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  • 101.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep as a means of recovery and restitution in women: the relation with psychosocial stress and health2014Ingår i: Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease in Women / [ed] Kristina Orth-Gomer, Springer, 2014, s. 107-127Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 102.
    Schwarz, Johanna F. A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindberg, E.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell-Haglöw, J.
    Sleep length misperception and its association to subjective sleep quality and objective sleep duration in a large sample of women2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 103.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Age-dependent effects of sleep deprivation on task performance and mind wandering2017Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, nr Suppl. 1, artikel-id e297Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mind wandering, the drift of attention from the current task at hand to self-generated thought is commonly associated with poorer performance, and could be a potential pathway through which sleep deprivation affects performance. Little is known about this, however. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to address the effect of sleep deprivation on mind wandering and performance in a sustained attention task. In addition, we studied age as moderating factor, since older individuals are generally less prone to mind wandering.

    Materials and methods: Healthy young (18-30years) and older (60-72years) subjects participated in either a normal night sleep (NSD) or a total sleep deprivation (SD) condition, i.e. 4 conditions: NSD (n=31), SD (n=30), NSDold (n = 24), SDold (n= 24). Performance was measured using the Sustained Attention to Response Task, during which 10 thought probes were included that prompted the subjects to answer a question on what they were you just thinking about, using predefined answer alternatives. Mind wandering was quantified as occurrence of task-unrelated thoughts.

    Results: Applying a 2 (age) X 2 (sleep deprivation) ANOVA, significant main effects for sleep deprivation and age were observed for omissions, indicating worse performance after sleep deprivation and in young participants (p's < .05). These main effects were dominated by an age*sleep deprivation interaction (p = .04), which was due to sleep deprivation causing significantly more omission errors in young subjects (Mean ±SEM; NSD: 2.3 ±0.9; SD: 13.1 ±4.1) but not in older subjects (NSDold: 1.9 ±0.4; SDold: 2.8 ±0.9).

    Likewise, main and interaction effects for age and sleep deprivation were significant for task-unrelated thoughts (p's < 0.01). Task unrelated thoughts were significantly more frequent after sleep loss in young (NSD: 1.5 ±0.2; SD: 4.3 ±0.6), but not older subjects (NSDold: 0.3 ±0.2; SDold: 0.5 ±0.2) (interaction age*sleep deprivation p < .01). Young subjects had significantly more task-unrelated thoughts than older, regardless of sleep condition.

    Task-unrelated thoughts correlated with errors of omission (r = 0.65, p < .001). Also, including task unrelated thoughts as covariate in the age * sleep deprivation ANOVA, main and interactions effect of age and sleep deprivation were no longer significant.

    Reaction time was significantly slower in older adults, but no main or interaction effect of sleep deprivation occurred. Errors of commission were not affected by condition.

    Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation caused both mind wandering and poorer task performance in young but not older participants. In addition, mind wandering rates correlated with errors of omission, which may indicate that a diminished ability to shut down off-task thoughts after sleep deprivation could be an important pathway to performance decrements after sleep loss. In line with previous research, mind wandering appears to occur less frequently in older individuals compared with younger. This lower occurrence of mind wandering in older subjects may potentially enable them to better maintain performance after sleep deprivation and partially explain the higher resilience of older adults to sleep deprivation.

  • 104.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep loss on the response to acute psychosocial stress in young and elderly2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both sleep loss and social stress are risk factors for health and performance ability. It is assumed that sleep and stress are bidirectional linked, but most of the previous research has focused on studying sleep problems as consequence of stress. We believe that it is important to improve our understanding of the reverse connection, which is less studied. This presentation will cover recent experimental human studies that have investigated how sleep loss affects stress responses and whether it makes individuals more vulnerable to psychosocial stress. A study by Minkel et al. (Health Psychology, 2014) reported that the cortisol response to an acute stress situation was increased after sleep deprivation compared with a control condition indicating a more pronounced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis. I will also present recently collected data from young (18–30 years) and older (60–72 years) subjects that participated in four conditions (between subject design):

    (i) normal night sleep.

    (ii) normal night sleep & acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test).

    (iii) total sleep deprivation.

    (iv) total sleep deprivation & acute stress.

    The presentation thus provides state of the art knowledge of the link between sleep loss and vulnerability to stress.

