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  • 101.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    From Design and Collection to Annotation of a Learner Corpus of Sign Language2018Ingår i: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, European Language Resources Association, 2018, s. 121-126Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to present part of the project “From Speech to Sign – learning Swedish Sign Language as a second language” which include a learner corpus that is based on data produced by hearing adult L2 signers. The paper describes the design of corpus building and the collection of data for the Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2). Another component of ongoing work is the creation of a specialized annotation scheme for SSLC-L2, one that differs somewhat from the annotation work in Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC), where the data is based on performance by L1 signers. Also, we will account for and discuss the methodology used to annotate L2 structures.

  • 102.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Use of non-manual mouth actions in L1 and L2 signers based on data from two different SL corpora (SSLC and SSLC-L2)2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation focuses on non-manual mouth actions performed by deaf signers and adult second language (L2) learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The discussion of the linguistic status of mouth actions in the literature motivates our work and study. Based data from SSLC (Swedish Sign Language Corpus) (Mesch & Wallin 2015) and SSLC-L2 (L2 learner corpus in SSL) (Mesch & Schönström 2018), we compare the use of mouth actions in L1 as well as L2learners. The presentation will also describe the annotation work of non-manual mouth actions. The annotation and analysis depart from Crasborn et al.’s (2008) categories of mouth actions that have been applied to several sign languages. Distribution, frequency and spreading patterns of use of mouth actions are observed and described. The results reveal some similarities as well as differences in use of mouth actions between the groups. Furthermore, the analysis reveals qualitative differences related to the interaction and synchronization of mouth actions and hand movements among L2 learners of SSL. Challenges of annotating mouth actions will also be discussed. 

  • 103.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Larsson, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Use of ENTITY, HANDLE and DESCRIPTOR in L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language2018Ingår i: Sign CAFÉ 1: The first international workshop on cognitive and functional explorations in sign language linguistics, 2018, s. 27-28Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In our paper, we describe the acquisition of classifier constructions of L2 learners of SSL. Previous studies show that learning a sign language, contributes a high degree of iconically motivated lexicon and enable L2 learners to gesturally imitate the tasks or events from stimulus in an elicited narrative task. However, despite of this “gestural advantage”, L2 learners have been reported to differ in the phonological structure of iconically motivated lexical signs (e.g. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). In addition, regarding the L2 acquisition of the classifier constructions, it has been shown that the location seems to be acquired before the handshape parameter (e.g. Marshall & Morgan, 2015). However, research on this area is limited, especially on authentic data, i.e. corpus-based studies on L2 acquisition. In our study, the use of classifier constructions by L2 learners at different developmental stages using SSL was investigated. The corpus consists of a set of longitudinal data of adult L2-learners’ signed production. In total, the corpus consists of 20:38 hours of data from 38 learners, along with a control cohort consisting of 9 L1 signers ( 01:22 hours). For this study, a sampled annotated data, consists of 05:55 hours of a video retelling of a movie clip “The plank” from 23 learners, at two phases i.e. six months after course onset (N=14), and 1.5 years after onset (N=9), was analyzed. Comparisons to an L1 cohort (9 fluent signers) was made. Specifically, three broad types of classifier constructions were analyzed: ENTITY (entity handshapes), HANDLE (handle handshapes), and DESCRIPTOR (size and shape descriptive handshapes) (c.f. Schembri, 2003). A total of 779 tokens were identified and analyzed. The results show that the L2 learners tend to differ in the use in comparison with the L1 signers. First, L1 signers use classifier constructions to a greater extent (Table 1). Second, there were some qualitative differences with the regard of use. For example, in respect of HANDLE, simultaneous use of two separate handshape units were more common in L1 signers. Concerning ENTITY, the handshapes were more identically used across the groups, apart fromthe handshape unit representing ‘human being’. The third type: DESCRIPTOR, was more identically used within the L1 group, whereas the use of handshapes and movements varied in the L2 group. The study assumes that this finding can be explained by the way L2 learners imitate task events in comparison to L1 signers. Implications for the acquisition of classifier constructions in terms of conventionalism and L2 acquisition will be discussed.

  • 104.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 105.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    From meaning to signs and back: Lexicography and the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2012Ingår i: 5thWorkshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Interactions between Corpus and Lexicon: Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC)Istanbul, May 2012, 2012, s. 127-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we will present the advantages of having a reference dictionary, and how having a corpus makes dictionary making easier and more effective. It also gives a new perspective on sign entries in the dictionary, for example, if a sign uses one or two hands, or which meaning “genuine signs” have, and it helps find a model for categorization of polysynthetic signs that is not found in the dictionary. Categorizing glosses in the corpus work has compelled us to revisit the dictionary to add signs from the corpus that are not already in the dictionary and to improve sign entries already in the dictionary based on insights that have been gained while working on the corpus.

  • 106.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Gloss annotations in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2015Ingår i: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, E-ISSN 1569-9811, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 102-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) was compiled during the years 2009–2011 and consists of video-recorded conversations with 42 informants between the ages of 20 and 82 from three separate regions in Sweden. The overall aim of the project was to create a corpus of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) that could provide a core data source for research on language structure and use, as well as for dictionary work. A portion of the corpus has been annotated with glosses for signs and Swedish translations, and annotation of the entire corpus is ongoing. In this paper, we outline our scheme for gloss annotation and discuss issues that are relevant in creating the annotation system, with unique glosses for lexical signs, fingerspelling and productive signs. The annotation guidelines discussed in this paper cover both one- and two-handed signs in SSL, based on 33,600 tokens collected for the SSLC.

  • 107.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The non-dominant hand as delimitation between inner element and outer element2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies, Liddell (2003), Liddell, Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman (2004), Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman (2007) and Nilsson (2007) described buoys in American, Norwegian and Swedish sign languages, as in the list buoy, THEME buoy, POINTER buoy and point buoy. Common to all of these is that they are realized with the non-dominant hand or weak hand, which “are held in a stationary configuration as the strong hand continues producing signs” (Liddell, 2003:223).

