Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
12345 101 - 150 av 202
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Österlind, Karolina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Begreppsbildning i ämnesövergripande och undersökande arbetssätt.: Studier av elevers arbete med miljöfrågor.2006Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines how pupils in the upper level of compulsory school learn about environmental issues and related theoretical concepts in an instruction employing an investigative approach and thematically organised content. The results of the study give reason to question some central arguments supporting these designs of instruction. Additionally, and primarily, these results contribute to research on concept formation. An understanding of pupils’ difficulties in learning theoretical concepts as a problem of contextualization is derived, representing an alternative to the influential view in which pupils’ difficulties are seen as a problem of conceptual change.

    Three case studies carried out within the pupils’ regular instruction are presented. The empirical material consists of recorded conversations, observational notes and the pupils’ own written material.

    The first study shows that the pupils experience difficulty in distinguishing among the different meanings attached to individual concepts in various conceptual contexts. This implies that pupils are often unable to identify the meaning relevant to the specific environmental problem on which they are working. The second study shows that the pupils do not make the connection between theoretical concepts and practical activities, as intended in instruction. Instead, they interpret the concepts within separate practical contexts, i.e. interpretative contexts other than the theoretical contexts. Finally, the third study demonstrates that the context for a pupil’s investigation changes as the pupil’s values concerning the environmental issues are brought to the fore. Thus, the outcome indicates that contextualization is a main factor in pupils’ learning of theoretical concepts. It is shown that the pupils’ understanding of theoretical concepts is dependent on their contextualizations of these concepts, both with regard to different conceptual contexts and with regard to different levels within a context. It is also demonstrated that emotions play a part in pupils’ learning by determining into which context pupils choose to enter.

  • 102.
    Nyberg, Catarina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Flerkulturella identifikationer i ett svensk-uganda-indiskt sammanhang2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Global integration and international migration has led to an increased ethnic and cultural diversity in contemporary societies, one consequence being that social identities are changing in these new multicultural settings. This is particularly evident for people who have been brought up with two or more ethnic and/or cultural contexts. What can we learn from their experiences concerning new ways of understanding social identities in multicultural societies?

    This qualitative study explores the meanings of, and ways of relating to, ethnic and cultural identity categories among young people brought up in Sweden, whose parents migrated to Sweden as a result of the expulsion of Asians from Uganda in 1972. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young Hindus and Muslims, both men and women. The data were analyzed and interpreted through a hermeneutical approach.

    The analysis of meaningful social categorizations in the young peoples’ accounts of themselves and their everyday lives showed that identity categories like “Indian”, “Swedish” and “Swedish-Indian” can refer to many different connotations depending on time and place. The participants define themselves in terms of various forms of pluricultural identifications, which reveal an active social identity work, where on the one hand they experience a continuously changing integration of different, sometimes opposing, self identifications, and on the other hand have to negotiate their self definitions with family and the wider society, where cultural contexts sometimes must be kept separate. These pluricultural identifications appear to be positive social identities and show a strong sense of subjective integration in the Swedish society.

  • 103.
    Roll Bennet, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Föräldraskapande och barnets hälsa: Föreställningar och berättande om barn med eksem2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary ‘risk-society’, people are continuously confronted with issues of risk in health information and discourses about life-styles that will promote good health, and, it is argued, are ‘forced’ to be aware of risks in their everyday lives. This is particularly evident for parents of young children who are struck by illness. They will on the one hand be subject to dominant discourses on child health, and on the other hand make observations of their own child in the context of family life. The over-all aim of this thesis is to explore how parents make sense of the situation they find themselves in when their child is struck by illness. Here, eczema is chosen as an example, an illness which is increasingly common among children in Western countries.

    An interview-study of parents of 32 six or seven year old children, who suffer from eczema, was conducted in the Stockholm area. The purpose of the interviews was to identify parental ideas about child eczema, how they understood the genesis, remedies and future development of the condition as well as the children’s own experiences of having eczema, and also the parents’ understandings of how they themselves could have an influence on the child’s situation and finally, the parents’ ways of positioning themselves in relation to dominant discourses on child health, in particular eczema.

    The analysis of the parents’ narratives reveals how the parents account for their detailed observations of the child’s eczema, and how they draw on their understandings of the child body as well as shared knowledge about eczema as they try to make sense of the child’s condition. In their narratives, the parents use normalizing strategies as well as strategies to confirm or counter dominant discourses. The parent’s ways of positioning themselves as responsible are discussed in relation to cultural images of the Child and Good Parenting. It is argued that the notion of ‘doing parenthood’ can be one avenue to a better understanding of how parents make sense of their experiences.

  • 104.
    Kesthely, Martha
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Jag vill att ni hämtar min mamma...: Villkor för familjearbete för ungdomar inom institutionsvården.2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about a special type of institutional treatment called family-work. It can be described as different ways to involve the families of the youth in their treatment programme. The locus of the study are special treatment homes which provide treatment for youth with serious social and behavioural problems. The study concerns three units at three institutions. The thesis has a qualitative and interpretative approach with using of observations, field studies, combined with interviews and field notes.

    The study focuses at the pre-conditions for the local "family projects" run by the care workers. With "project" means a process where different actions take place. The Theory of Action concept facilitates the understanding of these types of process and the importance of the internal(subjective) and external(objective) conditions in proportion to the space of action. Several local conditions influenced the pre-requisites for the staff to be able to carry out a "family project" and decide how to realize an intention. Important conditions were commissions given by the social services and the treatment focus at the units.

    The units are functioned as kinds of overall social "project contexts" with four basic characteristics: the treatment focus and structure, the professionalism and the organisation of the work. The conclusion from the study is that none of the "project contexts" at the three units provided good pre-requisites for family-work. "Family projects", realised by care workers were however professional and seem to have helped both the parents and the young persons, but "the project" were, in total, relatively few. It appeared that a successfully completed "family project" is the last step in a long process in which many different conditions contribute to the destiny of the "project". A clear family focused structured treatment at a unit can provide the employees with good conditions for realising the opportunities they see for working with families.

  • 105.
    Balldin, Jutta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kulturell tid och individuella rytmer: Gymnasieelever om tidens pedagogiska villkor2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem focused in the thesis has its ground in the crossroads between a manifold school-time and shared as well as individual rhythms of pupils. The thesis builds on a theoretical assumption that cultural structures in time are of meaning for an understanding of ourselves and of others, and works as a frame for contemporary values and constraints, especially in school. The aim is to understand and create a thick description of the phenomenon time as a condition for positioning, as young high school pupils see and deal with it. The contexts for their descriptions are three specific schools, challenging traditional ways of studying in time by offer independency, one by distance education, one by mobility between independency and timed lessons, and one by an independent project in an otherwise ordinary timetable.

    The empirical material is mainly based on interviews, letters and drawings, collected from thirty pupils, ten from each school. The study is conducted and analysed in means of an abductive methodology, and use senzitising concepts to withdraw units of meaning, relating the descriptions of pupils to theoretical assumptions.

    Time as a condition for positioning is a way of balancing between structure and individual acts. Time in school is created and dealt with in the crossroads between feelings of freedom to, of being in control of and/or close to, and their opposites, feelings of freedom from, or being controlled by and/or on distance. Dreams of spontaneity, closeness and intensity give way to certain temporal dilemmas in a school-time with contradictory values. The rhythms outlined by some of the pupils support the dreams described, as well as they underline the pupils’ need for temporal frames that see and confirm their performances here and now, as well as in the future. Time as an analytical filter reveals a meaning of time as enclosing lines and circles, present moments and stretched lives, school-time and other times.

  • 106.
    Ståhle, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Pedagogiken i tiden: Om framväxten av nya undervisningsformer under tidigt 2000-tal – exemplet Kunskapsskolan2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns the new educational activities that emerge within the deregulated school system at the beginning of the 21st century. Which ideas guide the work? How is the activity formed? What does one hope to achieve? The aim of the thesis is to explore these educational practices in one of the larges independent schools in Sweden – Kunskapsskolan.

    The study was based upon a sociocultural perspective on learning and on twenty situated interviews with seven principals. Tools central for the activity in Kunskapsskolan were used as basis for the interviews. A qualitative analysis has been used; one of the methods for analysis applied is phenomenography.

    The study shows how the school, with the help of centrally developed tools, organised the teaching and the environments for learning that were implemented in all schools of the company. Individually organised teaching is the foundation for all teaching, where the students are expected to be self-regulated and self-correcting and use the tools provided for their learning. With regards to the students’ learning, the teachers’ role is mainly related to individual tutorial conversations. Thereby the tools intended to create freedom and control for the students, also create problems and obstacles. Students who do not learn to use the tools have difficulties in managing their studies.

