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  • 101.
    Baldwin, Richard E.
    et al.
    Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Forslid, Rikard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Trade Liberalization with Heterogeneous Firms2010Inngår i: Review of Development Economics, ISSN 1363-6669, E-ISSN 1467-9361, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 161-176Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the various aspects of trade liberalization with heterogeneous firms using the Melitz (2003) model. We find a number of novel results and effects including a Stolper-Samuelson-like result and several results related to the volume of trade, which are empirically testable. We also analyze what might be called an anti-variety effect as the result of trade liberalization. We show that this effect is most pronounced for small countries. This resonates with the often voiced criticism from antiglobalists that globalization leads the world to become more homogeneous by eliminating local specialties. Nevertheless, we find that trade liberalization always leads to welfare gains in the model.

  • 102. Baldwin, Richard
    et al.
    Forslid, Rikard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    The development and future of factory Asia2014Inngår i: Asia and global production networks: implications for trade, incomes and economic vulnerability / [ed] Benno Ferrarini, David Hummels, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014, s. 338-367Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 103.
    Balleer, Almut
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    New Evidence, Old Puzzles: Technology Shocks and Labor Market Dynamics2012Inngår i: Quantitative Economics, ISSN 1759-7323, E-ISSN 1759-7331, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 363-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the standard search-and-matching labor market model replicate the business cycle fluctuations of the job finding rate and the unemployment rate? In the model, these fluctuations are driven by movements in productivity. This paper investigates the sources of productivity fluctuations that are commonly interpreted as technology shocks. I estimate different types of technology shocks from structural vector autoregressions and reassess the empirical performance of the standard model based on second moments that are conditional on technology and nontechnology (preference) shocks. Most prominently, the model is able to replicate the conditional volatilities of job finding and unemployment. However, it fails to replicate the correlation of productivity with unemployment and job finding that is conditional on both technology and nontechnology shocks.

  • 104.
    Balleer, Almut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Gehrke, Britta
    Lechthaler, Wolfgang
    Merkl, Christian
    Does Short-Time Work Save Jobs? A Business Cycle Analysis2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 105.
    Balleer, Almut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Gehrke, Britta
    Merkl, Christian
    Some Surprising Facts About Working Time Accounts and the Business Cycle2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 106.
    Balleer, Almut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. RWTH Aachen University, Germany .
    Gomez-Salvador, Ramon
    Turunen, Jarkko
    Labour force participation across Europe: a cohort-based analysis2014Inngår i: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 46, nr 4, s. 1385-1415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a cohort-based model to analyse the determinants of labour force participation in six European economies, focusing on age and cohort effects as factors explaining differences in participation behaviour across countries. Cohort effects are particularly relevant for women with those born in the late 1960s and early 1970s more likely to participate over the life-cycle. Our results suggest that cohort effects can be interpreted as evolving social norms or preferences towards participating in the labour market according to Fernandez (NBER working paper no. 13373, 2007). We find substantial variation in the estimated age and cohort effects across European countries: cohort effects can account for a substantial part of the recent increase in participation in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany, and a positive, but smaller part of in the increase in participation of the UK, Italy and France. Looking forward, positive cohort effects could help counteract the downward impact of population ageing on participation.

  • 107.
    Balleer, Almut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Gómez-Salvador, Ramón
    Universität Bonn.
    Turunen, Jarkko
    European Central Bank.
    Labour Force Participation in the Euro Area: A Cohort Based Analysis2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a cohort based model to analyse determinants of labour force participation for disaggregated groups of workers in the euro area and the five largest euro area countries. The model captures age and cohort effects as indicators of (unobserved) determinatns of participation behaviour. We use these effects and observed determinants to construct trends and projections of labour supply. Our results suggest that age and cohort effects can account for a substantial part of the recent increase in participation. Cohort effects are particularly relevant for women with those born in the late 1960s and early 1970s more likely to participate over the life-cycle. There is substantial variation in the estimated age and cohort effects across countries. Looking forward, positive cohort effects for women are not large enough to compensate for the downward impact of population ageing on participation rates in the euro area.

