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  • 101.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Stress vulnerability and the effects of moderate daily stress on sleep polysomnography and subjective sleepiness2013Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 50-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if and how sleep physiology is affected by naturally occurring high work stress and identify individual differences in the response of sleep to stress. Probable upcoming stress levels were estimated through weekly web questionnaire ratings. Based on the modified FIRST-scale (Ford insomnia response to stress) participants were grouped into high (n = 9) or low (n = 19) sensitivity to stress related sleep disturbances (Drake et al., 2004). Sleep was recorded in 28 teachers with polysomnography, sleep diaries and actigraphs during one high stress and one low stress condition in the participants home. EEG showed a decrease in sleep efficiency during the high stress condition. Significant interactions between group and condition were seen for REM sleep, arousals and stage transitions. The sensitive group had an increase in arousals and stage transitions during the high stress condition and a decrease in REM, whereas the opposite was seen in the resilient group. Diary ratings during the high stress condition showed higher bedtime stress and lower ratings on the awakening index (insufficient sleep and difficulties awakening). Ratings also showed lower cognitive function and preoccupation with work thoughts in the evening. KSS ratings of sleepiness increased during stress for the sensitive group. Saliva samples of cortisol showed no effect of stress. It was concluded that moderate daily stress is associated with a moderate negative effect on sleep sleep efficiency and fragmentation. A slightly stronger effect was seen in the sensitive group.

  • 102.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Exercise is associated with changes in sleep architecture during stress2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 103.
    Petersen, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disturbed sleep and its attribution to stress and other causes: A population-based survey2023Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 99-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the prevalence of attributed causes of disturbed sleep and the association between stress-disturbed sleep and age, sex, and sleep duration on weekdays as well as weekends in a representative sample. A nationally representative sample (n = 1,128, response rate 72.8%), stratified for sex and age, completed a computer-assisted phone survey that included questions about sleep disturbances and attributed causes. Stress was the main attributed cause of sleep disturbance (35.1%), most frequently attributed by younger women (χ2 = 26.5, p < 0.001). Prevalence of stress-disturbed sleep was higher with lower age (B = −0.05, odds ratio (OR) = 0.94, CI = 0.91, 0.98). There was a trend, however, toward a significant interaction between age and sex, with women in the older age-groups more frequently reporting stress-disturbed sleep than older men (B = −0.02, OR = 1.022, CI = 1.003, 1.042). Weekday sleep duration decreased with increased stress-disturbed sleep, with an inverse relationship on weekends except for those reporting stress-disturbed sleep more than 5 days per week (F = 10.5, p < 0.001), who also had the shortest weekend sleep duration. Sleep disturbances were commonly attributed to stress, and more strongly so in women younger than 46 years. Stress-disturbed sleep during weekdays seems to be potentially compensated for with extended sleep on weekends, except for those with continuous stress-disturbed sleep. 

  • 104. Philip, Pierre
    et al.
    Chaufton, Cyril
    Orriols, Ludivine
    Lagarde, Emmanuel
    Amoros, Emmanuelle
    Laumon, Bernard
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Taillard, Jacques
    Sagaspe, Patricia
    Complaints of poor sleep and risk of traffic accidents: a population-based case-control study.2014Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 12, s. e114102-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the sleepiness-related factors associated with road traffic accidents.

    METHODS: A population based case-control study was conducted in 2 French agglomerations. 272 road accident cases hospitalized in emergency units and 272 control drivers matched by time of day and randomly stopped by police forces were included in the study. Odds ratios were calculated for the risk of road traffic accidents.

    RESULTS: As expected, the main predictive factor for road traffic accidents was having a sleep episode at the wheel just before the accident (OR 9.97, CI 95%: 1.57-63.50, p<0.05). The increased risk of traffic accidents was 3.35 times higher in subjects who reported very poor quality sleep during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.30-8.63, p<0.05), 1.69 times higher in subjects reporting sleeping 6 hours or fewer per night during the last 3 months (CI 95%: 1.00-2.85, p<0.05), 2.02 times higher in subjects reporting symptoms of anxiety or nervousness in the previous day (CI 95%: 1.03-3.97, p<0.05), and 3.29 times higher in subjects reporting taking more than 2 medications in the last 24 h (CI 95%: 1.14-9.44, p<0.05). Chronic daytime sleepiness measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, expressed heavy snoring and nocturnal leg movements did not explain traffic accidents.

    CONCLUSION: Physicians should be attentive to complaints of poor sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of anxiety-nervousness and/or drug consumption in regular car drivers.

  • 105. Qvist, Ninni
    et al.
    Bergström, Ingrid
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Persson, Jan
    Konradsen, Hanne
    Forss, Anette
    From being restrained to recapturing vitality: non-western immigrant women's experiences of undergoing vitamin D treatment after childbirth2019Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 1632111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Vitamin D deficiency is a complex topic in human health and ill-health and has been studied in a variety of contexts and populations. Few studies examine Vitamin D deficiency among non-western immigrant women and even fewer examine women's perspective on daily life while living with low vitamin D levels after childbirth and undergoing vitamin D treatment. The aim was, therefore, to explore health and ill-health among non-western immigrant women living with low vitamin D levels after childbirth and reaching normalized levels after one year of vitamin D treatment.

    Method: An explorative qualitative study using qualitative content analysis. Six women aged 25 to 38 years, diagnosed with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during pregnancy, were recruited after having undergone vitamin D treatment.

    Results: The women told about living a restrained life which gradually transformed into an experience of recaptured vitality. They also experienced a need for continuity in medication, as an interruption of treatment meant returning symptoms.

    Conclusion: In this study, non-western immigrant women described benefits in everyday life, increased strength, relieved pain and improved sleep quality. The findings can provide valuable knowledge for healthcare providers meeting women with physical weakness, musculoskeletal pain and/or poor sleep quality after childbirth. Further studies using a longitudinal design and larger samples are warranted.

  • 106.
    Ramberg, Joacim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Teacher Stress and Students’ School Well-being: the Case of Upper Secondary Schools in Stockholm2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 64, nr 6, s. 816-830Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and stress-related complaints such as fatigue and depressed mood are common among teachers. Yet, knowledge about the links between the overall level of teacher stress within a school and individual student outcomes is scarce. This study investigates if the levels of teacher-reported stress, fatigue and depressed mood within a school are associated with students’ ratings of their school satisfaction and perceived teacher caring, respectively. Data derives from two separate data collections performed in upper secondary schools in 2016, the Stockholm School Survey (SSS) and the Stockholm Teacher Survey (STS), which were linked together (5367 students and 1045 teachers in 46 schools). Two-level linear regression analyses were performed. Results showed negative associations between school-level teacher stress, fatigue, and depressed mood and students’ school satisfaction and perceived teacher caring, even when controlling for student- and school-level sociodemographic characteristics. The findings suggest that teacher stress may have negative implications for students.