    The new tools also affect the teachers’ work. In comparison with other schools, the teachers are expected to submit to the educational model and a centrally controlled planning. The teaching is centrally planned in subject specific stages or subject integrated courses. Teachers can influence the central planning by working collaboratively in teacher teams but not individually. The main commission of the teachers is to follow the educational model decided by the company.

    In comparison with the traditional school, both teachers and students are given new roles. When learning is individually organised for the students, the teachers are expected to develop their knowledge collectively. According to the results, both students and teachers have different approaches to the system – they can submit to the system or approach it in a more independent and reflective way.

  • 107.
    Cars, Mikiko
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Project Evaluation in Development Cooperation: A Meta-Evaluative Case Study in Tanzania2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The research reported here is a meta-evaluative case study of project evaluation in the context of Official Development Cooperation (ODC) in the education sector in Tanzania, where the particular focus is on capturing the relative values attached to evaluation by various stakeholder groups.

    Perspectives from the constructivist paradigm are adopted, implying relativist ontology, subjectivist epistemology, and naturalistic interpretive methodology. Based on these perspectives, a review is provided of development theories and evaluation theories, including the actor-oriented approach to development, participatory monitoring & evaluation, utilization-focused evaluation, and responsive-constructivist evaluation. An exploratory qualitative case study strategy is taken, combining several complementary methods e.g. in-depth interviews, questionnaires, document analysis, and observations.

    Evaluation is considered as an applied social research, implying a managerial and political purpose. It is a reflective interactive process, where the relevance, effectiveness and impact of an intervention in pursuit of certain objectives are assessed, adding value in order to construct knowledge for the enhancement of decision-making. In order to facilitate understanding of the cases under study, their structural contexts are investigated: 1) ODC evaluation systems and strategies (international/ macro context); and 2) ODC in the education sector in Tanzania (national/meso context). Each case (at local/micro level) is located within these contexts and analyzed applying a meta-evaluative framework.

    Integrating the perspectives of the stakeholders, the study demonstrates the strengths of, and constraints on, each case, factors which are to some extent determined by their respective time-frames. A number of significant discrepancies between theory and practice in ODC evaluation are reported. Findings indicate the significance of constructing consensus values that are based on a synthesis of multiple stakeholders’ values and perspectives complementing each others. The study also find that evaluation ought to be used as a powerful tool in which the values, needs and aspirations of various stakeholder groups can be reflected, especially those of local communities, who are now too often powerless in ODC projects in the education sector.

  • 108.
    Villalba, Ernesto
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The uniqueness of knowledge management in small companies: Managing knowledge as an employer strategy for lifelong learning2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the relationship between the ‘knowledge-enabling environment’ and the demand for training using a sample of 18 small private companies providing educational and consultancy services in Sweden. In this way, the dissertation is an exploration of the ways Swedish knowledge-intensive companies manage their knowledge. The 18 companies have participated in a European program for developing employee competence, financed by the European Social Fund. As part of this European-financed program companies have evaluated their business activity and determined their training needs in order to remain competitive. The 18 companies, thus, provide a rare opportunity to explore aspects of the demand for training in small enterprises.

    Knowledge is understood here as both the structure and the content of mental schemas. It is embodied in individuals; it differs from information and data; and it can be tacit or explicit. When looking at organizational processes for managing knowledge, it is important to consider formal organized activities for learning, but also informal learning activities, which constitute the main source for tacit knowledge as well as the conditions in place for knowledge creation, what is here called the ‘knowledge-enabling environment’. It is argued that through knowledge management, companies are indeed implementing strategies for the promotion of lifelong learning.

    Each company in the sample is rather unique in their ‘knowledge-enabling environment’. The exploration of the demand for training shows that the selected companies invest only less than half their perceived training needs. In both sectors the working-environment characteristics that according to the theories reviewed, should promote learning, do not necessarily foster a higher demand for learning, with the exception of information technology. Finally, Also interesting is that employees demand more training if their engagement in informal learning is low.

  • 109.
    Åman, Kerstin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Ögonblickets pedagogik: Yrkesgrupper i samtal om specialpedagogisk kompetens vid barn-och ungdomshabiliteringen2006Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about special needs educational competence of educators working in collaborating teams within child and youth habilitation centres. The pedagogy of the moment stands for the decisions made by educators, based on their observations made when meeting the child in its different environments. These decisions build on educational theoretical and practical knowledge and experience developed through collaboration within interprofessional teams. The study was carried out through the use of focus groups consisting of professionals within different child and youth habilitation centres. The data consists of taped and transcribed focus groups discussions. Participants provided additional information concerning, estimations of the focus group session, their education and use of special needs educational assignments through additional questionnaires. The analysis focuses on how the educators conceptualise their competence and the dialogue in the group conversation. To facilitate the interactional analysis, a constructional key for the conversation was developed.

    The educators within child and youth habilitation centers have not developed specific professional strategies, but instead, appear to have adapted a mission through structural means. Their competence appears contextually adapted and devel-oped within three spheres of activities. Their basic education is in the area of pre-school with theoretical focus on children’s normal development, pedagogical experience of working with groups of children, play and learning. On the basis of this background, together with experiences with toy library activities for children with disabilities, they have become one of the corner stone of child and youth habilitation centres of the 1980’s. In these centers, by tradition a mainly medical sphere of activity, they work in teams with family orientated habilitation, and have developed compe-tence for special needs educational intervention for children with disabilities. Special needs education is a supplementary field, which includes educators who are being trained for municipal operation. The educators use professional speech genres with colloquial language terminology, which is adjusted to its communicative context. The educators and their colleagues in the teams emphasize the importance of the educator bridging the medical, treatment and pedagogical contexts, together with a focus on child, parents and staff, at home and in preschool/school. A communicational genre has developed within the occupational group, where the educators reinforce rather than question each other when taking turns during interprofessional conversations. The competence of the educator is based on knowledge and experience when it comes to children, their development, play and learning. The thesis demonstrates that the main focus of the supplementary education increasingly lies on the pedagogical meeting with adults, mostly parents, around specific child. The practical pedagogical work for the child, playing as intervention as well as the specific special needs educational intervention is less conceptualised by the educators. They are requesting relevant research and theories to support their field of knowledge.

  • 110.
    Jakobsson Öhrn, Harriet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Berätta din sanning: En förhörsledares projekt i förhör med misstänkt person2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    From general conditions when interviewing suspect persons, in my thesis I want to let an individual police interviewer emerge. The aim of the study is to describe the police interviewer’s actions in the interview situation. I strive to explore, identify and interpret the meaning of these actions during the interviews. I here choose to regard the interviewer as the actor in the interaction and I want to examine what he is doing when interviewing. From this general aim I would like to highlight the following processes:

    • The aims of the police interviewer when conducting the interview and his actions directed towards those aims.

    • The dignity, relation and interaction between different actions.

    • How the interviewer handles the complexity emanating from different demands and dilemmas of the interview situation.

    My data consist of a series of interviews with a man suspected of homicide. The interviews are documented in writing and on tapes/videotapes. When interpreting data I take my startingpoint in constructivism, where the individual is regarded as an active creator of meaning and where internal mental representations of phenomena form a basis for action. In the interaction with another person new mental constructions are formed. As a tool for my analysis I use an intentional model of explanation, where an action is regarded as meaningful and understandable by assuming that the actor has an intention for acting. The observed behaviour is the external, visible aspect of the action. To be able to understand its meaning, the researcher has to draw conclusions about the actor’s intention to act. This internal aspect of action is not visible and has to be attributed to the actor.

    The thesis describes and analyses the interviewer’s actions in terms of projects. The result indicates that a number of projects are performed by the interviewer in order to attain the aims of the interviews. Two main aim projects are found – forming an agreed picture of what happened at the crime scene and helping the suspect to go on with his life. The first one refers to institutional demands and the second to personal wishes. These double aims are interlaced in and supported by projects of a lower degree. To conduct the use of the aim projects, the interviewer also perform process projects. Of these projects the project pendulating between the safe and the threatening is central in order to co-ordinate other projects and as a tool for attaining the aims of the interviews. From the results of the study I conclude that professional competence rests on two foundations – the institutional foundation and the personal foundation, where the first consists of institutional goals, regulations and conditions, and the second of the individual interviewer’s mental representations, emotions and values. These foundations form a tacit background to the professional actions performed.

  • 111.
    Huang, Lihong
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, avdelningen för internationell och jämförande pedagogik.
    Elitism and Equality in Chinese Higher Education: Studies of Student Socio-economic Background, Investment in Education, and Career Aspirations2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to present an empirical pattern of social equity in Chinese higher education by investigating university students. Student socio-economic background influences access to, and socio-economic conditions in, higher education, and this, in turn, influences student career aspirations. The theoretical background of the study is interdisciplinary and a conceptual framework built on theories and previous research is used to analyse Chinese higher education in a historical, social and economic context.