  • 108.
    Balleer, Almut
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Aachen University, Aachen, deutschland.
    van Rens, Thijs
    CREI, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona GSE, IZA and CEPR.
    Skill-Biased Technological Change and the Business Cycle2013Inngår i: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 1222-1237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past two decades, technological progress in the United States has been biased towards skilled labor. What does this imply for business cycles? We construct a quarterly skill premium from the CPS and use it to identify skill-biased technology shocks in VAR with long-run zero and sign restrictions. Hours fall in response to skill-biased technology shocks, indicating that part of the technology-induced fall in hours is due to a compositional shift in labor demand. Investment-specific technology shocks reduce the skill premium indicating that capital and skill are not complementary in aggregate production.

  • 109. Ballester, Coralio
    et al.
    Calvo-Armengol, Antoni
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    DELINQUENT NETWORKS2010Inngår i: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 34-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Delinquents are embedded in a network of relationships. Each delinquent decides in a noncooperative way how much delinquency effort he will exert. We characterize the Nash equilibrium and derive an optimal enforcement policy, called the key-player policy. We then extend our characterization of optimal single player network removal to optimal group removal, the key group. We also characterize and derive a policy that targets links rather than players. Finally, we endogenize the network connecting delinquents by allowing players to join the labor market instead of committing delinquent offenses. The key-player policy turns out to be much more complex because it depends on wages and on the structure of the network. (JEL: A14, C72, K42, L14)

  • 110.
    Baltander, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Education, Labour Market and Incomes for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay I: Return to Education for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired, 1991-2000

       Mincer-equations are estimated for the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired. The results show that the estimates of the coefficient for the education variable are lower than for a comparison group, and that for several years it is not statistically significant that education for the blind/visually impaired has a positive effect on labour income.

    Essay II: Labour Income Distribution for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired in Sweden, 1991-2000

       Incomes or the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired are studied. They are compared with the income distribution for a comparison group. The results show that the income distribution is most unequal for the blind/visually impaired and that the average and median incomes are clearly lowest for this group. One explanation is a high share of zero earners.

    Essay III: Wages and Wage Distributions for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired with and without Wage Subsidy

       Mincer-equations with a wage subsidy dummy are estimated and wage distributions are studied for the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired. The coefficient for the wage subsidy dummy is discussed. From the wage distributions for full-time employed people we see that employed people with a wage subsidy have a more compact wage distribution compared to employed people without a wage subsidy.

    Essay IV: Employment for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired during the 1990s

       Employment rates for the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired are compared with a group that represents the Swedish population. The results show that the pattern and level of the employment rate are similar for the deaf/hearing impaired and the comparison group. The employment rate is clearly lower for the blind/visually impaired people, however.

  • 111.
    Baltander, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Employment for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired during the 1990sManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Employment rates for the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired are compared with a group that represents the Swedish population. The results show that the pattern and the level of the employment rate are similar for the deaf/hearing impaired and the comparison group. The employment rate is clearly lower for the blind/visually impaired, however.

  • 112.
    Baltander, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Labour Income Distribution for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired in Sweden, 1991-2000Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Incomes of the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired are studied. They are compared with the income distribution for a comparison group. The results show that the income distribution is most unequal for the blind/visually impaired and that the average and median incomes are clearly lowest for this group. One explanation is a high share of zero earners.

  • 113.
    Baltander, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Return to Education for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired, 1991-2000Manuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mincer-equations are estimated for the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired. The results show that the estimates of the coefficient for the education variable are lower than for a comparison group, and that for several years it is not statistically significant that education for the blind/visually impaired has a positive effect on labour income.

  • 114.
    Baltander, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Wages and Wage Distributions for the Deaf/Hearing Impaired and the Blind/Visually Impaired with and without Wage SubsidyManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mincer-equations with a wage subsidy dummy are estimated and wage distributions are studied for the deaf/hearing impaired and the blind/visually impaired. The coefficient for the wage subsidy dummy is discussed. From the wage distributions for full-time employed people we see that employed people with a wage subsidy have a more compact wage distribution compared to employed people without a wage subsidy.