  • 105.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericson, Mats
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Does sleep deprivation increase the vulnerability to acute psychosocial stress in young and older adults?2018Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 96, s. 155-165Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep loss and psychosocial stress often co-occur in today’s society, but there is limited knowledge on the combined effects. Therefore, this experimental study investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation affects the response to a psychosocial challenge. A second aim was to examine if older adults, who may be less affected by both sleep deprivation and stress, react differently than young adults. 124 young (18–30 years) and 94 older (60–72 years) healthy adults participated in one of four conditions: i. normal night sleep & Placebo-Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), ii. normal night sleep & Trier Social Stress Test, iii. sleep deprivation & Placebo-TSST, iv. sleep deprivation & TSST. Subjective stress ratings, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol were measured throughout the protocol. At the baseline pre-stress measurement, salivary cortisol and subjective stress values were higher in sleep deprived than in rested participants. However, the reactivity to and recovery from the TSST was not significantly different after sleep deprivation for any of the outcome measures. Older adults showed higher subjective stress, higher sAA and lower HRV at baseline, indicating increased basal autonomic activity. Cortisol trajectories and HRV slightly differed in older adults compared with younger adults (regardless of the TSST). Moreover, age did not moderate the effect of sleep deprivation. Taken together, the results show increased stress levels after sleep deprivation, but do not confirm the assumption that one night of sleep deprivation increases the responsivity to an acute psychosocial challenge.

  • 106.
    Sundelin, Tina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Van Someren, Eus J. W.
    Olsson, Andreas
    Axelsson, John
    Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance2013Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 36, nr 9, s. 1355-1360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived.

    DESIGN: Experimental laboratory study.

    SETTING: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

    PARTICIPANTS: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep.

    MEASUREMENTS: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs.

    RESULTS: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  • 107.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    A Meta-Review Of Job Demands And Job Resources As Related To Work-Related Attitudes And Behaviours Among Women And Men With Different Occupations2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This systematic meta-review uses the job demands-resources (JD-R) model as a starting point for reporting on how various psychosocial factors at work relate to different outcomes. Specifically, the review investigated how job demands and resources associate with job attitudes and behaviours and whether these linkages vary between genders and occupations.

    Design/Methodology: This meta-review includes meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews published during the past 10 years. The secondary studies were retrieved from combined searches in different international databases. Search terms were chosen to target a range of psychosocial factors and to retrieve published journal articles, and systematic reports linking such factors to job attitudes and behaviours.

    Results: In total, 14 job demands and 7 job resources were identified. These were linked to outcomes resulting in 147 associations being identified. Overall, the findings summarize what is known from previous systematic reviews, namely that job demands are associated with poorer attitudes and behaviours while resources typically relate to attitudes and behaviours that are beneficial both for employers and individual employees. However, for gender and occupation, considerably less is known. Importantly, however, reports of gender specific associations suggest that, overall, linkages between psychosocial factors and job attitudes and behaviours hold for both women and men.

    Limitations: The restriction to the past 10 years.

    Research/Practical Implications: The meta-review adds to understanding consequences of psychosocial factors at work and points up future research needs.

    Originality/Value: The broad approach using a meta-review allows for integrating research on several outcomes.

  • 108.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kvinnors och mäns arbetsvillkor - betydelsen av organisatoriska faktorer och psykosocial arbetsmiljö för arbets- och hälsorelaterade utfall2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kunskapssammanställningen tar sin utgångspunkt i den (starka) könssegregeringen på svensk arbetsmarknad och vilken betydelse den har för skillnader i organisatoriska och psykosociala omständigheter för kvinnor och män. Den beskriver kunskapsläget vad gäller likheter och skillnader mellan kvinnor och män med fokus på organisatoriska faktorer (som arbetstid och anställningsvillkor) samt psykosociala arbetsmiljöfaktorer i form av upplevda krav och resurser. Dessa faktorers betydelse för kvinnors och mäns psykiska ohälsa, självrapporterade hälsa, arbetsrelaterade välbefinnande samt sjukskrivning beaktas i kunskapssammanställningen. Utgångspunkt tas i offentlig statistik om arbetsskador och sjuktal, med fokus på ”kvinnodominerade” branscher som vård, skola och omsorg. Rapporten beskriver forskningsläget utifrån internationell och nationell vetenskaplig litteratur från det senaste decenniet.

