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  • 101.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ericson, Emilia
    Twana, Tara
    Johnsson, Cecilia
    Dannefjord, Per
    Sturmark, Christer
    Aborträtt och trafficking hör ihop2014Inngår i: Aftonbladet, ISSN 0349-1145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 102.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Fröberg, Laila
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Nunn, Charles L
    Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, USA.
    Females drive primate social evolution2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 271, s. S101-S103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Within and across species of primates, the number of males in primate groups is correlated with the number of females. This correlation may arise owing to ecological forces operating on females, with subsequent competition among males for access to groups of females. The temporal relationship between changes in male and female group membership remains unexplored in primates and other mammalian groups. We used a phylogenetic comparative method for detecting evolutionary lag to test whether evolutionary change in the number of males lags behind change in the number of females. We found that change in male membership in primate groups is positively correlated with divergence time in pairwise comparisons. This result is consistent with male numbers adjusting to female group size and highlights the importance of focusing on females when studying primate social evolution

  • 103.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Gittleman, John L.
    Jones, Kate E.
    Sexual size dimorphism in mammals2007Inngår i: Sex, size and gender roles: evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism / [ed] Daphne J. Fairbairn, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn, Tamás Székely, New York: Oxford University Press, 2007, s. 16-26Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the pattern of sexual size dimorphism in mammals and the processes that underly its evolution. We find that, on average, male mammals are the larger sex (average male/female mass ratio 1.184), with males being at least 10% larger than females in over 45% of species. Most mammalian orders are also have male-biased sexual dimorphism, although some orders do not show any bias or are significantly female-biased (Lagomorpha). Sexual size dimorphism increases with body size across mammals (Rensch’s rule), suggesting that there are parallel selection pressures on both male and female size. We found support for the hypothesis that male-biased dimorphism relates to sexual selection on males through male–male competition for females. We draw this conclusion from a positive correlation between the degree of sexual selection, as indicated by mating systems and the degree of male biased size dimorphism. The degree of sexual selection was also positively correlated with male and female size across mammals. Further, a parallel selection pressure on female mass is identified in that age at weaning is significantly higher in more polygynous species, even when correcting for body mass. We also explore the processes maintaining smaller female size in sexually dimorphic species and confirm that reproductive rate is lower for larger females, indicating that fecundity selection selects for smaller females in mammals. Although the patterns we discuss hold across mammals as a whole, there is considerable variation across orders and many of these relationships are not significant. Further work is still needed to more closely investigate the pattern of sexual dimorphism and processes driving sexual dimorphism in different clades.

  • 104.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    The cultural evolution of democracy: saltational changes in a political regime landscape2011Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. e28270-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions to democracy are most often considered the outcome of historical modernization processes. Socio-economicchanges, such as increases in per capita GNP, education levels, urbanization and communication, have traditionally been found to be correlates or ‘requisites’ of democratic reform. However, transition times and the number of reform steps havenot been studied comprehensively. Here we show that historically, transitions to democracy have mainly occurred throughrapid leaps rather than slow and incremental transition steps, with a median time from autocracy to democracy of 2.4 years,and overnight in the reverse direction. Our results show that autocracy and democracy have acted as peaks in an evolutionary landscape of possible modes of institutional arrangements. Only scarcely have there been slow incremental transitions. We discuss our results in relation to the application of phylogenetic comparative methods in cultural evolutionand point out that the evolving unit in this system is the institutional arrangement, not the individual country which isinstead better regarded as the ‘host’ for the political system.