    A questionnaire survey was administered at six public universities in the Southwest region of the country to explore students’ socio-economic background, costs and how they finance their studies, as well as their future career aspirations. The relationships between the factors investigated were examined using factor analytical techniques and linear structural relations (LISREL) analysis.

    The findings indicate that the students come from all socio-economic strata but a disproportionately large number are from high-income families. Students from urban areas are over-represented while rural girls are significantly under-represented. Although the gap between the lowest and highest study costs is enormous, the findings confirm that the average cost of higher education in China far exceeds the average annual income, even for urban residents. Moreover, about one-third of students and their families utilised financial resources other than family such as student loans, borrowing, and other forms of financial assistance.

    A structural model linking student socio-economic background, enrolment in elite institutions, costs and means of financing education with career aspirations is developed and tested in three stages in order to shed light on the conceptual framework and to present a pattern of social equity. The results show that family socio-economic status has only a modest impact on student access to and in higher education. On the other hand, having social origins in a well-developed community exerts an influential effect. Although study and living costs, and means of financing studies, are influenced by student socio-economic background, they intend to have positive impacts on student career aspirations. While enrolment in elite institutions has a strongly positive impact on costs, it has a moderately negative impact on aspirations to pursue advanced degrees.

    In conclusion, the study finds that the patterns of socio-economic factors influencing student upward mobility in present-day China are different from those of ancient China and from those previous Communist leaders attempted to achieve only 20 years ago.

  • 112.
    Brooks, Sheila
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, avdelningen för internationell och jämförande pedagogik.
    Learning Motivation in International Primary Schools: The Voices of Children2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study is to contribute to a greater understanding of learning motivation in primary school education. Particular emphasis is given to investigating how various contextual or situational aspects of the classroom/school environment affect motivation. The study, further, strives to identify, describe and interpret the views and perceptions of students enrolled in two international schools in Switzerland and Sweden.As globalization processes, world cultural flows and personal mobility expand and accelerate, school populations are becoming increasingly multicultural in composition. Educators are challenged to develop and adapt educational programs to fit heterogeneous rather than homogeneous groups of learners. In this study, a multicultural, international population of learners was selected as a sample as they may be representative of diverse student populations becoming more common in the future. Four classes of grade five students, a total of sixty-six children, were selected as participants in this comparative, case study investigation.

    An eclectic conceptual approach guided the research including principles drawn from problem-based, constructivist and humanistic theories of learning. Bandura’s social cognitive motivational theory also provided a background for the choice of methods and data collection procedures employed. An exploratory, mainly qualitative approach was taken during the two phases of fieldwork. Participant observations were made and in-depth interviews were conducted; a short questionnaire was also administered to provide background information and to function as a screening instrument or guide for subsequent interviews.

    The findings indicate that a variety of factors in the classroom/school environment affect students learning motivation. Areas identified and described in the study include what to learn, learning processes, learner autonomy, teacher influences, the physical environment and psycho/social influences. In comparing the results from the two case study schools, notable differences were found in student responses in the areas of learning processes, learner autonomy, teacher influences and overall attitude towards school. Students at the school in Switzerland were consistently more positive than those at the school in Sweden. Most of the differences identified were related to the curriculum model utilized and type of school organization and leadership employed. The findings indicate that the educational program based on constructivist, inquiry-based theories of learning implemented in a cohesive, all-school approach, produced higher levels of motivation in individual students.

  • 113.
    Jacobsson, Gunnel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    On the threshold of adulthood: Recurrent phenomena and developmental tasks during the period of young adulthood2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the dissertation is to investigate the own narratives told by young adults in the age group 18 to 25 years old about strains in life, ideas about the background to these, and attitudes now and in an imagined future. The emerging recurrent phenomena form the basis for a deeper understanding of the developmental tasks of young adults. Gender variances and changes over time are focused upon. The investigation is based on three distinct theoretical perspectives: developmental psychology, social constructionism and personal epistemology.

    The methods used vary according to the focus in four separate studies: (1) The Interview study is based on the narratives of 23 informants. A qualitative analysis was carried out and central themes are presented at group level. (2) In the Questionnaire study, a bird’s eye view is taken. A quantitative analysis was performed on 611 respondents’ answers about their own attitudes and experienced background to strains. (3) In the Follow-up study, 21 informants from the Interview study were interviewed again after eighteen months. (4) The Case study scrutinizes in detail four informants’ narratives about strains and attitudes on three occasions, over a total of three years. The combination of three different theoretical and three different methodological perspectives was used to make recurrent phenomena more visible, enabling the formulation of developmental tasks during this period of life.

    The most prominent phenomenon concerning strains is to become someone in the world. This is interpreted as an individuation process, which is a specific developmental task. Depression-like conditions occur and are understood to be transitional expressions of developmental-related sorrow. A spectrum based on prominent attitudes is formulated: vegetative being – creative being – productive doing – warding-off doing. The spectrum includes both problem-solving and problem-distancing attitudes. Common for men and for women is a movement between the problem-distancing and the problem-solving attitudes. The attitudes differ between men and women. Over time, a greater range of problem-solving attitudes is used, and they become less gender-specific. The problem-distancing attitudes decrease, both within the group of women and the group of men, but are still as gender-specific. As time passes, the narratives about the background to strains and future attitudes gain an increased number of themes. These changes are interpreted as a maturity process within the age group. Most of the young adults convey a hopeful view of the future.

  • 114.
    Szönyi, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Särskolan som möjlighet och begränsning: Elevperspektiv på delaktighet och utanförskap2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns pupils that enter into the special program for pupils with intellectual disabilities (särskolan). The aim of the study is to increase awareness of what it means to be part of this type of special program. The study’s focus is on first person perspectives and this motivated a qualitative research approach. 24 pupils, aged between 7 and 21, where interviewed individually, once or more times. Observations during the pupils’ school day gave the opportunity to follow them in practice. The pupils’ statements have been analysed as school stories, inspired by the narrative research tradition.

    One result can be interpreted as three comprehensive types of stories about the special schools, where participation and exclusion are recurring themes:

    • an unproblematic/taken for granted school of participation,

    • a school of participation and exclusion for pupils who are actually fairly ordinary,

    • a school of participation and exclusion for pupils who are “different”.

    The analysis showed that special schools could have several different implications for participation and contribute both to participation and exclusion.

    Two basic problems of participation clearly emerged: lack of social participation and lack of task-orientated participation. Influence as well as a sense of belonging was components of participation that gained greater significance to the pupils according to increasing ages.

    The pupils’ affiliation to the special schools created different kinds of conflicts of participation that the pupils dealt with in different ways. The pupils’ stories illustrated three different approaches to managing these conflicts: Care-related normalization, radical normalization and future-facing normalization.

    The study shows that special schools can be interpreted both as opportunities and limitations for participation. This complex picture of what it means to be a pupil enrolled in this special program can hopefully contribute to a continued discussion about how to achieve “a school for all”.

  • 115.
    Skawonius, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Välja eller hamna: Det praktiska sinnet, familjers val och elevers spridning på grundskolor2005Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A free choice reform of compulsory schools was established in Sweden in the early 1990s. This study is about how families have reasoned and acted in relation to this reform and how their children, as a result, are dispersed to schools.

    The study has been carried out in two distinctly different areas in one ofStockholm’s district councils – a middle-class suburb consisting of villas, and anotherarea made up of apartment houses with low income residents of mostly foreign backgrounds. Twenty-one families in different socio-economic positions were interviewed because they had either chosen a popular school or their child had remained in a school that was less favoured. The concepts, practical sense, habitus, capital and distribution, as used by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, constitute the theoretical framework and support the analyses. Interview methods are also borrowed from Bourdieu.

    The interviews with families are compiled into chapters based on the families’practices, that is, to what schools their children are dispersed.

    Findings show that the families’ decisions about schools are not made along rationalchoice models, as assumed. Processes are complex and structural factors are of greatimportance. These factors together with the families’ resources decide how pupils are distributed to schools. Cultural, or informational capital are most significant. Habitus and practical sense decide how choices are made in the family. Families’ socioeconomic situation and the circumstances governing choices and decision making about schools vary regarding shortage and necessity on the one hand and the “luxury” of being ambivalent, on the other. These factors effect what schools the child ends up in. This may have significant implications for the child, since the quality of schools varies extensively. The system produces winners and losers, meaning that an equivalent educational system is difficult to maintain.