  • 115.
    Baltrunaite, Audinga
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Political Economics of Special Interests and Gender2016Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Political Finance Reform and Public Procurement:  Evidence from Lithuania. Can political donations buy influence? This paper studies whether firms trade political contributions for public procurement contracts. To answer this question, I focus on the Lithuanian political economy. Combining data on a large number of government tenders, the universe of corporate donors and firm characteristics, I examine how a ban on corporate donations affects the awarding of procurement contracts to companies that donated in the past. Consistent with political favoritism, contributing firms’ probability of winning goes down by five percentage points as compared to that of non-donor firms after the ban. Among different mechanisms, the hypothesis that corporate donors get confidential information on competing bids prevails. The empirical results are in line with predictions from a first-price sealed-bid auction model with one informed bidder. Evidence on firm bidding and victory margins suggests that contributing firms adjust their bids in order to secure contracts at a maximum revenue. I assess that tax payers save almost one percent of GDP thanks to the reform.

    Gender Quotas and the Quality of Politicians. We analyze the effects of the introduction of gender quotas in candidate lists on the quality of elected politicians, as measured by the average number of years of education. We consider an Italian law which introduced gender quotas in local elections in 1993, and was abolished in 1995. As not all municipalities went through elections during this period, we identify two groups of municipalities and use a difference-in-differences estimation. We find that gender quotas are associated with an increase in the quality of elected politicians, with the effect ranging from 0.12 to 0.24 years of education. This effect is due not only to the higher number of elected women, who are on average more educated than men, but also to the lower number of low-educated elected men. The positive effect on quality is confirmed when we measure the latter with alternative indicators, it persists in the long run and it is robust to controlling for political ideology and political competition.

    Affirmative Action and the Power of the Elderly. There is evidence that age matters in politics. In this article we study whether implementation of affirmative action policies on gender can generate additional effects on an alternative dimension of representation, namely, the age of politicians. We consider an Italian law which introduced gender quotas in candidate lists for local elections in 1993, and was abolished in 1995. As not all municipalities went through elections during this period, we can identify two groups of municipalities and use a difference-in-differences estimation to analyze the effect of gender quotas on the age of elected politicians. We find that gender quotas are associated with election of politicians that are younger by more than one year. The effect occurs mainly due to the reduction in age of elected male politicians and is consistent with the optimizing behavior of parties or of voters.

    Let the Voters Choose Women. Female under-representation in politics can be the result of parties' selection of candidates and/or of voters’ electoral preferences. To assess the impact of these two channels, we exploit the introduction of Italian Law 215/2013, which prescribes both gender quotas on candidate lists and double preference voting conditioned on gender. Using a regression discontinuity design, we estimate that the law increases the share of elected female politicians by 22 percentage points. The result is driven by the increase in preference votes cast for female candidates, suggesting a salient role of double preference voting in promoting female empowerment in politics.

  • 116.
    Baltrunaite, Audinga
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Casarico, Alessandra
    Profeta, Paola
    Spill-Over Effects of Affirmative Action: political Representation and the Power of the Elderly2014Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117.
    Barker, Terry
    Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    International trade and economic growth: an alternative to the neoclassical approach1977Inngår i: Cambridge Journal of Economics, ISSN 0309-166X, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 153-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 118.
    Barker, Terry S.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    The Variety Hypothesis as an Explanation of International Trade1974Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 119.
    Barry, Frank G.
    University College Dublin, IIES.
    An Optimizing Approach to Factor and Production Subsidies in a Small Open Economy with Classical Unemployment1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a two-period model of a small open economy with a rigid real wage and classical unemployment. The optimal levels of three common aggregate-supply policies - employment, investment and production subsidies - and their effects on social welfare, the government budget and the balance of payments, are analysed and contrasted. The costs and benefits of firm- and sector-specific subsidies are also considered.

  • 120.
    Barry, Frank G.
    University College Dublin, IIES.
    Fiscal Policy in a Small Open Economy: An Integration of the Short-Run, Heckscher-Ohlin and Capital Accumulation Models1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    this paper incorporates the response to fiscal policies described by the Heckscher-Ohllin and sector-specific-capital models within a more general framework of two-sector growth, for a small open economy with classical unemployment.

    The results of the short-run model are seen to apply when changes in fiscal policy are unanticipated while those of the model with intersectoral capital mobility are relevant when such changes are correctly anticipated. This is in sharp contrast to the conventional interpretation of these models as describing consecutive rather than alternative transition stages of the economy. Other results are that permanent bond-financing of deficits is unstable, temporary bond-financing has long-run contractionary effects, and that possible temporary increases in employment due to fiscal policy are likely to be dominated by subsequent reductions when public spending is financed by increased taxation.

  • 121.
    Basu, Kaushik
    Delhi School of Economics.
    Civil Institutions and Evolution1992Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper examines the relation between civil norms and evolution. The survival of norms in the long run may depend on the evolutionary process and natural selection. The sieve of natural selection may ensure that norms which persist must have minimal efficiency properties. This paper begins wutg a general discussion of evolutionary processes and the survival of civil institutions. It then presents an introductory account of the theory of evolutionary games. It is argued that the model of evolutionary games is more suited to analyzing animal behaviour than the human one. Since it is the latter that is of interest to economists, and attempt is made in this paper to develop some new solution concepts which are more apt for human games.

  • 122.
    Basu, Kaushik
    et al.
    Delhi School of Economics.
    Weibull, Jörgen W.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Strategy Subsets Closed under Rational Behavior1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of strategy profiles is here said to be closed under rational behavior (curb) of it contains all its best replies. Each curb set contains the support of at least one Nash equilibrium in mixed strategies, but there are perfect Nash equilibria that are not contained in any minimal curb set. It is shown that every game with compact strategy sets and continuous payoff functions possesses at least one minimal curb set, that every minimal curb set is identical with its best replies and that it is contained in the set of rationalizable strategy profiles.

  • 123. Battu, Harminder
    et al.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    OPPOSITIONAL IDENTITIES AND EMPLOYMENT FOR ETHNIC MINORITIES: EVIDENCE FROM ENGLAND2010Inngår i: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 120, nr 542, s. f52-F71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Where a community or group is socially excluded from a dominant group, some individuals of that group may identify with the dominant culture and others may reject that culture. The aim of this article is to investigate this issue by empirically analysing the potential trade-off for ethnic minorities between sticking to their own roots and labour market success. We find that the social environment of individuals and attachments to culture of origin has a strong association with identity choice. Our results also suggest that those non-whites who have preferences that accord with being 'oppositional' do experience an employment penalty.

  • 124. Bauder, David
    et al.
    Bodnar, Taras
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Mazur, Stepan
    Okhrin, Yarema
    BAYESIAN INFERENCE FOR THE TANGENT PORTFOLIO2018Inngår i: International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance, ISSN 0219-0249, Vol. 21, nr 8, artikkel-id 1850054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the estimation of the weights of tangent portfolios from the Bayesian point of view assuming normal conditional distributions of the logarithmic returns. For diffuse and conjugate priors for the mean vector and the covariance matrix, we derive stochastic representations for the posterior distributions of the weights of tangent portfolio and their linear combinations. Separately, we provide the mean and variance of the posterior distributions, which are of key importance for portfolio selection. The analytic results are evaluated within a simulation study, where the precision of coverage intervals is assessed.

  • 125. Bay, Ann-Helén
    et al.
    Falch, Torberg
    Holgersen, Gudrun
    Ståhlberg, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vaage, Kjell
    Folketrygdens ytelser til etterlatte: Forslag till reform2017Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 126.
    Beckman, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Trade Unions and the Politics of Crisis2012Inngår i: GLOBAL CRISIS AND TRANSFORMATIVE SOCIAL CHANGE / [ed] Utting, P; Razavi, S; Buchholz, RV, BASINGSTOKE: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, s. 237-256Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 127.
    Beetsma, Roel
    University of Limburg.
    Inflation versus Taxation: Representative Democracy and Party Nominations1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The trade-off between inflation and taxation is analysed in a model with heterogeneity in nominal debt holdings. This creates a political conflict among the electorate. As a benchmark we study a "completely representative" democracy, where more inequality leads to higher equilibrium inflation. Extensions include a more realistic two-party nomination system and real money balances in the utility function. Special attention is drawn to the sources of multiple politico-economic equilibria. Finally, an explicit comparison with the capital-levy problem is made.

  • 128.
    Beetsma, Roel M.W.J.
    LIFE, University of Limburg.
    Macroeconomic Stabilisation and Intervention Policy under an Exchange Rate Band1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroeconomic stabilisatin and foreign exchange market interventions are investigated within the context of a stochastic small open economy. With money demand shocks a peg is optimal, but with goods demand shocks a nominal income target is best. With supply shocks the optimal degree of monetary accommodation rises with the welfare weight attached to output rather than to price stability. A nominal exchange rate band is not advisable from a stabilisation point of view, albeit that with money demand shocks no welfare losses are incurred. With goods demand shocks, narrowing the band affects the optimal coefficient of intramarginal monetary accommodation. With supply shocks and no intramarginal interventions, it is desirable to have a wider band if there is a relatively large weight on price rather than output stability.

  • 129.
    Beksiak, Janusz
    The Central School of Planning and Statistics, Warsaw.
    Economic Crises in Poland1987Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade the Polish economy fell into some of the deepest and longest lasting crises in her history. It is not the only ciris within the post-war period. It is my belief that the roots of all these crises are in the character and dynamics of the existing social and economic system. In attempt, therefore, to explain the causes, mechanisms and consequences of crises in contemporary Poland, I will analyze the working and the evolution of her socio-economic system.

  • 130.
    Bengtsson, Claes
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Persson, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Willenhag, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Gender and Overconfidence2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Do males differ from females in terms of self-confidence? The structure of the Economics I exam at Stockholm University provides an opportunity to shed some light in this question. By answering an extra, optional question, the students can aim for a higher mark. We find a clear gender difference in that male students are inclined than female students to take this opportunity. This difference in self-assessment is more pronounced among younger than among older students.

  • 131.
    Bengtsson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Iverman, Ellis
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Gender and ethnic discrimination in the rental housing market2012Inngår i: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 1-5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a field experiment to measure discrimination in the housing market in Stockholm. Four fictitious persons, of different gender, with distinct-sounding Arabic or Swedish names, are randomly assigned to vacant apartments. We extend the study by Ahmed and Hammarstedt ( 2008). There are two new results. First, we provide evidence that there is no or little gender premium for the female with the Arabic name, which suggests that ethnic discrimination dominates the effects of gender. Second, discriminatory behaviour is only found in the suburbs or satellite cities/towns of Stockholm County not in the densely populated, affluent, city centre. Moreover, we can replicate that there is a gender premium for females with Swedish names. However, we are not able to confirm that males with Arabic names face discrimination.

  • 132.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    IFAU.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Larsson, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Wage Formation and the Swedish Labour Market Reforms 2007-20092011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 133.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    IFAU.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Larsson Seim, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Jobbskatteavdrag, arbetslöshetsersättning och löner2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 134.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    IFAU.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Larsson Seim, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    TCO-ekonomer missförstår studien2013Inngår i: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 135. Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Seim, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Earned Income Tax Credits, Unemployment Benefits and Wages: empirical Evidence from Sweden2014Inngår i: IZA Journal of Labor Policy, ISSN 2193-9004, E-ISSN 2193-9004, Vol. 3, nr 54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 136.
    Bentzen, Eric
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Sellin, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    The Intertemporal Capital Asset Pricing Model with Returns that follow Poisson Jump-Diffusion Processes1992Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The capital market equilibrium is derived in a model where asset returns follow a mixed Poisson jump-diffusion process, rather than a simple diffusion process as in the traditional ICAPM. In the resulting JCAPM (CAPM with Jumps) expected returns are still linear in beta, but in addition premia have to be paid for jump risk. When jump risk is diversifiable in the market portfolio the JCAPM reduces to the standard ICAPM, as in Jarrow and Rosenfeld (1984).

    Jumps are found to be prevalent in the daily returns of the market indices in the 18 countries investigated, during the time period 1985-89. However, when the year of the crash, 1987, is excluded from the sample, the simple diffusion process gives an adequate description of the market returns in seven countries.

  • 137.
    Berg, Claes
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Optimal investment and option values under risk-aversion with empirical evidence from Swedish manufacturing1992Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An area of open research questions in economics involves the cost of capital and its relation to investment. One unresolved issue is in what way the desirability of investment projects depends on the risk with the project and how an increase in risk would affect the rate of investment. Much of the existing literature on investment under uncertainty supports the notion that greater uncertainty increases investment, in contrast with what one might suspect. The models in this dissertation stem from the conviction that in order to develop practically fruitful investment models it is necessary to combine honest data analysis with stochastic theory.

    Chapter I presents a survey of investment models under certainty.

    Chapter II considers three specific forms of risk-aversion. Optimal investment of a competitive firm facing uncertain real wages, productivity and investment costs is derived. It is shown that under risk-aversion an increase in risk can increase or decrease investment, depending on the correlation between the return on the firm and the return on all other projects in the economy. When bad times for the national economy mean bad times for a firm then optimal investment of a firm with owners that dislike risk (are risk-averse) is smaller than optimal investment when owners are risk-neutral.

    In Chapter III some evidence of risk-averse investment behavior is presented. The investment model assuming risk-aversion outperforms the model assuming risk-neutrality in explaining variations in investment. The reason is that when the rate of return on the firm is assumed to be correlated with the return on all other firms in the economy then the explanatory power of cost of capital for variations in investment is improved. Further, it is shown that an increase in the variance of real wages is related to decreasing investment, which favors the idea that variables measuring uncertainty can raise the explanatory power of investment models.

    In Chapter IV a model of irreversible investment is calibrated. It is shown that a cut in corporate income taxes or an increase in investment allowances has to be quite large to increase investment. Thus credibility may be more important than tax incentives to stimulate investment. In Chapter V assumptions, extensions and policy conclusions of the models are discussed.

  • 138.
    Berg, Claes
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank.
    Jonung, Lars
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Pioneering Price Level Targeting: the Swedish Experience 1931-19371998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In September 1931,  Sweden became the first country to make the stabilization of the domestic price level the official goal of its monetary policy, actually the only country that so far has adopted such an explicit price level target. Starting from the issues and concepts familiar from research and policy experience in the 1990s of inflation targeting - as contrasted to price level targeting - this paper examines the evolution of the Swedish price level targeting in the 1930s. We bring out a number of similarities and differences between price stabilization in the 1930s and in the 1990s.

  • 139.
    Berg, Claes
    et al.
    Sveriges Riksbank.
    Jonung, Lars
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Pioneering Price Level Targeting: The Swedish Experience 1931-19371998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In September 1931, Sweden became the first country to make the stabilization of the domestic price level the official goal of its monetary polic, actually the only country that so far has adopted such an explicit price level target. Starting from the issues and concepts familiar from research and policy experience in the 1990s of inflation targeting - as contrasted to price level targeting . this paper examines the evolution of the Swedish price level targeting in the 1930s. We bring out a number of similarities and differences between price stabilization in the 1930s and in the 1990s.

  • 140. Berggren, Niclas
    et al.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Stern, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Political Opinions of Swedish Social Scientists2009Inngår i: Finnish economic papers, ISSN 0784-5197, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 75-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the political opinions of Swedish social scientists in seven disciplines and find indications of a left‑right divide, with sociology and gender studies being the most left‑leaning disciplines, with business administration, economics, and law being the most right‑leaning ones, and with political science and economic history being located somewhere in between. This pattern is found when lookingat party preferences, left‑right self‑identification, and positions on economic policy issues. Overall, there is a slight dominance in sympathies for the right, although there are more academics to the left among those most involved in activities with a potential to influence decision‑makers.

  • 141.
    Bergman, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Lund University.
    Warne, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Money-Income Causality and the Neutrality of Money1993Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We study two related Granger noncasualty hypotheses. First, money equation innovations cannot predict future income. Second, the coefficients on money in the income equation are zero. Furthermore, we test if income is neutral in the long run with respect to money equation innovations. The first and third hypotheses are addressed in the moving average represenation of a cointegrated vector autoregression. Focusing on monthly U.S. data (1959-89) on income, prices, interest rates, and money we obtain weak evidence against the first hypothesis and mixed evidence about the second. Finally, our results suggest that income is not influence by money innovations in the long run.