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  • 107. Rehman, Javaid-ur
    et al.
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Sleeping during the day: effects on the 24-h patterns of IGF-binding protein 1, insulin, glucose, cortisol, and growth hormone.2010Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 163, nr 3, s. 383-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Disturbed sleep is a major risk factor for metabolic disturbances, including type 2 diabetes, but the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. We investigated how an acute shift of sleep to the daytime affected IGF-binding protein 1 (IGFBP1), which is a risk factor for diabetes. METHODS: Seven healthy men (age, 22-32 years) participated in a night sleep condition (sleep 2300-0700 h) and a day sleep condition (0700-1500 h) with hourly blood samples taken for 25 h (starting at 1900 h) and isocaloric meals every 4th hour awake. The blood samples were analyzed for IGFBP1, insulin, GH, glucose, and cortisol. RESULT: The acute shift of sleep and meal timing (to 8 h) shifted the 24-h patterns of IGFBP1, glucose, insulin, and GH to a similar degree. However, the day sleep condition also resulted in elevated levels of IGFBP1 (area under curve (AUC)+22%, P<0.05), and reduced glucose levels (AUC-7%, P<0.05) compared with nocturnal sleep. Sleeping during the day resulted in elevated cortisol levels during early sleep and reduced levels in late sleep, but also in increased levels the subsequent evening (P's<0.05). CONCLUSION: Sleep-fasting seems to be the primary cause for the elevation of IGFBP1, irrespective of sleep timing. However, sleeping during the day resulted in higher levels of IGFBP1 than nocturnal sleep, suggesting altered metabolism among healthy individuals, which may have implications for other groups with altered sleep/eating habits such as shift workers. Moreover, sleep and meal times should be accounted for while interpreting IGFBP1 samples.

  • 108. Rosén, Ann
    et al.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jernelöv, Susanna
    A comparison of sleep restriction and sleep compression on objective measures of sleep: A sub-sample from a large randomised controlled trial2023Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 32, nr 4, artikel-id e13826Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep restriction therapy is a central component of cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, but can lead to excessive sleepiness, which may impede treatment adherence. Sleep compression therapy has been suggested as a possibly gentler alternative. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sleep restriction therapy and sleep compression therapy on objective measures of sleep, with a focus on magnitude and timing of effects. From a larger study of participants with insomnia, a sub-sample of 36 underwent polysomnographic recordings, before being randomised to either sleep restriction (n = 19) or sleep compression (n = 17) and receiving online treatment for 10 weeks. Assessments with polysomnography were also carried out after 2, 5, and 10 weeks of treatment. Data were analysed with multilevel linear mixed effect modelling. As per treatment instructions, participants in sleep restriction initially spent shorter time in bed compared with sleep compression. Participants in sleep restriction also showed an initial decrease of total sleep time, which was not seen in the sleep compression group. Both treatments led to improvements in sleep continuity variables, with a tendency for the improvements to come earlier during treatment in sleep restriction. No substantial differences were found between the two treatments 10 weeks after the treatment start. The results indicate that homeostatic sleep pressure may not be as important as a mechanism in sleep compression therapy as in sleep restriction therapy, and an investigation of other mechanisms is needed. In conclusion, the treatments led to similar changes in objective sleep at a somewhat different pace, and possibly through different mechanisms. 

  • 109. Sallinen, Mikael
    et al.
    Onninen, Jussi
    Ketola, Kimmo
    Puttonen, Sampsa
    Tuori, Antti
    Virkkala, Jussi
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Self-reported reasons for on-duty sleepiness among commercial airline pilots2021Ingår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 38, nr 9, s. 1308-1318Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental and epidemiological research has shown that human sleepiness is determined especially by the circadian and homeostatic processes. The present field study examined which work-related factors airline pilots perceive as causing on-duty sleepiness during short-haul and long-haul flights. In addition, the association between the perceived reasons for sleepiness and actual sleepiness levels was examined, as well as the association between reporting inadequate sleep causing sleepiness and actual sleep-wake history. The study sample consisted of 29 long-haul (LH) pilots, 28 short-haul (SH) pilots, and 29 mixed fleet pilots (flying both SH and LH flights), each of whom participated in a 2-month field measurement period, yielding a total of 765 SH and 494 LH flight duty periods (FDPs) for analyses (FDP, a period between the start of a duty and the end of the last flight of that duty). The self-reports of sleepiness inducers were collected at the end of each FDP by an electronic select menu. On-duty sleepiness was rated at each flight phase by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). The sleep-wake data was collected by a diary and actigraph. The results showed that “FDP timing” and “inadequate sleep” were the most frequently reported reasons for on-duty sleepiness out of the seven options provided, regardless of FDP type (SH, LH). Reporting these reasons significantly increased the odds of increased on-duty sleepiness (KSS ≥ 7), except for reporting “inadequate sleep” during LH FDPs. Reporting “inadequate sleep” was also associated with increased odds of a reduced sleep-wake ratio (total sleep time/amount of wakefulness ≤ 0.33). Both “FDP timing” and “inadequate sleep” were most frequently reported during early morning and night FDPs, whereas the other options showed no such phenomenon. The present study suggests that airline pilots’ perceptions of work-related factors that make them sleepy at work are in line with the previous experimental and epidemiological studies of sleepiness regulation.