  • 109.
    Sverke, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Falkenberg, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Women and men and their working conditions: The importance of organizational and psychosocial factors for work-related and health-related outcomes2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes a research overview commissioned by the Swedish Work Environment Authority with the aim of detailing relationships between organizational and psychosocial factors at work, and various work-related and health-related outcomes among working women and men. A second aim involved reporting on the prevalence of the different work environment factors among women and men. To fulfil the first aim, systematic research reviews, including meta-analyses and literature reviews, were retrieved from combined searches in different international and national databases. Search terms were chosen to target the broad array of organizational and psychosocial factors, and to retrieve published journal articles and systematic reports of Swedish government agencies linking such factors to various outcomes. The time period was restricted to the past ten years.

  • 110.
    Taloyan, Marina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thörn, Licia
    Kjeldgård, Linnea
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Sickness presence in the Swedish Police in 2007 and in 2010: Associations with demographic factors, job characteristics, and health2016Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 379-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sickness presence (SP) is a complex phenomenon that has been shown to predict sickness absence, poor work performance, and suboptimal self-rated health. However, more research is needed to increase the understanding of how SP relates to occupational factors, demographic variables, and self-rated health.

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate (1) the prevalence of SP among the Police employees in Sweden in 2007 and in 2010; (2) the association between demographics, seniority, occupational group (police officer vs civil servant), and self-reported health on the one hand and SP on the other hand for both years separately.

    METHODS: Survey data from Swedish Police employees from 2007 (n = 17,512) and 2010 (n = 18,415) were analyzed using logistic regression to assess odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: The prevalence of SP was stable between the years, but the proportion who stated that they had not been ill at all decreased from 2007 to 2010 (28.0% vs. 23.6%), while the proportion stating always having stayed at home when ill did not differ; 45.0% in 2007 to 45.8% in 2010. The ORs of SP were higher among those with suboptimal self-rated health compared to those with optimal self-rated health (4.38 (95% CI 4.02- 4.78) and 4.31 (3.96- 4.70) in 2007 and 2010, respectively) and among police officers compared with civilians (1.26 (1.17-1.36) and 1.19 (1.10-1.28)), whereas no clear patterns were found for age, gender, and seniority.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalences of SP were about the same in 2007 and 2010 and were slightly lower compared to in previous studies. The strong association between SP and suboptimal self-rated health suggests that high levels of SP may be an early marker of future illness and sickness absence. In future studies of SP it is important to account for having been ill, that is, at risk of SP.

  • 111.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, P
    Fischer, H
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment.2014Ingår i: SFSS (Svensk Förening för Sömnforskning och Sömnmedicin) Årskongress 5-7 Maj 2014, Stockholm, Sweden, Stockholm: Svensk förening för sömnforskning och sömnmedicin , 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 112.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Thuné, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Petrovic, P.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effect of partial sleep deprivation on empathy for pain in an fMRI experiment2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 113.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Golkar, Armita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sleep restriction caused impaired emotional regulation without detectable brain activation changes—a functional magnetic resonance imaging study2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 3, artikel-id 181704Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep restriction has been proposed to cause impaired emotional processing and emotional regulation by inhibiting top-down control from prefrontal cortex to amygdala. Intentional emotional regulation after sleep restriction has, however, never been studied using brain imaging. We aimed here to investigate the effect of partial sleep restriction on emotional regulation through cognitive reappraisal. Forty-seven young (age 20–30) and 33 older (age 65–75) participants (38/23 with complete data and successful sleep intervention) performed a cognitive reappraisal task during fMRI after a night of normal sleep and after restricted sleep (3 h). Emotional downregulation was associated with significantly increased activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (pFWE < 0.05) and lateral orbital cortex (pFWE < 0.05) in young, but not in older subjects. Sleep restriction was associated with a decrease in self-reported regulation success to negative stimuli (p< 0.01) and a trend towards perceiving all stimuli as less negative (p = 0.07) in young participants. No effects of sleep restriction on brain activity nor connectivity were found in either age group. In conclusion, our data do not support the idea of a prefrontal-amygdala disconnect after sleep restriction, and neural mechanisms underlying behavioural effects on emotional regulation after insufficient sleep require further investigation.