  • 105.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Wang, Yi-Ting
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Investigating sequences in ordinal data: A new approach with adapted evolutionary models2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach for studying sequences across combinations of binary and ordinal variables. The approach involves three novel methodologies (frequency analysis, graphical mapping of changes between “events”, and dependency analysis), as well as an established adaptation based on Bayesian dynamical systems. The frequency analysis and graphical approach work by counting and mapping changes in two variables and then determining which variable, if any, more often has a higher value than the other during transitions. The general reasoning is that when transitioning from low values to high, if one variable commonly assumes higher values before the other, this variable is interpreted to be generally preceding the other while moving upwards. A similar reasoning is applied for decreasing variable values. These approaches assume that the two variables are correlated and change along a comparable scale. The dependency analysis investigates what values of one variable are prerequisites for values in another. We also include an established Bayesian approach that models changes from one event combination to another. We illustrate the proposed methodological bundle by analyzing changes driving electoral democracy using the new V-Dem dataset (Coppedge et al. 2015a, b). Our results indicate that changes in electoral democracy are preceded by changes in freedom of expression and access to alternative sources of information.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 106.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yi-ting, Wang
    Lindberg, Staffan
    Investigating Sequences in Ordinal Data: A New Approach With Adapted Evolutionary Models2018Inngår i: Political Science Research and Methods, ISSN 2049-8470, E-ISSN 2049-8489, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 449-466Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new approach for studying temporal sequences across ordinal variables. It involves three complementary approaches (frequency tables, transitional graphs, and dependency tables), as well as an established adaptation based on Bayesian dynamical systems, inferring a general system of change. The frequency tables count pairs of values in two variables and transitional graphs depict changes, showing which variable tends to attain high values first. The dependency tables investigate which values of one variable are prerequisites for values in another, as a more direct test of causal hypotheses. We illustrate the proposed approaches by analyzing the V-Dem dataset, and show that changes in electoral democracy are preceded by changes in freedom of expression and access to alternative information.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 107.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Krusell, Joshua
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Sequential Requisites Analysis: A New Method for Analyzing Sequential Relationships in Ordinal Data2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method inspired by evolutionary biology for analyzing longer sequences of requisites for the emergence of particular outcome variables across numerous combinations of ordinal variables in social science analysis. The approach involves repeated pairwise investigations of states in a set of variables and identifying what states in the variables that occur before states in all other variables. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing a set of variables from version 6 of the V-Dem dataset (Coppedge et al. 2015a, b). With a large set of indicators measured over many years, the method makes it possible to explore long, complex sequences across many variables in quantitative datasets. This affords an opportunity, for example, to disentangle the sequential requisites of failing and successful sequences in democratization. For policy purposes this is instrumental: Which components of democracy are most exogenous and least endogenous and therefore the ideal targets for democracy promotion at different stages?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 108.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Krusell, Joshua
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Sequential Requisites Analysis: A New Method for Analyzing Sequential Relationships in Ordinal Data2019Inngår i: Social Science Quarterly, ISSN 0038-4941, E-ISSN 1540-6237, Vol. 100, nr 3, s. 838-856Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This article presents a new method inspired by evolutionary biology for analyzing longer sequences of requisites for the emergence of particular outcome variables across numerous combinations of ordinal variables in social science analysis.

    Methods: The approach is a sorting algorithm through repeated pairwise investigations of states in a set of variables and identifying what states in the variables occur before states in all other variables. We illustrate the proposed method by analyzing a set of variables from version 7.1 of the V-Dem data set (Coppedge etal. 2017. Varieties of Democracy (V-Dem) Project; Pemstein etal. 2017. University of Gothenburg, Varieties of Democracy Institute: Working Paper No. 21). With a large set of indicators measured over many years, the method makes it possible to identify and compare long, complex sequences across many variables.

    Results: This affords an opportunity, for example, to disentangle the sequential requisites of failing and successful sequences in democratization, or if requisites are different during different time periods.

    Conclusions: For policy purposes, this is instrumental: Which components of democracy occur earlier and which later? Which components of democracy are therefore the ideal targets for democracy promotion at different stages?

  • 109.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Ekologi.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Naturens egna självmordsbombare2008Inngår i: Fauna & Flora, Vol. 103, nr 3, s. 8-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 110.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Det unikt mänskliga2012Inngår i: Människans kunskap och kunskapen om människan: En gränslös historia / [ed] Maria Wallenberg Bondesson, Orsi Husz, Janken Myrdal, Mattias Tydén, Lund: Sekel Bokförlag, 2012, s. 31-44Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 111.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Nunn, Charles L
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Barton, Robert A
    Durham University, Durham.
    Primate brain architecture and selection in relation to sex2007Inngår i: BMC Biology, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 5, nr 20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social and competitive demands often differ between the sexes in mammals. These differing demands should be expected to produce variation in the relative sizes of various brain structures. Sexual selection on males can be predicted to influence brain components handling sensory-motor skills that are important for physical competition or neural pathways involving aggression. Conversely, because female fitness is more closely linked to ecological factors and social interactions that enable better acquisition of resources, social selection on females should select for brain components important for navigating social networks. Sexual and social selection acting on one sex could produce sexual dimorphism in brain structures, which would result in larger species averages for those same brain structures. Alternatively, sex-specific selection pressures could produce correlated effects in the other sex, resulting in larger brain structures for both males and females of a species. Data are presently unavailable for the sex-specific sizes of brain structures for anthropoid primates, but under either scenario, the effects of sexual and social selection should leave a detectable signal in average sizes of brain structures for different species.