    In this paper, we present an additional sign (usually consisting of all fingers relaxed gathered and slightly bent at both distal knuckles with the thumb in opposition, or lateral), which, with respect to performance, matches the description of other buoys but differs in function/content from previously described buoys with the partial exception of POINT-B (Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman, 2007). In the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, we have tentatively annotated this sign as DELIMIT (translated from the Swedish AVGRÄNS) because, in our initial analysis (of 84 preliminary tokens on 45 annotated texts (of dialogue) with 26 informants of different ages and genders), the sign seems to represent a form of delimitation between an “inner” element – represented by the space in front of the hand’s palmar side – and an “outer” element – represented by the space in front of the hand’s dorsal side – as if someone is inside and another is outside, or there is an island surrounded by sea.

    A typical example using DELIMIT is shown in the series of pictures below (see figure 1). The (left-handed) informant is initially describing a comic strip about a lonely man on an island with a palm tree in the middle of the sea. The first photograph shows the dominant hand performing the sign of the island (O-hand is moved up) with the non-dominant hand initiating the execution of DELIMIT, which is completed in the second photograph, while the dominant index hand is making a circular motion in the space in front of palmar side of DELIMIT, which now represents the inner elements, or the island. After the third photograph, in which the dominant hand is performing the sign of the sea, the following three photographs show the informant describing the sea as an outer element by using the dominant hand to make a sweeping motion forward past DELIMIT's dorsal side – further in front of DELIMIT – and ending on the contralateral side of the space.

    DELIMIT is typically carried out in the space in front of the body. However, one example in our data uses the neck as the location for DELIMIT by representing the space beneath the non-dominant hand with the palmar side down for the chest and downwards, and the dorsal side of the space above the hand for the head.

    Together  the buoys described in this presentation show how the use of the non-dominant hand can be regarded as more important at the discourse level than the dominant hand in individual signs, and thus, is not particularly “weak” at all.  

      …

    Figure 1.

    References:

    Bergman, B. & Vogt-Svendsen, M. 2007. Point buoys. The weak hand as a point of reference for time and space. In Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson, L. & Crasborn, O. (eds.), Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Liddell, S. K. 2003. Grammar, Gesture and Meaning in American Sign Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Liddell, S. K., Vogt-Svendsen, M. & Bergman, B. 2007. A crosslinguistic comparison of buoys. Evidence from American, Norwegian, and Swedish Sign Language. In Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson, L. & Crasborn, O. (eds.), Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Nilsson, A-L. 2007. The non-dominant hand in a Swedish Sign Language discourse. In Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson, L. & Crasborn, O. (eds.), Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Mesch, J., Wallin, L., Nilsson, A-L. & Bergman, B. 2012. Datamängd. Projektet Korpus för det svenska teckenspråket 2009-2011 (version 1). Avdelningen för teckenspråk, Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet. (http://www.ling.su.se/teckensprakskorpus)

  • 108.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Use of sign language materials in teaching2008Ingår i: Construction and Exploitation of Sign Language Corpora / [ed] Crasborn, Onno et al (eds), LREC2008 , 2008, , s. pp. 134-137Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 109.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Sign Language Resources in Sweden: Dictionary and Corpus2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Interactions between Corpus and Lexicon, 2012, s. 127-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign language resources are necessary tools for adequately serving the needs of learners, teachers and researchers of signed languages. Among these resources, the Swedish Sign Language Dictionary was begun in 2008 and has been in development ever since. Today, it has approximately 8,000 sign entries. The Swedish Sign Language Corpus is also an important resource, but it is of a very different kind than the dictionary. Compiled during the years 2009–2011, the corpus consists of video recorded conversations among 42 informants aged between 20 and 82, from three separate regions in Sweden. With 14 % of the corpus having been annotated with glosses for signs, it comprises total of approximately 3,600 different signs occurring about 25,500 times (tokens) in the 42 annotated sign language discourses/video files. As these two resources sprang from different starting points, they are independent from each other; however, in the late phases of building the corpus the importance of combining work from the two became evident. This presentation will show the development of these two resources and the advantages of combining them.

     

  • 110.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Den framstående idrottsmannen Johan Alfred Selenius Dahlström2013Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 111.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Den medelpadska dövhistorien: Från Sundsvallsbranden till Sundsvallsbron2018Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 112.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Den uppländska dövhistorien: Profiler, pionjärer och dövas föreningsliv i Uppland2017Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 113. Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Dövidrottens historia 200 år: dess utveckling och betydelse2010 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 114.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Samarbete är vår styrka: Från Nordiska Dövstummas Idrottsförbund till Nordiska Baltiska Dövidrottsförbundet 1912-20122014Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 115.
    Mesch, Urban
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The Deaf Sport Movement in Europe: Deaf Sport Without Borders2018Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The European Deaf Sport Organisation (EDSO), formed 1983, is an umbrella organisation for the entire European sports movement for the deaf and hearing-impaired. EDSO consists of deaf national sport associations in 40 European countries. This book describes the development and significance of European deaf sport as well as its organizational development. The content is based on information from minutes, business reports, newspapers, EDSO bulletins and archive documents, and more importantly, on interviews with those involved in EDSO. The book offers an inspiring picture of the history of European cooperation in the form of competitions and sports meetings.

  • 116.
    Mårtensson, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Temabojen i svenskt teckenspråk: Form och användning2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns endast ett fåtal dokumenterade förekomster av temabojen i svenskt teckenspråk. Dessa förekomster har observerats i deskriptiva texter av monologtyp med en och samma informant.

    Målet med studien är att, för det första, undersöka om det tecken som kallas temaboj förekommer mer utbrett i svenskt teckenspråk. För det andra, i så fall beskriva temabojens form och användning i dessa förekomster och jämföra dessa med de tidigare beskrivningar som finns gällande temabojen i amerikanskt, norskt och svenskt teckenspråk.

    Bojar är tecken som utförs med den icke-dominanta handen och hålls kvar medan den dominanta handen samtidigt fortsätter att producera tecken. Bojarnas funktion är att vägleda lyssnaren i texten, att lyfta fram det centrala, att ge struktur och stöd i förståelsen av texten. Det finns ett antal olika bojtyper beskrivna, med olika egenskaper och användningssätt.

    Temabojen är ett tecken som markerar ett viktigt tema i texten. Det kan till exempel vara en händelse, företeelse eller person som är central i sammanhanget. Temabojen är self-blending vilket innebär att när den utförs blir den en fysisk representation av det som den samtidigt markerar i texten.

    Pekboj och punktboj beskrivs också eftersom formlikheten ibland kan göra att det svårt att avgöra vilken bojtyp som utförs.

