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  • 101.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Wells, Michael B.
    Köhler, Lennart
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Children with two homes: Psychological problems in relation to living arrangements in Nordic 2- to 9-year-olds2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 137-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Joint physical custody, children spending equal time in each parents’ respective home after a parental divorce, is particularly common in Nordic compared with other Western countries. Older children have been shown to fare well in this practice but for young children there are few existing studies. The aim of this paper is to study psychological problems in 2- to 9-year-old Nordic children in different family forms. Methods: Total symptom score according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire as well as scores showing externalizing problems were compared among 152 children in joint physical custody, 303 in single care and 3207 in nuclear families through multiple linear regression analyses. Results: Children in single care had more psychological symptoms than those in joint physical custody (B = 1.08; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.67) and those in nuclear families had the least reported symptoms (B = −0.53; 95% CI −0.89 to −0.17). Externalizing problems were also lower in nuclear families (B = −0.28, 95% CI −0.52 to −0.04) compared with joint physical custody after adjusting for covariates. Conclusions: Young children with non-cohabiting parents suffered from more psychological problems than those in intact families. Children in joint physical custody had a lower total problem score than those in single care after adjusting for covariates. Longitudinal studies with information on family factors before the separation are needed to inform policy of young children’s post-separation living arrangements.

  • 102.
    Bergström, Malin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rajmil, Luis
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. National Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Living in two homes-a Swedish national survey of wellbeing in 12 and 15 year olds with joint physical custody2013Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, artikel-id 868Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The practice of joint physical custody, where children spend equal time in each parent's home after they separate, is increasing in many countries. It is particularly common in Sweden, where this custody arrangement applies to 30 per cent of children with separated parents. The aim of this study was to examine children's health-related quality of life after parental separation, by comparing children living with both parents in nuclear families to those living in joint physical custody and other forms of domestic arrangements.

    Methods Data from a national Swedish classroom study of 164,580 children aged 12 and 15-years-old were analysed by two-level linear regression modelling. Z-scores were used to equalise scales for ten dimensions of wellbeing from the KIDSCREEN-52 and the KIDSCREEN-10 Index and analysed for children in joint physical custody in comparison with children living in nuclear families and mostly or only with one parent.

    Results Living in a nuclear family was positively associated with almost all aspects of wellbeing in comparison to children with separated parents. Children in joint physical custody experienced more positive outcomes, in terms of subjective wellbeing, family life and peer relations, than children living mostly or only with one parent. For the 12-year-olds, beta coefficients for moods and emotions ranged from -0.20 to -0.33 and peer relations from -0.11 to -0.20 for children in joint physical custody and living mostly or only with one parent. The corresponding estimates for the 15-year-olds varied from -0.08 to -0.28 and from -0.03 to -0.13 on these subscales. The 15-year-olds in joint physical custody were more likely than the 12-year-olds to report similar wellbeing levels on most outcomes to the children in nuclear families.

    Conclusions Children who spent equal time living with both parents after a separation reported better wellbeing than children in predominantly single parent care. This was particularly true for the 15-year-olds, while the reported wellbeing of 12-years-olds was less satisfactory. There is a need for further studies that can account for the pre and post separation context of individual families and the wellbeing of younger age groups in joint physical custody.

  • 103.
    Berlin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen), Sweden.
    Mensah, Tita
    Lundgren, Frida
    Klingberg, Gunilla
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Cederlund, Andreas
    Dental healthcare utilisation among young adults who were in societal out-of-home care as children: A Swedish National Cohort Study2018Ingår i: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 325-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We used Swedish national registers to analyse dental health care among young adults with childhood experience of out-of-home care (OHC), in Cox regression analyses. All 1.7 million Swedish residents born in 1980-1994 were included, of whom 4% had been in OHC. The population was followed up in the Dental Health Register from age 20 to 29, during the period 2009-2014. We found that persons with short or long OHC experience made emergency dental care visits more often than their majority-population peers: 17-23% versus 9-10%, (adjusted Hazard ratios [HR:s] 1.60-2.02); they more often had tooth extractions, 9-12% versus 3% (HR:s 2.33-3.03); but less regularly visited a dentist for planned check-ups, 61-77% versus 80-87% (HR:s 0.76-0.78). Since dental health in young adulthood reflects dental health and dental care in childhood, the findings of this study call for improved preventive dental health care for children in OHC.

  • 104. Bernard, H.
    et al.
    Faber, M.
    Wilking, H.
    Haller, S.
    Höhle, Michael
    Robert Koch Institute, Germany.
    Schielke, A.
    Ducomble, T.
    Siffczyk, C.
    Merbecks, S. S.
    Fricke, G.
    Hamouda, O.
    Stark, K.
    Werber, D.
    Large multistate outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with frozen strawberries, East Germany, 20122014Ingår i: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 19, nr 8, artikel-id pii=20719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    From 20 September through 5 October 2012, the largest recorded food-borne outbreak in Germany occurred. Norovirus was identified as the causative agent. We conducted four analytical epidemiological studies, two case–control studies and two surveys (in total 150 cases) in secondary schools in three different federal states. Overall, 390 institutions in five federal states reported nearly 11,000 cases of gastroenteritis. They were predominantly schools and childcare facilities and were supplied almost exclusively by one large catering company. The analytical epidemiological studies consistently identified dishes containing strawberries as the most likely vehicle, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 2.6 to 45.4. The dishes had been prepared in different regional kitchens of the catering company and were served in the schools two days before the peaks of the respective outbreaks. All affected institutions had received strawberries of one lot, imported frozen from China. The outbreak vehicle was identified within a week, which led to a timely recall and prevented more than half of the lot from reaching the consumer. This outbreak exemplifies the risk of large outbreaks in the era of global food trade. It underlines the importance of timely surveillance and epidemiological outbreak investigations for food safety.

  • 105. Bernard, Helen
    et al.
    Werber, Dirk
    Höhle, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Robert Koch Institute, Germany.
    Estimating the under-reporting of norovirus illness in Germany utilizing enhanced awareness of diarrhoea during a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 in 2011 - a time series analysis2014Ingår i: BMC Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1471-2334, E-ISSN 1471-2334, Vol. 14, artikel-id 116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Laboratory- confirmed norovirus illness is reportable in Germany since 2001. Reported case numbers are known to be undercounts, and a valid estimate of the actual incidence in Germany does not exist. An increase of reported norovirus illness was observed simultaneously to a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104: H4 in Germany in 2011 - likely due to enhanced (but not complete) awareness of diarrhoea at that time. We aimed at estimating age- and sex-specific factors of that excess, which should be interpretable as (minimal) under-reporting factors of norovirus illness in Germany. Methods: We used national reporting data on laboratory-confirmed norovirus illness in Germany from calendar week 31 in 2003 through calendar week 30 in 2012. A negative binomial time series regression model was used to describe the weekly counts in 8.2 age- sex strata while adjusting for secular trend and seasonality. Overall as well as age- and sex- specific factors for the excess were estimated by including additional terms (either an O104: H4 outbreak period indicator or a triple interaction term between outbreak period, age and sex) in the model. Results: We estimated the overall under- reporting factor to be 1.76 (95% Cl 1.28- 2.41) for the first three weeks of the outbreak before the outbreak vehicle was publicly communicated. Highest under-reporting factors were here estimated for 20- 29 year-old males (2.88, 95% Cl 2.01- 4.11) and females (2.67, 95% Cl 1.87- 3.79). Under-reporting was substantially lower in persons aged < 10 years and 70 years or older. Conclusions: These are the first estimates of (minimal) under- reporting factors for norovirus illness in Germany. They provide a starting point for a more detailed investigation of the relationship between actual incidence and reporting incidence of norovirus illness in Germany.

  • 106. Bernehäll Claesson, Inger
    et al.
    Brodin, Jane
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    What families with children with brittle bones want to tell2002Ingår i: Child: Care, Health and Development, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 309-315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interviews with parents of children with brittle bones and questionnaires answered by 30 families about everyday life.

  • 107. Bernhard-Oettel, C.
    et al.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The temporaries, theself-employed and the permanent staff: A Swedish study comparing work characteristics and individual well-being over time2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 108.
    Beronius, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Vandenberg, Laura N.
    Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals2016Ingår i: Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders (Print), ISSN 1389-9155, E-ISSN 1573-2606, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 273-287Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs.

  • 109. Berthelsen, Hanne
    et al.
    Muhonen, Tuija
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Mälardalens högskola, Sverige.
    Vad händer med arbetsmiljön när man inför aktivitetsbaserade kontor inom akademin?2017Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 9-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktivitetsbaserade kontor är fortfarande ovanliga för forskare och lärare inom akademin, men nu verkar flera lärosäten vara igång att införa den här typen av arbetsplatser. Det finns begränsat med kunskap om vad som händer vid flyttprocesser från egna rum till aktivitetsbaserade kontor i akademin och hur personalen upplever arbetsmiljön i denna typ av kontorsmiljöer. I den här artikeln redovisas resultat från en enkätundersökning före och efter flytt till aktivitetsbaserade kontor på en svensk högskola.

  • 110. Bharadwaj, Prashant
    et al.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Birth Weight in the Long Run2018Ingår i: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 189-231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of birth weight on long-run outcomes using data on Swedish twins born between 1926 and 1958 linked to administrative records spanning entire life-time labor market histories. We find that birth weight positively affects permanent income and income across large parts of the lifecycle. The timing of the birth weight–income relationship is in line with the role of birth weight in determining takeup of sickness benefits and morbidity. The effect of birth weight on labor market outcomes even for cohorts born 30 years apart are similar; for short run health outcomes, birth weight plays a decreasing role over time.

  • 111. Bijlsma, Maarten J.
    et al.
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany: University of Helsinki,, Finland.
    Unemployment and subsequent depression: A mediation analysis using the parametric G-formula2017Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 194, s. 142-150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of unemployment on depression are difficult to establish because of confounding and limited understanding of the mechanisms at the population level. In particular, due to longitudinal interdependencies between exposures, mediators and outcomes, intermediate confounding is an obstacle for mediation analyses. Using longitudinal Finnish register data on socio-economic characteristics and medication purchases, we extracted individuals who entered the labor market between ages 16 and 25 in the period 1996 to 2001 and followed them until the year 2007 (n = 42,172). With the parametric G-formula we estimated the population averaged effect on first antidepressant purchase of a simulated intervention which set all unemployed person years to employed. In the data, 74% of person-years were employed and 8% unemployed, the rest belonging to studying or other status. In the intervention scenario, employment rose to 85% and the hazard of first antidepressant purchase decreased by 7.6%. Of this reduction 61% was mediated, operating primarily through changes in income and household status, while mediation through other health conditions was negligible. These effects were negligible for women and particularly prominent among less educated men. By taking complex interdependencies into account in a framework of observed repeated measures data, we found that eradicating unemployment raises income levels, promotes family formation, and thereby reduces antidepressant consumption at the population-level.

  • 112. Bijlsma, Maarten J.
    et al.
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
    Tarkiainen, Lasse
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The Impact of Unemployment on Antidepressant Purchasing: Adjusting for Unobserved Time-constant Confounding in the g-Formula2019Ingår i: Epidemiology, ISSN 1044-3983, E-ISSN 1531-5487, Vol. 30, nr 3, s. 388-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The estimated effect of unemployment on depression may be biased by time-varying, intermediate, and time-constant confounding. One of the few methods that can account for these sources of bias is the parametric g-formula, but until now this method has required that all relevant confounders be measured.

    Methods: We combine the g-formula with methods to adjust for unmeasured time-constant confounding. We use this method to estimate how antidepressant purchasing is affected by a hypothetical intervention that provides employment to the unemployed. The analyses are based on an 11% random sample of the Finnish population who were 30–35 years of age in 1995 (n = 49,753) and followed until 2012. We compare estimates that adjust for measured baseline confounders and time-varying socioeconomic covariates (confounders and mediators) with estimates that also include individual-level fixed-effect intercepts.

    Results: In the empirical data, around 10% of person-years are unemployed. Setting these person-years to employed, the g-formula without individual intercepts found a 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.5%, 7.4%) reduction in antidepressant purchasing at the population level. However, when also adjusting for individual intercepts, we find no association (−0.1%; 95% CI = −1.8%, 1.5%).

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the relationship between unemployment and antidepressants is confounded by residual time-constant confounding (selection). However, restrictions on the effective sample when using individual intercepts can compromise the validity of the results. Overall our approach highlights the potential importance of adjusting for unobserved time-constant confounding in epidemiologic studies and demonstrates one way that this can be done.

  • 113.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Intragenerational social mobility and cause-specific premature mortality2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikel-id e0211977Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether there is a short-term relationship between intragenerational social mobility and mortality while individuals are working and whether it is widespread across different causes of death. Net of accumulated advantages and disadvantages, social mobility may influence mortality through health selection or changes in well-being. Men and women working in 1996 up to age 65 are observed annually until 2012 in Swedish register data. Time-varying covariates and origin and destination status are controlled for in discrete time event-history analyses. Results show that when men were upwardly mobile, mortality was lower due to cancer, CVD, IHD, and suicide. Upward mobility was only associated with lower odds of suicide for women. When downwardly mobile, cancer mortality was higher for both men and women and smoking-related cancer mortality was higher for men. Social mobility was not linked to deaths related to accidents and poisoning or alcohol-related mortality. The results may support a relationship between social mobility and mortality characterized by health selection: Only in the case of a chronic illness (cancer) was downward mobility associated with higher mortality. The widespread relationship between upward mobility and lower mortality for men may also indicate positive health selection into attaining a higher class and that individuals with poor health may be less likely to search for better positions or receive promotions.

  • 114. Biswas, Dan
    et al.
    Toebes, Brigit
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Nordic School of Public Health, Sweden.
    Ascher, Henry
    Norredam, Marie
    ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE FOR UNDOCUMENTED MIGRANTS FROM A HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DENMARK, SWEDEN, AND THE NETHERLANDS2012Ingår i: Health and Human Rights: An International Journal, ISSN 1079-0969, E-ISSN 2150-4113, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 49-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Undocumented migrants’ access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants’ access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands from a human rights perspective.

    Methods

    Based on desk research in October 2011, we identified national laws, policies, peer-reviewed studies, and grey literature concerning undocumented migrants’ access to health care in the three involved countries. Through treaties and related explana-tory documents from the United Nations and the Council of Europe, we identified relevant international laws concerning the right to health and the rights of different groups of undocumented migrants. A synopsis of these laws is included in the analysis of the three countries.

    Results

    Undocumented migrants in Denmark have the right to emergency care, while addition-al care is restricted and may be subject to payment. Undocumented migrants in Sweden have the right to emergency care only. There is an exception made for former asylum-seeking children, who have the same rights as Swedish citizens. In the Netherlands, undocumented migrants have greater entitlements and have access to primary, second-ary and tertiary care, although shortcomings remain. All three countries have ratified international human rights treaties that include right of access to health care services. We identified international treaties from the United Nations and the Council of Europe that recognize a right to health for undocumented migrants and embrace gov-ernmental obligations to ensure the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health services, in particular for specific groups such as women and children.

    Conclusion

    In the Netherlands, undocumented migrants’ right to health care is largely acknowl-edged, while in Denmark and Sweden, there are more restrictions on access. This reveals major discrepancies in relation to international human rights law.

  • 115.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of California, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Dalman, Christina
    Cochran, Susan
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?2016Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 31, nr 7, s. 685-690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  • 116.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of California, USA.
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Björkenstam, Emma
    Dalman, Christina
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Cochran, Susan
    Self-reported suicide ideation and attempts, and medical care for intentional self-harm in lesbians, gays and bisexuals in Sweden2016Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, nr 9, s. 895-901Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Minority sexual orientation is a robust risk indicator for self-reported suicidal ideation and attempts. However, little is known about patterns of medical care for intentional self-harm in this vulnerable population. We investigate sexual orientation-related differences in self-reported lifetime suicide symptoms and medical care for intentional self-harm between 1969 and 2010, including age at initial treatment and recurrence. Methods We used data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort, a population-based sample of 874 lesbians/gays, 841 bisexuals and 67980 heterosexuals, whose self-administered surveys have been linked to nationwide registers. Estimates of risk for medical care were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% CIs. Results Both suicidal ideation and attempts were more commonly reported by lesbian/gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Adjusting for risk-time and confounding, lesbians (IRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.7 to 5.4) and bisexual women (IRR 5.4, 95% CI 4.4 to 6.6) experienced elevated risk for medical care for intentional self-harm, as compared to heterosexual women. Gay men evidenced higher risk (IRR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.4) as compared to heterosexual men. Recurrent medical care was more frequent in LGB individuals, especially in bisexual women and gay men. Lesbian and bisexual women were also younger than heterosexual women when they first received medical care for intentional self-harm. Conclusions Positive histories of suicidal ideation, attempts and medical care for intentional self-harm, including higher levels of recurrence, are more prevalent among LGB individuals in contrast to heterosexuals. Lesbian/bisexual women evidence an earlier age of onset of treatment. Tailored prevention efforts are urgently needed.

  • 117. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Burström, Bo
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Berg, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Cumulative childhood adversity, adolescent psychiatric disorder and violent offending in young adulthood2019Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 855-861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Childhood adversity (CA) is a risk indicator for psychiatric morbidity. Although CA has been linked to violent offending, limited research has considered adolescent psychiatric disorder as a mediating factor. The current study examined whether adolescent psychiatric disorder mediates the association between CA and violent offending.

    Methods

    We used a cohort of 476 103 individuals born in 1984–1988 in Sweden. Register-based CAs included parental death, substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminal offending, parental separation, public assistance, child welfare intervention and residential instability. Adolescent psychiatric disorder was defined as being treated with a psychiatric diagnosis prior to age 20. Estimates of risk of violent offending after age 20 were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation was tested with the bootstrap method.

    Results

    Exposure to CA was positively associated with violent offending, especially when accumulated. Individuals exposed to 4+ CAs who were also treated for psychiatric disorder had a 12-fold elevated risk for violent offending (adjusted IRR 12.2, 95% CI 10.6–14.0). Corresponding IRR among 4+ CA youth with no psychiatric disorder was 5.1 (95% CI 4.5–5.6). Psychiatric disorder mediated the association between CA and violent offending.

    Conclusion

    CA is associated with elevated risk for violent offending in early adulthood, and the association is partly mediated by adolescent psychiatric disorder. Individuals exposed to cumulative CA who also develop adolescent psychopathology should be regarded as a high-risk group for violent offending, by professionals in social and health services that come into contact with this group.

  • 118. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Cheng, Siwei
    Burström, Bo
    Pebley, Anne R.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of California, USA; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Association between income trajectories in childhood and psychiatric disorder: a Swedish population-based study2017Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, nr 7, s. 648-654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Childhood family income variation is an understudied aspect of households' economic context that may have distinct consequences for children. We identified trajectories of childhood family income over a 12-year period, and examined associations between these trajectories and later psychiatric disorders, among individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 1991 (n=534 294).

    Methods We used annual income data between the ages of 3-14 years and identified 5 trajectories (2 high-income upward, 1 downward and 2 low-income upward trajectories). Psychiatric disorders in the follow-up period after age 15 were defined from International Classification of Disease (ICD)-codes in a nationwide patient register. Multiadjusted risks for all psychiatric disorders, as well as for specific psychiatric diagnoses, were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs.

    Results Of the 5 identified income trajectories, the constant low and the downward trajectories were particularly associated with later psychiatric disorder. Children with these trajectories had increased risks for psychiatric disorder, including mood, anxiety, psychotic disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The association remained, even after adjusting for important variables including parental psychiatric disorder. In contrast, the relationship was reversed for eating disorders, for which children in higher income trajectories had elevated risks.

    Conclusions Findings show that children growing up in a household characterised by low or decreasing family income have an increased risk for psychiatric disorder. Continued work is needed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in psychiatric disorders. Policies and interventions for psychiatric disorders should consider the socioeconomic background of the family as an important risk or protective factor.

  • 119. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Dalman, Christina
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla
    Walder, Deborah J.
    Burström, Bo
    Childhood household dysfunction, school performance and psychiatric care utilisation in young adults: a register study of 96 399 individuals in Stockholm County2016Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, nr 5, s. 473-480Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Exposure to childhood household dysfunction increases the risk of psychiatric morbidity. Although school performance also has been linked with psychiatric morbidity, limited research has considered school performance as a mediating factor. To address this gap in the literature, the current register study examined whether school performance mediates the association between childhood household dysfunction (experienced between birth and age 14 years) and psychiatric care utilisation in young adulthood.

    Methods We used a Swedish cohort of 96 399 individuals born during 1987–1991. Indicators of childhood household dysfunction were familial death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental somatic disease, parental criminality, parental separation/single-parent household, public assistance recipiency and residential instability. Final school grades from the 9th year of compulsory school were used to create five categories. Estimates of risk of psychiatric care utilisation (measured as inpatient, outpatient and primary care) after the age of 18 years were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs. Mediation was tested with the bootstrap approach.

    Results Cumulative exposure to childhood household dysfunction was positively associated with psychiatric care utilisation. Specifically, individuals exposed to three or more indicators with incomplete school grades had the highest risk (HR=3.7 (95% CI 3.3 to 4.1) after adjusting for demographics), compared to individuals exposed to no indicators with highest grades. School performance was found to mediate the relationship.

    Conclusions Our findings suggest that future efforts to prevent or mitigate the negative effects of childhood household dysfunction on psychiatric morbidity may benefit from integration of strategies that improve school performance among vulnerable youth.

  • 120. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Burström, Bo
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of California, USA.
    Association between childhood adversity and a diagnosis of personality disorder in young adulthood: a cohort study of 107,287 individuals in Stockholm County2017Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 721-731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood adversity (CA) may increase the risk for later developing of personality disorder (PD). However, less is known about the association between cumulative CA and PD, and the role of childhood psychopathology and school performance. The current study examined the relationship between a range of CAs and a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood, and the roles of childhood psychopathology and school performance in this relationship. All individuals born in Stockholm County 1987-1991 (n = 107,287) constituted our cohort. Seven CAs were measured between birth and age 14: familial death, parental criminality, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental separation and/or single-parent household, household public assistance and residential instability. Individuals were followed from their 18th birthday until they were diagnosed with PD or until end of follow-up (December 31st 2011). Adjusted estimates of risk of PD were calculated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations were observed between cumulative CA and PD. During the follow-up 770 individuals (0.7%) were diagnosed with PD. Individuals exposed to 3+ CAs had the highest risks of being diagnosed with PD (HR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4-3.7). Childhood psychopathology and low school grades further increased the risk of PD among individuals exposed to CA. Cumulative CA is strongly associated with a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood. Our findings indicate that special attention should be given in schools and health services to children exposed to adversities to prevent decline in school performance, and to detect vulnerable individuals that may be on negative life-course trajectories.

  • 121. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    Kosidou, Kyriaki
    Association of Cumulative Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Violent Offending With Suicide in Early Adulthood2018Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry, ISSN 2168-6238, E-ISSN 2168-622X, Vol. 75, nr 2, s. 185-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. OBJECTIVE To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988. The study population was prospectively followed up from 20 years of age until December 31, 2013, with respect to suicide. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2013. EXPOSURES Register-based CAs included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminal offending, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Adolescent violent offending was defined as being convicted of a violent crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Estimates of risk of suicide after 20 years of age (from 2004 if born in 1984 and from 2008 if born in 1988) until the end of 2013 were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression analysis. Adjustments were made for demographics and psychiatric disorder. In addition, binary mediation analysis with logistic regression was used. RESULTS A total of 476 103 individuals (231 699 [48.7%] female) were included in the study. Those with a conviction for violent offending had been exposed to all CAs to a greater extent than those with no violent offending. Cumulative CA was associated with risk of suicide in nonconvicted (adjusted IRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9) and convicted youths, who had a higher risk of suicide (adjusted IRR, 8.5; 95% CI, 4.6-15.7). Adolescent violent offending partly mediated the association between CA and suicide. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Individuals with a history of CA who also engage in violent offending in adolescence have a high risk of suicide. Interventions to prevent externalizing behavior during childhood and increased support to youths with delinquent behavior may have the potential to prevent suicide related to CA.

  • 122. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Adverse childhood experiences and disability pension in early midlife: results from a Swedish National Cohort Study2017Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 472-477Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Few studies have examined the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and disability pension (DP). The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between different ACEs, cumulative ACEs, and DP, and the mediating role of school performance. Methods: We used a Swedish cohort of 522 880 individuals born between 1973 and 1978. ACEs included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, household public assistance, parental DP and child welfare intervention. Estimates of risk of DP in 2008 were calculated as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 2.3% (3.0% females, 1.7% males) received DP in 2008. All studied ACEs increased the odds for DP, particularly child welfare intervention and household public assistance. Cumulative ACEs increased the odds of DP in a graded manner. Females exposed to 4+ ACEs had a 4-fold odds (OR: 4.0, 95% CI 3.5-4.5) and males a 7-fold odds (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 6.2-8.1). School performance mediated the ACEs-DP association. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that ACEs is associated with increased odds of DP, particularly when accumulated. The effects of ACEs should be taken into account when considering the determinants of DP, and when identifying high-risk populations.

  • 123. Björkenstam, Emma
    et al.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Impact of childhood adversities on depression in early adulthood: A longitudinal cohort study of 478,141 individuals in Sweden2017Ingår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 223, s. 95-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Although the relationship between childhood adversity (CA) and depression is widely accepted, there is little information on what proportion of depression is attributable to CA. Method: We used a Swedish cohort of 478,141 individuals born in 1984-1988 in Sweden. Register-based CA indicators included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental criminality, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Estimates of risk of depression, measured as retrieval of prescribed antidepressants and/or psychiatric care with a clinical diagnosis of depression, between 2006 and 2012 were calculated as Hazard Ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a Cox regression analysis. Results: All CAs predicted depression in early adulthood. Furthermore, the predictive association between the CA indicators and depression was graded, with highest HRs observed for 4+ CAs (HR: 3.05 (95% CI 2.83-3.29)) for a clinical diagnosis for depression and HR: 1.32 (95% CI 1.25-1.41) for antidepressant medication after adjustments were made for important confounding factors. Of the studied CAs, child welfare intervention entailed highest HR for depression. Conclusion: Regardless of causality issues, children and youth with a history of multiple CA should be regarded as a high-risk group for depression by professionals in social, and health service's that come into contact with this group.

  • 124. Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Hallsten, Lennart
    Svedberg, Pia
    The associations between job insecurity, depressive symptoms and burnout: The role of performance-based self-esteem2018Ingår i: Economic and Industrial Democracy, ISSN 0143-831X, E-ISSN 1461-7099, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 48-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite agreement on the negative effects of job insecurity, more knowledge needs to be generated on the health effects in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms and for whom job insecurity has these negative effects. The present study aims to investigate the associations between job insecurity and burnout and depressive symptoms respectively, by studying the moderation influences of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE), a form of contingent self-esteem. A population-based sample with 4145 twins was used. The results showed that job insecurity was significantly associated with both burnout and depressive symptoms, and that PBSE acted as a moderator, so that the associations were stronger for individuals with high PBSE than for individuals with low PBSE. The study contributes by including a personality characteristic to gain more knowledge about the mechanisms of job insecurity on mental ill-health, and by illustrating that job insecurity has an impact on severe health outcomes in terms of burnout and depressive symptoms.

  • 125. Blomqvist, Ida
    et al.
    Henje Blom, Eva
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Hammarström, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Increase of internalized mental health symptoms among adolescents during the last three decades2019Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 925-931Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies suggest an overall increase of adolescent mental health symptoms globally since the 1980s until today, especially an increase of internalizing symptoms in girls. Due to methodological limitations of these studies, further studies are warranted to obtain a more solid knowledgebase. Methods: This study was cross-sectional and compared two separate but geographically identical groups of adolescents in a middle-sized industrial municipality in Northern Sweden at two time-points [(i) 1981, n = 1083, (505 girls, 577 boys), response rate 99.7%; (ii) 2014, n = 682, (338 girls, 344 boys), response rate 98.3%]. All students in their last year of compulsory school were included. The same self-report questionnaire, consisting of four sub-scales (functional somatic-, anxiety-, depressive symptoms and conduct problems), was used at both occasions. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, two-way ANOVA and general linear model. Results: Symptoms of anxiety and depression and functional somatic symptoms, increased among both boys and girls from 1981 until 2014 (P < 0.001 for all subscales), and the increase of these symptoms was higher in girls. Conduct problems were significantly higher in boys in 1981 and decreased over time so that in 2014 there was no longer a significant difference between boys and girls regarding conduct problems (P = 0.286). Conclusion: In this population-based study spanning over 30 years, both girls and boys showed increasing internalizing problems, while conduct problems decreased. To halt this trend, we need a deeper understanding of the impact of the major societal changes that have occurred during the last three decades.

  • 126.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Av egen kraft - med andras stöd2013Ingår i: Hjälpande möten i vård och omvärld: brukare, praktiker och forskare reflekterar / [ed] Ingemar Ljungqvist, Håkan Jenner, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, s. 182-210Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 127.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Dogmer som dödar: Vägval för svensk narkotikapolitik2017Ingår i: Dogmer som dödar: Vägval för svensk narkotikapolitik / [ed] Niklas Eklund, Mikaela Hildebrand, Stockholm: Verbal , 2017, s. 291-311Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Raitasalo, Kirsimarja
    Melberg, Hans Olov
    Schreckenberg, Dirk
    Peschel, Christine
    Klingemann, Justyna
    Koski-Jännes, Anja
    Popular Images of Addiction2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Blomqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Wallander, Lisa
    Vad är problemet? Uppfattningar om alkoholens skadeverkningar2017Ingår i: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 149-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det följande visar vi att uppfattningarna om och definitionerna av alkoholvanor, som setts och ses som olämpliga eller avvikande, i själva verket är både motsägelsefulla och sinsemellan motstridiga, och att de har skiftat över tid och med sammanhang. Artikeln analyserar denna brist på samsyn och diskuterar vilka implikationer den kan tänkas ha för framtida forskning, praktik och policyöverväganden på området. Analysen är i huvudsak empirisk och deskriptiv, och vi har för enkelhetens skull avstått från att tillämpa exempelvis Benoits (2003) respektive Bacchis (2009) förvisso intressanta resonemang kring de berörda frågorna.

  • 130.
    Blomqvist, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Vahtera, Jussi
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Downsizing and purchases of psychotropic drugs: A longitudinal study of stayers, changers and unemployed2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikel-id e0203433Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The evidence is insufficient regarding the association between organizational downsizing and employee mental health. Our aim was to analyze trajectories of prescribed sedatives and anxiolytics with a sufficiently long follow-up time to capture anticipation, implementation and adaption to a downsizing event among stayers, changers and those who become unemployed compared to unexposed employees. Method Swedish residents aged 20-54 years in 2007, with stable employment between 2004 and 2007, were followed between 2005 and 2013 (n = 2,305,795). Employment at a workplace with staff reductions >= 18% between two subsequent years in 2007-2011 (n = 915,461) indicated exposure to, and timing of, downsizing. The unexposed (n = 1,390,334) were randomized into four corresponding sub-cohorts. With generalized estimating equations, we calculated the odds ratios (OR) of purchasing prescribed anxiolytics or sedatives within nine 12-month periods, from four years before to four years after downsizing. In order to investigate whether the groups changed their probability of purchases over time, odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated contrasting the prevalence of purchases during the first and the last 12-month period within four time periods for each exposure group. Results The odds of purchasing anxiolytics increased more for stayers (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06) and unemployed (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.03-1.14) compared to unexposed before downsizing, and purchases continued to increase after downsizing for stayers. Among those without previous sickness absence, stayers increased their purchases of anxiolytics from the year before the event up to four years after the event. Trajectories for sedatives were similar but less pronounced. Conclusion This study indicates that being exposed to downsizing is associated with increased use of sedatives and anxiolytics, especially before the event, if the employee stays in the organization or becomes unemployed.

  • 131.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lean i arbetslivet: Lean inom kontorsdesign2013Ingår i: Lean i arbetslivet / [ed] Per Sederblad, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, s. 162-189Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 132. Bodin, Maja
    et al.
    Stern, Jenny
    Käll, Lisa Folkmarson
    Centre for Gender Research, Humanistiskt centrum, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Dementia Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Larsson, Margareta
    Coherence of pregnancy planning within couples expecting a child2015Ingår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 31, nr 10, s. 973-978Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 133.
    Bognar, Greg
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Filosofiska institutionen. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Is disability mere difference?2016Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 46-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 134. Bohman, H
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Päären, A
    Jonsson, U
    Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of in-patient care for mental disorders in adulthood2016Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Somatic symptoms such as headache, abdominal pain and dizziness, are common among young people and often associated with poor everyday functioning and concurrent mental disorders. Yet, relatively few studies have examined the long-term consequences of such symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate if somatic symptoms in adolescence predict adulthood hospital based care for mental disorders.

    Methods

    The total school population of 16-17-year olds, in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991-1993. Adolescents with positive screening and the same number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview of mental disorders. In addition, 21 different self-rated functional somatic symptoms were assessed. The participants were followed up in the national patients register about 20 years later (n = 337). The associations between somatic symptoms in adolescence and in-patient care and out-patient hospital based mental health care in adulthood were analysed using binary logistic regression analysis.

    Results

    Adolescents with somatic symptoms had an excess risk of later psychiatric hospital based health care. The presence of multiple somatic symptoms (≥5) in adolescence was associated with psychiatric hospital based care in adulthood also when controlling for depression and anxiety in adolescence as well as sex and potential psychosocial confounders (OR 3.29, p = 0.046). The presence of just any somatic symptom (≥1) in adolescence predicted later hospital based mental health care for mood disorders (OR 8.49, p = 0.041) whereas adolescent depression, anxiety and sex did not, when mutually adjusted for.

    Conclusions

    Somatic symptoms in adolescence are a strong independent predictor of severe mental health problems in adulthood. The link between adolescent somatic symptoms and adult mood disorders are particularly strong even when somatic symptoms are compared head to head with concurrent depression and anxiety.

  • 135. Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Cleland, Neil
    Lundberg, Mathias
    Päären, Aivar
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Somatic symptoms in adolescence as a predictor of severe mental illness in adulthood: a long-term community-based follow-up study2018Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 12, artikel-id 42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Somatic symptoms are common and costly for society and correlate with suffering and low functioning. Nevertheless, little is known about the long-term implications of somatic symptoms. The objective of this study was to assess if somatic symptoms in adolescents with depression and in their matched controls predict severe mental illness in adulthood by investigating the use of hospital-based care consequent to different mental disorders. Methods: The entire school population of 16-17-year-olds in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991-1993 (n = 2300). Adolescents with positive screenings (n = 307) and matched non-depressed controls (n = 302) participated in a semi-structured diagnostic interview for mental disorders. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. The adolescents with depression and the matched non-depressed controls were engaged in follow-up through the National Patient Register 17-19 years after the baseline study (n = 375). The outcome measures covered hospital-based mental health care for different mental disorders according to ICD-10 criteria between the participants' ages of 18 and 35 years. Results: Somatic symptoms were associated with an increased risk of later hospital-based mental health care in general in a dose-response relationship when adjusting for sex, adolescent depression, and adolescent anxiety (1 symptom: OR = 1.63, CI 0.55-4.85; 2-4 symptoms: OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.04-7.39; >= 5 symptoms: OR = 5.75, 95% CI 1.98-16.72). With regards to specific diagnoses, somatic symptoms predicted hospital-based care for mood disorders when adjusting for sex, adolescent depression, and adolescent anxiety (p<0.05). In adolescents with depression, somatic symptoms predicted later hospital-based mental health care in a dose-response relationship (p<0.01). In adolescents without depression, reporting at least one somatic symptom predicted later hospital-based mental health care (p<0.05). Conclusions: Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted severe adult mental illness as measured by hospital-based care also when controlled for important confounders. The results suggest that adolescents with somatic symptoms need early treatment and extended follow-up to treat these specific symptoms, regardless of co-occurring depression and anxiety.

  • 136. Bohman, Hannes
    et al.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Päären, Aivar
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years2017Ingår i: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, artikel-id 117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. Methods: A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Results: Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Conclusions: Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  • 137. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Wistén, Pelle
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kulturen – en viktig insats för hållbar folkhälsa: seminarier, antologi och underlag för fortsatta insatser2015Ingår i: Kultur & folkhälsa: antologi om forskning och praktik / [ed] Eva Bojner Horwitz, Christer Hogstedt, Pelle Wistén och Töres Theorell, Stockholm: Tolvnitton förlag , 2015, s. 9-11Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 138. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Hogstedt, Christer
    Wistén, Pelle
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Varför har inte fler studier publicerats? Reflektioner om seminarieserien om kultur och folkhälsa2015Ingår i: Kultur & folkhälsa: antologi om forskning och praktik / [ed] Eva Bojner Horwitz, Christer Hogstedt, Pelle Wistén, Töres Theorell, Stockholm: Tolvnitton förlag , 2015, s. 239-246Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 139. Bojner Horwitz, Eva
    et al.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Hållbarhetstestning och implementering av kulturaktiviteter – forskarsamhällets roll2015Ingår i: Kultur & folkhälsa: antologi om forskning och praktik / [ed] Eva Bojner Horwitz, Christer Hogstedt, Pelle Wistén, Töres Theorell, Stockholm: Tolvnitton förlag , 2015, s. 107-114Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140. Bokenberger, Kathleen
    et al.
    Sjölander, Arvid
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Karlsson, Ida K.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Shift work and risk of incident dementia: a study of two population-based cohorts2018Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 33, nr 10, s. 977-987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and incident dementia in two population-based cohorts from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). The STR-1973 sample included 13,283 participants born 1926-1943 who received a mailed questionnaire in 1973 that asked about status (ever/never) and duration (years) of shift work employment. The Screening Across the Lifespan Twin (SALT) sample included 41,199 participants born 1900-1958 who participated in a telephone interview in 1998-2002 that asked about night work status and duration. Dementia diagnoses came from Swedish patient registers. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential confounders such as age, sex, education, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke were included in adjusted models. In genotyped subsamples (n = 2977 in STR-1973; n = 10,366 in SALT), APOE epsilon 4 status was considered in models. A total of 983 (7.4%) and 1979 (4.8%) dementia cases were identified after a median of 41.2 and 14.1 years follow-up in the STR-1973 and SALT sample, respectively. Ever shift work (HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.15-1.60) and night work (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.23) were associated with higher dementia incidence. Modest dose-response associations were observed, where longer duration shift work and night work predicted increased dementia risk. Among APOE epsilon 4 carriers, individuals exposed to 20 years of shift work and night work had increased dementia risk compared to day workers. Findings indicate that shift work, including night shift work, compared to non-shift jobs is associated with increased dementia incidence. Confirmation of findings is needed.

  • 141. Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    et al.
    Kitraki, Efthymia
    Stamatakis, Antonios
    Panagiotidou, Emily
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Shu, Huan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för miljövetenskap och analytisk kemi.
    Lindh, Christian
    Ruegg, Joelle
    Gennings, Chris
    A Novel Approach to Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment—Linking Data from Population-Based Epidemiology and Experimental Animal Tests2019Ingår i: Risk Analysis, ISSN 0272-4332, E-ISSN 1539-6924, Vol. 39, nr 10, s. 2259-2271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are continuously exposed to chemicals with suspected or proven endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Risk management of EDCs presents a major unmet challenge because the available data for adverse health effects are generated by examining one compound at a time, whereas real-life exposures are to mixtures of chemicals. In this work, we integrate epidemiological and experimental evidence toward a whole mixture strategy for risk assessment. To illustrate, we conduct the following four steps in a case study: (1) identification of single EDCs (bad actors)-measured in prenatal blood/urine in the SELMA study-that are associated with a shorter anogenital distance (AGD) in baby boys; (2) definition and construction of a typical mixture consisting of the bad actors identified in Step 1; (3) experimentally testing this mixture in an in vivo animal model to estimate a dose-response relationship and determine a point of departure (i.e., reference dose [RfD]) associated with an adverse health outcome; and (4) use a statistical measure of sufficient similarity to compare the experimental RfD (from Step 3) to the exposure measured in the human population and generate a similar mixture risk indicator (SMRI). The objective of this exercise is to generate a proof of concept for the systematic integration of epidemiological and experimental evidence with mixture risk assessment strategies. Using a whole mixture approach, we could find a higher rate of pregnant women under risk (13%) when comparing with the data from more traditional models of additivity (3%), or a compound-by-compound strategy (1.6%).

  • 142. Borsch, Anne Sofie
    et al.
    De Montgomery, Christopher Jamil
    Gauffin, Karl
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Eide, Ketil
    Heikkilä, Elli
    Smith Jervelund, Signe
    Health, Education and Employment Outcomes in Young Refugees in the Nordic Countries: A Systematic Review2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Since 2000, approximately 500,000 refugees have settled in the Nordic countries, about a third of them being children and young people. To identify general trends, and to detect gaps in the existing knowledge about the socioeconomic and health status of these young refugees, this review discusses the literature regarding three key areas related to welfare policy: health, education and employment.

    METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, SocINDEX, Sociological Abstracts, Embase and Cochrane, and a search for publications from relevant institutions were undertaken. All publications had to be original quantitative studies published since 1980. The total number of studies identified was 1353, 25 publications were included.

    RESULTS: Young refugees had poorer mental health than ethnic minority and native-born peers. Mental health problems were related to pre-migration experiences but also to post-migration factors, such as discrimination and poor social support. Refugees performed worse in school than native-born and few progressed to higher education. Experiencing less discrimination and having better Nordic language proficiency was associated with higher educational attainment. A higher proportion of refugees were unemployed or outside the labour force compared with other immigrants and native-born. Assessment instruments varied between studies, making comparisons difficult.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests pre-migration factors but also post-migration conditions such as perceived discrimination, social support and Nordic language proficiency as important factors for the mental health, education and employment outcomes of young refugees in the Nordic countries. Further Nordic comparative research and studies focusing on the relationship between health, education and employment outcomes are needed.

  • 143. Bosnes, Ingunn
    et al.
    Nordahl, Hans Morten
    Stordal, Eystein
    Bosnes, Ole
    Myklebust, Tor Åge
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lifestyle predictors of successful aging: A 20-year prospective HUNT study2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikel-id e0219200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Lifestyle factors predicting successful aging as a unified concept or as separate components of successful aging are important for understanding healthy aging, interventions and preventions. The main objective was to investigate the effect of midlife predictors on subsequent successful aging 20 years later. Materials and methods Data were from a population-based health survey, the Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), with an average follow-up of 22.6 years. Individuals free of major disease at baseline in 1984-86 with complete datasets for the successful aging components in HUNT3 in 2006-08, were included (n = 4497; mean age at baseline 52.7, range 45-59, years). Successful aging was defined either as a unified category or as three components: being free of nine specified diseases and depression, having no physical or cognitive impairment, and being actively engaged with life. The midlife predictors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, obesity and social support) were analysed both as separate predictors and combined into a lifestyle index controlling for sociodemographic variables, using multivariable regression analysis. Results Successful aging as a unified concept was related to all the lifestyle factors in the unadjusted analyses, and all except alcohol consumption in the adjusted analyses. The individual components of successful aging were differently associated with the lifestyle factors; engagement with life was less associated with the lifestyle factors. Non-smoking and good social support were the most powerful predictors for successful aging as a unified concept. When the lifestyle factors were summed into a lifestyle index, there was a trend for more positive lifestyle to be related to higher odds for successful aging. Conclusions Lifestyle factors predicted an overall measure of SA, as well as the individual components, more than 20 years later. Modifiable risk factors in midlife, exemplified by social support, may be used for interventions to promote overall health and specific aspects of health in aging.

  • 144. Bould, H.
    et al.
    Sovio, U.
    Koupil, Illona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Dalman, C.
    Micali, N.
    Lewis, G.
    Magnusson, C.
    Do eating disorders in parents predict eating disorders in children? Evidence from a Swedish cohort2015Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 132, nr 1, s. 51-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We investigated whether parental eating disorders (ED) predict ED in children, using a large multigeneration register-based sample.

    Method: We used a subset of the Stockholm Youth Cohort born 1984-1995 and resident in Stockholm County in 2001-2007 (N=286232), The exposure was a diagnosed eating disorder in a parent; the outcome was any eating disorder diagnosis in their offspring, given by a specialist clinician, or inferred from an appointment at a specialist eating disorder clinic. A final study sample of 158697 (55.4%) had data on these variables and confounding factors and contributed a total of 886241personyears to the analysis.

    Results: We found good evidence in support of the hypothesis that ED in either parent are independently associated with ED in their female children (HR 1.97 (95% CI: 1.17-3.33), P=0.01) and that ED in mothers are independently associated with ED in their female children (HR 2.35 (95% CI: 1.39-3.97) P=0.001). Numbers were too low to permit separate analysis of ED in parents and their male children.

    Conclusion: Eating disorders in parents were associated with ED in children. This study adds to our knowledge about the intergenerational transmission of ED, which will help identify high-risk groups and brings about the possibility of targeted prevention.

  • 145. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Alcohol consumption and NHMRC Guidelines: has the message got out, are people conforming and are they aware that acohol causes cancer?2014Ingår i: Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, ISSN 1326-0200, E-ISSN 1753-6405, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 66-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine self-reported alcohol consumption and relationships betweenconsumption, awareness of the 2009 NHMRC guidelines of no more than two standard drinksper day, drinking in excess of the guideline threshold and perceptions of alcohol as a risk factorfor cancer.

    Methods: Questions were included in annual, cross-sectional surveys of about 2,700 SouthAustralians aged 18 years and over from 2004 to 2012. Consumption data for 2011 and 2012were merged for the majority of analyses.

    Results: In 2011 and 2012, 21.6% of adults drank in excess of the guideline threshold (33.0%males; 10.7% females). While 53.5% correctly identified the NHMRC consumption thresholdfor women, only 20.3% did so for men (39.0% nominated a higher amount). A large minoritysaid they did not know the consumption threshold for women (39.2%) or men (40.4%). In2012, only 36.6% saw alcohol as an important risk factor for cancer. Important predictors ofexcess consumption for men were: higher household income; and not perceiving alcohol as animportant risk factor for cancer. Predictors for women were similar but the role of householdincome was even more prominent.

    Conclusions: Men were nearly three times as likely to drink in excess of the guidelines aswomen. The majority of the population did not see an important link between alcoholand cancer. Awareness of the latest NHMRC guidelines consumption threshold is still low,particularly for men.

    Implications: A strategy to raise awareness of the NHMRC guidelines and the link betweenalcohol and cancer is warranted.

  • 146. Brandquist, E.
    et al.
    Dahllöf, G.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Julihn, A.
    Caesarean Section Does Not Increase the Risk of Caries in Swedish Children2017Ingår i: JDR clinical and translational research, ISSN 2380-0844, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 386-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Caesarean section has been shown to affect the health of the child. Only a few studies have investigated whether the mode of delivery is associated with dental caries, and they present conflicting results. Our study investigated whether dental caries was associated with delivery method in Swedish preschool children. This retrospective register-based cohort study included all children born from 2000 to 2003 who were residing in Stockholm County, Sweden, at 3 y of age (n = 83,147). The study followed the cohort until individuals were 7 y of age. Children examined at 3 and 7 y constituted the final study cohort (n = 65,259). We dichotomized the key exposure "delivery starts by caesarean section" and analyzed it in univariate analyses as well as in multivariate analyses. The multivariate analyses used 3 outcomes: caries experience at age 3 (deft >0 [decayed, extracted, and filled teeth]), caries increment between 3 and 7 y of age (Δdeft > 0), and caries experience at age 7 (deft > 0). Of the final cohort, 15% (n = 9,587) were delivered by caesarean section. At 3 y of age, the results showed no statistically significant association between caesarean section and caries experience (odds ratio = 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82 to 1.04). Between 3 and 7 y of age, the association of caesarean section on caries increment was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.83 to 0.94) and at 7 y of age, 0.88 (caries experience; 95% CI = 0.82 to 0.94). Higher mean values for caries experience and caries increment were observed in vaginally delivered children. We found that preschool children who were delivered by caesarean section do not represent a group with an excess risk of developing dental caries. Furthermore, the statistically significant associations with caries increment and caries experience at age 7 were negative. Knowledge Transfer Statement: Children born by caesarean section are at greater risk of developing asthma and obesity. The proportion of elective caesarean sections without a medical indication has increased over the years; therefore, it is important to know how this mode of delivery affects oral health of the child. The results show that children who are delivered by caesarean section are not at greater risk of developing dental caries, and clinicians can use these findings in their risk assessment.

  • 147. Bratman, Gregory N.
    et al.
    Anderson, Christopher B.
    Berman, Marc G.
    Cochran, Bobby
    de Vries, Sjerp
    Flanders, Jon
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Frumkin, Howard
    Gross, James J.
    Hartig, Terry
    Kahn, Peter H.
    Kuo, Ming
    Lawler, Joshua J.
    Levin, Phillip S.
    Lindahl, Therese
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Mitchell, Richard
    Ouyang, Zhiyun
    Roe, Jenny
    Scarlett, Lynn
    Smith, Jeffrey R.
    van den Bosch, Matilda
    Wheeler, Benedict W.
    White, Mathew P.
    Zheng, Hua
    Daily, Gretchen C.
    Nature and mental health: An ecosystem service perspective2019Ingår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 5, nr 7, artikel-id eaax0903Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of empirical evidence is revealing the value of nature experience for mental health. With rapid urbanization and declines in human contact with nature globally, crucial decisions must be made about how to preserve and enhance opportunities for nature experience. Here, we first provide points of consensus across the natural, social, and health sciences on the impacts of nature experience on cognitive functioning, emotional well-being, and other dimensions of mental health. We then show how ecosystem service assessments can be expanded to include mental health, and provide a heuristic, conceptual model for doing so.

  • 148. Braun, Barbara
    et al.
    Behrendt, Silke
    Piontek, Daniela
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap. IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany; Eötvös-Loránd-Universität, Germany.
    Bühringer, Gerhard
    Therapie alkoholbezogener Störungen im Alter: Ergebnisse der deutschen Stichprobe der randomisiert-kontrollierten ELDERLY-Studie bis zum 12-Monats-Follow-up2019Ingår i: SUCHT, ISSN 0939-5911, E-ISSN 1664-2856, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 101-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [de]

    Zielsetzung: Der demographische Wandel lässt eine höhere Anzahl älterer Personen mit Alkoholproblemen erwarten, deren therapeutische Versorgung bislang unzureichend ist. Mit der internationalen, randomisiert-kontrollierten ELDERLY-Studie wurden zwei Varianten einer ambulanten psychotherapeutischen Behandlung für Personen ab 60 Jahren mit einer Alkoholkonsumstörung nach DSM-5 (AS) in drei Ländern erprobt. Methodik: Nach der Baseline-Befragung wurden die zufällig zugeordneten Behandlungsgruppen nach 1, 3, 6 und 12 Monaten erneut untersucht. Erfasst wurden Veränderungen (Zeit und Gruppe) hinsichtlich Trinkmenge, Anzahl abstinenter Tage, Anzahl Tage Rauschtrinken und Tage risikoarmen Konsums sowie Anzahl zutreffender DSM-5-Kriterien für AS. Complete-Case- und Intention-to-treat-Analysen werden für die deutsche Teilstichprobe vorgestellt (n=203). Ergebnisse: Für beide Behandlungsgruppen ergaben sich stabil bis zu 12 Monate nach Baseline ein Anstieg der Abstinenzrate (18 %; t0: 4 %), des Anteils der Personen ohne einen Tag mit riskantem Konsum (45 %, t0: 4 %) sowie ohne Rauschtrinken (68 %, t0: 15 %). Auch zeigte sich eine Verringerung der Trinkmenge (Median bei 27 g Reinalkohol pro Trinktag; t0: 58 g) und Anzahl erfüllter AS-Kriterien (Median bei 2; t0: 5). Schlussfolgerungen:Die Verbesserungen des Trinkverhaltens und der AS-Symptome waren trotz relativ kurzer Behandlungsdauer stabil. Motivierende Interventionen, insbesondere die persönliche Rückmeldung zum Trinkverhalten, bewirken auch bei älteren Personen mit alkoholbezogenen Störungen Verhaltensänderungen. Ein therapeutischer Nihilismus ist unangebracht; vielmehr sollten spezifische Bedürfnisse der Zielgruppe beachtet und in passenden Versorgungsangeboten umgesetzt werden.

  • 149. Brenner, M. Harvey
    et al.
    Andreeva, Elena
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Goldberg, Marcel
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Imbernon, Ellen
    Bonnaud, Sophie
    Organizational downsizing and depressive symptoms in the European recession: the experience of workers in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United kingdom2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id e97063Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Organizational downsizing has become highly common during the global recession of the late 2000s with severe repercussions on employment. We examine whether the severity of the downsizing process is associated with a greater likelihood of depressive symptoms among displaced workers, internally redeployed workers and lay-off survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving telephone interviews was carried out in France, Hungary, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The study analyzes data from 758 workers affected by medium-and large-scale downsizing, using multiple logistic regression. Main Results: Both unemployment and surviving layoffs were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, as compared to reemployment, but the perceived procedural justice of a socially responsible downsizing process considerably mitigated the odds of symptoms. Perception of high versus low justice was assessed along several downsizing dimensions. In the overall sample, chances to have depressive symptoms were significantly reduced if respondents perceived the process as transparent and understandable, fair and unbiased, well planned and democratic; if they trusted the employer's veracity and agreed with the necessity for downsizing. The burden of symptoms was significantly greater if the process was perceived to be chaotic. We further tested whether perceived justice differently affects the likelihood of depressive symptoms among distinct groups of workers. Findings were that the odds of symptoms largely followed the same patterns of effects across all groups of workers. Redeploying and supporting surplus employees through the career change process-rather than forcing them to become unemployed-makes a substantial difference as to whether they will suffer from depressive symptoms. Conclusions: While depressive symptoms affect both unemployed and survivors, a just and socially responsible downsizing process is important for the emotional health of workers.

  • 150. Britton, Sven
    et al.
    Britton, Tom
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen.
    Ebolaepidemin – få smittade men många indirekt drabbade2016Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 113, nr 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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