  • 116.
    Jorfeldt, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att utbilda sig till sjuksköterska: Ett genusperspektiv på lärares och studenters beskrivningar av utbildningen2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the subject of nursing in nursing education and how it is understoodby both male and female teachers and students respectively. Through the Care 77 reform nurse education was transformed from vocational training to university education. As a consequence the concept of nursing has been further theorised and developed. Of those who study, teach, research and write textbooks in nursing, the majority are women. Given this preponderance of women over men in nurse education, the aim of this study was to describe and understand from a gender perspective both students´ and teachers´ perceptions and understanding of nursing as a subject. The questions I attempt to answer are: 1) What is the relation between male and female teachers´ description of nursing as a specific subject? 2) What is the relation between male and female nursing students´ description of nursing as a specific subject? 3) Are there educational factors which facilitate a more balanced sex distribution or which render a more balanced sex distribution more difficult? Data have been gathered through interviews and questionnaires. The interview study included 20 participants and the inquiry study 32 participants. There were equal numbers of male and female, teachers and students respectively, at nine nursing university colleges covering Sweden as a whole. The analyses have been done from a gender perspective. The gender theory terms of Connell and Thurén have inspired the construction of a gender analysis model, which has been the practical tool of the analyses, including the terms gender symmetry, gender asymmetry, gender neutrality and gender instability. As an aid for interpretation to be able to understand individual meaningful units and the pattern of the text the terms separation, female subordination, work distribution, symbolic sex, separation, closeness, hegemonic masculinity and gender dizziness have been used. The result show that both teacher groups experience the academisation of nursing as a specific subject. Both student groups commented on a lack of corresponding between their theoretical and their clinical nursing studies. The theoretical contents of nursing as a specific subject has had little impact on clinical activity. Students suggested three main reasons for this lack of clinical relevance: perceived lack of time, the vague interest of nursing professional groups and the hegemonic position of other medical and technical professionals. Apart from professional nursing knowledge, students with a strong identity and actors with ability to face the challenges of establishing a new research area within the same domain as already established once, are required in order to bring about changes. The findings of this study show no evidence that male should be less suitable or have less interest in theoretical studies in nursing as a specific subject. They have, however, less interest in it in clinical studies, in favour of medical science and technology. Male students, for example, at an early stage of their studies, often choose their special focus on emergency nursing. In the continued education women students more than men students tend to hope for inservice education in their workplace. It is within the medical-technical domain, and not in nursing as a specific subject that both students groups state a need for continued learning. Circumstances that will influence the balance of sex distribution in studies and profession seem to be: men‚s exposure to work with patients´ and other nursing professional groups´ observance of their choice of profession; lack of co-operation with other nursing professional groups; a rigid social milieu; and men’s experience of difficulties in providing intimate body care, also including dialogue with patients and relatives. A comprehensive interpretation of the results is that the biased sex distribution may be an outcome of society´s attitudes to what is defined as female or male work.

  • 117.
    Hanson, Marika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Det flexibla arbetets villkor - om självförvaltandets kompetens2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    New conditions for work, involving demands for quick adjustment and increased flexibility, have underpinned a discourse of work-based and lifelong learning in which continuous competence development is often viewed as beneficial for both the organisation and the employees. These flexible work arrangements rely heavily on the individual’s capacity of organising and structuring her own work and performance, and the thesis addresses the question of the individual’s ability to adapt to and handle these flexible work conditions. The aim is to contribute to an understanding of the competencies required in flexible work settings, and the thesis asks two questions: (1) What characterises the work conditions in flexible forms of work? (2) How does the individual handle these flexible work settings in terms of competence? The theoretical frame of reference is constructivist and is contextually oriented. Empirical data emanates from two case studies. The first encompassing teleworking civil servants in a government authority and the other freelance reporters. Data collection included questionnaires, interviews and e-mail questions.

    Results show that the flexible work settings in the case studies were relatively disintegrated and deregulated in the sense that the conditions were no longer lucid and well defined. It also appeared to open up a space for regulation of a more implicit kind. These conditions require a metacognitive competence characterised as a self-governing competence. This refers to the guiding, supervising function needed for the individual to be able to define, structure and discipline her own performance and, ultimately, her ability to manage and govern herself in a wider, functional sense. Thus, what seems to be characteristic for the flexible and delimited work conditions is that the preconditions of work do not appear in forms of an independent environment. Instead of formal directives and limitations, the regulation of work takes place to a large extent through implicit regulation processes, continuously negotiated in interaction between individuals and the environment. In conclusion it is argued that the flexible work conditions are characterised by intersubjective regulation processes, discursively and interactively constructed without perceptible coercion. The self-governing competence required involves transformation in terms of continuous learning as well as a development in terms of higher levels of cognitive complexity, integration and differentiation.

  • 118.
    Skogman, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Funktionshindrade barns lek och aktivitet: En studie av struktur och utförande i förskolan2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avhandlingen berör funktionshindrade barns lek och aktivitet och den är en studie av strukturer och utförande i förskola för dessa barn.

    Avhandlingens utgångspunkter består av tre delar. Den första delen berör min egen erfarenhet av arbete i omsorger om funktionshindrade. Den andra delen tar upp den miljörelaterade synen på funktionshinder samt organisation och omorganisation i omsorg om personer med funktionshinder och i barnomsorg. Den tredje delen består av ett aktivitetsperspektiv. Aktivitet ses här som bestående dels av en struktur och dels ett utförande. Strukturen föregår utförandet men inte på ett deterministiskt sätt. Det betyder att strukturen styr, lockar fram och vägleder utförandet i en aktivitet. Det betyder också att strukturen innehåller kulturellt förankrade normer för ett typiskt utförande av en aktivitet. Struktur och utförande står i ett dialektiskt förhållande till varandra och strukturen kan därför också påverkas och förändras genom aktivt agerande.

    Studiens syfte är för det första att undersöka förskolan som institution och organisation för barn med funktionshinder vilket inkluderar den verksamhet som förekommer där. Avhandlingen syftar för det andra till en teorigenererande aktivitetsanalys när det gäller aktiviteter och lekar för funktionshindrade barn.

    Studien är kvalitativ och har vägletts av grounded theory metoden. Data för studien samlades in genom deltagande observationer i två faser. Under fas 1 fördes fältanteckningar och under fas 2 gjordes videoinspelningar. Analys av data påbörjades samtidigt med datainsamlingen men slutfördes senare efter avslutad fältfas.

    I resultaten beskrivs två olika slags förskoleverksamheter. Resultaten redovisar också aktivitetsanalysens fem olika aktivitetssituationer. Dessa är anomilek, undervisande situationer, meningsfulla situationer, mobbingsituationer och rituella situationer. Var och en av dessa har olika strukturella egenskaper. Dessa egenskaper berör komplexitet, flexibilitet och social sammanhållning. Innovativa aktivitets- och lekutföranden i meningsfulla situationer och ritualism har identifierats som leksätt som är alternativa utförandemöjligheter för barn med funktionshinder.

  • 119.
    Michélsen, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kamratsamspel på småbarnsavdelningar2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to study the interaction that occurs among one- and two-year-olds in preschool. Today there are many toddlers in Swedish preschools but few Swedish studies of the interaction among children of this preschool age.

    Existing research on the interaction of toddlers, children’s culture and child-child socialization has been used as background.

    A qualitative method has been used to describe the content and form of the interaction. Data has been gathered using video observations from five toddler units on twelve occasions. The interaction sequences have been analysed as to content, expression of emotion, duration, age-related factors, gender and the number of children involved.The interaction mood, joy and conflict have been noted. The interaction process in the long sequences has been particularly described and analysed.

    The results show that interaction often begins around an active child. The animated behavior of a peer is discussed as social affordance for other children. The interaction mood is most often supportive and interest is the most predominant emotion. In the interaction sequences, joy is mostly expressed in connection with big body movements. The children also express joy when something turns out unexpected, rowdy or surprising. Conflicts are brief and relatively few. The interaction process in the long sequences is characterized by creativity, common understanding and positive affects.

    The mutual creating and understanding that characterizes some of the interaction sequences allow for these to be considered expressions of children’s culture. The interaction where children imitate, adapt and coordinate themselves to each other can furthermore be considered peer socialization. In common activities when practicing interaction norms they learn about what counts in peer interaction. Experiences of a supportive or rejecting interaction mood is also regarded as crucial for the child’s self image in the role as peer.

  • 120.
    Hautaniemi, Bozena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Känslornas betydelse i funktionshindrade barns livsvärld2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of my study is to describe and understand disabled children’s special way of understanding and relating to the surrounding world. The thesis is based on an empirical study of six severely disabled children, lacking language and speech, aged from nine months to five years. The children were studied by video recordings in Händelsriket, a center organised to offer them different kinds of rich stimulation.

    One important finding was that the children expressed a non-verbal, meaning making competence that I decided to further explore. First, I tried to interpret the children’s competence in the frame of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories, which turned out to be difficult as these theories were based on assumptions linked to the tradition of René Descartes, making a clear difference between Cogito and body, nature and culture. In this tradition, human consciousness is based on the acquisition of language and the development of the sphere of symbols. As a consequence, the mentioned theories could not help us to understand the embodied, non-verbal competence of the disabled children. Many of these theorists also argue that their theories have little relevance for disabled children.