    Results: The degree of male intra-sexual selection was positively correlated with several structures involved in autonomic functions and sensory-motor skills, and in pathways relating to aggression and aggression control. The degree of male intra-sexual selection was not correlated with relative neocortex size, which instead was significantly positively correlated with female social group size, but negatively correlated with male group size.

    Conclusion: Sexual selection on males and social selection on females have exerted different effects on primate brain architecture. Species with a higher degree of male intra-sexual selection carry a neural signature of an evolutionary history centered on physical conflicts, but no traces of increased demands on sociocognitive tasks. Conversely, female sociality is indicated to have driven the evolution of socio-cognitive skills. Primate brain architecture is therefore likely to be a product of ecological and species-specific social factors as well as different sex-specific selection pressures. Our results also highlight the need for acquisition and analysis of sex-specific brain components in mammals.

  • 112.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Nunn, Charles L
    Jones, Kate E
    Cunningham, Andrew
    Sechrest, Weston
    Gittleman, John L
    Parasite species richness in carnivores: effects of host body mass, latitude, geographic range and population density2007Inngår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography, Vol. 16, s. 496-509Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Comparative studies have revealed strong links between ecological factors and the number of parasite species harboured by different hosts, but studies of different taxonomic host groups have produced inconsistent results. As a step towards understanding the general patterns of parasite species richness, we present results from a new comprehensive data base of over 7000 host-parasite combinations representing 146 species of carnivores (Mammalia: Carnivora) and 980 species of parasites.

    Methods: We used both phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic comparative methods while controlling for unequal sampling effort within a multivariate framework to ascertain the main determinants of parasite species richness in carnivores.

    Results: We found that body mass, population density, geographical range size and distance from the equator are correlated with overall parasite species richness in fissiped carnivores. When parasites are classified by transmission mode, body mass and home range area are the main determinants of the richness of parasites spread by close contact between hosts, and population density, geographical range size and distance from the equator account for the diversity of parasites that are not dependent on close contact. For generalist parasites, population density, geographical range size and latitude are the primary predictors of parasite species richness. We found no significant ecological correlates for the richness of specialist or vector-borne parasites.

    Main conclusions: Although we found that parasite species richness increases instead of decreases with distance from the equator, other comparative patterns in carnivores support previous findings in primates, suggesting that similar ecological factors operate in both these independent evolutionary lineages.

  • 113.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Revell, Liam J
    National Evolutionary Synthesis Center, Durham, NC, USA.
    Nunn, Charles L
    Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Sexual dimorphism in primate aerobic capacity: a phylogenetic test2010Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 1183-1194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Male intrasexual competition should favour increased male physical prowess.This should in turn result in greater aerobic capacity in males than in females(i.e. sexual dimorphism) and a correlation between sexual dimorphism inaerobic capacity and the strength of sexual selection among species. However,physiological scaling laws predict that aerobic capacity should be lower perunit body mass in larger than in smaller animals, potentially reducing orreversing the sex difference and its association with measures of sexualselection. We used measures of haematocrit and red blood cell (RBC) countsfrom 45 species of primates to test four predictions related to sexual selectionand body mass: (i) on average, males should have higher aerobic capacity thanfemales, (ii) aerobic capacity should be higher in adult than juvenile males,(iii) aerobic capacity should increase with increasing sexual selection, but alsothat (iv) measures of aerobic capacity should co-vary negatively with bodymass. For the first two predictions, we used a phylogenetic paired t-testdeveloped for this study. We found support for predictions (i) and (ii). For prediction (iii), however, we found a negative correlation between the degreeof sexual selection and aerobic capacity, which was opposite to our prediction.Prediction (iv) was generally supported. We also investigated whethersubstrate use, basal metabolic rate and agility influenced physiologicalmeasures of oxygen transport, but we found only weak evidence for acorrelation between RBC count and agility.