  • 110. Sallinen, Mikael
    et al.
    Pylkkonen, Mia
    Puttonen, Sampsa
    Sihvola, Maria
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Are long-haul truck drivers unusually alert?: A comparison with long-haul airline pilots2020Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 137, artikel-id 105442Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest heavy vehicle drivers self-estimate their sleepiness unexpectedly low during night duties. The present study compared sleepiness ratings of long-haul truck drivers with those of long-haul airline pilots during night and non-night duties. In addition, the correspondence between self-rated manifest and predicted latent sleepiness was examined in the two groups. Methods: Twenty-two drivers and 33 pilots participated. Their working hours, sleep, on-duty sleepiness, and use of sleepiness countermeasures were measured in naturalistic conditions. Predictions of latent sleepiness were based on the measurements of working hours and sleep using the Sleep/Wake Predictor modelling tool. Results: Drivers rated lower levels of sleepiness than pilots during both duty types, though predicted latent sleepiness levels were very similar among the two groups. Neither the results of sleep nor those of sleepiness countermeasures explained the difference in self-rated sleepiness. Discussion: The results raise the possibility that long-haul truck drivers are actually sleepier than they report, and thus are at an increased risk for not responding to sleepiness in a timely manner. A potential explanation for this behavior is lack of education and training on sleepiness among truck drivers as compared with airline pilots. Alternatively, long-haul truck drivers may be exceptionally tolerant to soporific working conditions. The first reported results do not, however, support this hypothesis.

  • 111. Sallinen, Mikael
    et al.
    Sihvola, Maria
    Puttonen, Sampsa
    Ketola, Kimmo
    Tuori, Antti
    Härmä, Mikko
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sleep, alertness and alertness management among commercial airline pilots on short-haul and long-haul flights2016Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 98, s. 320-329Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Airline pilots' sleep and on-duty alertness are important focus areas in commercial aviation. Until now, studies pertaining to this topic have mainly focused on specific characteristics of flights and thus a comprehensive picture of the matter is not well established. In addition, research knowledge of what airline pilots actually do to maintain their alertness while being on duty is scarce. To address these gaps in research knowledge, we conducted a field study on a representative sample of the airline pilots of a medium-sized airline. The sample consisted of 90 pilots, of whom 30 flew long-haul (LH) routes, 30 short-haul (SH) routes, and 30 flew both. A total of 86 pilots completed the measurements that lasted for almost two months per pilot. The measurements resulted in a total of 965 flight duty periods (FDPs) including SH flights and 627 FDPs including LH flights. During the measurement periods, sleep was measured by a diary and actigraphs, on-duty alertness by the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) in all flight phases, and on-duty alertness management strategies by the diary. Results showed that SH and LH FDPs covering the whole domicile night (00:00-06:00 at home base) were most consistently associated with reduced sleep-wake ratio and subjective alertness. Approximately every 3rd FDP falling into this category involved a reduced sleep-wake ratio (1:3 or lower) and every 2nd a reduced level of subjective alertness (KSS rating 8-9 in at least one flight phase). The corresponding frequencies for the SH and LH FDPs that partly covered the domicile night were every 10th and every 5th FDP and for the pure non-night FDPs every 30th and every 36th FDP, respectively. The results also showed that the pilots tended to increase the use of effective on-duty alertness management strategies (consuming alertness-promoting products and taking strategic naps) in connection with the FDPs that overlapped the domicile night. Finally, the results showed that the frequency of flights involving reduced subjective alertness depended on how alertness was assessed. If it was assessed solely in the flight phase just before starting the landing procedures (top of descent) the phenomenon was less frequent than if the preceding cruise phase was also taken into account. Our results suggest that FDPs covering the whole domicile night should be prioritised over the other FDPs in fatigue management, regardless of whether an FDP is a short-haul or a long-haul. In addition, the identification of fatigue in flight operations requires one to assess pilots' alertness across all flight phases, not only at ToD. Due to limitations in our data, these conclusions can, however, be generalise to only LH FDPs during which pilots can be expected to be well acclimatised to the local time at their home base and SH night FDPs that include at least 3h of flying in the cruise phase.

  • 112. Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Anund, Anna
    Fors, Carina
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Johan G.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night - a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience2011Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 34, nr 10, s. 1317-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Most studies of sleepy driving have been carried out in driving simulators. A few studies of real driving are available, but these have used only a few sleepiness indicators. The purpose of the present study was to characterize sleepiness in several indicators during real driving at night, compared with daytime driving.

    DESIGN: Participants drove 55 km (at 90km/h) on a 9-m-wide rural highway in southern Sweden. Daytime driving started at 09:00 or 11:00 (2 groups) and night driving at 01:00 or 03:00 (balanced design).

    SETTING: Instrumented car on a real road in normal traffic.

    PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen participants drawn from the local driving license register.

    INTERVENTIONS: Daytime and nighttime drives.

    MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS: The vehicle was an instrumented car with video monitoring of the edge of the road and recording of the lateral position and speed. Electroencephalography and electrooculography were recorded, together with ratings of sleepiness every 5 minutes. Pronounced effects of night driving were seen for subjective sleepiness, electroencephalographic indicators of sleepiness, blink duration, and speed. Also, time on task showed significant effects for subjective sleepiness, blink duration, lane position, and speed. Sleepiness was highest toward the end of the nighttime drive. Night driving caused a leftward shift in lateral position and a reduction of speed. The latter two findings, as well as the overall pattern of sleepiness indicators, provide new insights into the effects of night driving.

    CONCLUSION: Night driving is associated with high levels of subjective, electrophysiologic, and behavioral sleepiness. CITATION: Sandberg D; Anund A; Fors C; Kecklund G; Karlsson JG; Wahde M; Åkerstedt T. The characteristics of sleepiness during real driving at night-a study of driving performance, physiology and subjective experience. 

  • 113.
    Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wadhe, Mattias
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The impact of sleepiness on lane positioning in truck drivers2013Ingår i: Driver Distraction and Inattention: Advances in Research and Countermeasures, Volume 1 / [ed] Michael A. Regan, John D. Lee, Trent W. Victor, Farnham: Ashgate, 2013, s. 405-416Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter concerns the detection of sleepiness in truck drivers. Data obtained from a driver sleepiness study involving real-world driving are used in order to analyse the performance of several sleepiness indicators based on driving behavior; such as, for example, variability in lateral position and heading angle. Contrary to the results obtained for passenger cars, for heavy trucks it is found that indicators based on variability provide little or no information; their performance does not rise significantly above chance levels. However, the data indicate that there is a significant difference in the average lane position for sleepy and alert drivers, respectively, such that a sleepy driver generally places the vehicle closer (by about 0.2 m) to the centre of the road than an alert driver. The analysis also shows a significant, monotonous, increase in average lateral position (measured from the right, outer, lane boundary towards the lane centre) between the four cases of (i) daytime alert driving, (ii) daytime sleepy driving, (iii) night-time alert driving and (iv) nighttime sleepy driving.