    However, the phenomenological tradition, inspired by among others Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was of much more help in the analysis of the disabled children’s activities in Händelsriket. In the theory of the lifeworld, Husserl´s and Merleau-Ponty´s, for instance, introduces two different kinds of intentionality indicating an embodied consciousness of great relevance to the empirical findings.

    Another important empirical finding was that feelings, and the expression of feelings, seemed to play an important role in the children’s non-verbal, meaning making competence. As a consequence of this I have decided to include a discussion of research on feelings, emotions and affects. Based on the critique of the distinction between feelings, emotions and affects in social and anthropological research, I have decided to base my analysis on the concept of feelings.

    In the empirical analyses I discuss the role of feelings in the disabled children’s perception, consciousness, communication and interaction with other people. I found that the meaning making processes based on feelings and expression of feelings contributed to the development of the children’s personal styles of understanding their life-world. It also played an important role in the thematisation of their experiences, antecipations of objects, extensions and restrictions of their experiential horizons and their mastering of challenging experiences. The feelings also played important roles in the children’s communicative competence and in their interaction with other people and the development of mutual closeness, understanding and community. In short, the feelings could be understood as important constituents of the life-world of the severely disabled children, their understanding of themselves and of the surrounding world.

  • 121.
    Kolouh-Westin, Lidija
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, avdelningen för internationell och jämförande pedagogik.
    Learning Democracy Together in School?: Student and Teacher Attitudes in Bosnia and Herzegovina2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of this study is to examine attitudes and values, through questionnaires, among students and teachers in the last grade of primary school (grade 8) regarding issues related to authoritarianism, democracy, human rights, children rights, conflict resolution and legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A second aim is to explore and analyze the role of the international community in the democratization and education processes in the light of globalization in this country through secondary sources of data, site visits and observations.

    Analysis of the student sample reveals suspicion towards democracy, especially when democracy was associated with politics and politicians. When the issue of democracy was de-contextualized from Bosnia and Herzegovina realities in the questionnaire, students showed more positive attitudes towards it. Students generally agreed with very strong authoritarian statements. High achieving students were more democratic, more socially responsible, more tolerant regarding attitudes towards religion, race and disabilities, and less authoritarian compared to low achievers. High achievers felt that they had influence over daily events, and were positive towards social and civil engagement. High achievers viewed politics negatively, but had high scores on the democracy scale. High achievers also agreed to a larger extent that it is acceptable to break the law. The more authoritarian students were somewhat more prone to respond that it is not acceptable to break the law.

    The major findings from the teacher sample show that teachers who agreed with non-peaceful mediation, and had a non-forgiving and rigid approach to interpersonal conflicts, also agreed with strong authoritarian statements and were less democratic. In general, teachers valued students who behave respectfully, have a good upbringing and are obedient. They were very concerned about the general status of education in society, which they felt was becoming marginalized. Teachers were not happy with the overloaded curricula and they showed an interest in more knowledge and skills to help children with traumatic war experiences. When asked about positive reforms, teachers were highly critical of, and dissatisfied with, the educational situation.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina is undergoing a transition from a state-planned economy and one party system to a market economy and a multi party system. During this transition, the country has become more involved in the globalization process than ever. Today the country is a semi-protectorate where international authorities intervene when necessary. The International community is attempting to introduce western democracy and some of the many complexities in this process are discussed in this study. Globalization processes imply contradictory demands and pressures on the education system. On one hand, economic liberalization has affected education policies —a closer alignment between education and economic competitiveness. On the other hand, there is a political and ideological globalization process underlying the importance of human rights, and the inclusiveness of education for all children. Students and teachers are caught between two opposing ideals — competition and cooperation.

  • 122.
    Desjardins, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, avdelningen för internationell och jämförande pedagogik.
    Learning for well being: Studies using the International Adult Literacy Survey2004Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a collection of five independent but closely related studies. The overall purpose is to approach the analysis of learning outcomes from a perspective that combines three major elements, namely lifelonglifewide learning, human capital, and the benefits of learning. The approach is based on an interdisciplinary perspective of the human capital paradigm. It considers the multiple learning contexts that are responsible for the development of embodied potential – including formal, nonformal and informal learning – and the multiple outcomes – including knowledge, skills, economic, social and others– that result from learning. The studies also seek to examine the extent and relative influence of learning in different contexts on the formation of embodied potential and how in turn that affects economic and social well being. The first study combines the three major elements, lifelonglifewide

    learning, human capital, and the benefits of learning into one common conceptual framework. This study forms a common basis for the four empirical studies that follow. All four empirical studies use data from the International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS) to investigate the relationships among the major elements of the conceptual framework presented in the first study.

    Study I. A conceptual framework for the analysis of learning outcomes

    This study brings together some key concepts and theories that are relevant for the analysis of learning outcomes. Many of the concepts and theories have emerged from varied disciplines including economics, educational psychology, cognitive science and sociology, to name only a few. Accordingly, some of the research questions inherent in the framework relate to different disciplinary perspectives. The primary purpose is to create a common basis for formulating and testing hypotheses as well as to interpret the findings in the empirical studies that follow. In particular, the framework facilitates the process of theorizing and hypothesizing on the relationships and processes concerning lifelong learning as well as their antecedents and consequences.

    Study II. Determinants of literacy proficiency: A lifelong-lifewide learning perspective

    This study investigates lifelong and lifewide processes of skill formation. In particular, it seeks to estimate the substitutability and complementarity effects of learning in multiple settings over the lifespan on literacy skill formation. This is done by investigating the predictive capacity of major determinants of literacy proficiency that are associated with a variety of learning contexts including school, home, work, community and leisure. An identical structural model based on previous research is fitted to the IALS data for 18 countries. The results show that even after accounting for all factors, education remains the most important predictor of literacy proficiency. In all countries, however, the total effect of education is significantly mediated through further learning occurring at work, at home and in the community. Therefore, the job and other literacy related factors complement education in predicting literacy proficiency. This result points to a virtual cycle of lifelong learning, particularly to how educational attainment influences other learning behaviours throughout life. In addition, results show that home background as measured by parents’ education is also a strong predictor of literacy proficiency, but in many countries this occurs only if a favourable home background is complemented with some post-secondary education.

    Study III. The effect of literacy proficiency on earnings: An aggregated occupational approach using the Canadian IALS data

    This study uses data from the Canadian Adult Literacy Survey to estimate the earnings return to literacy skills. The approach adapts a labour segmented view of the labour market by aggregating occupations into seven types, enabling the estimation of the variable impact of literacy proficiency on earnings, both within and between different types of occupations. This is done using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). The method used to construct the aggregated occupational classification is based on analysis that considers the role of cognitive and other skills in relation to the nature of occupational tasks. Substantial premiums are found to be associated with some occupational types even after adjusting for within occupational differences in individual characteristics such as schooling, literacy proficiency, labour force experience and gender. Average years of schooling and average levels of literacy proficiency at the between level account for over two-thirds of the premiums. Within occupations, there are significant returns to schooling but they vary depending on the type of occupations. In contrast, the within occupational return of literacy proficiency is not necessarily significant. The latter depends on the type of occupation.

    Study IV: Determinants of economic and social outcomes from a lifewide learning perspective in Canada

    In this study the relationship between learning in different contexts, which span the lifewide learning dimension, and individual earnings on the one hand and community participation on the other are examined in separate but comparable models. Data from the Canadian Adult Literacy Survey are used to estimate structural models, which correspond closely to the common conceptual framework outlined in Study I. The findings suggest that the relationship between formal education and economic and social outcomes is complex with confounding effects. The results indicate that learning occurring in different contexts and for different reasons leads to different kinds of benefits. The latter finding suggests a potential trade-off between realizing economic and social benefits through learning that are taken for either job-related or personal-interest related reasons.

    Study V: The effects of learning on economic and social well being: A comparative analysis

    Using the same structural model as in Study IV, hypotheses are comparatively examined using the International Adult Literacy Survey data for Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The main finding from Study IV is confirmed for an additional five countries, namely that the effect of initial schooling on well being is more complex than a direct one and it is significantly mediated by subsequent learning. Additionally, findings suggest that people who devote more time to learning for job-related reasons than learning for personal-interest related reasons experience higher levels of economic well being. Moreover, devoting too much time to learning for personal-interest related reasons has a negative effect on earnings except in Denmark. But the more time people devote to learning for personal-interest related reasons tends to contribute to higher levels of social well being. These results again suggest a trade-off in learning for different reasons and in different contexts.