  • 114.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sandberg, Mikael
    Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Demokratins evolution2012Inngår i: Gaudeamus, ISSN 0016-5247, nr 1, s. 13-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 115.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Schelin, Vanja
    Gud finns nog inte: en bok om att inte tro på gudar2008Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 116.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Christer
    En myt att vetenskap kan förenas med religion2012Inngår i: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, nr 11 dec.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 117.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Christer
    Julens historia en riktig pr-kupp2010Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, nr 21 dec.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 118.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Christer
    Skolan ska vara opartisk – förstås!2011Inngår i: Aftonbladet, nr 22 dec.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 119.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Christer
    Sluta ljuga om julen2011Inngår i: Sydsvenska Dagbladet, nr 13 dec.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 120.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sturmark, Christer
    Stäng de religiösa friskolorna2011Inngår i: NewsmillArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 121.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Svensson, Jonas
    Stora gudar, heliga kor och människans överlevnad: Evolutionära förklaringar på religion2017Inngår i: Religionen tur och retur / [ed] Jenny Björkman, Arne Jarrick, Göteborg: Makadam Förlag, 2017, s. 19-36Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Över hela världen, och genom historien, återfinns religiösa inslag i den mänskliga kulturen. Kan det ha något att göra med evolutionen? Är religiösa föreställningar kanske bara en biprodukt av Homo sapiens avancerade kognitiva förmågor? Eller kan allt detta till och med ha haft betydelse för vår evolutionära historia?

  • 122.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Székely, Tamás
    Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, UK.
    Reynolds, John
    Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Directional changes in sexual size dimorphism in shorebirds, gulls and alcids2003Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 16, s. 930-938Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Charadrii (shorebirds, gulls and alcids) are one of the most diverse avian groups from the point of view of sexual size dimorphism, exhibiting extremes in both male-biased and female-biased dimorphism, as well as monomorphism. In this study we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to investigate how size dimorphism has changed over evolutionary time, distinguishing between changes that have occurred in females and in males. Independent contrasts analyses show that both body mass and wing length have been more variable in males than in females. Directional analyses show that male-biased dimorphism has increased after inferred transitions towards more polygynous mating systems. There have been analogous increases in female-biased dimorphism after transitions towards more socially polyandrous mating systems. Changes in dimorphism in both directions are attributable to male body size changing more than female body size. We suggest that this might be because females are under stronger natural selection constraints related to fecundity. Taken together, our results suggest that the observed variation in dimorphism of Charadrii can be best explained by male body size responding more sensitively to variable sexual selection than female body size

  • 123.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Tullberg, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Evolutionary aspects of aggression: the importance of sexual selection2011Inngår i: Aggression / [ed] Robert Huber, Danika L. Bannasch, Patricia Brennan, San Diego: Academic Press, 2011, s. 7-22Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive behaviors in animals, for example, threat, attack, and defense, arecommonly related to competition over resources, competition over matingopportunities, or fights for survival. In this chapter, we focus on aggressivecompetition over mating opportunities, since this competition explains muchof the distribution of weaponry and large body size, but also because this type ofcompetition sheds light on the sex skew in the use of violence in mammals,including humans. Darwin (1871) termed this type of natural selection, wheredifferences in reproductive success are caused by competition over mates, sexualselection. Not all species have a pronounced competition over mates, however.Instead, this aspect of sociality is ultimately determined by ecological factors. 

    In species where competition over mates is rampant, this has evolutionary effectson weaponry and body size such that males commonly bear more vicious weaponsand are larger than females. A review of sexual selection in mammals reveals howcommon aggressive competition over mating opportunities is in this group.Nearly half of all mammal species exhibit male-biased sexual size dimorphism,a pattern that is clearly linked to sexual selection. Sexual selection is alsocommon in primates, where it has left clear historical imprints in body massdifferences, in weaponry differences (canines), and also in brain structure differences.However, when comparing humans to our closest living primate relatives,it is clear that the degree of male sexual competition has decreased in thehominid lineage. Nevertheless, our species displays dimorphism, polygyny, andsex-specific use of violence typical of a sexually selected mammal. Understandingthe biological background of aggressive behaviors is fundamental to understandinghuman aggression.

