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  • 101. Topalis, Pantelis
    et al.
    Mitraka, Elvira
    Bujila, Ioana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Deligianni, Elena
    Dialynas, Emmanuel
    Siden-Kiamos, Inga
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Louis, Christos
    IDOMAL: an ontology for malaria2010Ingår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 9, s. 230-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ontologies are rapidly becoming a necessity for the design of efficient information technology tools, especially databases, because they permit the organization of stored data using logical rules and defined terms that are understood by both humans and machines. This has as consequence both an enhanced usage and interoperability of databases and related resources. It is hoped that IDOMAL, the ontology of malaria will prove a valuable instrument when implemented in both malaria research and control measures. METHODS: The OBOEdit2 software was used for the construction of the ontology. IDOMAL is based on the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) and follows the rules set by the OBO Foundry consortium. RESULTS: The first version of the malaria ontology covers both clinical and epidemiological aspects of the disease, as well as disease and vector biology. IDOMAL is meant to later become the nucleation site for a much larger ontology of vector borne diseases, which will itself be an extension of a large ontology of infectious diseases (IDO). The latter is currently being developed in the frame of a large international collaborative effort. CONCLUSIONS: IDOMAL, already freely available in its first version, will form part of a suite of ontologies that will be used to drive IT tools and databases specifically constructed to help control malaria and, later, other vector-borne diseases. This suite already consists of the ontology described here as well as the one on insecticide resistance that has been available for some time. Additional components are being developed and introduced into IDOMAL.

  • 102.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    In vitro studies of natural and tumor-associated immunity in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder1979Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-bladder) were studied using a SlCr-release assay for their in vitro cytotoxicity against a panel of allogeneic tissue culture cell lines of TCC-bladder and other origins. Control PBL were obtained from four different groups of donors. Individual donor's lymphocytes frequently displayed cytotoxicity to any one of the target cells. However, PBL from each of the three TCC-bladder groups had strongly elevated mean cytotoxicity to the TCC-bladder targets as compared to that to the control targets. The control groups did not show this. The mean cytotoxicity of PBL from the TCC bladder groups to the bladder tumor targets was significantly higher than that of the control groups. The results suggest the existence of a disease related reactivity in TCC-bladder superimposed on background of natural cytotoxicity. 

    Effector cell studies in allogeneic lymphocyte/tumor target combinations revealed that the cytotoxic effector cells within all donor groups were indistinguishable from the lymphocytes responsible for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, K-cells). A possible involvement of antibodies in the cytotoxic reactions was studied by adding Fab-fragments of anti-human immunoglobulin antibodies (Fab-alg) to the PBL/target cell mixtures. These reagents inhibited cytotoxicity, although inhibition was usually incomplete. The results suggest the involvement of both antibody dependent and antibody independent mechanisms in the cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) against allogeneic target cells. 

    Investigations of effector cell mechanisms in autologous PBL/tumor target combinations revealed the presence of other mechanisms than seen in most allogeneic combinations. Thus, the effector cells were distinct from K-cells and the reactions were not inhibited by the presence of Fab-alg. The results suggest that these autologous reactions may be mediated by antibody independent cytolytic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and may require HLA-compatibility between effector cells and target cells. However, at the present stage, alternative explanations must also be considered. 

    In the search for humoral antibodies to tumor cells in serum of TCC-bladder patients and controls an ADCC assay was used. To avoid inhibition by blocking factors present in whole serum, IgG-fractions were prepared. ADCC inducing antibodies were found in IgG-fractions from both TCC-bladder patients and controls. However, when tested against one cell line of TCC-bladder origin and one control cell line, the IgG-fractions from TCC-bladder patients were on the average more cytotoxic to the TCC-bladder target than to the control. This was not seen with the IgG-fractions of the controls. This suggests that TCC-bladder patients develop a humoral response related to their disease. However, the nature of the antigen(s), responsible for these reactions remains to be established. 