  • 114. Sandberg, David
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Wahde, Mattias
    Detecting Driver Sleepiness Using Optimized Nonlinear Combinations of Sleepiness Indicators2011Ingår i: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 97-108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of detecting sleepiness in car drivers. First, a variety of sleepiness indicators (based on driving behavior) proposed in the literature were evaluated. These indicators were then subjected to parametric optimization using stochastic optimization methods. To improve performance, the functional form of some of the indicators was generalized before optimization. Next, using a neural network, the best performing sleepiness indicators were combined with a mathematical model of sleepiness, i.e., the sleep/wake predictor (SWP). The analyses were based on data obtained from a study that involved 12 test subjects at the moving-base driving simulator at the Swedish National Road and Transportation Research Institute (VTI), Linkoping, Sweden. The data were derived from 12 1-h driving sessions for each test subject, with varying degrees of sleepiness. The performance measure (range [0,1]) for indicators was taken as the average of sensitivity and specificity. Starting with indicators proposed in the literature, the best such indicator, i.e., the standard deviation of the yaw angle, reached a performance score of 0.72 on previously unseen test data. It was found that indicators based on a given signal gave essentially equal performance after parametric optimization, but in no case was it better than 0.72. The best generalized indicator (the generic variability indicator) obtained a performance score of 0.74. SWP achieved a score of 0.78. However, by nonlinearly combining SWP with the generic variability indicator, a score of 0.83 was obtained. Thus, the results imply that a nonlinear combination of a measure based on driving behavior with a model of sleepiness significantly improves driver sleepiness detection.

  • 115.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress – a group randomized intervention study using diary data2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 109-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention that reduced weekly working hours by 25% on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress for employees within the public sector.

    Method Participating workplaces (N=33) were randomized into intervention and control groups. Participants (N=580, 76% women) worked full-time at baseline. The intervention group (N=354) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline and after 9 and 18 months follow-up. Sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, perceived stress,and worries and stress at bedtime were measured with diary during one week per data collection.

    Result A multilevel mixed model showed that compared with the control group, at the 18-month follow-up, the intervention group had improved sleep quality and sleep duration (+23 minutes) and displayed reduced levels of sleepiness, perceived stress, and worries and stress at bedtime on workdays (P<0.002). The same effects were shown for days off (P<0.006), except for sleep length. Effect sizes were small (Cohen’s f2<0.08). Adding gender, age, having children living at home, and baseline values of sleep quality and worries and stress at bedtime as additional between-group factors did not influence the results.

    Conclusion A 25% reduction of weekly work hours with retained salary resulted in beneficial effects on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress both on workdays and days off. These effects were maintained over an 18-month period. This randomized intervention thus indicates that reduced worktime may improve recovery and perceived stress.

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  • 116.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Total workload and recovery in relation to worktime reduction – a randomized controlled intervention study with time-use dataManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: A 25% reduction of weekly work hours for full-time employees has been shown to improve sleep and alertness and reduce stress during both workdays and days off. The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees use their time during such an intervention: does total workload (paid and non-paid work) decrease, and recovery time increase, when work hours are reduced?

    Methods: Full-time employees within the public sector (N=636; 75% women) were randomized into intervention group and control group. The intervention group (N=370) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline, after 9 months and 18 months. Time-use was reported every half hour daily between 06 and 01 a.m. during one week at each data collection. Data were analyzed with multilevel mixed modeling.

    Results: Compared to the control group, the intervention group increased the time spent on domestic work and relaxing hobby activities during workdays when worktime was reduced (p≤0.001). On days off, more time was spent in free-time activities (p=0.003). Total workload decreased (-65 minutes) and time spent in recovery activities increased on workdays (+53 minutes). The pattern of findings was similar in subgroups defined by gender, family status and job situation.

    Conclusions: A worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers resulted in decreased total workload and an increase of time spent in recovery activities, which is in line with the suggestion that worktime reduction may be beneficial for long-term health and stress.

  • 117.
    Schiller, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hellgren, Carina
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Barck-Holst, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands .
    Total workload and recovery in relation to worktime reduction: a randomised controlled intervention study with time-use data2018Ingår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 75, nr 3, s. 218-226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives A 25% reduction of weekly work hours for full-time employees has been shown to improve sleep and alertness and reduce stress during both workdays and days off. The aim of the present study was to investigate how employees use their time during such an intervention: does total workload (paid and non-paid work) decrease, and recovery time increase, when work hours are reduced?

    Methods Full-time employees within the public sector (n=636; 75% women) were randomised into intervention group and control group. The intervention group (n=370) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline, after 9 months and 18 months. Time-use was reported every half-hour daily between 06:00 and 01:00 during 1 week at each data collection. Data were analysed with multilevel mixed modelling.

    Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group increased the time spent on domestic work and relaxing hobby activities during workdays when worktime was reduced (P≤0.001). On days off, more time was spent in free-time activities (P=0.003). Total workload decreased (-65 min) and time spent in recovery activities increased on workdays (+53 min). The pattern of findings was similar in subgroups defined by gender, family status and job situation.

    Conclusions A worktime reduction of 25% for full-time workers resulted in decreased total workload and an increase of time spent in recovery activities, which is in line with the suggestion that worktime reduction may be beneficial for long-term health and stress.

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  • 118.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mood impairment is stronger in young than in older adults after sleep deprivation2019Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 28, nr 4, artikel-id e12801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation commonly impairs affective regulation and causes worse mood. However, the majority of previous research concerns young adults. Because susceptibility to sleep deprivation and emotion regulation change distinctively across adult age, we tested here the hypothesis that the effect of sleep deprivation on mood is stronger in young than in older adults. In an experimental design, young (18–30 years) and older adults (60–72 years) participated in either a sleep control (young, n = 63; older, n = 47) or a total sleep deprivation condition (young, n = 61; older, n = 47). Sleepiness, mood and common symptoms of sleep deprivation were measured using established questionnaires and ratings. Sleep‐deprived participants felt more sleepy, stressed and cold, and reported lower vigour and positive affect, regardless of age. All the other outcome measures (negative affect, depression, confusion, tension, anger, fatigue, total mood disturbance, hunger, cognitive attenuation, irritability) showed a weaker response to sleep deprivation in the older group, as indicated by age*sleep deprivation interactions (ps < 0.05). The results show that older adults are emotionally less affected by sleep deprivation than young adults. This tolerance was mainly related to an attenuated increase in negative mood. This could possibly be related to the well‐known positivity effect, which suggests that older adults prioritize regulating their emotions to optimize well‐being. The results also highlight that caution is warranted when generalizing results from sleep deprivation studies across the adult lifespan.