  • 124.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Tullberg, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Lowering sample size in comparative analyses can indicate a correlation where there is none: example from Rensch’s rule in primates2006Inngår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, s. 1346-1351Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that characters may co-vary in organism groups because of shared ancestry and not always because of functional correlations was the initial rationale for developing phylogenetic comparative methods. Here we point out a case where similarity due to shared ancestry can produce an undesired effect when conducting an independent contrasts analysis. Under special circumstances, using a low sample size will produce results indicating an evolutionary correlation between characters where an analysis of the same pattern utilizing a larger sample size will show that this correlation does not exist. This is the opposite effect of increased sample size to that expected; normally an increased sample size increases the chance of finding a correlation. The situation where the problem occurs is when co-variation between the two continuous characters analysed is clumped in clades; e.g. when some phylogenetically conservative factors affect both characters simultaneously. In such a case, the correlation between the two characters becomes contingent on the number of clades sharing this conservative factor that are included in the analysis, in relation to the number of species contained within these clades. Removing species scattered evenly over the phylogeny will in this case remove the exact variation that diffuses the evolutionary correlation between the two characters – the variation contained within the clades sharing the conservative factor. We exemplify this problem by discussing a parallel in nature where the described problem may be of importance. This concerns the question of the presence or absence of Rensch’s rule in primates.

  • 125.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Tullberg, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Phylogenetic analyses of primate size evolution: the consequences of sexual selection1998Inngår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 64, s. 413-447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analysed the relationship between primate mating system, size and size dimorphism by utilizing several phylogenetically based methods. An independent contrast analysis of male and female size (log weight) showed that these are tightly correlated and that size dimorphism is not a simple allometric function of size. We found no relationship between mating system and sexual dimorphism in strepsirhines but a strong relationship in haplorhines. By matched-pairs analysis, where sister groups were matched according to whether the mating system predicted higher or lower intrasexual selection for male size, haplorhine species in more polygynous clades (with a predicted higher sexual selection) were significantly more dimorphic, had larger males, and also, but to a lesser degree, larger females. Both independent contrast and matched-pairs analyses are non-directional and correlational. By using a directional test we investigated how a transition in mating system affects size and dimorphism. Here, each observation is the sum of changes in dimorphism or size in a clade that is defined by a common origin of a mating system. Generally, dimorphism, as well as male and female size, increased after an expected increase in sexual selection, and decreased after an expected decrease in sexual selection. The pattern was, however, not significant for all of the alternative character reconstructions. In clades with an expected increase in sexual selection, male size increased more than female size. This pattern was significant for all character reconstructions. The directional investigation indicates that the magnitude of change in haplorhine dimorphism is larger after an increase in sexual selection than after a decrease, and, for some reconstructions, that the magnitude of size increase is larger than the magnitude of size decrease for both sexes. Possible reasons for these patterns are discussed, as well as their implications as being one possible mechanism behind Cope's rule, i.e. general size increase in many phylogenetic lineages

