assessment in combination with other factors in identifying individuals at risk for developing dementia.

  • 137.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Perceived Long-Term Stress on Subjective and Objective Aspects of Memory and Cognitive Functioning in a Middle-Aged Population-Based Sample2013In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The longitudinal effects of perceived stress on measures of memory and two other cognitive functions (word fluency, visuospatial ability) in a middle-aged sample (40–60 years, M age = 47.1 years, SD = 6.1 years; n = 192) were examined. A group describing themselves as stressed in general at baseline, and at follow-up measurement 5 and 10 years later (n = 96) was compared with a matched (age, sex) low-stress group (n = 96). The results revealed more depressive symptoms over time in the high-stress group. With regard to memory, a dissociation between subjective and objective measures was observed. Specifically, participants in the high-stress group rated their memory as worse over time as compared with controls, and reported a higher frequency of occurrence of everyday memory failures, effects partly independent of depressive symptoms. However, the groups did not differ in terms of objective episodic memory performance, word fluency or block design performance, with stable levels of performance over time regardless of perceived stress. The lack of effects of stress on cognitive performance is discussed in the light of factors such as stress level, age of the participants, and other individual difference factors.

  • 138. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Sundström, Anna
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Interindividual differences in general cognitive ability from age 18 to age 65 years are extremely stable and strongly associated with working memory capacity2015In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 53, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to examine the degree of stability of interindividual differences in general cognitive ability (g) across the adult life span. To this end, we examined a sample of men (n = 262), cognitively assessed for the first time at age 18 (conscript data). The sample was reassessed at age 50 and at five year intervals up to age 65. Scores from conscript tests at age 18 were retrieved and three of the subtests were used as indicators of g in early adulthood. At age 50-65 years, four indicators served the same purpose. At the 15-year follow-up (age 65) two working memory measures were administered which allowed examination of the relationship with working memory capacity. Results from structural Equation Modelling (SEM) indicated extremely high level of stability from young adulthood to age 50 (standardized regression coefficient = 95) as well as from age 50 to age 55,60 and 65 with stability coefficients of .90 or higher for the for the latent g factor. Standardized regression coefficients between young-adult g and the g factor in midlife/old age were .95 from age 18 up to age 50 and 55, .94 up to age 60, and .86 up to age 65. Hence, g at age 18 accounted for 90-74% of the variance in g 32-47 years later. A close association between g and working memory capacity was observed (concurrent association: r = .88, time lagged association: r = .61). Taken together, the present study demonstrates that interindividual differences in g are extremely stable over the period from 18 to midlife, with a significant deviation from unity only at age 65. In light of the parieto-frontal integration theory (P-FIT) of intelligence, consistent with the close association between g and working memory capacity, midlife may be characterized by neural stability, with decline and decreased interindividual stability, related to loss of parieto-frontal integrity, past age 60.

  • 139.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Umeå universitet.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå universitet.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictors of Self-Reported Prospective and Retrospective Memory in a Population-Based Sample of Older Adults2011In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 172, no 3, p. 266-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors examined predictors of self-reported everyday memory failures using the Prospective and Retrospective Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith, Della Sala, Logie, & Maylor, 2000) in a population-based sample of older adults (age range = 60–90 years; N = 250). The results showed that a higher frequency of reported failures was associated with lower scores on the personality dimension of self-directedness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI; Cloninger, Dragan, Svrakic, & Przybeck, 1993) and more depressive symptoms on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977). However, PRMQ scores showed no relationships with objective memory ability, as reflected by a series of retrospective memory measures and a measure of prospective memory. Neither were the PRMQ scales associated with general cognitive functioning as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1977). Taken together, the results indicate that within the older population, self-reported memory as assessed by the PRMQ may reflect mood-state and personality factors rather than individual differences in memory and cognitive ability.

  • 140. Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Vestergren, Peter
    Stenling, Andreas
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Maud
    Bergdahl, Jan
    Dimensionality of stress experiences: Factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) in a population-based Swedish sample2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 592-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the factorial structure of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-recent; Levenstein, Prantera, Varvo et al., 1993) in a large (N = 1516; 35-95 years) population-based Swedish sample (Nilsson, Adolfsson, Backman et al., 2004; Nilsson, Backman, Erngrund et al., 1997). Exploratory principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on a first, randomly drawn subsample (n = 506). Next, the model based on the PCA was tested in a second sample (n = 505). Finally, a third sample (n = 505) was used to cross-validate the model. Five components were extracted in the PCA (eigenvalue > 1) and labeled Demands, Worries/Tension, Lack of joy, Conflict, and Fatigue, respectively. Twenty-one out of the 30 original PSQ items were retained in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model that included the five (first-order) factors and, additionally, a general (second-order) stress factor, not considered in prior models. The model showed reasonable goodness of fit [chi(2)(184) = 511.2, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.904; RMSEA = 0.059; and SRMR = 0.063]. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported the validity of the established model. The results are discussed in relation to prior investigations of the factorial structure of the PSQ.