    Svensk teckenspråkskorpus används som material för studien. I sju av de fyrtiotre publicerade texterna förekommer tecken som efter analys bedöms vara exempel på temabojen. Dessa sju texter är dialoger. Av de tio informanter som deltar i dialogerna är det sex stycken som vid ett eller flera tillfällen, i en eller flera texter, använder temabojen. Detta resulterar i totalt tretton förekomster som dokumenteras och beskrivs i studien.

    Slutsatsen är att temabojen används i svenskt teckenspråk på ett sätt som överensstämmer med tidigare beskrivningar. Vissa användningssätt som tidigare inte dokumenterats i svenskt teckenspråk har identifierats här. 

    Gällande blickriktningens betydelse och gränsdragning mellan olika bojtyper skulle fördjupade studier behövas.

  • 117.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    False Friends and Their Influence on Sign Language Interpreting.2005Ingår i: Advances in Teaching Sign Language Interpreters, Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press: Washington D.C. , 2005, s. 170-186Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 118.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Form and discourse function of the pointing toward the chest in Swedish Sign Language2004Ingår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 3-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this study is a sign glossed index-c, a point toward the signer’s chest, and its use in Swedish Sign Language. The sign has often been referred to as the first person pronoun of Swedish Sign Language, and it has been claimed that index-c is only used for non-first person reference in reported speech (Wallin 1987; Ahlgren 1991; Simper-Allen 1999). In the analyzed material, however, index-c is also used for non-first person reference when the actions and thoughts of a referent are rendered. A closer look also made it clear that there are actually two different forms of index-c, with different distribution, and that there appears to be an indefinite pronoun in Swedish Sign Language. What is presented here is thus an analysis of the use and meaning of two forms of the sign that was initially glossed index-c.

  • 119.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Real Space blends in Swedish Sign Language as an indicator of discourse complexity in relation to interpreting2010Ingår i: Studies in Swedish Sign Language: Reference, Real Space Blending, and Interpretation, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2010Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 120.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Spatial Strategies in Descriptive Discourse: Use of Signing Space in Swedish Sign Language2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the use of signing space, especially the potential relationship between the structure and function of the discourse. Data comes from a ten minute long, descriptive Swedish Sign Language monologue, where the signer retells parts of an autobiography. A native signer, who has not read the book, is sitting next to the camera as the addressee. This video recording was originally made for testing the interpreting skills of a group of professional sign language interpreters, and the signer did not know at the time that her signing would be the object of analysis. As the book she has read has both a main character and several other animate referents, the discourse contains frequent reference to these persons, and to their feelings, opinions, actions, and interactions. The general theoretical framework is that of Cognitive Linguistics, in particular Real Space blending (Liddell, 2003). The discourse is characterized by a complex interaction between discourse content and the signer’s use of signing space. Providing background and orienting material regarding the author, the signer uses the area to her left for meaningfully directed signs. In contrast, rendering the life of the author, as described in the book, the area in front of the signer is used for meaningfully directed signs. In sequences told from narrator’s perspective, in which signs are typically directed to the left, token blends dominate. In sequences with rapid switching between narrator’s perspective and discourse character’s perspective, signs are directed forward. Such sequences also abound with rapid switching between token blends and surrogate blends. Moreover, in token spaces containing more than one token, the tokens are frequently stacked in one area in signing space, rather than on opposite sides. Surrogates turn out to be used not only for constructed dialogue, but also for constructed action and thought, even for referents that are non-specific. The functionality of indexing in this discourse will also be discussed in some detail in this volume.

  • 121.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The new challenge: interpreting what was never said2011Ingår i: Synergy: Moving Forward Together: efsli 2010 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Christopher Stone and Robert Adam, European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters , 2011, s. 6-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As signed language interpreters we usually work between one spoken language and one signed. These two types of language differ in many aspects, possibly the most noticeable being the fact that in signed languages signs can be meaningfully directed in space. According to earlier research you have to identify referents before you can use ”placement”, ”role shift”, ”verb agreement”, etc. Recent research on several signed languages, however, has shown that a signer does not have to identify a person or a thing before talking about what he/she/it does. Instead, the addressee uses several types of knowledge that are common to him/her and the signer to identify the referents. In this paper we will look at an actual example of signed discourse, and discuss how we identify referents when no lexical sign has been produced to help us. Do we always have the same knowledge as the signer (or the speaker) and the addressee? If not, how can we do our job? We will discuss the types of knowledge signed language interpreters need to be equipped with in order to produce accurate interpretations as well as how to get access to this knowledge.

  • 122.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The new challenge: interpreting what was never said2012Ingår i: Developing the Interpreter; Developing the Profession: Proceedings of the ASLI Conference 2010 / [ed] Jules Dickinson, Christopher Stone, Coleford, Gloucestershire: Douglas McLean Publishing , 2012, s. 28-38Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As signed language interpreters we usually work between one spoken language and one signed. These two types of language differ in many aspects, possibly the most noticeable being the fact that in signed languages signs can be meaningfully directed in space. According to earlier research you have to identify referents before you can use ”placement”, ”role shift”, ”verb agreement”, etc. Recent research on several signed languages, however, has shown that a signer does not have to identify a person or a thing before talking about what he/she/it does. Instead, the addressee uses several types of knowledge that are common to him/her and the signer to identify the referents. In this paper we will look at an actual example of signed discourse, and discuss how we identify referents when no lexical sign has been produced to help us. Do we always have the same knowledge as the signer (or the speaker) and the addressee? If not, how can we do our job? We will discuss the types of knowledge signed language interpreters need to be equipped with in order to produce accurate interpretations as well as how to get access to this knowledge.

  • 123.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The non-dominant hand in a Swedish Sign Language Discourse2007Ingår i: Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function / [ed] Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson. L, Crasborn, O, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company , 2007, s. 163-185Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Signed language users can draw on a range of articulators when expressing linguistic messages, including the hands, torso, eye gaze, and mouth. Sometimes these articulators work in tandem to produce one lexical item while in other instances they operate to convey different types of information simultaneously. Over the past fifteen years, there has been a growing interest in the issue of simultaneity in signed languages. However, this book is the first to offer a comprehensive treatment of this topic, presenting a collection of papers dealing with different aspects of simultaneity in a range of related and unrelated signed languages, in descriptive and cross-linguistic treatments which are set in different theoretical frameworks. This volume has relevance for those interested in sign linguistics, in teaching and learning signed languages, and is also highly recommended to anyone interested in the fundamental underpinnings of human language and the effects of signed versus spoken modality.