  • 114. Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    It hurts me too – an fMRI study of the effects of sleep restriction and age on empathy for pain2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many emotional processes are affected by sleep restriction (Beattie et al. 2015). Whether this is likewise true for social emotions, such as empathy, is not known. Empathy for pain has previously been studied using paradigms where subjects are presented with pain in others or pictures of pain in others. These paradigms consistently activated areas in the anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula. Aging affects both sleep (Vitiello 2012) and emotional functions (Mather 2012), but whether the role of sleep in emotional functioning is stable across age is not known. This study aims to investigate how neural and behavioral responses to pain in others are affected by sleep restriction and age, and whether age modulates the role of sleep in responses to pain in others.

    Methods: In a randomized cross-over experimental design, 47 healthy younger (age: 20-30) and 39 older (age: 65-75) volunteers underwent fMRI twice, after either normal sleep or sleep restricted to 3 hours. In an event-related fMRI task, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain condition) or Q-tips touching a hand (control condition), and reported their vicarious unpleasantness. Preprocessing and analyses were performed in SPM12 and included slice time correction, realignment, DARTEL normalization and smoothing with an 8x8x8 FWHM kernel. First level analyses included fixed effects for events, motion parameters and button presses. At second level a full factorial design was applied. Additional region of interest analyses were performed in anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Results: The contrast pain > control robustly activated anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula (FWE p < 0.05, fig 1) as well as other areas previously proposed as the core empathy for pain network (Lamm et al. 2011). Older participants generally experienced more unpleasantness in response to pictures of pain compared to younger participants (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by higher activity in bilateral angular gyrus (FWE p < 0.05). Age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused decreased unpleasantness in young and increased unpleasantness in old to pain stimuli (p < 0.01), even though there was no significant simple main effect of sleep restriction in any age group. In clusters in bilateral insula, old participants showed more activity and young less activity in response to pain after sleep restriction (p < 0.001 uncorrected).

    Conclusions: Compared to younger participants, older subjects generally responded more to pain in others, shown as subjective experience as well as brain responses. With sleep restriction, empathic responses in young and old changed in opposite directions, so that empathic responses increased in older and decreased in younger participants. Given that empathy is crucial in effective interaction with others, our findings imply possible age-related changes in prosocial behavior, amplified by short sleep.

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  • 115.
    Tamm, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilssone, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lamm, Claus
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud Universiteit, Netherlands.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The effect of sleep restriction on empathy for pain: An fMRI study in younger and older adults2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 12236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age and sleep both affect emotional functioning. Since sleep patterns change over the lifespan, we investigated the effects of short sleep and age on empathic responses. In a randomized cross-over experimental design, healthy young and older volunteers (n = 47 aged 20–30 years and n = 39 aged 65–75 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) after normal sleep or night sleep restricted to 3 hours. During fMRI, participants viewed pictures of needles pricking a hand (pain) or Q-tips touching a hand (control), a well-established paradigm to investigate empathy for pain. There was no main effect of sleep restriction on empathy. However, age and sleep interacted so that sleep restriction caused increased unpleasantness in older but not in young participants. Irrespective of sleep condition, older participants showed increased activity in angular gyrus, superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction compared to young. Speculatively, this could indicate that the older individuals adopted a more cognitive approach in response to others’ pain. Our findings suggest that caution in generalizability across age groups is needed in further studies of sleep on social cognition and emotion.

  • 116.
    Thuné, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    D'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Schwarz, Johanna F A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Effects of partial sleep deprivation on the neural mechanisms of face perception2014Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, Special issue: abstracts of the 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16–20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, s. 245-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 117.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Albrecht, Sophie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Beckers, Debby G. J.
    Leineweber, Constanze
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study2016Ingår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 33, nr 6, s. 619-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association.

  • 118.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Bejerot, Eva E
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Doctors' work schedules and work time control2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 119.
    Tucker, Philip
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Bejerot, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The impact of work time control on physicians’ sleep and well-being2015Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, s. 109-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Physicians' work schedules are an important determinant of their own wellbeing and that of their patients. This study considers whether allowing physicians control over their work hours ameliorates the effects of demanding work schedules. A questionnaire was completed by hospital physicians regarding their work hours (exposure to long shifts, short inter-shift intervals, weekend duties, night duties, unpaid overtime; and work time control), sleep (quantity and disturbance) and wellbeing (burnout, stress and fatigue). Work time control moderated the negative impact that frequent night working had upon sleep quantity and sleep disturbance. For participants who never worked long shifts, work time control was associated with fewer short sleeps, but this was not the case for those who did work long shifts. Optimizing the balance between schedule flexibility and patient needs could enhance physicians' sleep when working the night shift, thereby reducing their levels of fatigue and enhancing patient care.