  • 126.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Tullberg, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Biuw, Martin
    Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, Scotland.
    Phylogenetic analyses of sexual selection and sexual size dimorphism in pinnipeds2002Inngår i: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 52, s. 188-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 127.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Westerstrand, Magnus
    Emretsson, Anders
    Edman, Per
    Martinsson, Anders
    Karlsson, Lars
    Forskare som idag förnekar klimathotet var tidigare tobakslobbyister2011Inngår i: SVT DebattArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 128. Milham, Michael P.
    et al.
    Ai, Lei
    Koo, Bonhwang
    Xu, Ting
    Amiez, Celine
    Balezeau, Fabien
    Baxter, Mark G.
    Blezer, Erwin L. A.
    Brochier, Thomas
    Chen, Aihua
    Croxson, Paula L.
    Damatac, Christienne G.
    Dehaene, Stanislas
    Everling, Stefan
    Fair, Damian A.
    Fleysher, Lazar
    Freiwald, Winrich
    Froudist-Walsh, Sean
    Griffiths, Timothy D.
    Guedj, Carole
    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila
    Ben Hamed, Suliann
    Harel, Noam
    Hiba, Bassem
    Jarraya, Bechir
    Jung, Benjamin
    Kastner, Sabine
    Klink, P. Christiaan
    Kwok, Sze Chai
    Laland, Kevin N.
    Leopold, David A.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Mars, Rogier B.
    Menon, Ravi S.
    Messinger, Adam
    Meunier, Martine
    Mok, Kelvin
    Morrison, John H.
    Nacef, Jennifer
    Nagy, Jamie
    Ortiz Rios, Michael
    Petkov, Christopher
    Pinsk, Mark
    Poirier, Colline
    Procyk, Emmanuel
    Rajimehr, Reza
    Reader, Simon M.
    Roelfsema, Pieter R.
    Rudko, David A.
    Rushworth, Matthew F. S.
    Russ, Brian E.
    Sallet, Jerome
    Schmid, Michael Christoph
    Schwiedrzik, Caspar M.
    Seidlitz, Jakob
    Sein, Julien
    Shmuel, Amir
    Sullivan, Elinor L.
    Ungerleider, Leslie
    Thiele, Alexander
    Todorov, Orlin S.
    Tsao, Doris
    Wang, Zheng
    Wilson, Charles R. E.
    Yacoub, Essa
    Ye, Frank Q.
    Zarco, Wilbert
    Zhou, Yong-di
    Margulies, Daniel S.
    Schroeder, Charles E.
    An Open Resource for Non-human Primate Imaging2018Inngår i: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 100, nr 1, s. 61-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-human primate neuroimaging is a rapidly growing area of research that promises to transform and scale translational and cross-species comparative neuroscience. Unfortunately, the technological and methodological advances of the past two decades have outpaced the accrual of data, which is particularly challenging given the relatively few centers that have the necessary facilities and capabilities. The PRIMatE Data Exchange (PRIME-DE) addresses this challenge by aggregating independently acquired non-human primate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets and openly sharing them via the International Neuroimaging Data-sharing Initiative (INDI). Here, we present the rationale, design, and procedures for the PRIME-DE consortium, as well as the initial release, consisting of 25 independent data collections aggregated across 22 sites (total = 217 non-human primates). We also outline the unique pitfalls and challenges that should be considered in the analysis of non-human primate MRI datasets, including providing automated quality assessment of the contributed datasets.

  • 129. Navarrete, Ana F.
    et al.
    Blezer, Erwin L. A.
    Pagnotta, Murillo
    de Viet, Elizabeth S. M.
    Todorov, Orlin S.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Laland, Kevin N.
    Reader, Simon M.
    Primate Brain Anatomy: New Volumetric MRI Measurements for Neuroanatomical Studies2018Inngår i: Brain, behavior, and evolution, ISSN 0006-8977, E-ISSN 1421-9743, Vol. 91, nr 2, s. 109-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the publication of the primate brain volumetric dataset of Stephan and colleagues in the early 1980s, no major new comparative datasets covering multiple brain regions and a large number of primate species have become available. However, technological and other advances in the last two decades, particularly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the creation of institutions devoted to the collection and preservation of rare brain specimens, provide opportunities to rectify this situation. Here, we present a new dataset including brain region volumetric measurements of 39 species, including 20 species not previously available in the literature, with measurements of 16 brain areas. These volumes were extracted from MRI of 46 brains of 38 species from the Netherlands Institute of Neuroscience Primate Brain Bank, scanned at high resolution with a 9.4-T scanner, plus a further 7 donated MRI of 4 primate species. Partial measurements were made on an additional 8 brains of 5 species. We make the dataset and MRI scans available online in the hope that they will be of value to researchers conducting comparative studies of primate evolution.

  • 130. Nunn, Charles L
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Pursall, E. Rhiannon
    Rolff, Jens
    On sexual dimorphism in immune function2009Inngår i: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 364, nr 1513, s. 61-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual dimorphism in immune function is a common pattern in vertebrates and also in a number of invertebrates. Most often, females are more ‘immunocompetent’ than males. The underlying causes are explained by either the role of immunosuppressive substances, such as testosterone, or by fundamental differences in male and female life histories. Here, we investigate some of the main predictions of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) in a comparative framework using mammals. We focus specifically on the prediction that measures of sexual competition across species explain the observed patterns of variation in sex-specific immunocompetence within species. Our results are not consistent with the ICHH, but we do find that female mammals tend to have higher white blood cell counts (WBC), with some further associations between cell counts and longevity in females. We also document positive covariance between sexual dimorphism in immunity, as measured by a subset of WBC, and dimorphism in the duration of effective breeding. This is consistent with the application of ‘Bateman's principle’ to immunity, with females maximizing fitness by lengthening lifespan through greater investment in immune defences. Moreover, we present a meta-analysis of insect immunity, as the lack of testosterone in insects provides a means to investigate Bateman's principle for immunity independently of the ICHH. Here, we also find a systematic female bias in the expression of one of the two components of insect immune function that we investigated (phenoloxidase). From these analyses, we conclude that the mechanistic explanations of the ICHH lack empirical support. Instead, fitness-related differences between the sexes are potentially sufficient to explain many natural patterns in immunocompetence.