  • 124.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Third Language Interpreting:: From Necessity Towards Perfection.2009Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 125.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Undervisning i kognitiv teckenspråksteori: analys och ett förslag till utveckling.2012Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste tio åren har forskningen om svenskt teckenspråk, och i förlängningen även undervisningen i ämnet ’Teckenspråk’ kommit att få en delvis förändrad teoretisk förankring och inriktning. I flera avseenden har den tidigare basen i generativ lingvistik gradvis övergivits, och olika delar av kognitiv lingvistik har istället kommit att tillämpas.

    Det framgår klart av såväl kursvärderingar som diskussioner med studenterna att vissa begrepp inom kognitiv lingvistik, och att tillämpa dem, upplevs som särskilt problematiska. Då mycket ny, intressant forskning (såväl i Sverige som utomlands) sker inom denna teoretiska inriktning är det samtidigt angeläget att våra studenter tillägnar sig kunskap om den. Det är därför viktigt att vi hittar sätt att göra kursernas innehåll mer lättillgängligt.

    Med utgångspunkt i detta behandlas följande frågeställningar:

    • Vilka tröskelbegrepp och/eller vilken ”besvärlig kunskap” möter våra studenter i kurserna ’Kognitiv teckenspråksteori I’ och ’Kognitivi teckenspråksteori II’?
    • Vilka undervisningsformer och vilken typ av feedback kan på bästa sätt hjälpa studenterna förbi dessa hinder?
    • Hur kan kurserna på bästa sätt hjälpa studenter till en utveckling mot self-regulated learning?

    I detta PM analyseras och problematiseras undervisningspraktiska frågeställningar inom ämnet utifrån aktuell universitetspedagogisk forskning och handbokslitteratur. Desutom identifieras pedagogiska utvecklingsområden och jag ger förslag på lösningar som kan förbättra studenters lärande i ämnet.

  • 126.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Use of signing space in simultanous sign language interpretation: Marking discourse structure with the body2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental difference between signed and spoken languages is that in signed languages the signer uses the three dimensional space in front of him/her (signing space) and his/her own body for reference and cohesion. According to recent studies of signed languages (e.g. Liddell, 2003; Liddell, Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman, 2007; Nilsson, 2010; Dudis, 2011; Ferrara, 2011; Thumann, 2011) such linguistic tools make use of the conceptual blending process (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002).

    Optimal use of signing space is dependent on the signer’s knowledge of what s/he is going to talk about. In a simultaneous interpreting situation, both the content and the structure of the discourse become known to the interpreter only gradually. Thus, it is difficult for an interpreter working simultaneously into a signed language to know how to best structure the discourse, as there is no way s/he can know exactly what the speaker will say next. To date, there are only a few studies regarding use of signing space in simultaneously interpreted signed language (see, however, e.g. Frasu, 2007; Nicodemus, 2009; Armstrong, 2011; Goswell, 2011).

    In the present study, Swedish Sign Language (SSL) interpreters have been filmed when interpreting from spoken Swedish into SSL. Both interpreters whose first language is SSL (L1 interpreters) and those who are second language learners of SSL (L2 interpreters) have been recorded. Their signed language production is studied using a model based in Conceptual Blending Theory, and mainly analyzing use of Real Space Blending (Liddell, 2003), focusing on how they use signing space and their body to mark the discourse structure. Does the interpreting situation make interpreters use fewer of the linguistic tools available, or use them differently than in spontaneously produced SSL (as described in e.g. Bergman, 2007; Nilsson, 2010; Sikström, 2011)?

    The unexpected findings of a preliminary analysis indicate striking differences both in how and how much the recorded L1 and L2 interpreters use their body, especially regarding the use of movements of the upper body. In this presentation, I will show how the L1 interpreters structure the discourse content using buoys and tokens (Liddell, 2003) in a highly visual interplay with body movements. Buoys and tokens are combined with e.g. sideway movements and rotations of the upper body, thereby marking the structure of the discourse. The L1 interpreters move their upper body in a manner that gives a relaxed and natural impression, frequently e.g. raising their shoulders as part of sign production. Despite finding out the discourse content only gradually, and while already rendering their interpretation of what has been said so far, they manage to produce signed discourse that is strikingly similar to spontaneously produced SSL discourse. In comparison, as we will see, the L2 interpreters generally move their upper body less, and they use fewer buoys and tokens. Their use of directions in signing space to indicate e.g. contrast and/or comparisons is more stereotypical, and their body movements do not reflect the structure of the discourse to the same extent.

  • 127.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives2014Ingår i: Teaching and Learning Signed Languages: International Perspectives and Practices / [ed] David McKee, Russell S. Rosen & Rachel McKee, Basingstoke: Palgrave , 2014, s. 11-34Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides historical perspective on the teaching and learning of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2).We describe the development of teaching of SSL,and then discuss groups learning SSL as L2: interpreters, hearing parents of deaf children, hearing-impaired (HI) persons, and children with cochlear implants (CI). We provide early results from a pilot study regarding SSL use in the HI and CI group from a L2 perspective. The chapter shows how the context for SSL learning is changing: the number of deaf people acquiring SSL as L1 is decreasing, while the number of people learning SSL as L2 is increasing. We consider implications for the future of SSL and SSL teaching in a changing society.

  • 128.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Turner, Graham H.
    Sheikh, Haaris
    Dean, Robyn
    A Prescription for Change: Report on EU Healthcare Provision for Deaf Sign Language Users.2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During 2010-2012, a Leonardo da Vinci-funded EU project focused on enhancing the language skills of Deaf people, interpreters and Health Care Professionals. Project partners from Cyprus, Ireland, Poland, Scotland and Sweden reviewed current knowledge of policy and practice, and embedded the resulting analysis into a programme of materials to support reflection, knowledge and skills development internationally. This report presents the project's initial 'state-of-the-art' review, with particular reference to the partner countries.