  • 119.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Freidle, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sleep in everyday life – relationship to mood and performance in young and older adults: a study protocol2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1264881Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory based sleep deprivation studies demonstrate that lack of sleep impairs well-being and performance ability, but suggest that these effects are mitigated in older adults. Yet, much less is known whether day-to-day variations of sleep have similar consequences in the context of everyday life. This project uses an intensive longitudinal design to investigate the occurrence of day-to-day variations in sleep and their impact on mood and performance in everyday life and to examine whether effects differ between young and older adults. We aim to include 160 young (18–30 years) and 160 older adults (55–75 years) to complete a 21-day experience sampling method (ESM) protocol. During the ESM period, participants are asked to fill in (i) a brief morning questionnaire, (ii) 8 short daytime questionnaires addressing momentary well-being, sleepiness, stress, and mind wandering, followed by a 1 min cognitive task and (iii) a brief evening questionnaire, all delivered via a mobile phone application. Sleep will be measured using self-reports (daily questions) and objectively with wrist actigraphy. The impact of adult age on mean levels and intraindividual variability of sleep will be analyzed using mixed-effects location scale models. The impact of sleep on daily cognitive performance will be analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. The relationship of sleep to mean values and variability of positive and negative affect in young and older adults will be analyzed using mixed-effects location scale modeling. The overarching purpose of the project is improving the current knowledge on the occurrence of day-to-day variations in sleep and their relationship to performance as well as positive and negative affect in young and older adults.

  • 120.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fors, Carina
    Anund, Anna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Taillard, Jacques
    Phillip, Pierre
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    In-car countermeasures open window and music revisited on the real road: popular but hardly effective against driver sleepiness2012Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 595-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of two very commonly used countermeasures against driver sleepiness, opening the window and listening to music, on subjective and physiological sleepiness measures during real road driving. In total, 24 individuals participated in the study. Sixteen participants received intermittent 10-min intervals of: (i) open window (2 cm opened); and (ii) listening to music, during both day and night driving on an open motorway. Both subjective sleepiness and physiological sleepiness (blink duration) was estimated to be significantly reduced when subjects listened to music, but the effect was only minor compared with the pronounced effects of night driving and driving duration. Open window had no attenuating effect on either sleepiness measure. No significant long-term effects beyond the actual countermeasure application intervals occurred, as shown by comparison to the control group (n = 8). Thus, despite their popularity, opening the window and listening to music cannot be recommended as sole countermeasures against driver sleepiness.

  • 121.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindberg, E
    Gruber, G
    Fischer, Håkan
    Theorell-Hagloew, J
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of age on the macro- and microstructure of sleep in women2014Ingår i: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: abstracts of the 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16–20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, s. 149-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 122.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindberg, E.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell-Haglöw, J.
    Sleep length misperception and its association to subjective sleep quality and objective sleep duration in a large sample of women2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 123.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Gruber, Georg
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    Age affects sleep microstructure more than sleep macrostructure2017Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 277-287Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that the quantity and quality of physiological sleep changes across age. However, so far the effect of age on sleep microstructure has been mostly addressed in small samples. The current study examines the effect of age on several measures of sleep macro- and microstructure in 211 women (22–71 years old) of the ‘Sleep and Health in Women’ study for whom ambulatory polysomnography was registered. Older age was associated with significantly lower fast spindle (effect size f2 = 0.32) and K-complex density (f2 = 0.19) during N2 sleep, as well as slow-wave activity (log) in N3 sleep (f2 = 0.21). Moreover, total sleep time (f2 = 0.10), N3 sleep (min) (f2 = 0.10), rapid eye movement sleep (min) (f2 = 0.11) and sigma (log) (f2 = 0.05) and slow-wave activity (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep (f2 = 0.09) were reduced, and N1 sleep (f2 = 0.03) was increased in older age. No significant effects of age were observed on slow spindle density, rapid eye movement density and beta power (log) during non-rapid eye movement sleep. In conclusion, effect sizes indicate that traditional sleep stage scoring may underestimate age-related changes in sleep.

  • 124.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Age-dependent effects of sleep deprivation on task performance and mind wandering2017Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, nr Suppl. 1, artikel-id e297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mind wandering, the drift of attention from the current task at hand to self-generated thought is commonly associated with poorer performance, and could be a potential pathway through which sleep deprivation affects performance. Little is known about this, however. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to address the effect of sleep deprivation on mind wandering and performance in a sustained attention task. In addition, we studied age as moderating factor, since older individuals are generally less prone to mind wandering.

    Materials and methods: Healthy young (18-30years) and older (60-72years) subjects participated in either a normal night sleep (NSD) or a total sleep deprivation (SD) condition, i.e. 4 conditions: NSD (n=31), SD (n=30), NSDold (n = 24), SDold (n= 24). Performance was measured using the Sustained Attention to Response Task, during which 10 thought probes were included that prompted the subjects to answer a question on what they were you just thinking about, using predefined answer alternatives. Mind wandering was quantified as occurrence of task-unrelated thoughts.

    Results: Applying a 2 (age) X 2 (sleep deprivation) ANOVA, significant main effects for sleep deprivation and age were observed for omissions, indicating worse performance after sleep deprivation and in young participants (p's < .05). These main effects were dominated by an age*sleep deprivation interaction (p = .04), which was due to sleep deprivation causing significantly more omission errors in young subjects (Mean ±SEM; NSD: 2.3 ±0.9; SD: 13.1 ±4.1) but not in older subjects (NSDold: 1.9 ±0.4; SDold: 2.8 ±0.9).

    Likewise, main and interaction effects for age and sleep deprivation were significant for task-unrelated thoughts (p's < 0.01). Task unrelated thoughts were significantly more frequent after sleep loss in young (NSD: 1.5 ±0.2; SD: 4.3 ±0.6), but not older subjects (NSDold: 0.3 ±0.2; SDold: 0.5 ±0.2) (interaction age*sleep deprivation p < .01). Young subjects had significantly more task-unrelated thoughts than older, regardless of sleep condition.

    Task-unrelated thoughts correlated with errors of omission (r = 0.65, p < .001). Also, including task unrelated thoughts as covariate in the age * sleep deprivation ANOVA, main and interactions effect of age and sleep deprivation were no longer significant.