  • 131. Pernes, Josefines
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ingen demokrati utan rättigheter för kvinnor2017Inngår i: Dagens arena, nr 18 aprilArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tunisien är det enda landet som hittills lyckats ta den arabiska våren vidare till demokrati. Varför lyckades de när andra misslyckades? Genom nya analysverktyg kan vi visa hur viktiga kvinnors rättigheter är, skriver forskarna Josefine Pernes och Patrik Lindenfors.

  • 132. Ross, Cody T.
    et al.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Ericksen, Karen Paige
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique
    The Origins and Maintenance of Female Genital Modification across Africa2016Inngår i: Human Nature, ISSN 1045-6767, E-ISSN 1936-4776, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 173-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present formal evolutionary models for the origins and persistence of the practice of Female Genital Modification (FGMo). We then test the implications of these models using normative cross-cultural data on FGMo in Africa and Bayesian phylogenetic methods that explicitly model adaptive evolution. Empirical evidence provides some support for the findings of our evolutionary models that the de novo origins of the FGMo practice should be associated with social stratification, and that social stratification should place selective pressures on the adoption of FGMo; these results, however, are tempered by the finding that FGMo has arisen in many cultures that have no social stratification, and that forces operating orthogonally to stratification appear to play a more important role in the cross-cultural distribution of FGMo. To explain these cases, one must consider cultural evolutionary explanations in conjunction with behavioral ecological ones. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our study for policies designed to end the practice of FGMo.

  • 133. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Ekologi.
    Alla inom Humanisterna är inte ateister2008Inngår i: Synpunkt: Svenska Dagbladet 29 augustiArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 134. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Dags för Svenska kyrkan att bli kristen2009Inngår i: NewsmillArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 135. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Humanisterna tar striden mot främlingsfientligheten2010Inngår i: NewsmillArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 136. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Hög tid att staten slutar sponsra kyrkan2015Inngår i: Expressen, ISSN 1103-923XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 137. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Är inte verkligheten gemensam?2009Inngår i: NewsmillArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 138. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Twana, Tara
    Ericson, Emilia
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Timmerby, Magnus
    Ta chansen – här är våra krav på påven2016Inngår i: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000, nr 31 oktoberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Påve Franciskus har inte genomfört en enda substantiell förändring av kyrkan – läran är fortfarande patriarkal, homofobisk och odemokratisk. Humanisternas lägger i dag fram tio teser för en mer human kyrka, ämnen Svenska kyrkan kan passa på att ta upp nu när påven är på plats.

  • 139. Sturmark, Christer
    et al.
    Wohlner, Ellis
    Gunnarson, Staffan
    Blom, Agneta
    Örebro universitet.
    Häggström, Olle
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Liljefors, Noomi
    Grutzky, Eduardo
    Kornhall, Per
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Barn har rätt till kroppslig integritet2009Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, nr 12 majArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 140.
    Thorén, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi.
    Kappeler, Peter
    Universität Göttingen.
    Phylogenetic analyses of dimorphism in primates: evidence for stronger selection on canine size than on body size2006Inngår i: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 130, nr 1, s. 50-59Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to analyze the consequences of sexual selection on canine size and canine size dimorphism in primates. Our analyses of previously published body mass and canine size data revealed that the degree of sexual selection is correlated with canine size dimorphism, as well as with canine size in both sexes, in haplorhine but not in strepsirrhine primates. Consistent with these results, male and female canine size was found to be highly correlated in all primates. Since canine dimorphism and canine size in both sexes in haplorhines were found to be not only related to mating system but also to body size and body size dimorphism (characters which are also subject to or the result of sexual selection), it was not apparent whether the degree of canine dimorphism is the result of sexual selection on canine size itself, or whether canine dimorphism is instead a consequence of selection on body size, or vice versa. To distinguish among these possibilities, we conducted matched-pairs analyses on canine size after correcting for the effects of body size. These tests revealed significant effects of sexual selection on relative canine size, indicating that canine size is more important in haplorhine male-male competition than body size. Further analyses showed, however, that it was not possible to detect any evolutionary lag between canine size and body size, or between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. Additional support for the notion of special selection on canine size consisted of allometric relationships in haplorhines between canine size and canine size dimorphism in males, as well as between canine size dimorphism and body size dimorphism. In conclusion, these analyses revealed that the effects of sexual selection on canine size are stronger than those on body size, perhaps indicating that canines are more important than body size in haplorhine male-male competition