  • 129.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Gustafson-Capková, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    SWE-CLARIN partner presentation: Natural Language Processing Resources from the Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University2014Ingår i: The first Swedish national SWE-CLARIN workshop: LT-based e-HSS in Sweden – taking stock and looking ahead / [ed] Lars Borin, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the CLARIN Research Infrastructure and SWE-CLARIN is to facilitate for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to access primary data in the form of natural language, and to provide tools for exploring, annotating and analysing these data. This paper gives an overview of the resources and tools developed at the Department of Linguistics at Stockholm University planned to be made available within the SWE-CLARIN project. The paper also outlines our collaborations with neighbouring areas in the humanities and social sciences where these resources and tools will be put to use.

  • 130.
    Ottersten, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Andraspråksinlärares användning av olika verbtyper i det svenska teckenspråket2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Andraspråksinlärare använder speciella regler vid inlärningen av ett nytt språk. Det finns många teorier som beskriver hur. Interimspråkshypotesen och performansanalysen ligger till grund för denna undersökning. Verb är en av ordklasserna i svenska språket och specifikt för verb är att man kan uttrycka tempus. I teckenspråket kan verb ha formen fasta och polysyntetiska tecken, i både icke modifierad och modifierad form. Tidigare undersökningar (bl.a. Stenberg 2009) har fokuserat på de fel andraspråksanvändarna gör och har hittat att förenkling är den vanligast förekommande kategorin. Denna uppsats studerar hur informanterna använder verb. De använder främst fasta tecken för verb men efter mer undervisningstid använder de mer polysyntetiska tecken. Komplexiteten hos verb verkar öka från fasta till modifierade tecken och de polysyntetiska tecknen är de svåraste, i likhet med tyska studier. Man kan se generella likheter med interimspråkets teorier.

  • 131. Puupponen, Anna
    et al.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The alignment of head nods with syntactic units in Finnish Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language2016Ingår i: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2016 / [ed] Jon Barnes, Alejna Brugos, Stefanie Shattuck-Hufnagel, Nanette Veilleux, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2016, s. 168-172Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine the relationship between specifichead movement events – head nods, often treated as prosodicboundary markers – and syntactic units in Finnish (FinSL) andSwedish Sign Language (SSL). In the study we investigatedthe alignment of head nods with syntactic units on the basis ofa total of 20 (10+10) FinSL and SSL narratives. The results ofthe study show that in both languages head nods appeared similarlyon syntactic boundaries and that the tendency was toalign nods sentence-finally. However, not all head nods behavedthis way: for example, a relatively large number of headnods were also found to occur sentence-initially or elsewherein the sentence. Furthermore, head nods occurring on syntacticboundaries also had non-boundary marking functions, and notall syntactic boundaries occurred with head nods.

  • 132.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Diagonala handpositioner i svenskt teckenspråk: En fonologisk undersökning av en sublexikal parameter2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka huruvida diagonala handpositioner finns i svenskt teckenspråk. Tecken utförs med en hand eller båda händerna, vars riktningar är en av de fonologiska parametrarna. Handens riktningar kartläggs enligt Bergman (1977) och inkluderar inga diagonala riktningar. Det leder till frågställningen om diagonala handpositioner förekommer i svenskt teckenspråk och om dessa har fonologisk relevans. Undersökningen fokuserar på formbeskrivningen som redan fanns i teckenspråkslexikonet i bokform före den nuvarande webbaserade versionen. I det webbaserade teckenspråkslexikonet utökas teckenbeskrivningarna med videoinspelningar. Där nämns inga diagonala handpositioner i formbeskrivningen även om dessa är synliga i filmerna. Analysen sker genom att jämföra formbeskrivning med stillbildsfotografier och tillföra ett resultat över diagonala handpositioner som förekommer i det svenska teckenspråket. Slutsatsen ger ett förslag på hur man kan tillämpa diagonala handpositioner i formbeskrivning.

  • 133.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Crowdsourcing for the Swedish Sign Language Dictionary2018Ingår i: 8th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Involving the Language Community: Proceedings / [ed] Mayumi Bono, Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Yutaka Osugi, European Language Resources Association, 2018, s. 171-174Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe how we are actively using the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community in collecting and documenting signs and lexical variation for our language resources, particularly the online Swedish Sign Language Dictionary (SSLD). Apart from using the SSL Corpus as a source of input for new signs and lexical variation in the SSLD, we also involve the community in two ways: first, we interact with SSL signers directly at various venues, collecting signs and judgments about signs; second, we discuss sign usage, lexical variation, and sign formation with SSL signers on social media, particularly through a Facebook group in which we both actively engage in and monitor discussions about SSL. Through these channels, we are able to get direct feedback on our language documentation work and improve on what has become the main lexicographic resource for SSL. We describe the process of simultaneously using corpus data, judgment and elicitation data, and crowdsourcing and discussion groups for enhancing the SSLD, and give examples of findings pertaining to lexical variation resulting from this work.

  • 134.
    Ryttervik, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Gesten PU i svenskt teckenspråk: En studie i dess form och funktion2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den manuella gesten benämnd PU@g har formen ”sprethänderna, framåtriktade och uppåtvända som förs kort framåt och sidledes” och kan utföras på lite olika sätt. Ibland kan den även utföras utan rörelse och den kan ha många funktioner. I denna uppsats rapporteras en undersökning av Svensk teckenspråkskorpus (Mesch, Wallin, Nilsson & Bergman 2012). Det analyserade materialet visar en hög frekvens av den manuella gesten PU@g. Materialet (färdigställt i slutet av augusti 2012) består av 16 teckenspråkstexter fördelade över lika många Eaf-filer, totalt 81.44 minuter data med 16 olika par av tecknare. I materialet finns det 425 förekomster av gesten PU@g. Gesten har kategoriserats efter funktion för varje förekomst. Det går att dela upp funktionerna i tre huvudkategorier: a) Talaren som signalerar till lyssnaren. b) Lyssnaren som signalerar till talaren c) Annan funktion och till det som vederbörande tidigare har sagt och som inte har med lyssnaren eller något annat yttrande att göra. Studien har hittat några viktiga icke-manuella signaler som används med gesten och det är [0-], samt huvudskakning.