  • 120. Vadeby, Anna
    et al.
    Forsman, Asa
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sandberg, David
    Anund, Anna
    Sleepiness and prediction of driver impairment in simulator studies using a Cox proportional hazard approach2010Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 42, nr 3, s. 835-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cox proportional hazard models were used to study relationships between the event that a driver is leaving the lane caused by sleepiness and different indicators of sleepiness. In order to elucidate different indicators' performance, five different models developed by Cox proportional hazard on a data set from a simulator study were used. The models consisted of physiological indicators and indicators from driving data both as stand alone and in combination. The different models were compared on two different data sets by means of sensitivity and specificity and the models' ability to predict lane departure was studied. In conclusion, a combination of blink indicators based on the ratio between blink amplitude and peak closing velocity of eyelid (A/PCV) (or blink amplitude and peak opening velocity of eyelid (A/POV)), standard deviation of lateral position and standard deviation of lateral acceleration relative road (ddy) was the most sensitive approach with sensitivity 0.80. This is also supported by the fact that driving data only shows the impairment of driving performance while blink data have a closer relation to sleepiness. Thus, an effective sleepiness warning system may be based on a combination of lane variability measures and variables related to eye movements (particularly slow eye closure) in order to have both high sensitivity (many correct warnings) and acceptable specificity (few false alarms).

  • 121. van de Ven, Hardy A
    et al.
    Brouwer, Sandra
    Koolhaas, Wendy
    Goudswaard, Anneke
    de Looze, Michiel P
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands.
    Almansa, Josue
    Bültmann, Ute
    van der Klink, Jac J. L.
    Associations between shift schedule characteristics with sleep, need for recovery, health and performance measures for regular (semi-)continuous 3-shift systems.2016Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 56, s. 203-212Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this cross-sectional study associations were examined between eight shift schedule characteristics with shift-specific sleep complaints and need for recovery and generic health and performance measures. It was hypothesized that shift schedule characteristics meeting ergonomic recommendations are associated with better sleep, need for recovery, health and performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 491 shift workers of 18 companies with 9 regular (semi)-continuous shift schedules. The shift schedule characteristics were analyzed separately and combined using multilevel linear regression models. The hypothesis was largely not confirmed. Relatively few associations were found, of which the majority was in the direction as expected. In particular early starts of morning shifts and many consecutive shifts seem to be avoided. The healthy worker effect, limited variation between included schedules and the cross-sectional design might explain the paucity of significant results.

  • 122. Van Laethem, Michelle
    et al.
    Beckers, Debby G. J.
    Kompier, Michiel A. J.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    van den Bossche, Seth N. J.
    Geurts, Sabine A. E.
    Bidirectional relations between work-related stress, sleep quality and perseverative cognition2015Ingår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 79, nr 5, s. 391-398Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    In this longitudinal two-wave study, bidirectional relations between work-related stress and sleep quality were examined. Moreover, it was investigated whether perseverative cognition is a potential underlying mechanism in this association, related to both work-related stress and sleep quality.

    Methods

    A randomly selected sample of Dutch employees received an online survey in 2012 and 2013. Of all invited employees, 877 participated in both waves. Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data.

    Results

    We found evidence for reversed relations between work-related stress and sleep quality. Specifically, when controlling for perseverative cognition, work-related stress was not directly related to subsequent sleep quality, but low sleep quality was associated with an increase in work-related stress over time. Moreover, negative bidirectional associations over time were found between perseverative cognition and sleep quality, and positive bidirectional associations were found between work-related stress and perseverative cognition. Lastly, a mediation analysis showed that perseverative cognition fully mediated the relationship between work-related stress and sleep quality.

    Conclusion

    The study findings suggest that perseverative cognition could be an important underlying mechanism in the association between work-related stress and sleep quality. The bidirectionality of the studied relationships could be an indication of a vicious cycle, in which work-related stress, perseverative cognition, and sleep quality mutually influence each other over time.