  • 141. Salami, Alireza
    et al.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Age-related white matter microstructural differences partly mediate age-related decline in processing speed but not cognition2012In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease, ISSN 0925-4439, E-ISSN 1879-260X, Vol. 1822, no 3, p. 408-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging is associated with declining cognitive performance as well as structural changes in brain gray and white matter (WM). The WM deterioration contributes to a disconnection among distributed brain networks and may thus mediate age-related cognitive decline. The present diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study investigated age-related differences in WM microstructure and their relation to cognition (episodic memory, visuospatial processing, fluency, and speed) in a large group of healthy subjects (n = 287) covering 6 decades of the human life span. Age related decreases in fractional anisotropy (FA) and increases in mean diffusivity (MD) were observed across the entire WM skeleton as well as in specific WM tracts, supporting the WM degeneration hypothesis. The anterior section of the corpus callosum was more susceptible to aging compared to the posterior section, lending support to the anterior-posterior gradient of WM integrity in the corpus callosum. Finally, and of critical interest. WM integrity differences were found to mediate age-related reductions in processing speed but no significant mediation was found for episodic memory, visuospatial ability, or fluency. These findings suggest that compromised WM integrity is not a major contributing factor to declining cognitive performance in normal aging. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Imaging Brain Aging and Neurodegenerative disease.

  • 142. Sjölinder, Marie
    et al.
    Höök, Kristina
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Gerd
    Age differences and the acquisition of spatial knowledge in a three-dimensional environment: Evaluating the use of an overview map as a navigation aid.2005In: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, ISSN 1071-5819, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 537-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined age differences in the use of an electronic three-dimensional (3D) environment, and how the age differences were affected by the use of an overview map as a navigation aid. Task performance and the subjects' acquisition of configural knowledge of the 3D-environment were assessed. Impact of spatial ability and prior experience on these measurements were also investigated. One group of older subjects (n = 24) and one group of younger subjects (n = 24) participated. An overall hypothesis for the work presented here was that differences in learning to and performing navigational tasks in the physical world are similar in learning and performing navigational tasks in the virtual world. The results showed that the older participants needed more time to solve the tasks; and similar to navigation in the physical world, the older participants were less likely to create configural knowledge. It could not be established that older participants benefited more from an overview map as cognitive support than younger subjects, except in the subjective sense: the older users felt more secure when the map was there. The map seemed to have supported the older users in creating a feeling of where objects were located within the environment, but it did not make them more efficient. The results have implications for design; in particular, it brings up the difficult issue of balancing design goals such as efficiency in terms of time and functionality, against maintaining a sense of direction and location in navigational situations.

  • 143.
    Stanciu, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nordin, Steven
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS), Sweden.
    Olfactory Impairment and Subjective Olfactory Complaints Independently Predict Conversion to Dementia: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study2014In: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether conversion to dementia can be predicted by self-reported olfactory impairment and/or by an inability to identify odors. Common forms of dementia involve an impaired sense of smell, and poor olfactory performance predicts cognitive decline among the elderly. We followed a sample of 1529 participants, who were within a normal range of overall cognitive function at baseline, over a 10-year period during which 159 were classified as having a dementia disorder. Dementia conversion was predicted from demographic variables, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and olfactory assessments. Self-reported olfactory impairment emerged as an independent predictor of dementia. After adjusting for effects of other predictors, individuals who rated their olfactory sensitivity as worse than normal were more likely to convert to dementia than those who reported normal olfactory sensitivity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.40, 3.37]). Additionally, low scores on an odor identification test also predicted conversion to dementia (OR per 1 point increase = 0.89; 95% CI [0.81, 0.98]), but these two effects were additive. We suggest that assessing subjective olfactory complaints might supplement other assessments when evaluating the risk of conversion to dementia. Future studies should investigate which combination of olfactory assessments is most useful in predicting dementia conversion. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-9)

  • 144.
    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Hanson Magnusson, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Oxenstierna, Gabriel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Royal Institute of Technology.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e60637-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive-and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive-and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders. The associations between quantitative demands and future cognitive complaints were stronger in women. Discussion/Conclusions: The findings indicate that psychosocial working conditions should be taken into account when considering cognitive complaints among employees.