  • 135.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Dye, Matthew
    Leeson, Lorraine
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Building up L2 Corpora in Different Signed Languages: SSL, ISL and ASL2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Dövas svenska - ett tvåspråkigt perspektiv2015Ingår i: LiSetten, ISSN 1101-5128, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 20-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 137.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Elicited imitation tasks (EITs) as a tool for measuring sign language proficiency in L1 and L2 signers2017Ingår i: Book of abstracts, 2017, s. 6-7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous literature, elicited imitation tasks (EITs) have been discussed with regard to the effect that memory skills have on performing tasks. More recent studies have shown, however, that EITs are a reliable tool for measuring language proficiency for L1 users and L2 learners (Klem et al., 2015; Gaillard & Tremblay, 2016). There have also been recommendations for minimizing the negative impacts of poor memory skills, for example, by shortening sentence structures.

    In contrast to spoken languages, which are merely linear in structure, sign languages operate in the gestural-visual mode, which relies on a visual pattern that allows for a degree of simultaneity in production. For instance, when signing a single lexical sign, the shape, movement and location of the hand combine to express phonological properties at the same time. Additionally, there are more complex signs with internal morphological structures that involve multiple handshapes, movements and locations. Such features need to be taken into account when valid and reliable EITs are developed for signed languages, and in recent years, there have been a growing number of sign language tests developed within the framework of EITs, e.g. American Sign Language, ASL-SRT (Hauser et al., 2008), and Swedish Sign Language, SSL-SRT (Schönström, 2014).

    In this talk, we will discuss sentence structure as well as the scoring method of the tests we have developed on two EITs for Swedish Sign Language: SSL-SRT, which is targeted for L1 signers, and SignRepL2, targeted for L2 signers. We found that for the L2 group, complex (single) signs can be used as test items, and there are qualitative differences related to the linguistic properties of signs. We will also describe different scoring paradigms for the respective tests. Our results will be presented and discussed in relation to the EIT theoretical framework.

  • 138.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Corpus in Swedish Sign Language as a Second Language (SSLC-L2) – A Report2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2013 we have been building up a learner corpusin Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). From 2017 this work has been funded by Riksbanken Jubileumsfond (RJ) for three years. In our presentation we will report on the work with the SSLC-L2. A short overview and some examples of the corpus design will be provided. The main scope of the talk, however, will be description of the annotation work of the L2 structures, i.e. the learners’ interlanguage. Here we discuss some challenges in annotating the L2 interlanguage. This include analysis ofspecific L2 structures and how to annotate them as well as examples on some preliminary results.

  • 139.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Frequency and distribution of signs and sign proficiency in second language (L2) signers – a longitudinal and comparative study2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of vocabulary is one of the essential components of language competence. However, no study has yet investigated the L2 acquisition of signs of any sign language in a broader sense. Such a study is motivated by the fact that vocabulary is a particularly interesting area in sign languages considering the categories of signs, i.e., sign types (see e.g. Johnston 2010). This paper examines the frequency and distribution of signs produced by L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language. In addition, we make an attempt to describe the sign proficiency and to track the development of L2 signs.

    Earlier research on L2 sign acquisition has mostly focused upon phonological structures of signs (e.g. Bochner et al. 2011; Ortega & Morgan 2015; Rosen 2004), with some studies on other structures e.g. classifier constructions (Marshall & Morgan 2015). Due to our corpus-based data we are able to attempt a description of the frequency and distribution of signs, as well as L2 analysis of signs used by the learners. Our L2 analysis has included phonological, morphological and lexical analysis according to the complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) framework (Housen & Kuiken 2009), i.e., L2 signers’ proficiency is accounted through three components: degree of complexity, degree of accuracy and degree of fluency.

    Sampled longitudinal corpus data from 16 adult L2 signers from the Swedish Sign Language as an L2 Corpus (SSLC-L2) (Schönström & Mesch 2017) was analyzed. Two kinds of data were included: dialogue data based on interviews, and retellings of a movie clip. This was compared with data from 9 L1 signers.

    We provide results outlining the distribution and frequency of signs in L2 signers at two different time points in their development as well a comparison with L1 signers with regard to distribution and frequency of (1) signs, (2) sign types and (3) parts of speech. For example, with regard to the verbs, it was revealed that the proportion of lexical verb signs increases with time while the proportion of depicting signs remains the same. We discuss this in light of the contributing role of gesture in L2 sign production, as the line between some depicting signs (e.g. handling handshapes) and gestures is not always crystal clear. With regard to sign proficiency according to the CAF framework, the results revealed, among other things, that phonological errors are common, and in line with results provided by earlier research which suggest a learning order in which location parameter is acquired before handshape and movement parameters.

  • 140.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Gesture, signs and L2/M2 acquisition corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of L2/M2 acquisition in signed languages is contributing toour understanding of human languages in various ways. What are the challenges oflearning a new language that is manifested in a different modality? Is there anymodality-specific component, as well as language-specific component, that is harder toacquire than others? And how does this relate to questions concerning the acquisition ofsigned modalities in light of gesture-language discussions (Kendon, 2014)? For example,it has been shown in earlier research that a gesture “strategy” can be advantageous aswell as disadvantageous for the L2 learners of any signed language (Ortega & Morgan,2015). In light of this, our paper will present some preliminary notes from the analysis of an L2learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language that consists of longitudinal data (1.5 years) from hearing adult students learning SSL in an SSL interpreting program at theuniversity level. The learner corpus in SSL, which was started in 2013, so far contains approximately 14 hours of data from a total of 26 learners and is still expanding. We also collected data from a control group consisting of three L1 learners. Additionally, part of the corpus has been annotated with tiers for sign glosses and an L2 relatedanalysis. We conducted a qualitative analysis that included a performance analysis on the sign vocabulary on annotated data in the SSL as L2 corpus and compared the outcomes with the L1 control group. In our analysis, we adopted an applied view, dividing up thevocabulary into the three main sign types proposed by (Hodge & Johnston, 2014): 1) lexical signs; 2) partly lexical signs; and 3) non-lexical signs. In our study, we are specifically interested in how L2 learners acquire “partly lexical signs”, i.e. pointing signs (pronouns, indexing signs) and depicting signs (classifier constructions, polycomponential signs). We hypothesized that learning a language in a modality thatallows for a high degree of iconically motivated vocabulary makes it possible forlearners to, in fact, imitate the tasks or events from a stimulus in an elicited narrative task. But what are the error types, and how should the differences between depicting signs by L1 and L2 signers be described? Is there a gesture strategy used here, and is it linked to a typical L2/M2 strategy? Our results showed qualitative differences between L2 and L1 learners regarding theuse of depicting signs. In the L2 group, depicting signs describing size and shape were used less frequently than in the L1 group, while the L2 group varied more in depicting signs representing handle (agentive) classifiers. Furthermore, the learners also relied onother strategies, e.g. fingerspellings and mouthings. The results will be discussed froman acquisition view as well in light of the gesture-language discussion.