  • 123.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M A
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Barnett, M
    Peksan, C
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Long term sleep and fatigue at sea: a field study2014Ingår i: Journal of sleep research, Special issue: 22nd Congress of the European Sleep Research Society, 16-20 September 2014, Tallinn, Estonia, 2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 124.
    van Leeuwen, Wessel M A
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kircher, Albert
    Dahlgren, Anna
    Lützhöft, Margareta
    Barnett, Mike
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep, Sleepiness, and Neurobehavioral Performance While on Watch in a Simulated 4 Hours on/8 Hours off Maritime Watch System2013Ingår i: Chronobiology International, ISSN 0742-0528, E-ISSN 1525-6073, Vol. 30, nr 9, s. 1108-1115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafarer sleepiness jeopardizes safety at sea and has been documented as a direct or contributing factor in many maritime accidents. This study investigates sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance in a simulated 4 h on/8 h off watch system as well as the effects of a single free watch disturbance, simulating a condition of overtime work, resulting in 16 h of work in a row and a missed sleep opportunity. Thirty bridge officers (age 30 ± 6 yrs; 29 men) participated in bridge simulator trials on an identical 1-wk voyage in the North Sea and English Channel. The three watch teams started respectively with the 00-04, the 04-08, and the 08-12 watches. Participants rated their sleepiness every hour (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) and carried out a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) test at the start and end of every watch. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during 6 watches in the first and the second half of the week. KSS was higher during the first (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 0.2) compared with the second (3.3 ± 0.2) watch of the day (p < 0.001). In addition, it increased with hours on watch (p < 0.001), peaking at the end of watch (4.1 ± 0.2). The free watch disturbance increased KSS profoundly (p < 0.001): from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 6.5 ± 0.3. PVT reaction times were slower during the first (290 ± 6 ms) compared with the second (280 ± 6 ms) watch of the day (p < 0.001) as well as at the end of the watch (289 ± 6 ms) compared with the start (281 ± 6 ms; p = 0.001). The free watch disturbance increased reaction times (p < 0.001) from 283 ± 5 to 306 ± 7 ms. Similar effects were observed for PVT lapses. One third of all participants slept during at least one of the PSG watches. Sleep on watch was most abundant in the team working 00-04 and it increased following the free watch disturbance. This study reveals that-within a 4 h on/8 h off shift system-subjective and objective sleepiness peak during the night and early morning watches, coinciding with a time frame in which relatively many maritime accidents occur. In addition, we showed that overtime work strongly increases sleepiness. Finally, a striking amount of participants fell asleep while on duty.

  • 125.
    Watling, Christopher N.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Queensland University of Technology, Australia.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Anund, Anna
    Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 241-247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective sleepiness as well as simulated driving performance. In total, 36 regular shift workers drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator on a simulated road with rumble strips installed at the shoulder and centre line after a working a full night shift. The results show that, on average, the first rumble strip occurred after 20 min of driving, with subsequent hits occurring 10 min later, with the last three occurring approximately every 5 min thereafter. Specifically, it was found that the first rumble strip hit reduced physiological sleepiness; however, subsequent hits did not increase alertness. Moreover, the results also demonstrate that increased subjective sleepiness levels, via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, were associated with a greater probability of hitting a rumble strip. The present results suggest that sleepiness is very resilient to even strongly arousing stimuli, with physiological and subjective sleepiness increasing over the duration of the drive, despite the interference caused by rumble strips.

  • 126. Westerlund, Anna
    et al.
    Trolle Lagerros, Ylva
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Relationships Between Questionnaire Ratings of Sleep Quality and Polysomnography in Healthy Adults2016Ingår i: Behavioural Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1540-2002, E-ISSN 1540-2010, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 185-199Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the association between polysomnographic sleep and subjective habitual sleep quality and restoration from sleep. Thirty-one normal sleepers completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire and multiple home polysomnography recordings (n = 2-5). Using linear regression, sleep quality and restoration were separately analyzed as functions of standard polysomnography parameters: sleep efficiency, total sleep time, sleep latency, stage 1 and 2 sleep, slow-wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, wake time after sleep onset, and awakenings (n), averaged across recordings. Stage 2 and slow-wave sleep predicted worse and better sleep quality, respectively. Also, slow-wave sleep predicted less subjective restoration, although adjustment for age attenuated this relation. Our findings lend some physiological validity to ratings of habitual sleep quality in normal sleepers. Data were less supportive of a physiological correlate of ratings of restoration from sleep.