  • 103.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Arama, Charles
    Quin, Jaclyn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. CEITEC Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Bujila, Ioana
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut. Public Health Agency of Sweden, Sweden.
    Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    What will studies of Fulani individuals naturally exposed to malaria teach us about protective immunity to malaria?2020Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 92, nr 4, artikel-id e12932Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are an estimated over 200 million yearly cases of malaria worldwide. Despite concerted international effort to combat the disease, it still causes approximately half a million deaths every year, the majority of which are young children with Plasmodium falciparum infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Successes are largely attributed to malaria prevention strategies, such as insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor spraying, as well as improved access to existing treatments. One important hurdle to new approaches for the treatment and prevention of malaria is our limited understanding of the biology of Plasmodium infection and its complex interaction with the immune system of its human host. Therefore, the elimination of malaria in Africa not only relies on existing tools to reduce malaria burden, but also requires fundamental research to develop innovative approaches. Here, we summarize our discoveries from investigations of ethnic groups of West Africa who have different susceptibility to malaria.

  • 104.
    Vafa, Manijeh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maiga, Bakary
    Berzins, Klavs
    Hayano, Masashi
    Bereczky, Sandor
    Dolo, Amagana
    Daou, Modibo
    Arama, Charles
    Kouriba, Bourema
    Färnert, Anna
    Doumbo, Ogobara K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Associations between the IL-4 -590 T allele and Plasmodium falciparum infection prevalence in asymptomatic Fulani of Mali2007Ingår i: Microbes and infection, ISSN 1286-4579, E-ISSN 1769-714X, Vol. 9, nr 9, s. 1043-1048Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the IL-10 -1087 A/G and IL-4 -590 C/T single nucleotide polymorphisms in asymptomatic subjects of two sympatric ethnic tribes differing in susceptibility to malaria, the Fulani and the Dogon in Mali. The genotype data was correlated with ethnicity and malariometric indexes. A statistically significant inter-ethnic difference in allele and genotype frequency for both loci was noted (P < 0.0001). Within the Fulani, the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection, as detected by both microscopy and PCR, was associated with the IL-4 -590 T allele (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0005, respectively), whereas, no such associations were seen in the Dogon. Inter-ethnic differences in spleen rates, higher in the Fulani than the Dogon, were seen between T carriers (TT and CT) of both groups (P < 0.0001). Parasite densities and number of concurrent clones did not vary between IL-4 genotypes within any of the studied groups. These results suggest an association between the IL-4 -590 T allele and P. falciparum prevalence within the Fulani but not the Dogon. No associations between IL-10 genotypes and studied malariometric indexes were observed in any of the two communities.

  • 105.
    Vafa, Manijeh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Maiga, Bakary
    Department of Epidemiology of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine,Pharmacy and Odontostomatology, University of Bamako, Mali.
    Israelsson, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Dolo, Amagana
    Doumbo, Ogobara K
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Wenner-Grens institut, Avdelningen för immunologi.
    Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.2009Ingår i: Microbes and infection, ISSN 1286-4579, E-ISSN 1769-714X, Vol. 11, nr 8-9, s. 779-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  • 106. Yman, Victor
    et al.
    White, Michael T.
    Rono, Josea
    Arca, Bruno
    Osier, Faith H.
    Troye-Blomberg, Marita
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Boström, Stephanie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ronca, Raffaele
    Rooth, Ingegerd
    Färnert, Anna
    Antibody acquisition models: A new tool for serological surveillance of malaria transmission intensity2016Ingår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikel-id 19472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Serology has become an increasingly important tool for the surveillance of a wide range of infectious diseases. It has been particularly useful to monitor malaria transmission in elimination settings where existing metrics such as parasite prevalence and incidence of clinical cases are less sensitive. Seroconversion rates, based on antibody prevalence to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood-stage antigens, provide estimates of transmission intensity that correlate with entomological inoculation rates but lack precision in settings where seroprevalence is still high. Here we present a new and widely applicable method, based on cross-sectional data on individual antibody levels. We evaluate its use as a sero-surveillance tool in a Tanzanian setting with declining malaria prevalence. We find that the newly developed mathematical models produce more precise estimates of transmission patterns, are robust in high transmission settings and when sample sizes are small, and provide a powerful tool for serological evaluation of malaria transmission intensity.

123 101 - 106 av 106
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