    Reaction time was significantly slower in older adults, but no main or interaction effect of sleep deprivation occurred. Errors of commission were not affected by condition.

    Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation caused both mind wandering and poorer task performance in young but not older participants. In addition, mind wandering rates correlated with errors of omission, which may indicate that a diminished ability to shut down off-task thoughts after sleep deprivation could be an important pathway to performance decrements after sleep loss. In line with previous research, mind wandering appears to occur less frequently in older individuals compared with younger. This lower occurrence of mind wandering in older subjects may potentially enable them to better maintain performance after sleep deprivation and partially explain the higher resilience of older adults to sleep deprivation.

  • 125.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep loss on the response to acute psychosocial stress in young and elderly2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25(S1), s. 48-48, artikel-id 245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both sleep loss and social stress are risk factors for health and performance ability. It is assumed that sleep and stress are bidirectional linked, but most of the previous research has focused on studying sleep problems as consequence of stress. We believe that it is important to improve our understanding of the reverse connection, which is less studied. This presentation will cover recent experimental human studies that have investigated how sleep loss affects stress responses and whether it makes individuals more vulnerable to psychosocial stress. A study by Minkel et al. (Health Psychology, 2014) reported that the cortisol response to an acute stress situation was increased after sleep deprivation compared with a control condition indicating a more pronounced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. I will also present recently collected data from young (18–30 years) and older (60–72 years) subjects that participated in four conditions (between subject design):

    (i) normal night sleep.

    (ii) normal night sleep & acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test).

    (iii) total sleep deprivation.

    (iv) total sleep deprivation & acute stress.

    The presentation thus provides state of the art knowledge of the link between sleep loss and vulnerability to stress.

  • 126.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericson, Mats
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Does sleep deprivation increase the vulnerability to acute psychosocial stress in young and older adults?2018Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 96, s. 155-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep loss and psychosocial stress often co-occur in today’s society, but there is limited knowledge on the combined effects. Therefore, this experimental study investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation affects the response to a psychosocial challenge. A second aim was to examine if older adults, who may be less affected by both sleep deprivation and stress, react differently than young adults. 124 young (18–30 years) and 94 older (60–72 years) healthy adults participated in one of four conditions: i. normal night sleep & Placebo-Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), ii. normal night sleep & Trier Social Stress Test, iii. sleep deprivation & Placebo-TSST, iv. sleep deprivation & TSST. Subjective stress ratings, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol were measured throughout the protocol. At the baseline pre-stress measurement, salivary cortisol and subjective stress values were higher in sleep deprived than in rested participants. However, the reactivity to and recovery from the TSST was not significantly different after sleep deprivation for any of the outcome measures. Older adults showed higher subjective stress, higher sAA and lower HRV at baseline, indicating increased basal autonomic activity. Cortisol trajectories and HRV slightly differed in older adults compared with younger adults (regardless of the TSST). Moreover, age did not moderate the effect of sleep deprivation. Taken together, the results show increased stress levels after sleep deprivation, but do not confirm the assumption that one night of sleep deprivation increases the responsivity to an acute psychosocial challenge.

  • 127. Söderström, Marie
    et al.
    Jeding, Kerstin
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Insufficient Sleep Predicts Clinical Burnout2012Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, ISSN 1076-8998, E-ISSN 1939-1307, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 175-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present prospective study aimed to identify risk factors for subsequent clinical burnout. Three hundred eighty-eight working individuals completed a baseline questionnaire regarding work stress, sleep, mood, health, and so forth. During a 2-year period, 15 subjects (7 women and 8 men) of the total sample were identified as "burnout cases," as they were assessed and referred to treatment for clinical burnout. Questionnaire data from the baseline measurement were used as independent variables in a series of logistic regression analyses to predict clinical burnout. The results identified "too little sleep (< 6 h)" as the main risk factor for burnout development, with adjustment for "work demands," "thoughts of work during leisure time," and "sleep quality." The first two factors were significant predictors in earlier steps of the multivariate regression. The results indicate that insufficient sleep, preoccupation with thoughts of work during leisure time, and high work demands are risk factors for subsequent burnout. The results suggest a chain of causation.

  • 128. Taillard, Jacques
    et al.
    Capelli, Aurore
    Sagaspe, Patricia
    Anund, Anna
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Philip, Pierre
    In-car nocturnal blue light exposure improves motorway driving: a randomized controlled trial2012Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 10, artikel-id e46750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20-50 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11) = 6.64; p<0.05). Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p = 0.001) and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p = 0.003) than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]). Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women.

  • 129.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cervenka, Simon
    Forsberg, Anton
    Estelius, Johanna
    Grunewald, Johan
    Gyllfors, Pär
    Karshikoff, Bianka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kosek, Eva
    Lampa, Jon
    Lensmar, Catarina
    Strand, Victoria
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Halldin, Christer
    Ingvar, Martin
    Olgart Höglund, Caroline
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Evidence of fatigue, disordered sleep and peripheral inflammation, but not increased brain TSPO expression, in seasonal allergy: A [11C]PBR28 PET study2018Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 68, s. 146-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Allergy is associated with non-specific symptoms such as fatigue, sleep problems and impaired cognition. One explanation could be that the allergic inflammatory state includes activation of immune cells in the brain, but this hypothesis has not been tested in humans. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate seasonal changes in the glial cell marker translocator protein (TSPO), and to relate this to peripheral inflammation, fatigue and sleep, in allergy. We examined 18 patients with severe seasonal allergy, and 13 healthy subjects in and out-of pollen season using positron emission tomography (n = 15/13) and the TSPO radioligand [11C]PBR28. In addition, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ were measured in peripheral blood, and subjective ratings of fatigue and sleepiness as well as objective and subjective sleep were investigated. No difference in levels of TSPO was seen between patients and healthy subjects, nor in relation to pollen season. However, allergic subjects displayed both increased fatigue, sleepiness and increased percentage of deep sleep, as well as increased levels of IL-5 and TNF-α during pollen season, compared to healthy subjects. Allergic subjects also had shorter total sleep time, regardless of season. In conclusion, allergic subjects are indicated to respond to allergen exposure during pollen season with a clear pattern of behavioral disruption and peripheral inflammatory activation, but not with changes in brain TSPO levels. This underscores a need for development and use of more specific markers to understand brain consequences of peripheral inflammation that will be applicable in human subjects.

  • 130.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment.2014Ingår i: SFSS (Svensk Förening för Sömnforskning och Sömnmedicin) Årskongress 5-7 Maj 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Svensk förening för sömnforskning och sömnmedicin , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 131.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Petrovic, P.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 132.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Golkar, Armita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sleep restriction caused impaired emotional regulation without detectable brain activation changes—a functional magnetic resonance imaging study2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 181704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep restriction has been proposed to cause impaired emotional processing and emotional regulation by inhibiting top-down control from prefrontal cortex to amygdala. Intentional emotional regulation after sleep restriction has, however, never been studied using brain imaging. We aimed here to investigate the effect of partial sleep restriction on emotional regulation through cognitive reappraisal. Forty-seven young (age 20–30) and 33 older (age 65–75) participants (38/23 with complete data and successful sleep intervention) performed a cognitive reappraisal task during fMRI after a night of normal sleep and after restricted sleep (3 h). Emotional downregulation was associated with significantly increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pFWE < 0.05) and lateral orbital cortex (pFWE < 0.05) in young, but not in older subjects. Sleep restriction was associated with a decrease in self-reported regulation success to negative stimuli (p< 0.01) and a trend towards perceiving all stimuli as less negative (p = 0.07) in young participants. No effects of sleep restriction on brain activity nor connectivity were found in either age group. In conclusion, our data do not support the idea of a prefrontal-amygdala disconnect after sleep restriction, and neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects on emotional regulation after insufficient sleep require further investigation.

  • 133.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilssone, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep restriction on empathy for pain: An fMRI study in younger and older adults2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 12236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age and sleep both affect emotional functioning. Since sleep patterns change over the lifespan, we investigated the effects of short sleep and age on empathic responses. In a randomized cross-over experimental design, healthy young and older volunteers (n = 47 aged 20–30 years and n = 39 aged 65–75 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after normal sleep or night sleep restricted to 3 hours. During fMRI, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain) or Q-tips touching a hand (control), a well-established paradigm to investigate empathy for pain. There was no main effect of sleep restriction on empathy. However, age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused increased unpleasantness in older but not in young participants. Irrespective of sleep condition, older participants showed increased activity in angular gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction compared to young. Speculatively, this could indicate that the older individuals adopted a more cognitive approach in response to others’ pain. Our findings suggest that caution in generalizability across age groups is needed in further studies of sleep on social cognition and emotion.

  • 134.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    A combined fMRI and EMG study of emotional contagion following partial sleep deprivation in young and older humans2020Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikel-id 17944Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep deprivation is proposed to inhibit top-down-control in emotion processing, but it is unclear whether sleep deprivation affects emotional mimicry and contagion. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotional contagion and mimicry in young and older humans. Participants underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h sleep opportunity at the end of night), crossed-over with a full sleep condition in a balanced order, followed by a functional magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography (EMG) experiment with viewing of emotional and neutral faces and ratings of emotional responses. The final sample for main analyses was n = 69 (n = 36 aged 20–30 years, n = 33 aged 65–75 years). Partial sleep deprivation caused decreased activation in fusiform gyri for angry faces and decreased ratings of happiness for all stimuli, but no significant effect on the amygdala. Older participants reported more anger compared to younger participants, but no age differences were seen in brain responses to emotional faces or sensitivity to partial sleep deprivation. No effect of the sleep manipulation was seen on EMG. In conclusion, emotional contagion, but not mimicry, was affected by sleep deprivation. Our results are consistent with the previously reported increased negativity bias after insufficient sleep.

    The Stockholm sleepy brain study: effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and emotional processing in young and old. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02000076.

  • 135. Tan, Xiao
    et al.
    Lebedeva, Aleksandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Sleep Mediates the Association Between Stress at Work and Incident Dementia: Study From the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe2023Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 447-453Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Both psychosocial stress at work and sleep disturbance may predispose impaired cognitive function and dementia in later life. However, whether sleep plays a mediating role for the link between stress at work and subsequent dementia has yet to be investigated.

    Methods: Data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe were used for the study. A cohort of 7 799 dementia-free individuals (aged 71.1 ± 0.2 years) were followed up for a median of 4.1 years for incident dementia. Job demand and control were estimated using questions derived from the Karasek’s Job Content Questionnaire. Sleep disturbance was ascertained by a question in the EURO-Depression scale. Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for age, sex, education, cognitive test score, and other potential covariates were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of dementia in relation to different job strain levels.

    Results: An interaction between job demand and sleep disturbance regarding the risk of dementia was detected. Data suggested a protective role of high-level job demand for dementia in individuals with sleep disturbance (HR [95% CI]: 0.69 [0.47, 1.00]) compared with low job demand. A 4-category job strain model based on the combination of job demand and job control levels suggested that among individuals with sleep disturbance, passive job (low demand, low control) was associated with a higher risk of dementia (1.54 [1.01, 2.34]), compared to active job (high demand, high control).

    Conclusion: The link between work-related stress and risk of dementia is limited to individuals suffering sleep disturbance.

  • 136. Tan, Xiao
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle
    Åkerstedt, Anna Miley
    Bellocco, Rino
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Ye, Weimin
    Pei, Jin-Jing
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Wang, Hui-Xin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Interactive association between insomnia symptoms and sleep duration for the risk of dementia: a prospective study in the Swedish National March Cohort2023Ingår i: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, E-ISSN 1468-2834, Vol. 52, nr 9, artikel-id afad163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Given the importance of sleep in maintaining neurocognitive health, both sleep duration and quality might be component causes of dementia. However, the possible role of insomnia symptoms as risk factors for dementia remain uncertain. Methods: We prospectively studied 22,078 participants in the Swedish National March Cohort who were free from dementia and stroke at baseline. Occurrence of dementia was documented by national registers during a median follow-up period of 19.2 years. Insomnia symptoms and sleep duration were ascertained by Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Compared to participants without insomnia at baseline, those who reported any insomnia symptom experienced a greater incidence of dementia during follow-up (HR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.35). Difficulty initiating sleep versus non insomnia (HR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.52), but not difficulty maintaining sleep or early morning awakening was associated with an increased risk of dementia. Short sleep duration was associated with increased risk of dementia (6 h vs. 8 h, HR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51; 5 h vs. 8 h, HR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.00-1.57). Stratified analyses suggested that insomnia symptoms increased the risk of dementia only amongst participants with =7 h sleep (vs. non-insomnia HR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.00-1.54, P=0.05), but not amongst short sleepers (<7 h). Short sleep duration also did not further inflate the risk of dementia amongst insomniacs. Conclusion: Insomnia and short sleep duration increase the risk of dementia amongst middle-aged to older adults.