  • 141.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Use of nonmanuals by adult L2 signers in Swedish Sign Language – Annotating the nonmanuals2014Ingår i: 6th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Beyond the Manual Channel / [ed] Onno Crasborn, Eleni Efthimiou, Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, 2014, s. 153-156Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonmanuals serve as important grammatical markers for different syntactic constructions, e.g. marking clause types. To account for the acquisition of syntax by L2 SSL learners, therefore, we need to have the ability to annotate and analyze nonmanual signals. Despite their significance, however, these signals have yet to be the topic of research in the area of SSL as an L2. In this paper, we will provide suggestions for annotating the nonmanuals in L2 SSL learners. Data is based on a new SSL as L2 corpus from our ongoing project entitled "L2 Corpus in Swedish Sign Language." In this paper, the combination of our work in grammatical analysis and in the creation of annotating standards for L2 nonmanuals, as well as preliminary results from the project, will be presented.

  • 142.
    Sikström, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Att vikta sin information: hur signaleras biinformation i deskriptiva teckenspråkstexter?2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur döva föreläsare signalerar vad som är biinformation i en deskriptiv teckenspråkstext. Materialet består av tre olika föreläsningar som analyserats i annotationsprogrammet ELAN.

    Biinformation kan dels bestå av längre utvikningar och dels parentetisk information i form av korta inskjutna avbrott i huvudinformationen. Längre utvikningar tycks kräva en tydlig och explicit inledning och avslutning i form av lexikala uttryck medan parentetiska kommentarer verkar kunna markeras enbart med prosodi och utnyttjandet av teckenrummet.

    Analysen visar att det är mycket vanligt att man utnyttjar spatial förskjutning för parenteser, antingen genom att byta hand, placera tecknen åt ena sidan eller att rent fysiskt förflytta sig i rummet. Då en parentes avslutar ett tema (termination) verkar den ofta få en spatial förskjutning åt höger (till skillnad mot i narrativa texter där parentetisk information placeras till vänster i teckenrummet). Den åtföljs även av höjda ögonbryn och ofta hålls parentesen samman med hjälp av teckenfragment.

    I de fall då man återgår till huvudtemat som om parentesen aldrig funnits (continuation) verkar man istället använda sammandragna ögonbryn, uppdragna kinder samt ibland även rynkad näsa och kisning. Spatial förskjutning åt höger verkar vara sällsynt i denna grupp. Däremot förekommer i några fall spatial förskjutning åt vänster men då tycks det krävas att man även byter aktiv hand så att vänsterhanden blir den primära artikulatorn. Det är även i denna grupp som man ibland återfinner en pekning hos vänsterhanden, en s.k. index-hold, vilken hjälper mottagaren att hålla huvudtemat i fokus.

    Slutsatsen är att döva talare klart och tydligt lotsar sina åhörare genom texten genom att signalera när man inleder och avslutar en utvikning eller ett parentetiskt inskott.

  • 143.
    Simper-Allen, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Avbildande verbkonstruktioner i svenskt teckenspråk: Handformskategorier inom "Cut and Break"-domänen2013Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 144.
    Simper-Allen, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    “Cut and Break”-descriptions in Swedish Sign Language: Children´s and adults´ depicting verb constructions2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focus on depicting verb construction in Swedish Sign Language. The study describe both adults’ and children’s verb constructions in descriptions of cutting and breaking events in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), specifically focusing on the number of hands used in signing, handshape category and hand activity. 14 deaf adults (ages 20–72) and 11 deaf children (2;1–6;6) of deaf parents, all native-users of SSL, performed a task that involved describing 53 video clips of cutting and breaking events. The clips show an event in which an actor separates material, either with the aid of a tool or without. Additionally, some clips show an entity separating by itself without an actor being involved.The adults described the events with depicting verb constructions that are produced with two hands. The analysis of the handshapes produced three categories: substitutor, manipulator and descriptor. The most frequent construction in the description of events without a tool was two acting manipulators (depicting a hand handling an object), whereas in descriptions of events with a tool the combinations were acting substitutor or manipulator with a non-acting manipulator. The acting hand referred to the tool and the non-acting manipulator to the affected entity. In descriptions of events without an actor, either two substitutors or two manipulators were used. In addition to depicting verb constructions, the descriptions also contained resultative complements, i.e. signs carrying information about the result of the activity being carried out. The complements were either lexical signs or some form of depicting verb construction. Similar observations have not been noted for any other signed language.In the manner of the adults, the children used depicting verb constructions in descriptions of cutting and breaking events (681 tokens). Nearly half of the verb constructions that were used by the children corresponded to the adult target forms. The majority of the constructions describing events without a tool corresponded to the adult target forms using two acting manipulators, even among the youngest informants. In events with a tool, only a third of the constructions corresponded to the adult target forms (emerging at 4;8–5;0); the remaining two-thirds were deviating constructions in terms of number of hands, handshape category and hand activity.Pervasive features of children’s constructions were the addition of contact between the hands and a preference for substitutors, something not found in adults’ constructions. These features were elucidated within the framework of Real Space blending theory, with the study showing that children first use visible blended entities and that invisible blended entities do not emerge until 4;8–5;0. Moreover, if children did imitate the activities in cutting and breaking events, they would use constructions with two manipulators imitating the actor manipulating an object. But that’s not the case!

  • 145.
    Simper-Allen, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The Use of Signing Space in Signed News Broadcasts / L’utilisation de l’espace de signation dans les émissions signées2019Ingår i: Lidil, ISSN 1146-6480, E-ISSN 1960-6052, nr 60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fr]

    Cet article étudie l’utilisation des tokens dans deux types de journaux télévisés, l’un pour un public sourd adulte et l’autre pour un public sourd jeune, en langue des signes suédoise. Un token est un point vide et non topographique dans l’espace de signation qui se situe devant le présentateur. Notre échantillon contient 1084 tokens qui ont été placés à un point précis de cet espace de signation pour faire référence au concept introduit par chaque token au cours du discours. Les présentateurs exploitent ce mécanisme de référence fréquemment et les types de signes les plus utilisés à ce propos sont des signes lexicaux, des pointages et des verbes directionnels. La plupart des tokens sont placés dans l’espace de signation gauche ou droit du présentateur, tandis que l’espace de signation frontal est moins utilisé. Le nombre de tokens est plus réduit dans l’introduction et la conclusion des informations télévisées. Nous pensons que ces résultats pourraient être des spécificités des programmes d’information en langue des signes. Dans notre analyse, nous avons aussi tenu compte de l’utilisation des images à l’écran et de l’effet de celles-ci sur la création des tokens.