  • 123.
    Nordin-Hultman, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Pedagogiska miljöer och barns subjektskapande2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to provide perspectives and contribute to the discussion about how children´s identities and subjectivity are made in pre-schools and schools; both how children look upon and understand themselves in the educational context and how they are perceived and described by others. The intentions have been to open possibilities to regard the educational environment as an important condition for children´s behaviour and doings and thus as conditions for their level of performance and for the identity that is ascribed to each child.

    The study is framed within a postmodern, or constructionistic, perspective. Through what is called the postmodern “linguistic turn” the dominant psychological focus on children´s characteristics, “inner” world and earlier experiencies could move towards a focus on concepts, theories and pedagogical practices as decisive of how children are seen and described.

    The first part of the study focuses on the organization of time, space and materials in preschools and classrooms. The analyses indicate that the materials for children´s activities and learning are relatively sparse and limited, with small variations and little materials that can be seen as easy to concentrate on and that catch and keep children´s attention. The regulations of time and space can be seen as surprisingly strong. Rooms and materials are strongly classified and framed. This indicates a small space in terms of children´s influence and demands a great deal of adaptation of each child. Historically this way of organizing pedagogical environments seems dominant in the Swedish tradition during the 2000th century.

    The second part focuses on different theoretical understandings of child – environment relations. The purpose is firstly to understand the strong tendency to individualize children´s behaviour and what happens in pre-schools and classrooms – despite the dominant theories of interactionism. This is accomplished by investigating the central theoretical concepts “individual”, “identity” and “development” as constituted within the Western modernistic tradition and as carrying meanings that individualize the relation between child and environment. Secondly the purpose is to create a theoretical space tounderstand children´s behaviour, performances and identities as changing and as inseparable of actual environments and situations. This is accomplished by using poststructural theories of subjectivity and the individual´s relation to the environment.

    The uniform and homogenous environment restricts children´s different ways to create meaningfulness and to relate positively to affordances and educational tasks. This increases the risks of exclusion and that more children are perceived as failing and deviating. A prerequisite for children´s diversities and variations to be acknowledged and accepted is that also pre-schools and classrooms are characterized by diversity and variation.

  • 124.
    Höijer, Catharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Vad har du lärt dig idag?: En studie om villkor för kunskapsbildning i det dagliga löpande arbetet ur ett miljöpedagogiskt perspektiv2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to an understanding of the conditions of experience in daily work. If workplace is studying as a pedagogical arena, at least two contexts for experiential learning will come into sight.

    This study is focusing interaction and communication at the workplace when something occurs that diverges from ordinary routine. The thesis has an ethnographic character and the empirical data are based on participatory observation, interviews and talk at work with 31 employees at a Swedish steel company during the years 1999-2000. The principle of abductive approach has been used in a qualitative analysis.

    It demonstrate that learning throughout working life is an inevitable product of everyday thinking and acting, shaped by the work practices in which individuals participate.

    A consequence will be to pay more attention to relations and how we act according to each other then to interfere with different interventions which try to promote learning in a certain way. The process of learning is continuous and self-regulated and not possible to tame.

  • 125.
    Kanold, Agneta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Vårdens ordningar: Tvångsvård av normöverträdare med bristande begåvning2004Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 126.
    Lundholm, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att lära om miljö: Forskar- och högskolestuderandes tolkningar av ett miljöinnehåll i utbildningen2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on students’ perspectives on environmental education and is based on three case studies. The aim is to explore and describe the students’ interpretations of, and learning about, ecology and environmental issues. The students’ learning processes are analysed from an intentional perspective, i.e. a perspective which takes into account the students’ educational aims defined as projects.

    In the first case study interviews were carried out with six first-year civil engineering students following a compulsory course in Ecology. In the second case study the dialogue between a group of four biology students was tape-recorded while they were working on a task on environmental reports. The third case study was based on interviews with six postgraduate students regarding their interpretations of environmental research and the task of writing a thesis.

    In all the three cases the students interpret a cultural context concerning values. The three case studies show the way values and emotions become an aspect of the learning process and reveal the students’ difficulties in differentiating between values and descriptions of phenomena. This is analysed and explained in relation to the students’ various projects that come into conflict in the educational setting. The differences among the three groups of students can be explained as a difference in the students’ ability to identify various kinds of projects, and the students’ possibilities of choosing between the projects.

  • 127.
    Magnusson, Anna-Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Blinda personers icke-verbala kommunikation: studier om kroppsspråk, icke-verbal samtalsreglering och icke-verbala uttryck2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to deepen the understanding of grown-up blind people’s non-verbal communication, including body expressions and paralinguistic (voice) expressions. More specifically, the thesis includes the following three studies: Blind people’s different forms of body expressions, blind people’s non-verbal conversation regulation and blind people’s experience of their own non-verbal expressions. The focus has been on the blind participants’ competence and on their subjective perspectives. I have also compared congenitally and adventitiously blind in all of the studies. The approach is mainly phenomenological and the qualitative empirical phenomenological psychological method is the primary methodological source of inspiration. Fourteen blind persons (and also some sigthed persons) participated. They have no other obvious disability than the blindness and their ages vary between 18 and 54. Data in the first two studies consisted of video recordings and data in the last study consisted of interviews. The overall results can be summarized in the following three points: 1. There are (almost) only similarities between the congenitally blind and adventitiously blind persons concerning their paralinguistic expressions. 2. There are mainly similarities between the two groups with respect to the occurrences of different body expressive forms. 3. There are also some differences between the groups. For example, the congenitally blind persons seem to have a limited ability to use the body in an abstract and symbolic way and they often mentioned that they have been told that their body expressions deviate from sighted people’s norms. But the persons in both groups also struggle to see themselves as unique persons who express themselves on the basis of their conditions and their previous experiences.

  • 128.
    Okuma-Nyström, Michiyo Kiwako
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    God turns the chapter and everything changes: children's socialization in two Gambian villages2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Lundin, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Identitet och beslutsfattande: konstitution, relation och kreation2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 130.
    Boström, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Lifelong learning, intergenerational learning, and social capital: from theory to practice2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between lifelong learning, intergenerational learning and social capital by reporting on an analysis of the concepts and an investigation of one instance of intergenerational interaction, namely “the granddad programme” – an intervention project run by a limited number of schools in the Stockholm area. The theoretical background concerns both the lifelong perspective

    and the lifewide perspective of learning across the lifespan. The lifewide perspective includes both formal and informal learning. Social capital is also explored, in order to establish the extent to which this concept is compatible with the conceptual framework outlined in this study.

    First a structural model is developed in order to elucidate the conceptual framework and its relationship to classroom practice. Indicators for measuring social capital are then constructed on the basis of questionnaire data. Responses from a total of 580 pupils, 19 granddads and 27 teachers in 17 schools were collected, after which Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), using the statistical software LISREL, was applied in order to test the model. With regard to the granddads themselves, an additional qualitative analysis was also carried out on a set of narrative data, regarding their perceptions and experiences of their work in the schools.

    The results indicate that the granddads’ work itself is forming part of the social capital between individual granddads and the pupils. The pupil responses indicate that boys and girls consider that they enjoy similar opportunities in school, that they feel equally secure in school and that the granddad assists everyone. The results support the claim concerning increased social capital for the pupils, although there are differences between boys and girls with regard to the relative significance of the various entities of social capital. The responses from the granddads, indicate that they find their work demanding, but nonetheless rewarding because of the social network that it has established for them with the staff and pupils and the positive response from the pupils. This indicates an increase in social capital for the granddads themselves in the school context. These results support the theoretical model because interaction that occurs in the classrooms in schools where there is granddad intervention provides opportunities for both formal and informal learning and for increased social capital to be generated on the part of both the younger and the older generation.

  • 131.
    Andersson, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Ordnande praktiker: En studie av status, homosocialitet och maskuliniteter utifrån två närpolisorganisationer2003Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 132.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Yrkesutbildning i omvandling: en studie av lärandepraktiker och kunskapstransformationer2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis was to explore what students within vocational education are expected to learn and the practices that constitute vocational education in Swedish upper secondary school. The empirical basis for the thesis is two studies, both of which have been reported separately. In the first study, twelve vocational teachers were interviewed sequentially. Classroom observations were made of the tasks their students worked with and these supplemented the interviews. The second study consists of case studies of five teachers in academic subjects within vocational education. Here sequential interviews of the teachers and classroom observations of the tasks their students worked with were supplemented with group interviews of their students and, in two cases, of collaborating vocational teachers.