  • 137. Tettamanti, Giorgio
    et al.
    Auvinen, Anssi
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kojo, Katja
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Heinävaara, Sirpa
    Elliott, Paul
    Schüz, Joachim
    Deltour, Isabelle
    Kromhout, Hans
    Toledano, Mireille B.
    Harbo Poulsen, Aslak
    Johansen, Christoffer
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Feychting, Maria
    Hillert, Lena
    Long-term effect of mobile phone use on sleep quality: Results from the cohort study of mobile phone use and health (COSMOS)2020Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 140, artikel-id 105687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EMF) from mobile phone use on sleep quality has mainly been investigated in cross-sectional studies. The few previous prospective cohort studies found no or inconsistent associations, but had limited statistical power and short follow-up. In this large prospective cohort study, our aim was to estimate the effect of RF-EMF from mobile phone use on different sleep outcomes.

    Materials and methods: The study included Swedish (n = 21,049) and Finnish (n = 3120) participants enrolled in the Cohort Study of Mobile Phone Use and Health (COSMOS) with information about operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline and sleep outcomes both at baseline and at the 4-year follow-up. Sleep disturbance, sleep adequacy, daytime somnolence, sleep latency, and insomnia were assessed using the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) sleep questionnaire.

    Results: Operator-recorded mobile phone use at baseline was not associated with most of the sleep outcomes. For insomnia, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.51 was observed in the highest decile of mobile phone call-time (> 258 min/week). With weights assigned to call-time to account for the lower RF-EMF exposure from Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS, 3G) than from Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM, 2G) the OR was 1.09 (95% CI 0.89-1.33) in the highest call-time decile.

    Conclusion: Insomnia was slightly more common among mobile phone users in the highest call-time category, but adjustment for the considerably lower RF-EMF exposure from the UMTS than the GSM network suggests that this association is likely due to other factors associated with mobile phone use than RF-EMF. No association was observed for other sleep outcomes. In conclusion, findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that RF-EMF from mobile phone use has long-term effects on sleep quality.

  • 138. Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny
    et al.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Predictors for Development of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Women: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up2015Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 12, s. 1995-2002Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives:

    To analyze predictors of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and to analyze how changes within risk factors over time predict incident EDS in women.

    Design:

    Population-based prospective study.

    Setting:

    General population of the City of Uppsala, Sweden.

    Participants:

    From a random, general population sample of 7,051 women from the Sleep and HEalth in women (“SHE”) cohort, 4,322 women without EDS at baseline were followed up after 10 y.

    Interventions:

    N/A.

    Measurements and Results:

    At baseline and follow-up, women answered a questionnaire on sleeping habits, somatic disease, obesity, insomnia, anxiety and depression, lifestyle, and social factors. The risk of incident EDS was analyzed from changes over time in risk factors using logistic regression modeling. Of the women, EDS developed in 7.9%. Incident: insomnia (adjusted odds ratio = 5.01; 95% confidence interval 3.63–6.92), anxiety and/or depression (3.34; 2.22–5.02), somatic disease (1.73; 1.17–2.55), obesity (1.91; 1.14–2.57), snoring (1.91; 1.17–3.10) and smoking (4.31; 1.95–9.54) were all independent risk factors for the development of EDS. In addition, persistent: insomnia (4.44; 2.97–6.65) and anxiety and/or depression (4.91; 3.17–7.62) increased the risk of developing EDS. Apart from incident: snoring and obesity, similar results were obtained when only including women without somatic disease in the analyses.

    Conclusion:

    Insomnia, anxiety and/or depression, and smoking were the most important factors for predicting incident excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and, in addition, somatic disease, obesity, and snoring predicted EDS. It is important not only to treat these conditions but also to inform women of the importance of a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent and reduce EDS in women.

  • 139. Thun, Eirunn
    et al.
    Bjorvatn, Bjørn
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Moen, Bente Elisabeth
    Waage, Siri
    Molde, Helge
    Pallesen, Ståle
    Trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in Norwegian nurses with and without night work and rotational work2016Ingår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 480-489Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous cross-sectional studies report high prevalence rates of sleepiness and insomnia in shift workers, but few longitudinal studies exist. We investigated trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms in a sample of Norwegian nurses across four measurements, spanning a total of four years (sleepiness) and five years (insomnia). The participants completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Bergen Insomnia Scale at each measurement instance. Latent growth curve models were used to analyse the data. Separate models examined night work (night work, entering and leaving night work) and rotational work (rotational work, entering and leaving rotational work) as predictors for trajectories of sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, respectively. Baseline values of sleepiness and insomnia were higher among rotational shift workers than among workers with fixed shifts (day or night). The results showed that night work throughout the period and entering night work during the period were not associated with different trajectories of sleepiness or insomnia symptoms, compared to not having night work. The same results were found for rotational work and entering rotational work, compared to not having rotational work. Leaving night work and leaving rotational work were associated with a decrease in sleepiness and insomnia symptoms, compared to staying in such work.

  • 140.
    Thuné, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effects of partial sleep deprivation on the neural mechanisms of face perception2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, Special issue: abstracts of the 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16–20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, s. 245-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 141.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bejerot, Eva E
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Doctors' work schedules and work time control2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 142.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The impact of work time control on physicians’ sleep and well-being2015Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, s. 109-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physicians' work schedules are an important determinant of their own wellbeing and that of their patients. This study considers whether allowing physicians control over their work hours ameliorates the effects of demanding work schedules. A questionnaire was completed by hospital physicians regarding their work hours (exposure to long shifts, short inter-shift intervals, weekend duties, night duties, unpaid overtime; and work time control), sleep (quantity and disturbance) and wellbeing (burnout, stress and fatigue). Work time control moderated the negative impact that frequent night working had upon sleep quantity and sleep disturbance. For participants who never worked long shifts, work time control was associated with fewer short sleeps, but this was not the case for those who did work long shifts. Optimizing the balance between schedule flexibility and patient needs could enhance physicians' sleep when working the night shift, thereby reducing their levels of fatigue and enhancing patient care.

  • 143. Tucker, Philip
    et al.