  • 141. Wang, Yi-ting
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    No democratic transition without women’s rights: A global sequence analysis 1900-20122015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? Research has focused on socioeconomic and institutional factors, yet the assumption that political liberalization has to precede democratization has not been systematically examined. We explore the impacts of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. We argue that both men’s and women’s liberal rights are essential conditions for democratization to take place: giving both men and women rights reduce an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression for authoritarian rulers, and enabling the formation of women’s movements – historically important as a spark of protests in initial phases of democratization. We test this argument empirically using data that cover 160 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through sequence analysis we obtain results suggesting that liberal rights for both men and women enhance civil society organizations, and then lead to electoral democracy. The results suggest that influential modernization writings – stressing the role of economic development in democratization processes – may partly have been misinformed in their blindness for gender. The reported pattern may be at least part of the explanation of the ‘Arab spring’ failures.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 142. Wang, Yi-ting
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen, Avdelningen för zoologisk ekologi. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Paxton, Pamela
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Women's rights in democratic transitions: A global sequence analysis, 1900–20122017Inngår i: European Journal of Political Research, ISSN 0304-4130, E-ISSN 1475-6765, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 735-756Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? This article explores the impact of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. It argues that both men's and women's liberal rights are essential conditions for democratisation to take place: providing both women and men rights reduces an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression and enabling the formation of women's organising – historically important to spark protests in initial phases of democratisation. This argument is tested empirically using data that cover 173 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through novel sequence analysis methods, the results suggest that in order to gain electoral democracy a country first needs to furnish civil liberties to both women and men.

  • 143.
    Wartel, Andreas
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden .
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen.
    Whatever you want: Inconsistent results are the rule, not the exception, in the study of primate brain evolution2019Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id e0218655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Primate brains differ in size and architecture. Hypotheses to explain this variation are numerous and many tests have been carried out. However, after body size has been accounted for there is little left to explain. The proposed explanatory variables for the residual variation are many and covary, both with each other and with body size. Further, the data sets used in analyses have been small, especially in light of the many proposed predictors. Here we report the complete list of models that results from exhaustively combining six commonly used predictors of brain and neocortex size. This provides an overview of how the output from standard statistical analyses changes when the inclusion of different predictors is altered. By using both the most commonly tested brain data set and the inclusion of new data we show that the choice of included variables fundamentally changes the conclusions as to what drives primate brain evolution. Our analyses thus reveal why studies have had troubles replicating earlier results and instead have come to such different conclusions. Although our results are somewhat disheartening, they highlight the importance of scientific rigor when trying to answer difficult questions. It is our position that there is currently no empirical justification to highlight any particular hypotheses, of those adaptive hypotheses we have examined here, as the main determinant of primate brain evolution.

  • 144. Wilson, Matthew C.
    et al.
    Medzihorsky, Juraj
    Maerz, Seraphine F.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Edgell, Amanda B.
    Boese, Vanessa A.
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Episodes of liberalization in autocracies: a new approach to quantitatively studying democratization2023Inngår i: Political Science Research and Methods, ISSN 2049-8470, E-ISSN 2049-8489, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 501-520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a new approach to the quantitative study of democratization. Building on the comparative case-study and large-N literature, it outlines an episode approach that identifies the discrete beginning of a period of political liberalization, traces its progression, and classifies episodes as successful versus different types of failing outcomes, thus avoiding potentially fallacious assumptions of unit homogeneity. We provide a description and analysis of all 383 liberalization episodes from 1900 to 2019, offering new insights on democratic “waves”. We also demonstrate the value of this approach by showing that while several established covariates are valuable for predicting the ultimate outcomes, none explain the onset of a period of liberalization.

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