    A social perspective on knowing and learning was used for analysing data. The results from the interviews with the vocational teachers show that what they wanted their students to learn in vocational education (their object) is related to vocational knowing but is not the same thing. Knowing in school can be regarded as preparation for work within the respective vocational area, as preparation for further learning and as preparation for citizenship. The first category relates to vocational knowing, whereas the latter two relate to a broader commission of education in late modernity – the risk and uncertainty of the future work situation that the students are likely to encounter. The tasks were analysed regarding their content, form, and the tools used for completing the tasks. Three categories of tasks were construed: school tasks, simulated tasks and vocational tasks. School tasks are characterised by that they employ the practice of school, whereas the vocational tasks employ the practice of the respective vocation. Simulated tasks are specific in that they allow a testing and correction of the result before the job is done. Through school tasks the students were introduced into a new content. Vocational tasks were used in bridging school and work. Besides the obvious tools of the respective vocation, texts were also used as tools in the work with the tasks. Most texts were vocational texts, i.e. texts that were used in similar ways in school as within the vocation.

    The second study, case studies of five teachers in academic subjects within vocational education, focused the infused tasks their students worked with. These results showed that the teachers used three different steering documents for planning their work: the national curriculum for upper secondary school, the objectives of the respective programme, and the syllabuses for their subject. By using all three documents, they were able to construct infused tasks. These tasks made it possible for the students to see other aspects of their respective vocational area than within the vocational subjects, e.g. the environmental work, historical aspects etc. The texts the academic teachers used were not the same as those used by vocational teachers. These texts were texts ‘imposed by others’ (e.g. local authorities) but also used for work within the vocation.

    The ‘theorisation’ of vocational education, that has been claimed to be a consequence of the academic subjects, can be seen rather as a change within the vocations from an oral to a literate culture. In completing many of the tasks observed, theoretical knowledge from different domains, as well as skills were needed. Vocational education as a purely ‘practical’ education is therefore a myth. A variety of texts were used within vocational education for the work, mostly as tools. The literate practices of vocational education are similar to the literate practices of the vocations rather than to those of school. New tools seem to change working life and vocational education as well. This implies that a different kind of vocational knowing is needed. When employers control or simulate production processes instead of doing the manual work, vocational knowing becomes something else. This new kind of work is dependent on a different kind of experience. Thus the theorisation of the vocational education is a theorisation – or rather an abstraction – on many levels. Some of them have been developed within the vocations, others are imposed from the outside.

    Three social practices, vocational education, working life and academic education, formally have a joint responsibility for the vocational education. Depending on if and to what extent they collaborate, the learning practices offered to the students will differ. With collaboration, as in these two studies, the students encounter learning practices where the content from each of the three contexts can be experienced as reembedded into new contexts.

  • 133.
    Johansson, Inga-Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Annorlunda men funktionellt beteende: identifiering och förståelse av typiskt och avvikande beteende i åldrarna 1-3 år hos barn med medfödd blindhet2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 134.
    Eresund, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att behandla störande beteende: metodutveckling i barnpsykoterapi2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Aili, Carola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Autonomi, styrning och jurisdiktion: barnmorskors tal om arbetet i mödrahälsovården2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 136.
    Petersson, Gunilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Begreppsutveckling, genom imitation, generell assimilation och differentiering.: Hur studenters uppfattningar förändras över tid i en akademisk utbildning.2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med avhandlingen är att förklara hur begreppsutvecklingsprocessen kan beskrivas i ett konstruktivistiskt perspektiv hos studenter i akademiska utbildningar. De akademiska utbildningarna som ingår i studien är läkar- och sjuksköterskeutbildningen. En intentionell analysmetod har använts och begreppsutvecklingen beskrivs med hjälp av en modell för begreppsdifferentiering. Resultatet visar att den uppfattning som studenten hade om vetenskap och forskning i början av utbildningen utvecklades med hjälp av imitation och generell assimilation.

  • 137.
    Kaplan, Suzanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Children in the Holocaust: dealing with affects and memory images in trauma and generational linking2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 138.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Contextualising studies in higher education: First-year experiences of studying and learning in engineering2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims at investigating students’ first-year experiences of studying and learning in tertiary engineering education. At the end of their first year 86 Swedish undergraduates of electrical engineering and computer science at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm were asked to reflect in writing on the conditions for studying and learning as they perceived them. Fifteen of these students were selected for subsequent interviews which explored in greater detail their experiences of studying and learning in engineering education.

    Drawing on a methodological framework – intentional analysis – derived from an alternative conceptualisation of student learning to those typically followed in research within this area, qualitative analyses of the data were carried out which focused on the students’ narratives in terms of actions that they had performed to fulfil certain study goals. The analyses revealed that the students had understood and gone about their studies in different ways: as a question of exertion of disciplined effort, as a problem of remediation taking corrective steps to ‘stay in phase’ with the course schedule, or as a matter of maintaining autonomy in relation to perceived constraints of the teaching-learning environment. It is argued that the students’ varying ways of dealing with their studies may be understood and explained with reference to their personal beliefs about what it means to study and learn.

    The results lead to a particularisation of the notion of ‘learning orientation’ used in previous research to describe students’ personal contexts for study. It has been argued that these personal contexts arise through a ‘complex negotiation process’ between students’ learning orientations and their perceptions of the educational setting. The thesis suggests that this negotiation process can be conceptualised as a process of contextualisation involving beliefs about both cognitive and situational/cultural aspects of studies, working as intrinsic and/or extrinsic determinants of the students’ actions.

  • 139.
    Nyström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Mörk, Lennart
    Dans på gränsen: demensdrabbades kommunikation i dansterapi2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Sandström, Margareta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Läsutveckling i ett helhetsperspektiv: fjorton barns läsutveckling under första och andra skolåret2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 141.
    Fredriksson, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Reading skills among students of immigrant origin in Stockholm2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 142.
    Nordström, Irene
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Samspel på jämlika och ojämlika villkor: om lindrigt utvecklingsstörda skolbarns relationer till kamrater2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 143.
    Mmbaga, Dinah Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    The inclusive classroom in Tanzania: dream or reality?2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 144.
    Borgström, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Ansvar och vägval: blivande och erfarna socialpedagogers föreställningar om ungdomar med sociala problem2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of this study is representations of young people judged as having social problems. More specifically, it is about representations held by social pedagogues in training and at work. A total of 19 people have been interviewed. Also, a study of the daily press contributes to an understanding of extant representations. The articles have been selected from two Swedish newspapers, Dagens Nyheter and Aftonbladet. Given that the study is focused on representations in the sense of formations of meaning and configurations of experience, a qualitative approach was implied. Through analyses and interpretations of news articles and interviews, it was possible to identify some more profound representations of youth with social problems. There are indications that these conceptions can be looked upon as social representations. Sometimes one can distinguish certain relations to ideas from previous epochs. Partly inspired by the work of others, I term these social representations: the young as an object for rescue, the unspoiled child, the dynamic adolescent, the injured young person and the evil young person. The representation of the evil young person was only observable in a few cases in the newspaper study. All terms should be looked upon as images and not as descriptions of living people. Also, these representations should not be seen as exclusive categories into which individuals can be sorted. The prospective social pedagogues in different stages of their education as well as the professionals showed interesting variations regarding their views on youth with social problems. The concept socially shared perspective has proven to be fruitful for understanding these variations, which can be understood in relation to three prerequisites. The first concerns the accessibility of a repertoire of representations for the prospective as well as professional social pedagogues during different stages of their education and professional life. The second prerequisite deals with their personal experiences achieved during practice and work. The third prerequisite concerns specific problems they have encountered during the various stages.

  • 145.
    Olstedt, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att tänka kritiskt?: en studie om lärande, PBL och IT i ingenjörsutbildningen2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of the learning environment being offered to engineering undergraduates in a technical university or institute of technology, using the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (KTH) as a study case. The factual basis of the empirical study has been compiled from questionnaires, interviews and participants' observations. During the years 1998-2000, some 503 engineering undergraduates participated in the questionnaire component, and 27 engineering undergraduates and six lecturers participated in the interview part of the study.

    This study shows that critical thinking is more than just a fence-sitting approach to what one hears or reads. According to the respondents, critical thinking is based on understanding, which is a prerequisite for learning.

    Engineering undergraduates find themselves in a learning environment that is perceived in different ways, and try to adapt themselves to it to varying degrees. They describe a range of different approaches and strategies for learning.

    The study demonstrates that the learning environment at KTH provides engineering undergraduates with suitable conditions for independent and critical judgement. Regardless of the learning environment itself, the engineering undergraduates point out a number of factors that can encourage or discourage critical thinking. The way in which an individual engineering undergraduate perceives the challenges provided by these learning environments and how they react to them, differs from one individual to another.

    It is evident from the study that most of them see that their studies at KTH do sometimes encourage critical thinking. PBL can encourage critical thinking, but where there are shortcomings in the learning environment, then PBL can also inhibit critical thinking. The study also shows that critical thinking is not facilitated by IT. In pressing situations it is easier to abstain from IT than to take the time to sit down and really "get into" a technology that is perceived as being difficult to handle and unreliable.