  • 145.
    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institute, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subjective Cognitive Complaints and the Role of Executive Cognitive Functioning in the Working Population: A Case-Control Study2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 12, p. UNSP e83351-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. Methods: Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases) or low (controls) levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. Results & Conclusions: In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

  • 146.
    Stenfors, Cecilia U.D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are Subjective Cognitive Complaints Related to Poorer Memory Functioning in the Working Population? A Case-Control StudyIn: BMC Psychology, ISSN 2050-7283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Stenfors, Cecilia U.D.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Subjective Cognitive Complaints in the Working Population - The Role of Executive Cognitive FunctioningIn: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examination of the common cause account in a population-based longitudinal study with narrow age cohort design2010In: Gerontology, ISSN 0304-324X, E-ISSN 1423-0003, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 553-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The common cause account suggests that there is a third factor causing aging effects in both sensory and cognitive functioning, hypothesized to be the integrity of the central nervous system [Lindenberger and Baltes; Psychol Aging 1994;9:339–355]. Importantly, the common cause account was developed based on cross-sectional data, which are especially biased by cohort effects. However, cohort effects can be controlled for in narrow age cohort (NAC) designs and by longitudinal examination. Findings from the few longitudinal studies that have studied the relation between age-related changes in sensory and cognitive functions are complex and give only partial support to the common cause account.

    Objective: The present paper examines the common cause account within a longitudinal setting.

    Method: Our study is unique in the sense that it tests the common cause account within a longitudinal NAC design using data from the Betula project. The participants (n = 1,057) were in the age range of 45–90 years.

    Results: The findings indicate that the relationship between sensory and memory functioning in both a longitudinal age-heterogeneous and a longitudinal NAC design are much weaker than that detected by an age-heterogeneous cross-sectional design.

    Conclusion: The demonstrated weak age-associated sensory-cognitive link raises questions regarding the explanatory value of the common cause account and related theoretical accounts for accounting for age-related cognitive changes.

  • 149.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ApoE and vascular health synergy effects on cognitive functioning.2006In: The 11th Cognitive Aging Conference: Atlanta, GA, USA., 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The APOE gene is a determinant for the body’s transportation of cholesterol. APOE status, involving any combination of allele ε4, is also a known risk factor for developing vascular disorders and, although disputed, has a minor impact on cognitive functioning. Recent research have found that APOE ε4 status might also act as a vulnerability factor, and that the combination of APOE ε4 and certain diseases can cause a larger than expected impairment in cognitive functioning. Further, the impact of vascular health on cognitive functioning is well documented, and a main mechanism for this is variation in levels of cholesterol. The present study, which is based on data from the Betula project, examines how the interaction of APOE and vascular health (levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure) influences performance on memory, verbal and visuospatial tasks. The results are also discussed in the perspective of age and gender differences in cognitive functioning.

  • 150.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    Hamadani, Jena Derakhshani
    Wahlin, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A cross-cultural view on cognitive aging: Comparisons between Bangladesh and SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most studies on cognitive aging have been conducted in economically developed countries (mainly on Western populations). It is of importance to test the generalizability of obtained results with studies in cultural settings with different living conditions. However, the share of research conducted in cross-cultural cognitive aging is rather small, especially on memory. The main aim of this study was to compare relative importance of some commonly used predictors (age, sex, years of education, systolic blood pressure, vascular diseases, sensory-motor functioning, and processing speed) for episodic and semantic memory performance in older people (≥ 60 years) from Bangladesh (n = 400) and Sweden (n = 1098), respectively.

    A main finding was that age variations did not have as much impact on episodic and semantic memory performance in Bangladesh as in Sweden, and sex was of greater importance for semantic memory performance in Bangladesh. In the western world, chronological age is believed to be strongly associated with memory performance in cross-sectional studies, especially in people above 60 years of age. This study indicates that the difference between the two countries in relative importance of the predictors included in this study is mainly due to that years of education is connected to age in the western world but to sex in Bangladesh. It remains to be examined whether earlier selective survival is also responsible for the relative absence of cognitive age differences in Bangladesh.

     

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