  • 146. Sutton-Spence, Rachel
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    What are norms of sign language poetry? Studies from sign language poetry anthologies and collections2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research uses recent developments in online, digital collections and anthologies of sign language poetry to describe the poetic norms that govern the expectations of sign language poets and their audiences. We follow Toury’s idea of norms, as “the general values or ideas shared by a community […] appropriate for and applicable to particular situations, specifying what is prescribed and forbidden as well as what is tolerated and permitted in a certain behavioural dimension.” (1995: 55). Norms are particularly important to avoid prescriptivism, enabling researchers of sign language literature and poetry to describe what is currently considered good, and what has been considered good in different times and different communities, without prescribing how sign language poetry should be done. We draw on sign language poetry anthologies from three different sign languages to look at the language, literary and cultural norms underlying the poetry, in search of what may be considered “the best” in each culture. We find similarities and differences across the anthologies and their languages.

    Anthologies of literary productions in sign languages are needed as a resource for research and teaching in sign language literary and linguistics and for translators and poets to develop their work. Early research on sign language poetry focused on the work of a small selection of poets, simply because that was all that was available for research purposes (for example Christie and Wilkins, 2007; Sutton-Spence, 2005, Crasborn 2006; Rose, 2006). Such limited materials enabled researchers to perform in-depth analyses of signed poetry and afforded great insights into the art form but could not give broader overviews of the range of norms existing in the poets’ communities.

    Anthologies pre-suppose that their selected content is “the best” (Hopkins 2008), as considered by the community’s “expectancy norms” (Pym, 2010). Di Leo (2004) has noted that traditional views of anthologies require them to include work that has been published previously and has “stood the test of time”. Sign language anthologies rarely follow this maxim because of the recency of the art-form, and the collections used for this research include new material as well as previously published works. The relationship between canons and anthologies is also well-recognised (Guillory, 1993; Finke 2004), as anthologies reflect and create canons of literature.

    We investigated the poems and literary performances in four online anthologies and collections of sign language literature in three countries (two in Brazilian Sign language, one in British Sign Language, and one in Swedish Sign Language). Although our primary interest was sign language poetry, we note (along with Peters 2000) that there is no watertight definition of a poem in sign language (or possibly in any language). One Brazilian anthology contains 35 poems by 21 poets, and the other contains 20 poems by 19 poets. There is no overlap in the content of poems, although several poets are represented in both. The British anthology contained 100 poems. The majority were by 9 individual poets, although three poems, being Renga poems were composed and performed by an additional 25 people. The Swedish collection contains 25 poems by 14 individual poets and also some collective Renga poems.

    In our study, we find that the accepted and valued forms of sign language poetry are diverse, with a range of genres. Analysis of the poems found that some norms for sign language poems arise from within the wider literary world (for example signed haiku and renga), with varying degrees of adaptations (including duets and lyric poems), but some are specific to sign languages (such as multiple perspective poems, classifier poems and Visual Vernacular pieces). Basic concepts, such as how closely the poetry fits sign language grammar may be seen within the poems in the anthologies.

    As Pym (2010) acknowledges, however, norms have a prescriptive undertone, given that work that does not adhere to the current norms may not be considered “good”. Difficult work (Shetley 1993) may be seen as deviating from the norm and thus risks not being included in anthologies and not being considered as material for research (which promotes poetic work considerably). Anthologies are traditionally seen as conservative phenomena (Gilbert and Guber, 1979). Knowing that norm-breaking leads to innovation and that poetry’s business is innovation, norms are in constant tension with the games that poets play, as new trends emerge. In the anthologies studied, we see evidence of new forms developing, and more established forms being created.

  • 147.
    Thofelt, Unn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Något om den konstruerade dialogen i svenskt teckenspråk2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppen rapporterat tal och citat är missvisande, enligt Tannen (1986, 1989), eftersom den som lyssnar på en utsaga, noterar kärnan och budskapet i utsagan. Vi återberättande. lägger dennen in sin egen tolkning i återgivningen. Den berättadne minns inte ordagrant vad som sades, utan återger den ur sitt eget perspektiv och minne. Tannen (1986, 1989) menar att det är bättre att kalla dessa återgivningar konstruerad dialog (constructed dialogue)och har definierat olika kategorier i sammanhanget.

    Metzger (1995) undersöker bruket av konstruerad dialog, enligt Tannens kategorier, inom amerikanskt teckenspråk. Metzger (1995) menar att sex av tio kategorier går att applicera.

    Föreliggande arbete visar att sju av Tannens tio kategorier är applicerbara på svenskt teckenspråk. Fyra kategorier är desamma som Metzger funnit, men övriga skiljer sig åt. I de analyserade texterna använder de berättande sig av konstruerad dialog i form av kategorierna Dialog representerande vad som inte sades, Dialog som typexempel, Sammanfattning av dialog, Dialog i kör, Dialog som inre tal, Vag referent och Icke-mänsklig talare.

  • 148.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Englund Dimitrova, BirgittaStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.Nilsson, Anna-LenaStockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    The Critical Link 4. Professionalisation of interpreting in the community.: Selected papers from the 4th International Conference on Interpreting in Legal, Health and Social Service Settings, Stockholm, Sweden, 20-23 May 20042007Konferensmeddelanden, proceedings (Refereegranskat)
  • 149.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Two kinds of productive signs in Swedish Sign Language: Polysynthetic signs and size and shape specifying signs2000Ingår i: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 237-256Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 150.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Lule, Dorothy
    Kyambogo University, Kampala.
    Transmission of Sign Languages in Africa2010Ingår i: Sign Languages - Cambridge Language Surveys / [ed] Diane Brentari, Cambridge University Press , 2010, s. 113-130Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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