  • 146.
    Hernwall, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barns digitala rum: berättelser om e-post, chatt & Internet2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to an understanding of the conditions of children in the changeable society, by way of a study on children’s use and experiences of e-mail, chat and the Internet as means of communication. The empirical material used is interviews with children between 8 and 13 years old, conducted in their school environment, complemented with a continuous dialogue via e-mail and chat over a period of 17 months between 1997 and 1998.

    Based in a pedagogical ethnography, the principle of abductive inference has been used, combined with sensitizing concepts, in a qualitative analysis. In the analysis, semiotics has been an important element in the development of an understanding in the children’s experiences of the computer-mediated communication (CMC), as well as in relating their experiences to a theoretical context.

    Children find a wide range of affordances in the computer and the information- and communication technology (ICT). As e-mail, and chat and the Internet in particular, became widespread during this period, the experience of having used these tool can be seen as a developmental task for children. ICT gives children access to an arena where they can transcend the biological (i.e. the body, age) and the physical (i.e. geography). Therefore, ICT becomes a prosthesis that affords interaction and communication in a ‘glocal’ culture, where children are able to make new contacts with other actors as well as transcend their physical identity.

    The thesis also includes a discussion on how to use empirical data collected in cyberspace (i.e. e-mail and chat), and what ethical problems one encounters in doing so. 

  • 147.
    Waldenström, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Constructing the world in dialogue: a study of advisory situations in Swedish agriculture2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is about joint learning and dialogue in advisory situations. It has an explorative and reflective objective and the overarching aim is to explore communication in advisory situations as mediated by communicatively constructed and shared contexts. The empirical study concerns advisory services in agriculture and farmer-adviser communication in a subscription advisory program in crop production.

    The research design is qualitative. The research questions emerged in a previous study which was based on interviews and a grounded theory design. The thesis draws on data from that study, but also on later data from interviews and participant observation. Theoretically, the study is grounded in contextual didactics, a constructionist perspective on learning in which task-directedness and the concept of affordances are central. It also draws on dialogical conceptions of communication, and discusses asymmetries in communication in relation to the validity claims suggested by Habermas.

    The results show how a multitude of contextual resources are included in conversation. Joint strategies of contextualising were facilitated by narrative constructions, joint experiences in a concrete surrounding environment, the use of tools for planning, as well as by conversations on topics related to the farmer’s lifeworld or confirming a joint lifeworld. Communication is interpreted as producing and drawing on shared contexts, and the analysis points out how shared contexts may expand and be reinterpreted as contextual resources are drawn on and negotiated over time. The results suggest a dynamic in conversation of going between shared and separate perspectives and understandings; balancing adaptation and intervention, autonomy and joint decisions. Control, continuity and change of the topical activities are focal. The analysis suggests that advisory conversations may be conceived of as taking place in a dialogical space, and that upholding such a space is a central task for advisers. The study raises theoretical questions on language, experience and experiential learning and points to the empirical grounding of task-and action-related experiential learning.

  • 148.
    Nikolova, Krassimira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    "Det sitter i ryggraden": om föräldrars föreställningar och kroppens tidiga socialisering2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to show how a physiological function such as sleep becomes an important part of socialization and upbringing. Babies’ and toddlers’ sleep patterns present an opportunity to study how sleep habits are developed, practised and reproduced according to what parents find meaningful, correct and appropriate. The central question is to investigate parents’ notions about children and how these ideas are embodied in habits at an early age.

    This study can be seen as a part of the research on everyday life and family practices. The theoretical framework is built mainly on Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and Norbert Elias’ concept of the civilized body. The data were collected through interviews with upper middle class families in Stockholm. Eight sets of parents are first-time parents, six have two children and one has three children. The three interviews with the participants followed the ’everyday-life interview’ principles, i.e., they talked about their experiences with their children yesterday and last week. The first interview was conducted when the child was 2-3 months old, the second when the child was 6-9 months old and the third when the child was 12-16 months old.

    The analysis of the data is presented in four chapters. Among the findings, the interviews showed that time has a qualitative aspect for families with babies and toddlers. Time is spent into activities outside the home. These activities are important for the reproduction of social status.

    The reproduction of habitus can be traced in the process of developing sleep routines and disciplining the body. The idea of the separateness of the body and the individual as well as the notion of the secure child can be seen as part of the symbolic capital that parents pass on to their children. The class distinction of the families in relation to children and childcare is expressed by talking about what is ’natural’.

  • 149.
    Boudard, Emmanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Literacy proficiency, earnings, and recurrent training: a ten country comparative study2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to theorise on participation in recurrent training and to estimate a statistical model. The main focus is the links between latent variables, such as observed skills based on literacy proficiency, firm size, literacy practices at work and at home, and other latent correlates, such as educational attainment, labour force status, experience, occupational status and earnings. Three models are specified: A model predicting literacy proficiency; a model predicting earnings; and a model predicting participation in recurrent training. The two first models represent intermediate steps in the construction of the final model.

    The data set employed in this study is derived from the International Adult Literacy Survey. It combines tools from educational assessment and household survey, in order to collect background information about the participants and their labour force experience, and makes use of an innovative measure of human capital stock, namely proficiency on a functional literacy assessment. The analysis also includes countries from different parts of the world: Eastern Europe; Northern Europe; Southern Europe; and North America. Structural Equation Modeling has been used.

    The results show that all three models confirm the importance of educational attainment as one of the main predictors of literacy proficiency, earnings and recurrent training, with the effects of educational attainment most often mediated by other variables. Hence literacy proficiency and educational attainment are both important for modeling earnings or participation in recurrent training. The magnitude of educational attainment is seen to provide justification for signalling theory, job matching theory, and principal agent theory, as earnings and occurrence of recurrent training are related more to employees' educational attainment than to their actual levels of knowledge and skills. Work related learning and home related learning are strong predictors of the outcome variable in all three models. The main policy implication of this finding is that no form of education should be favoured, but rather each should be considered valuable and complementary to the others.

    The total effect of parents' education suggests that parents continue to have an influence on the life careers of their children a long time after the completion of initial, formal education. In other words, the kind of start a child has in life is a very strong predictor of his or her actual level of literacy proficiency, earnings, or whether or not he or she will take part in further training, lending support to social capital theory, as well as to resource conversion theory.

    The importance of the long arm of the job is confirmed for the prediction of earnings, as well as for the prediction of recurrent training. Labour force status, firm size and, to a lesser extent occupational status, are important indicators.

    No particular relationship is observed between men and women as regard to models predicting literacy proficiency and earnings. Conversely, gender differences in recurrent training are evident, with, on the one hand, determining factors for women, for example, earnings, and, on the other hand, determining factors for men, such as firm size and literacy practice at work. Hence, the study suggests that women's participation in recurrent training is determined by different factors than that of men.

  • 150.
    Gougoulakis, Petros
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Studiecirkeln: Livslångt lärande - på svenska!: En icke-formell mötesplats för samtal och bildning för alla2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is a study of a pedagogical phenomenon; an account of one of the flagships of Swedish popular education; an attempt to understand the study circle as a learning environment.

    Study circle work has a special place in the country’s adult education, and assumes the dimensions of a mass-phenomenon in present-daySweden. An estimated 1.2 to 1.6 million people every day take part in one of the approximately 330,000 study circles arranged by the country’s 11 study associations, where they can study any imaginable subjects and practice different skills.

    The present research approach is qualitative and based on the fundamental concept of discourse. The concept is used as an analytical instrument for delimiting, structuring and creating meaning in the phenomena studied. The phenomenon popular education in general and the study circle in particular are elucidated from three central perspectives:

    • the development of modern civil society during the twentieth century,
    • national (popular) educational policy during the same period, and
    • that of contemporary study-circle members.

    Insights gained from the first two perspectives – the ”ideal” and the ”political” – have formed an important backdrop of understanding against which it has been possible to render the third perspective - the ”experienced” – comprehensible. The study-circle-member perspective is examined using a qualitative interview survey with circle members and circle leaders from nine socially-oriented study circles.

    The results indicate that the language of popular education has remained basically unchanged since the beginning of the twentieth century. It has enjoyed a relative autonomy vis-à-vis both the organisations of civil society and the state, despite a very intimate relation with these. At the same time the state and civil society have been able to make use of popular education to fulfil their respective purposes; civil society to achieve political influence and the state to implement its educational-policy goals. The most obvious change in the discourse of popular education appears to have occurred during the latter part of the twentieth century with the focus on the private individual’s educational projects. In virtue of its time-honoured pedagogical concept there is much to indicate that popular education is establishing itself as a competitive actor on the open educational market. At the same time the popular educational institutions constitute a societal opportunity structure for the education of all, adapted to the challenges and the demands for life-long learning of the new era – the Information Age.

    The study circle can also function as a network of individuals in civil society, representing an environment for collaborative learning and democratic education for citizenship.

12345 101 - 150 av 202
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf