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  • 101.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010Ingår i: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 207-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 102.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    The experiences of mental health and well-being of Swedish children and youth with a focus on educational situations: Some results and reflections from a review of qualitative studies2010Ingår i: Trender i barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa: Program & abstracts 12-14 april 2010, Stockholm: Kungliga vetenskapsakademien , 2010, s. 17-18Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of including in reviews people’s experiences and perceptions, which are collected with non-experimental and qualitative studies, has been developed recently in the field of mental health studies. These approaches and methodologies have inspired the review of research on Swedish children and adolescents experiences of mental health and well being, with a focus on their educational situation, that was conducted as a part of a systematic review of research on School Learning and Mental health, performed by appointment of the Royal Academy of Sciences. The aim of the review was to gather testimonies that can give indications of the experiences of mental health and well being in this specific context. The results from the studies that were relevant for the aims of the review are structured in four themes: general views, protective factors, risk factors, individual factors. They are presented in a narrative synthesis, giving a particular weight to the direct and indirect report of children’s and adolescents’ own views. The adolescents defined mental health as emotional experiences, seen both as internal feelings and as relational feelings. Family, friends and educational environments as social and physical environments were perceived as determinants of mental health. A great number of feelings were related to school, both related to satisfaction and pain, in particular when the school attendance is presented as an obligation. Harassment and rejection at school, performance stress, worries about grades and future prospects could be threats against self-worth and self-esteem, while teachers that do not care could generate negative experiences. Various kind of stress could be described and various strategies to resist stressful situations: for instance emotional support, safety and involvement. The educational environments can be an arena for social, cognitive and emotional experiences, relationships and accomplishments that are enriching the individuals and increase their well being. General structural characteristics of the educational environments may also affect well being in different directions: performance, evaluation and feedback, freedom of choice and responsibility for the future may be perceived as a burden. The following reflections can be made: the experiences of children and adolescents change when they grow older, go through developmental processes and encounter different educational situations; the studies reporting views of younger children on the matters of this review were less well represented; the negative experiences may be expressed in rather cautious and non dramatic terms by younger children; there are unique contribution of the review of qualitative studies, but also several interesting correspondences with the results of the review of quantitative studies.

  • 103.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    The meaning of social climate of learning environments: some reasons why we do not care enough about it.2010Ingår i: Learning Environments Research, ISSN 1387-1579, E-ISSN 1573-1855, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 89-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments: presenting evidence of its effects; its importance in special needs and inclusive education; presenting existing differences between settings; discussing the contribution of social climate to teachers’ professional autonomy. The arguments support the view that social climate is an essential factor in educational processes and make incomprehensible the scarce attention reserved to it in educational policy, research and teacher programs. Indications of neglect in the Swedish context are presented. The resistance towards the concept of social climate is related to a) dualistic and hierarchic views; b) characteristics of bureaucratic systems; c) reductionist interpretations; d) difficulties in handling and evaluating social values and goals; e) post-modern criticism of scientific knowledge and psychology. Implications for counteracting reductive interpretations and meeting resistance and criticism are discussed.

  • 104.
    Allvin, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Det individualiserade arbetet: Om modernitetens skilda praktiker1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 105.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Flexibility, Boundarylessness and the Strategies of Work2013Ingår i: Nordic Lights: Work, Management and Welfare in Scandinavia / [ed] Åke Sandberg, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2013, 1, s. 420-435Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 106. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hagström, Tom
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Gränslöst arbete.: Socialpsykologiska perspektiv på det nya arbetslivet.2006Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1970-talet har villkoren i arbetslivet förändrats till den grad att det finns fog för att tala om ”en industriell revolution”. Det svenska näringslivet har blivit alltmer internationaliserat och beroende av en global marknad. Som en följd av det har kraven på organisationer, fackföreningar, myndigheter och välfärdsstaten att anpassa sig ökat. Därmed förändras också förutsättningarna på arbetsmarknaden och i arbetslivet. Det nya arbetsliv som växer fram är betydligt mer oförutsägbart, skiftat och tävlingsinriktat än tidigare. Denna bok handlar om detta nya arbetsliv och de psykiska och sociala konsekvenserna det för med sig. Boken redogör för och diskuterar nya och flexibla organisationsformer och deras styrinstrument, de förändrade kraven på kunskaper och lärande i arbetslivet, den förändrade relationen mellan arbete och övrigt liv samt de nya förutsättningarna för stress och hälsa. Boken går inte bara igenom aktuella företeelser i samhället och arbetslivet, den redogör även för relevanta kunskaper, begrepp och teorier inom samhällsteori, organisation, socialisation, kognition och stress. Trots den breda utblicken ges en samlad bild av det nya arbetslivet som alltmer oreglerat, heterogent och individualiserat.

    Författarna är alla forskare inom området och boken bygger delvis på erfarenheterna från ett omfattande forskningsprogram om nya arbetsvillkor. Gränslöst arbete är tänkt att använda som kurslitteratur på universitet och högskolor inom såväl psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi som företagsekonomi. Boken kan även läsas av alla som är intresserade, och kanske drabbade, av villkoren i det nya arbetslivet.

  • 107.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hagström, Tom
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Work without boundaries: psychological perspectives on the new working life2011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Translated and adapted from a Swedish original, Work without Boundaries: Psychological Perspectives on the New Working Life tackles the human impact of the changing nature of work. It brings together strands of research from a variety of disciplines including work psychology, occupational health psychology, social psychology, and psychobiology. Written by two leading international researchers and writers in this field, Work without Boundaries delivers new levels of understanding in the field and charts the way forward for future research.

  • 108. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Den utbredda flexibiliteten: ett försök att beräkna förekomsten av lågreglerade arbetsvillkor2012Ingår i: Arbetsmarknad & Arbetsliv, ISSN 1400-9692, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 9-24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nästan 30 år efter det att begreppet flexibilitet i arbetslivet kom i bruk råder det fortfarande stor osäkerhet om vad begreppet innebär och hur vanligt det egentligen är. I artikeln diskuteras flexibilitet utifrån en representativ studie av den svenska arbetskraften. I studien konstateras att både traditionellt organiserade och helt fria arbeten är relativt ovanliga. Däremot är flexibla arbetsvillkor desto mer vanligt förekommande och spridda i varierande grad bland den svenska arbetskraften.

  • 109. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Mellner, Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Movitz, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    The Diffusion of Flexibility: Estimating the Incidence of Low-Regulated Working Conditions2013Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 3, nr 3, s. 99-116Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to determine the actual occurrences of flexible working conditions and to demonstrate an instrument for their assessment. Flexibility is discussed as a concept and defined in terms of deregulation of work, and a corresponding increase in self-government and ambiguity. Using empirical data from a national survey of the Swedish labor force, the results show that almost half (47%) of the jobs on the Swedish labor market can be characterized as low, or even unregulated. This means that almost half of the Swedish work force is subjected to working conditions involving a nonnegligible requirement for self-government.

  • 110. Allwin, Pernilla
    Safety management in Luftfartsinspektionen – Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority.2006Ingår i: Nordic perspectives on safety management in high reliability organizations.: Theory and applications., Department of Psychology, Stockholm University , 2006, s. 45-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter the system approach outlined in chapter 1 is applied to the analysis of safety management in the Swedish Civil Aviation Safety Authority-SCASA, the regulating authority of Swedish civil airline operations (Luftfartsinspektionen). The methods used were both document analysis and interviews with key persons within SCASA. The results generated an interesting narrative of safety management in the studied organization. Examples of safety management according to core concepts of the system theoretical framework were illustrated, among them safety management in relation to the system structure, identification of threats, and information feedback.

  • 111.
    Alm, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Eriksson, Åsa
    Durbeej, Natalie
    Palmstierna, Tom
    Berman, Anne H.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Hellner Gumpert, Clara
    Classification of offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use using the Addiction Severity Index version 6: Analysis of three-year follow-up data and predictive validity2014Ingår i: Mental Health and Substance Use, ISSN 1752-3281, E-ISSN 1752-3273, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 431-445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research is scarce on the problems and needs of the “triply troubled” – among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Classifying this population into clusters based on problem profiles may provide information about individual needs for treatment. In a previous study, we identified four clusters of triply troubled: less troubled, severely triply troubled, triply troubled with medical problems, and working triply troubled. The present study explored the stability and predictive validity of these clusters in a naturalistic design. In total, 125 triply troubled individuals included in any of the four clusters were followed for approximately three years with regard to their inpatient and outpatient treatment participation. They were also interviewed with the 6th version of the Addiction Severity Index, the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life–Bref. The main finding of the study was that on average the participants of all four clusters exhibited substantial improvements over the course of time but that improvements were cluster-specific rather than sample-specific. Implications of the study are discussed.

  • 112.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Berman, Anne H.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Lindqvist, Per
    Palmstierna, Tom
    Gumpert, Clara Hellner
    Gender differences in re-offending among psychiatrically examined Swedish offenders2010Ingår i: CBMH. Criminal behaviour and mental health, ISSN 0957-9664, E-ISSN 1471-2857, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 323-334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gender gap for violent offending is narrowing in the general population. Substance abuse and mental health problems are known risk factors for criminality. While substance abuse treatment has been associated with reduced risk of re-offending, women seem less likely to engage than men. People misusing substances tend to be high users of emergency room (ER) services. Such use may be an indicator both of treatment failure for substance misuse and offending. Little is known about gender differences in this respect. Aims: This study aims to test for gender differences in re-offending, use of substance abuse treatment, and hospital ER visits among offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Sweden. Method: The study used a longitudinal retrospective design. Data on all 31 women from a 2-year (2000–2001) cohort of serious offenders referred for forensic psychiatric assessment in Stockholm county, and 31 men from the same cohort, were extracted from forensic service and national records. Selection of the men was by initial random sampling followed by matching on age and substance misuse. The two resulting samples were compared on health service use and re-offending data between release and the census date (30 April 2004). Results: There were no gender differences for violent re-offending or for engagement in planned substance abuse treatment, in spite of longer time at risk for the men. Re-offending was reduced for women but not men who did not present in the ER with physical health problems. Conclusions: Our study is limited by sample size, although it included all women referred to the specialist forensic psychiatric service over 2 years, but it does indicate that differences between men and women in this situation are likely, and worthy of further study. The only way of achieving adequate sample sizes is likely to be through multi-centre collaboration.

  • 113.
    Alm, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Rehnberg, Nora Helmy
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Language and eyewitness suggestibility2019Ingår i: Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, ISSN 1544-4759, E-ISSN 1544-4767, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 201-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During forensic interviews, eyewitnesses are to retrieve correct information from memory. Cognitive load should be high, leading to risks of giving in to suggestive questions and difficulties in memory retrieval generally. Testifying in a non-native vs. native language may require even more cognitive effort due to the need to inhibit the interference of the native language. Such witnesses may also be more motivated to appear credible because they often belong to ethnic outgroups relative to forensic professionals, risking more scepticism. In this study, Swedish participants (N = 51) reported their memory of a simulated crime event either in English (non-native language) or in Swedish (native language) and were tested for suggestibility and accuracy. Results showed that English-speaking witnesses yielded to more suggestive questions, perceived themselves as less credible but were equally accurate. Results suggest that testifying in a non-native language is taxing cognitive resources, in turn increasing suggestibility and suboptimal memory search.

  • 114.
    Alm Sönnergren, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress och välbefinnande hos föräldrar till barn i övre tonåren2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna enkätstudie undersöktes stress och välbefinnande hos 224 slumpmässigt utvalda föräldrar i Stockholmsområdet, med hemmavarande barn i övre tonåren. Ryff Well-Being Scale plus en nykonstruerad föräldrastresskala användes; den sistnämnda visade sig ha god intern konsistens och i övrigt godtagbara psykometriska kvaliteter. Tonårsföräldrarna rapporterade något högre välbefinnande än en tidigare normgrupp. Grad av välbefinnande, specifikt dimensionerna självacceptans (self acceptance) och kontroll över tillvaron (environmental mastery), samt frånvaro av negativa livshändelser under det senaste året, predicerade lägre föräldrastress, med 32 % förklarad varians. Varken föräldrastress eller välbefinnande visade på några systematiska samband med demografiska variabler. Resultaten diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning och teorier kring utveckling i ett livscykelperspektiv, däribland Eriksons teori om socioemotionell utveckling. Föräldraskapets positiva sidor betonas och föreslås för vidare forskning.

  • 115.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Adveen, M.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Henning, L.
    Tallberg, I. M.
    Estimation of premorbid cognitive function based on word knowledge: The Swedish Lexical Decision Test (SLDT)2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 271-279Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In clinical neuropsychology, the present status of a patient is evaluated in relation to the assumed premorbid status. However, in Sweden, existing methods to assess premorbid status are far from optimal. In the present study, the design and evaluation of a Swedish Lexical Decision Test (SLDT) for premorbid global cognitive function (i.e., premorbid intelligence) is described. The design was based on the empirical finding that, in general adult population, word knowledge is strongly associated with measures of global cognitive functioning. Linear stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that SLDT findings accounted for 48% of the variance of global cognitive function as assessed by the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R). Demographic variables alone accounted for 31% and a combination of SLDT results and demographics accounted for 60%. Psychometric properties are presented using data from 109 healthy individuals stratified according to age, gender, and level of education. In addition, a case of Alzheimer's disease is presented to illustrate the relationship between SLDT performance and cognitive function. Finally, the theoretical foundation for the relationship between word knowledge and global cognitive function is discussed.

  • 116.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bosnes, Ole
    Bosnes, Ingunn
    Stordal, Eystein
    Selective impact of disease on short-term and long-term components of self-reported memory: a population-based HUNT study2017Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikel-id e013586Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjective memory is commonly considered to be a unidimensional measure. However, theories of performance-based memory suggest that subjective memory could be divided into more than one dimension. Objective: To divide subjective memory into theoretically related components of memory and explore the relationship to disease. Methods: In this study, various aspects of self-reported memory were studied with respect to demographics and diseases in the third wave of the HUNT epidemiological study in middle Norway. The study included all individuals 55 years of age or older, who responded to a nine-item questionnaire on subjective memory and questionnaires on health (n=18 633). Results: A principle component analysis of the memory items resulted in two memory components; the criterion used was an eigenvalue above 1, which accounted for 54% of the total variance. The components were interpreted as long-term memory (LTM; the first component; 43% of the total variance) and short-term memory (STM; the second component; 11% of the total variance). Memory impairment was significantly related to all diseases (except Bechterew's disease), most strongly to brain infarction, heart failure, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and whiplash. For most diseases, the STM component was more affected than the LTM component; however, in cancer, the opposite pattern was seen. Conclusions: Subjective memory impairment as measured in HUNT contained two components, which were differentially associated with diseases.

  • 117.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kadir, Ahmadul
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Degree of abnormality is associated with rate of change in measures of beta-amyloid, glucose metabolism and cognition in an autopsy-verified Alzheimer’s disease case2015Ingår i: Neurocase, ISSN 1355-4794, E-ISSN 1465-3656, Vol. 21, nr 6, s. 738-747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of abnormality and rate of change in cognitive functions, positron emission tomography Pittsburg compound B (PET PIB), and fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) measures were studied for 8 years in an autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patient, who died 61 years old (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 7). At first encounter with medical care, the patient was very mildly demented (MMSE score 27). She had four cognitive assessments and two examinations with PET PIB and FDG in 23 bilateral brain regions. The onset of cognitive decline was retrospectively estimated to have started in the early forties. The degree of impairment was inversely related to the rate of decline. A similar relationship was seen between the rate of change and the level of abnormality in both PIB and FDG. To conclude, rate of change in cognition, PIB, and FDG was associated with the degree of abnormality.

  • 118.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rodriguez-Vieitez, Elena
    Thordardottir, Steinunn
    Amberla, Kaarina
    Axelman, Karin
    Basun, Hans
    Kinhult-Ståhlbom, Anne
    Lilius, Lena
    Remes, Anne
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Viitanen, Matti
    Lannfelt, Lars
    Graff, Caroline
    Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease2017Ingår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, ISSN 1355-6177, E-ISSN 1469-7661, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 195-203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.

  • 119.
    Almkvist, Ove
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. KI, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Cognitive decline from estimated premorbid status predicts neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease2009Ingår i: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 117-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the relationship between premorbid and current cognitive function with respect to the clinical features of patients with various types of neurodegeneration in the form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), as compared with a healthy control group (C). Clinical features (MMSE, cognitive and depressive symptoms), genetics (apolipoprotein E; APOE) and measures of neurodegeneration (Aβ-sub(42), t-tau, and p-tau) were examined, as well as present cognitive function. Various methods of assessing premorbid cognitive function were compared, including a Swedish NART-analogous test (Irregularly Spelled Words; ISW), a Swedish lexical decision test (SLDT), a Hold test (Information in WAIS-R), Best current performance test, and combined demographic characteristics. Results showed that cognitive decline (premorbid minus current cognitive function) based on SLDT and ISW was a significant predictor for MMSE and Aβ-sub(42), whereas corresponding associations for present cognitive function and decline measures based on other methods were less powerful. Results also showed that specific verbal abilities (e.g., SLDT and ISW) were insensitive to AD and that these abilities indicated premorbid cognitive function in retrospect. In conclusion, cognitive decline from premorbid status reflects the disease processes.

  • 120.
    Almskog, Liv
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Läkares och patienters bedömningar av smärta med VAS och Borg CR100 skalan®2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Smärta är det vanligaste symptomet som rapporteras till vårdgivare, därför är det viktigt att studera hur vårdgivare och patienter skattar upplevelsen av symptom såsom smärta. Underskattning av smärta hos patienterna kan i värsta fall leda till underbehandling och sämre resultat av behandling. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om det fanns skillnader mellan hur läkare och patienter bedömer patientens upplevda smärta på en VAS- respektive Borg CR100-skala, samt skillnader i resultatet mellan de två skalorna. 36 kvinnliga patienter och 8 läkare på kvinnoklinikens gynmottagning vid Norra Älvsborgs länssjukhus och Uddevalla sjukhus deltog i studien. Både läkare och patienter skattade patientens upplevda smärta både innan och efter patientens läkarbesök på en VAS- respektive Borg CR100-skala. Resultatet visade att det fanns en signifikant skillnad i hur läkare och patienter skattade patienternas upplevda smärta, samt skillnader mellan de två skalorna. Läkare skattade patienternas smärta som lägre än patienterna själva, och skalan som föredrogs av patienterna och som visar på fler fördelar då man skall skatta smärta visades vara Borg CR100-skalan. 

  • 121.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in outdoor living spacesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 122.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

  • 123.
    Alvarsson, Jesper, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress recovery during exposure to natural sounds and environmental noise2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that physiological stress reactions may be reduced by visual impressions from natural environments as compared to urban or built-up environments. The present experiment tested whether similar effects might be found by auditory stimulation. Forty university students were tested in an experiment with four consecutive recovery sessions after stressful mental arithmetic tests. The independent variables were type of sound during recovery. The sound was either a natural sound environment (sounds from water and birdsong, at 50 dBA), or three types of noisy environments (traffic noises at 50 or 80 dBA or ambient background sound at 40 dBA). The main dependent variables were physiological recovery from stress, as measured by decrease in heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) after the stressful arithmetic test. The main result was that SCL reduction was faster during nature sounds than during the various noises. For HR, no systematic effects of experimental sounds were found. The result for SCL lends some support the hypothesis that exposure to natural sounds facilitate physiological stress recovery.

  • 124.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nordström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundén, Peter
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space2014Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, nr 6, s. 3455-3462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of effects on speech intelligibility from aircraft noise in outdoor places are currently lacking. To explore these effects, first-order ambisonic recordings of aircraft noise were reproduced outdoors in a pergola. The average background level was 47 dB L-Aeq. Lists of phonetically balanced words (L-ASmax,L- word = 54 dB) were reproduced simultaneously with aircraft passage noise (L-ASmax,L- noise = 72-84 dB). Twenty individually tested listeners wrote down each presented word while seated in the pergola. The main results were (i) aircraft noise negatively affects speech intelligibility at sound pressure levels that exceed those of the speech sound (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N < 0), and (ii) the simple A-weighted S/N ratio was nearly as good an indicator of speech intelligibility as were two more advanced models, the Speech Intelligibility Index and Glasberg and Moore's [J. Audio Eng. Soc. 53, 906-918 (2005)] partial loudness model. This suggests that any of these indicators is applicable for predicting effects of aircraft noise on speech intelligibility outdoors.

  • 125.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress Recovery during Exposure to Nature Sound and Environmental Noise2010Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 1036-1046Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that visual impressions of natural compared with urban environments facilitate recovery after psychological stress. To test whether auditory stimulation has similar effects, 40 subjects were exposed to sounds from nature or noisy environments after a stressful mental arithmetic task. Skin conductance level (SCL) was used to index sympathetic activation, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) was used to index parasympathetic activation. Although HF HRV showed no effects, SCL recovery tended to be faster during natural sound than noisy environments. These results suggest that nature sounds facilitate recovery from sympathetic activation after a psychological stressor.

  • 126.
    Amaro Tisljarec, Deise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Adverse effects of psychotherapy: Outcomes of a combined Internet treatment for Social Anxiety Disorder.2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is a mental disorder with high prevalence but low treatment accessibility. A way to facilitate care to these patients is through Internet based treatment. As is the case of most psychological treatments, much has been studied about positive effects but there is a gap regarding adverse effects. This study seeks to fill this gap in the case of an Internet delivered treatment. From a total of 127 participants who took part in a treatment that combined attention biased modification (ABM) and Internet based cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT), 21 (16.5%) presented adverse effects. Most of the adverse effects were detected after participants had received iCBT (13.4%), and these were mostly related to deterioration of symptoms (5.5%), negative wellbeing (3.9%) and emergence of new symptoms (1.6%). Perceived side effects after attention training were less common (4.7%). A thematic analysis showed also that the techniques used in treatment, the lack of time to complete treatment and becoming aware with the impairments of the disorder and its consequences could influence the emergence of adverse effects.

  • 127.
    Amidani, Emilie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    ANSTÄLLNINGSOTRYGGHETENS KONSEKVENSER I SYDAFRIKA OCH SOCIALT STÖD SOM MODERATOR2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan kvantitativ anställningsotrygghet (oron för att förlora arbetet) samt kvalitativ anställningsotrygghet (oron för att förlora värdefulla aspekter av arbetet) och hälsa respektive arbetstrivsel. Vidare kontrollerades det för hur och om socialt stöd från chef och medarbetare hade en modererande effekt i denna relation. Resultat av hierarkiska regressionsanalyser visade att kvalitativ anställningsotrygghet predicerade lägre arbetstrivsel men inget samband med ohälsa erhölls. Socialt stöd visade sig inte heller ha någon modererande effekt på anställningsotrygghet. Socialt stöd från medarbetare hängde dock samman med högre arbetstrivsel men inte med hälsa, medan stöd från chef inte predicerade något av utfallen. Studien utgår från en enkätundersökning som gjordes 2006 på ABSA bank, en organisation inom den finansiella sektorn i Sydafrika. De anställdas reaktioner på osäkerhet är av grundläggande betydelse både ur ett hälso- och ett företagsledningsperspektiv.

  • 128.
    Aminoff Fyring, Maud
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lagom är bäst? Alkohol, åldrande och kognitiv förmåga2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats/Examensarbete
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa forskningsresultat har visat att en måttlig alkoholkonsumtion kan ha positiva effekter på den intellektuella kapaciteten när vi blir äldre. Effekten har dessutom visat sig vara starkare för kvinnor än för män. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka sambandet mellan alkoholkonsumtion, kön och den kognitiva förmågan i åldrandet. Data från projektet SNAC-Kungsholmen har använts. 229 män och 323 kvinnor mellan 60 och 96 år svarade på frågor om sina dryckesvanor. Kognitiv förmåga mättes med tre olika test. Sambandet mellan alkoholkonsumtion och kognitiv förmåga, när kontroll gjorts för ålder, visade endast signifikanta samband i verbal förmåga så att de med låg alkoholkonsumtion hade det sämsta ordförrådet. I jämförelse mellan högriskgruppen och övriga erhölls signifikant samband endast för kvinnor i minnestesten, där en lägre prestation kunde noteras för storkonsumenterna. Slutsatsen var att studien inte kunde ge belägg för alkoholens positiva effekter på den kognitiva förmågan i åldrandet, men en måttlig alkoholkonsumtion innebar inte heller någon risk.

  • 129. Amsberg, Susanne
    et al.
    Wijk, Ingrid
    Livheim, Fredrik
    Toft, Eva
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Anderbro, Therese
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for adult type 1 diabetes management: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2018Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikel-id e022234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Integrating diabetes self-management into daily life involves a range of complex challenges for affected individuals. Environmental, social, behavioural and emotional psychological factors influence the lives of those with diabetes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a stress management group intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) among adults living with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.

    Methods and analysis This study will use a randomised controlled trial design evaluating treatment as usual (TAU) and ACT versus TAU. The stress management group intervention will be based on ACT and comprises a programme divided into seven 2-hour sessions conducted over 14 weeks. A total of 70 patients who meet inclusion criteria will be recruited over a 2-year period with follow-up after 1, 2 and 5 years. The primary outcome measure will be HbA1c. The secondary outcome measures will be the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales, the Swedish version of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey, the Swedish version of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale, The Summary of Self-Care Activities, Acceptance Action Diabetes Questionnaire, Swedish Acceptance and Action Questionnaire and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. The questionnaires will be administered via the internet at baseline, after sessions 4 (study week 7) and 7 (study week 14), and 6, 12 and 24 months later, then finally after 5 years. HbA1c will be measured at the same time points. Assessment of intervention effect will be performed through the analysis of covariance. An intention-to-treat approach will be used. Mixed-model repeated measures will be applied to explore effect of intervention across all time points.

    Ethics and dissemination The study has received ethical approval (Dnr: 2016/14-31/1). The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications, conferences and reports to key stakeholders.

    Trial registration number NCT02914496; Pre-results.

  • 130.
    Anderbro, Therese Carin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Amsberg, Susanne
    Moberg, Erik
    Gonder-Frederick, Linda
    Adamson, Ulf
    Lins, Per-Eric
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    A longitudinal study of fear of hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 diabetes2018Ingår i: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism, E-ISSN 2398-9238, Vol. 1, nr 2, artikel-id e00013Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate fear of hypoglycaemia (FoH) longitudinally in a cross‐sectional study of adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Specifically, we investigated two subgroups of patients who over 4 years either showed a substantial increase or decrease in level of FoH to identify factors associated with changes in FoH.

    Methods: The Swedish version of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey (HFS) along with a questionnaire to assess hypoglycaemia history was sent by mail to 764 patients in 2010. The responders in 2010 (n = 469) received another set of the same two questionnaires in 2014. HbA1c, insulin regimen, weight and creatinine from 2010 and 2014 were obtained from medical records. Those with an absolute difference in HFS scores ≥ 75th percentile were included in the subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses included one‐sample t tests, chi‐square and McNemar's test.

    Results: The absolute difference in the HFS total score (n = 347) between 2010 and 2014 was m = ±7.6, SD ± 6. In the increased FoH group, more patients reported a high level of moderate hypoglycaemic episodes as well as impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia in 2014 compared with the decreased FoH group. There were more subjects in the increased FoH group with insulin pumps in 2014 and in 2010. In the decreased FoH group, more patients had a high frequency of daily self‐monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in 2010 and in 2014.

    Conclusions: Fear of hypoglycaemia is stable across time for most patients. Changes in fear level are associated with changes in hypoglycaemia frequency. Thus, asking patients about changes in hypoglycaemia experiences is of great importance.

  • 131.
    Anderbro, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Moberg, E.
    Gonder-Frederick, L.
    Lins, P.
    Adamson, U.
    Johansson, U.
    A longitudinal study of fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to investigate fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) longitudinally in adult patients with type 1 diabetes. Specifically, we investigated two subgroups of patients who over four years either showed a significantly higher or significantly lower level of FoH in order to identify factors associated with changes in FoH.

    Method

    The Swedish version of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) along with a questionnaire to assess hypoglycemia history (mild, moderate, nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia (SH), unawareness, and daytime/nocturnal self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG)) were sent by mail to 764 patients in 2010. The responders in 2010 (n=469) received another set of the same two questionnaires in 2014. A1c, insulin regimen, weight and creatinine from 2010 and 2014 were obtained from medical records. Those with an absolute difference in HFS scores ≥ 75th percentile were included in the subgroup analyses. Statistical analyses included one-sample t-tests and chi-square.

    Results

    The absolute difference in the HFS total score (n=359) between 2010 and 2014 was m=±7.6, SD ±6 (range -29 - +35). In the subgroup with increased FoH 2014 (n=45), more patients reported unawareness (76% vs 58%, Χ2= 5.05, p= 0.025) and a higher frequency of moderate hypoglycemia (52% v s 38%, Χ2= 3.93, p= 0.047) compared to 2010. In the group with decreased FoH (n=43), fewer patients reported going to the emergency department due to hypoglycemia in 2014 compared to 2010 (2% vs 14%, Χ2= 4.84, p= 0.028). There were no differences in the remaining hypoglycemia history variables or medical variables between 2010 and 2014. Between group analyzes show that in the decreased FoH group more patients have a high frequency of daily SMBG compared to the increased FoH group in 2010 (35% vs 17%, Χ2= 12.23, p= 0.00) and in 2014 (33% vs 13%, Χ2= 13.75, p= 0.00). In the increased FoH group more patients report a high level of mild (67% vs 49%,Χ2= 6.4, p= 0.011) and moderate (52% vs 23%,Χ2= 14.00, p= 0.00) hypoglycemic episodes as well as unawareness (76% vs 54%,Χ2= 11.37, p= 0.001) in 2014 compared with the decreased FoH group.

    Discussion

    To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study of FoH in patients with type 1 diabetes. Our study shows that FoH is stable across time for most patients although a number of patients show increased or decreased levels of FoH. The patients whose level of FoH increased experienced a higher frequency of moderate hypoglycemic episodes and more hypoglycemic unawareness in 2014.

  • 132.
    Anderbro, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Moberg, Erik
    Adamson, Ulf
    Lins, Per-Eric
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Beliefs and Experiences of Fear of Hypoglycemia and Use of Uncooked Cornstarch before Bedtime in Persons with Type 1-Diabetes2018Ingår i: Open Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2162-5336, E-ISSN 2162-5344, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikel-id 88624Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Among persons living with type 1-diabetes hypoglycemia and fear of hypoglycemia remain limiting barriers for achieving optimal glucose control and a good quality of life. Fear of hypoglycemia has been found stable over time if not treated. Uncooked cornstarch has been found to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia but has not been studied in relation to fear of hypoglycemia. The aims of this study were to through clinical data, self-reported measures and clinical interviews explore subjects’ experience of using uncooked cornstarch before bedtime and their beliefs and experiences of fear of hypoglycemia. Methods: Mixed methods with both quantitative and qualitative data were used. Self-reported measures of hypoglycemia and fear of hypoglycemia were compared to subjects’ responses during a clinical interview. The interviews were analyzed with a functional behavior analytical approach. Results: A total of five subjects took part in the study. One subject perceived the uncooked cornstarch helpful in reducing hypoglycemia. Several subjects could recall frightening hypoglycemic episodes triggering their fear. Three out of the five subjects reported avoidance behaviors such as excessive self-monitoring of blood glucose or overeating related to fear of hypoglycemia. Conclusions: The uncooked cornstarch was found appetizing but was not perceived as having an effect on BG or hypoglycemia frequency. The clinical interviews confirmed previous research regarding experience of hypoglycemia and fear of hypoglycemia.

  • 133.
    Anderbro, Therese
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Svirsky, Liv
    Par i beteendeterapi: förhållningssätt och metoder2014Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta med par ställer psykoterapeuten inför helt nya utmaningar. Den här boken ger teoretisk kunskap och praktiska instruktioner för att hjälpa par med relationssvårigheter. Metoden som presenteras utgår från den så kallade tredje vågens beteendeterapi och betonar vikten av acceptans. Boken visar hur bedömningen går till och hur behandlingen genomförs. Den ger också fylliga beskrivningar av acceptans- och förändringsstrategier och arbetets olika faser illustreras med hjälp av fallbeskrivningar och dialoger. Par i beteendeterapi är den första boken som presenterar metoden IBCT (Integrative Behavioural Couples Therapy) på svenska. Den vänder sig till KBT-behandlare som vill börja arbeta med par och till behandlare som redan arbetar med parterapi och vill öka sin kunskap om hur man kan göra det ur ett inlärningsteoretiskt perspektiv. Boken är även lämplig som kurslitteratur under utbildning.

  • 134.
    Anders, Silke
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. University of Tübingen, Germany; University of Lübeck, Germany.
    Eippert, Falk
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Birbaumer, Niels
    Lotze, Martin
    Wildgruber, Dirk
    When seeing outweighs feeling: a role for prefrontal cortex in passive control of negative affect in blindsight2009Ingår i: Brain, ISSN 0006-8950, E-ISSN 1460-2156, Vol. 132, nr 11, s. 3021-3031Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective neuroscience has been strongly influenced by the viewthat a ‘feeling’ is the perception of somatic changesand has consequently often neglected the neural mechanisms thatunderlie the integration of somatic and other information inaffective experience. Here, we investigate affective processingby means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in nine corticallyblind patients. In these patients, unilateral postgeniculatelesions prevent primary cortical visual processing in part ofthe visual field which, as a result, becomes subjectively blind.Residual subcortical processing of visual information, however,is assumed to occur in the entire visual field. As we have reportedearlier, these patients show significant startle reflex potentiationwhen a threat-related visual stimulus is shown in their blindvisual field. Critically, this was associated with an increaseof brain activity in somatosensory-related areas, and an increasein experienced negative affect. Here, we investigated the patients’response when the visual stimulus was shown in the sighted visualfield, that is, when it was visible and cortically processed.Despite the fact that startle reflex potentiation was similarin the blind and sighted visual field, patients reported significantlyless negative affect during stimulation of the sighted visualfield. In other words, when the visual stimulus was visibleand received full cortical processing, the patients’ phenomenalexperience of affect did not closely reflect somatic changes.This decoupling of phenomenal affective experience and somaticchanges was associated with an increase of activity in the leftventrolateral prefrontal cortex and a decrease of affect-relatedsomatosensory activity. Moreover, patients who showed strongerleft ventrolateral prefrontal cortex activity tended to showa stronger decrease of affect-related somatosensory activity.Our findings show that similar affective somatic changes canbe associated with different phenomenal experiences of affect,depending on the depth of cortical processing. They are in linewith a model in which the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortexis a relay station that integrates information about subcorticallytriggered somatic responses and information resulting from in-depthcortical stimulus processing. Tentatively, we suggest that theobserved decoupling of somatic responses and experienced affect,and the reduction of negative phenomenal experience, can beexplained by a left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-mediatedinhibition of affect-related somatosensory activity.

  • 135.
    Andersen, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Validering av RAADS: ett självskattningsinstrument för vuxna med misstänkt autismspektrumtillstånd2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Trots vetskap om att den kliniska bilden vid autismspektrumtillstånd (AST) förändras med åldern råder det brist på diagnostiska instrument som är specifikt designade för vuxna. Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale (RAADS) är en självskattningsskala utvecklad för detta syfte. Den svenska versionen av RAADS utvärderades i föreliggande studie med avseende på intern konsistens, diagnostisk validitet och samtidig validitet. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av 75 individer med högfungerande AST samt 200 kontroller utan AST. Därtill utfördes en preliminär analys av resultatens stabilitet över tid. Resultaten visar att fyra av sex delskalor hade en tillfredställande intern konsistens, att RAADS differentierade mellan gruppen med respektive utan AST med förhållandevis hög precision, samt att RAADS var högt och positivt korrelerad med Autism Spectrum Quotient. Detta pekar på att RAADS som helhet tycks fånga upp symptom som är relevanta för diagnosticering av AST hos vuxna. Framtida studier bör undersöka huruvida RAADS kan differentiera mellan olika psykiatriska diagnoser.

  • 136.
    Andersen, Lisa M. J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Näswall, Katharina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Manouilenko, Irina
    Nylander, Lena
    Edgar, Johan
    Ritvo, Riva Ariella
    Ritvo, Edward
    Bejerot, Susanne
    The Swedish Version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale: Revised (RAADS-R): A Validation Study of a Rating Scale for Adults2011Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 41, nr 12, s. 1635-1645Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of diagnostic instruments for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale-Revised (RAADS-R), an 80-item self-rating scale designed to assist clinicians diagnosing ASD in adults. It was administered to 75 adults with ASD and 197 comparison cases. Also, a subset completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Three out of four subscales had high internal consistency. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity was 93%. The ASD subjects had significantly higher mean scores on all subscales. ASD females had higher scores than ASD males on the sensory motor subscale, a dimension not included in the AQ. RAADS-R showed promising test re-test reliability.

  • 137. Anderson, Christopher J.
    et al.
    Bahník, Štěpán
    Barnett-Cowan, Michael
    Bosco, Frank A.
    Chandler, Jesse
    Chartier, Christopher R.
    Cheung, Felix
    Christopherson, Cody D.
    Cordes, Andreas
    Cremata, Edward J.
    Della Penna, Nicolas
    Estel, Vivien
    Fedor, Anna
    Fitneva, Stanka A.
    Frank, Michael C.
    Grange, James A.
    Hartshorne, Joshua K.
    Hasselman, Fred
    Henninger, Felix
    van der Hulst, Marije
    Jonas, Kai J.
    Lai, Calvin K.
    Levitan, Carmel A.
    Miller, Jeremy K.
    Moore, Katherine S.
    Meixner, Johannes M.
    Munafò, Marcus R.
    Neijenhuijs, Koen I.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nosek, Brian A.
    Plessow, Franziska
    Prenoveau, Jason M.
    Ricker, Ashley A.
    Schmidt, Kathleen
    Spies, Jeffrey R.
    Stieger, Stefan
    Strohminger, Nina
    Sullivan, Gavin B.
    van Aert, Robbie C. M.
    van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.
    Vanpaemel, Wolf
    Vianello, Michelangelo
    Voracek, Martin
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Response to Comment on "Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science"2016Ingår i: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 351, nr 6277, artikel-id 1037Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Gilbert et al. conclude that evidence from the Open Science Collaboration's Reproducibility Project: Psychology indicates high reproducibility, given the study methodology. Their very optimistic assessment is limited by statistical misconceptions and by causal inferences from selectively interpreted, correlational data. Using the Reproducibility Project: Psychology data, both optimistic and pessimistic conclusions about reproducibility are possible, and neither are yet warranted.

  • 138. Andersson, Annika
    et al.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marianne
    Language background affects online word order processing in a second language but not offline2019Ingår i: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 802-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines possible crosslinguistic influence on basic word order processing in a second language (L2). Targeting Swedish V2 word order we investigate adult German learners (+V2 in the L1) and English learners (-V2 in the L1) of Swedish who are matched for proficiency. We report results from two offline behavioural tasks (written production, metalinguistic judgements), and online processing as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). All groups showed sensitivity to word order violations behaviourally and neurocognitively. Behaviourally, the learners differed from the native speakers only on judgements. Crucially, they did not differ from each other. Neurocognitively, all groups showed a similar increased centro-parietal P600 ERP-effect, but German learners (+V2) displayed more nativelike anterior ERP-effects than English learners (-V2). The results suggest crosslinguistic influence in that the presence of a similar word order in the L1 can facilitate online processing in an L2 - even if no offline behavioural effects are discerned.

  • 139. Andersson, C.
    et al.
    Lindau, M.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Engfeldt, P.
    Johansson, S.E.
    Eriksdotter Jönhagen, M.
    Identifying patients at high and low risk for cognitive decline using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test among middle-aged memory clinic out-patients.2006Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, Vol. 21, s. 251-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate whether application of cutoff levels in an episodic memory test (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT) is a useful method for identifying patients at high and low risk of cognitive decline and subsequent dementia. Methods: 224 patients with memory complaints (mean age = 60.7 years, mean MMSE = 28.2) followed-up at a memory clinic over 3 years were assigned retrospectively to one of three memory groups from their baseline results in RAVLT [severe (SIM), moderate (MIM) or no impairment (NIM)]. These groups were investigated regarding cognitive decline. Results: Patients assigned to SIM showed significant cognitive decline and progressed to dementia at a high rate, while a normal performance in RAVLT at baseline (NIM) predicted normal cognition after 3 years. Patients with MIM constituted a heterogeneous group; some patients deteriorated cognitively, while the majority remained stable or improved. Conclusions: The application of cutoff levels in RAVLT at baseline showed that patients with severely impaired RAVLT performance were at a high risk of cognitive decline and progression to dementia, while patients with normal RAVLT results did not show cognitive decline during 3 years. Furthermore, the initial degree of memory impairment was decisive in the cognitive prognosis 3 years later.

  • 140. Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Enander, Jesper
    Andrén, Per
    Hedman, Erik
    Ljótsson, Brjánn
    Hursti, Timo
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm,.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Lindefors, Nils
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Rück, Christian
    Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled trial2012Ingår i: Psychological Medicine, ISSN 0033-2917, E-ISSN 1469-8978, Vol. 42, nr 10, s. 2193-2203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) but access to CBT is limited. Internet-based CBT (ICBT) with therapist support is potentially a more accessible treatment. There are no randomized controlled trials testing ICBT for OCD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for OCD in a randomized controlled trial.

    Method Participants (n=101) diagnosed with OCD were randomized to either 10 weeks of ICBT or to an attention control condition, consisting of online supportive therapy. The primary outcome measure was the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) administered by blinded assessors.

    Results Both treatments lead to significant improvements in OCD symptoms, but ICBT resulted in larger improvements than the control condition on the YBOCS, with a significant between-group effect size (Cohen's d) of 1.12 (95% CI 0.69–1.53) at post-treatment. The proportion of participants showing clinically significant improvement was 60% (95% CI 46–72) in the ICBT group compared to 6% (95% CI 1–17) in the control condition. The results were sustained at follow-up.

    Conclusions ICBT is an efficacious treatment for OCD that could substantially increase access to CBT for OCD patients. Replication studies are warranted.

  • 141. Andersson, Evelyn
    et al.
    Rück, Christian
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Hedman, Erik
    Schalling, Martin
    Lindefors, Nils
    Eriksson, Elias
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Furmark, Tomas
    Genetic Polymorphisms in Monoamine Systems and Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 11, artikel-id e79015Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The role of genetics for predicting the response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) has only been studied in one previous investigation. The serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR), the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met, and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703Tpolymorphisms are implicated in the regulation of amygdala reactivity and fear extinction and therefore might be of relevance for CBT outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate if these three gene variants predicted response to CBT in a large sample of SAD patients.

    Method

    Participants were recruited from two separate randomized controlled CBT trials (trial 1: n = 112, trial 2: n = 202). Genotyping were performed on DNA extracted from blood or saliva samples. Effects were analyzed at follow-up (6 or 12 months after treatment) for both groups and for each group separately at post-treatment. The main outcome measure was the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale Self-Report.

    Results

    At long-term follow-up, there was no effect of any genotype, or gene × gene interactions, on treatment response. In the subsamples, there was time by genotype interaction effects indicating an influence of the TPH2 G-703T-polymorphism on CBT short-term response, however the direction of the effect was not consistent across trials.

    Conclusions

    None of the three gene variants, 5-HTTLPR, COMTval158met and TPH2 G-703T, was associated with long-term response to CBT for SAD.

  • 142.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Does valuation of music relate to attachment style?2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about how the quality of one’s relationships might relate to how important a person thinks music is. By combining three established psychological phenomena - the need to belong, transference of attachment and aesthetic emotions - a novel research field addressing this was deducted and explored. A web-survey with self-report scales on attachment styles, belongingness and valuation of music was distributed both publicly via Facebook and targeted to psychology students at Stockholm University per e-mail. 141 surveys were returned. Good to excellent internal consistencies were obtained for all scales. Ambivalent and disorganized attachment styles correlated positively up to medium strength with measures related to valuation of music. A following ANOVA between attachment style groups supported the results of the correlation analysis. The results provide some tentative support for the deducted explanation. 

  • 143. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindefors, Nils
    The use of the Internet in the treatment of anxiety disorders2005Ingår i: Current Opinion in Psychiatry, ISSN 0951-7367, E-ISSN 1473-6578, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 73-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 144. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Bergström, Jan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Holländare, Fredrik
    Carlbring, Per
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Internet-based self-help for depression: randomised controlled trial2005Ingår i: British Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0007-1250, E-ISSN 1472-1465, Vol. 187, nr 5, s. 456-461Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 145.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet och Karolinska Instutet.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Behandling via internet2016Ingår i: Socialt arbete och internet: att förstå och hantera sociala problem på nya arenor / [ed] Kristian Daneback, Emma Sorbring, Stockholm: Liber, 2016, s. 215-225Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom det sociala arbetets praktik ser vi en ökad närvaro av internetrelaterade problem. Samtidigt föredrar allt fler människor webbaserad hjälp, samt råd och stöd i relation till mer traditionella behandlings- och preventionsprogram, vilket öppnar för nya möjligheter för det sociala arbetet.

  • 146. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Enduring effects of ICBT2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted on internet interventions. In addition to the effects observed in these trials immediately after treatment there are several long-term follow-ups. The aim of this talk is to review the long-term effects of internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) with a focus on results at 1-year or later following treatment termination.

    Methods: We were able to locate examples of enduring effects for a range of conditions including mood and anxiety disorders and somatic disorders. The longest follow-up period has been five years.

    Results: Large within-group effects have been documented in most trials, with effects sizes being moderate to large for anxiety and depression studies.

    Discussion: Studies have failed to document how much the treatment is used during the follow-up period and in the case of depression it is unclear if episodes of depression have occured during the period covered. We conclude that the effects of ICBT appear to be enduring but that more research is needed.

  • 147. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Factorial Trial Design in Internet Intervention Research2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of Behavioural & Cognitive Therapies: Volume I. Research, Applied Issues / [ed] Thomas Heidenreich, Philip Tata, Tübingen: dgvt-Verlag , 2019, Vol. 1, s. 155-156Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous controlled trials have been published on the effects of internet-delivered psychological treatments for a range of problems and disorders. Generally, trials adhere to the CONSORT statement and include control groups. Often this is attention control, waitlist but also alternative treatments. In experimental psychology factorial designs is the common way to investigate research questions but in psychotherapy research this is rare given the need for large samples in order to have sufficient power to detect differntial effects of  independent variables (like for example different versions of a treatment). With the advent of internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) this has changes and it is now possible to run trials with larger samples. At the same time there is really no need for more studies showing that a treatment is better than just waiting (for some areas at least like depression). In this talk we will present result from three completed factorial design trials in which we have manipulated support form (on demand versus scheduled in one trial and chat-support versus just email in another), and also other aspects like learning support and choice of treatment. The talk will end with a discussion on future directions of ICBT research with regards to design of trials.

  • 148. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Förord2013Ingår i: Internetbehandling med KBT: en praktisk handbok / [ed] Kristofer Vernmark, Jonas Bjärehed, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Internetbaserad KBT ger tillgång till fungerande behandling för psykisk ohälsa på patientens villkor. Metoden har utvecklats i snabb takt genom utbredda forskningsinsatser, där Sverige kan betraktas som världsledande inom området.

    Internetbehandling med KBT ger en grundlig genomgång av behandlingsarbetet med betoning på praktiska aspekter och tillämpningen i olika verksamheter. Särskilt fokus ligger på att skapa ett fungerande behandlingsupplägg, praktiska förberedelser, behandlarens roll och viktiga terapeutfärdigheter samt hur vanliga svårigheter hanteras. Läsaren får också en teoretisk orientering, kunskap om befintligt forskningsstöd och vilka fördelar metoden har för patienter, behandlare och verksamheter. Fallexempel, checklistor och annat praktiskt material gör boken till ett mycket användbart hjälpmedel.

  • 149. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-Assisted Cognitive Behavioral Therapy2017Ingår i: Psychiatric Clinics of North America, ISSN 0193-953X, E-ISSN 1558-3147, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 689-700Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet, including modern information technology, has had a dramatic impact on many areas of life, including health care and psychological treatment. In particular, cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) has been found to be a form of psychological treatment that has been possible to transfer to other modes of delivery than regular face-to-face and group formats. The Internet is not only useful for providing CBT, but has a significant role in providing information about CBT and conditions that are treated using CBT. In addition, modern information technology also has a major role in assessment procedures, such as online administration of self-report mea- sures. In this article, we focus mainly on Internet-supported treatments, although another emerging format is to use video conferencing systems and conduct real- time face-to-face CBT, CBT training, or supervision.

  • 150. Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi.
    Internet-based brief therapies2018Ingår i: The art and science of brief psychotherapies: A Practioner's Guide / [ed] Mantosh J. Dewan, Brett N. Steenbarger, Roger P. Greenberg, Arlington: American Psychiatric Association , 2018, 3, s. 315-325Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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