  • 142.
    Bergstrand, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Interna obalanser och reala deprecieringar i euroområdet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan införandet av euro som gemensam valuta har interna obalanser inom euroområdet växt sig starkare till följd av reala apprecieringar i speciellt Portugal, Irland, Italien, Grekland och Spanien. Detta har lett till att ländernas internationella konkurrenskraft försvagats. För att få bukt med de interna obalanserna krävs det att länderna återfår sin internationella konkurrenskraft, deras varor måste bli billigare i jämförelse med deras handelspartner. Detta kan komma till stånd genom reala deprecieringar. Hösten 2008 drabbades världen av den djupaste ekonomiska nedgången sedan andra världskriget, något som förvärrade situationen för de krisande euroländerna.

    Uppsatsen belyser de interna obalanserna inom euroområdet och diskuterar teoretiskt på vilka sätt länderna kan få stånd till reala deprecieringar när det inte finns någon växelkurs att ändra mot de andra euroländerna. Data för de krisande länderna visar på att dess konkurrenskraft har urholkats sedan införandet av euron. Analysen startar år 2001 då samtliga länder hade övergått till euron. De tillvägagångssätt som analyseras är en sänkning av de relativa arbetsgivaravgifterna, en sänkning av de relativa lönerna eller en ökning av den relativa produktiviteten. Som sista möjliga tillvägagångssätt analyseras ett utträde ur EMU. Svårigheter med samtliga tillvägagångssätt lyfts fram och slutsatsen att en real depreciering tar lång tid och kräver hög arbetslöshet dras.

    I den empiriska delen görs jämförelser med de baltiska länderna under krisen 2008- 2011 och med Sverige under 1990-talskrisen. Analysen visar att de baltiska länderna lyckades genomföra en real depreciering genom att sänka de nominella lönerna och öka den relativa produktiviteten, dock till en hög kostnad i form av ökad arbetslöshet. Sveriges nominella depreciering av växelkursen analyseras och används som ett bra exempel på hur en real depreciering leder till förbättring av konkurrenskraften.

    Eftersom reala deprecieringar tycks förutsätta arbetslöshet beräknas så kallade uppoffringskvoter som visar hur stor ökning av arbetslösheten som krävs för varje procents reala depreciering. Hypotesen att de baltiska ländernas uppoffringskvoter är lägre än motsvarande kvoter för krisländerna i euroområdet till följd av svagare fackföreningar visar sig stämma, likaså att Sveriges uppoffringskvot under 1990- talskrisen var lägre eftersom en extern depreciering kunde göras. Uppsatsen drar slutsatsen att den relativa produktiviteten är av största betydelse för att lyckas med en real depreciering. Vidare dras slutsatsen att Irland och Spanien bör klara sig ur krisen med hjälp av reala deprecieringar, men att situationen för Portugal Italien och Grekland ser mörkare ut.

    Rekommendationer ges för Portugal och Italien att genomföra fler reformer för att öka sin relativa produktivitet. Ett utträde ur EMU för Grekland befaras ske i framtiden och reflektioner kring de problem som i så fall kan uppstå görs.

  • 143. Berliant, Marcus
    et al.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Labor Differentiation and Agglomeration in General Equilibrium2014Inngår i: International regional science review, ISSN 0160-0176, E-ISSN 1552-6925, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 36-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore the structure of cities as a function of labor differentiation, gains to trade, a fixed cost for constructing the transportation network, a variable cost of commodity transport, and the commuting costs of consumers. Firms use different types of labor to produce different outputs. Locations of all agents are endogenous as are prices and quantities. This is among the first articles to apply smooth economy techniques to urban economics. Existence of equilibrium and its determinacy properties depend crucially on the relative numbers of outputs, types of labor, and firms. More differentiated labor implies more equilibria. We provide tight lower bounds on labor differentiation for existence of equilibrium. If these sufficient conditions are satisfied, then generically there is a continuum of equilibria for given parameter values. Finally, an equilibrium allocation is not necessarily Pareto optimal in this model.

  • 144.
    Berlin, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    BNP och alternativa välfärdsmått2015Inngår i: Nationalekonomi för miljöintresserade: tio nationalekonomer om en ödesfråga / [ed] Ulrika Stavlöt, Stockholm: Fores , 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 145.
    Berlin, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Essays on the Determinants and Measurement of Subjective Well-Being2017Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four self-contained essays in economics, all concerned with different aspects of subjective well-being. The abstracts of the four studies are as follows.

    Beyond Income: The Importance for Life Satisfaction of Having Access to a Cash Margin. We study how life satisfaction among adult Swedes is influenced by having access to a cash margin, i.e. a moderate amount of money that could be acquired on short notice either through own savings, by loan from family or friends, or by other means. We find that cash margin is a strong and robust predictor of life satisfaction, also when controlling for individual fixed effects and socio-economic conditions, including income.

    Decomposing Variation in Daily Feelings: The Role of Time Use and Individual Characteristics. I explore the potential of using time-use data for understanding variation in affective well-being. Using the Princeton Affect and Time Survey, I decompose variation in daily affect into explained and unexplained within- and between person variation. Time use is found to mostly account for within-variation. Hence, its explanatory power is largely additive to that of individual characteristics. The explanatory power of time use is small, however. Activities only account for 1–7% of the total variation and this is not increased much by adding contextual variables.

    The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being. We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affect — two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory component of affect, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reports of both variables, including current-mood bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experience sampling survey that we conducted on a population sample of Swedes aged 18–50 (n=252). Our main estimates of the correlation between life satisfaction and long-run affective well-being range between 0.78 and 0.91, indicating a stronger convergence between these variables than many previous studies that do not account for measurement issues.

    Do OLS and Ordinal Happiness Regressions Yield Different Results? A Quantitative Assessment. Self-reported subjective well-being scores are often viewed as ordinal variables, but the conventional wisdom has it that OLS and ordered regression models (e.g. ordered probit) produce similar results when applied to such data. This claim has rarely been assessed formally, however, in particular with respect to quantifying the differences. I shed light on this issue by comparing the results from OLS and different ordered regression models, in terms of both statistical and economic significance, and across data sets with different response scales for measuring life satisfaction. The results are mixed. The differences between OLS, probit and logit estimates are typically small when the response scale has few categories, but larger, though not huge, when an 11-point scale is used. Moreover, when the error term is assumed to follow a skewed distribution, larger discrepancies are found throughout. I find a similar pattern in simulations, in which I assess how different methods perform with respect to the true parameters of interest, rather than to each other.

  • 146.
    Berlin, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hur bör man mäta välfärd?2017Inngår i: Nationalekonomins frågor, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2017, s. 403-434Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 147.
    Berlin, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Regeringen siktar mot fel mål2017Inngår i: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, nr 14 decemberArtikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 148.
    Berlin, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Vad kan vi lära av lyckoforskningen?2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Subjektivt välbefinnande kan användas som ett välfärdsmått. Det är slutsatsen i den nya SNS-rapporten ”Vad kan vi lära av lyckoforskningen?”. Rapporten ger en översikt av forskningen om lycka och diskuterar hur denna kan utgöra underlag för politiska beslut.

  • 149.
    Berlin, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Fors, Filip
    The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affective (emotional) well-being—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory componentof affective well-being, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reportsof both variables, including current mood-bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experience sampling survey that we conducted on a population sample of Swedes aged 18–50 (n= 252). Our main estimates of the correlation between life satisfaction and long-run affective well-being range between 0.78 and 0.91, indicating a stronger convergence between these variables than many previous studies that do not account for measurement issues.

  • 150.
    Berlin, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kaunitz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Beyond Income: The Importance for Life Satisfaction of Having Access to a Cash Margin2015Inngår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 1557-1573Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study how life satisfaction among adult Swedes is influenced by having access to a cash margin, i.e. a moderate amount of money that could be acquired on short notice either through own savings, by loan from family or friends, or by other means. We find that cash margin is a strong and robust predictor of life satisfaction, also when controlling for individual fixed-effects and socio-economic conditions, including income. Since it shows not to matter whether cash margin comes from own savings or with help from family members, this measure captures something beyond wealth.

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