  • 127. Åkerstedt Miley, Anna
    et al.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Comparing two versions of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS)2016Ingår i: Sleep and Biological Rhythms, ISSN 1446-9235, E-ISSN 1479-8425, Vol. 14, nr 3, s. 257-260Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) is frequently used to study sleepiness in various contexts. However, it exists in two versions, one with labels on every other step (version A), and one with labels on every step (version B) on the 9-point scale. To date, there are no studies examining whether these versions can be used interchangeably. The two versions were here compared in a 24 hr wakefulness study of 12 adults. KSS ratings were obtained every hour, alternating version A and B. Results indicated that the two versions are highly correlated, do not have different response distributions on labeled and unlabeled steps, and that the distributions across all steps have a high level of correspondence (Kappa = 0.73). It was concluded that the two versions are quite similar.

  • 128.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Individual validation of model predictions of sleepiness and sleep hours2007Ingår i: Somnologie, Vol. 11, s. 169-174Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Several mathematical models for prediction of sleepiness have been developed. Few validations on individual levels are available.

    Background

    The present study was designed to provide validation on the individual level of predictions using the Three Process-Model of alertness regulation. Model predictions of sleep timing were also tested.

    Method

    Sixteen shift workers participated in the study. Ratings of sleepiness were made every 2h across three shifts. The model was used to predict empirical ratings using as input only information of beginning and end of work shifts, as well as using information on sleep from actigraphs (in a separate analysis).

    Results

    The prediction using only information on work shifts correlated r=0.55 (p<0.001) with empirical ratings. Predictions were generally within ±1 confidence interval of the ratings. Adding actigraphy sleep data improved predictions marginally. The model predictions of onset and offset of sleep were generally close to the target.

    Conclusion

    It was concluded that model predictions have a rather high validity both with respect to sleepiness and to sleep timing. It is probable that other information on individual differences will further improve predictability.

  • 129.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Orsini, Nicola
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    The daily variation in sleepiness and its relation to the preceding sleep episode - a prospective study across 42days of normal living2013Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 258-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleepiness is linked to accidents and reduced performance, and is usually attributed to short/poor prior sleep and sleepiness. However, while the link between reduced sleep and subsequent sleepiness is well established in laboratory experiments of sleep reduction, very little is known about the day-to-day variation of sleepiness in everyday life and its relation to the immediately preceding sleep episode. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of this relation across 42 consecutive days. Fifty volunteers participated. Self-reports of sleep were given in the morning and recorded with actigraphy; health was rated in the evening; and sleepiness was rated at eight points during the day (on a scale of 1-9). Results from mixed-model regression analyses showed that, on average, total sleep time predicted sleepiness during the rest of the day across the 42 days, with sleepiness increasing with shorter preceding sleep (β = -0.15 units h(-1) , P < 0.001). Sleepiness also increased with earlier time of rising and lower-rated sleep quality. Days off reduced sleepiness, but was accounted for by sleep. Self-rated health improved when sleepiness was low during the same day (β = -0.36 unit unit(-1) of rated health, P < 0.001), but the two were measured simultaneously. Napping was related to high sleepiness during the same day. Actigraphy measures of sleep duration showed similar, but somewhat weaker, effects than diary measures. It was concluded that the main determinants of daytime sleepiness in a real-life day-to-day context were short sleep, poor sleep and early rising, and that days with high sleepiness ended with ratings of poorer health.

  • 130.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Garefelt, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Richter, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. North West University, South Africa.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Work and Sleep - A Prospective Study of Psychosocial Work Factors, Physical Work Factors, and Work Scheduling2015Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 1129-1136Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: There is limited knowledge about the prospective relationship between major work characteristics (psychosocial, physical, scheduling) and disturbed sleep. The current study sought to provide such knowledge. Design: Prospective cohort, with measurements on two occasions (T1 and T2) separated by two years. Setting: Naturalistic study, Sweden. Participants: There were 4,827 participants forming a representative sample of the working population. Measurements and Results: Questionnaire data on work factors obtained on two occasions were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Competing models were compared in order to investigate temporal relationships. A reciprocal model was found to fit the data best. Sleep disturbances at T2 were predicted by higher work demands at T1 and by lower perceived stress at T1. In addition, sleep disturbances at T1 predicted subsequent higher perception of stress, higher work demands, lower degree of control, and less social support at work at T2. A cross-sectional mediation analysis showed that (higher) perceived stress mediated the relationship between (higher) work demands and sleep disturbances; however, no such association was found longitudinally. Conclusions: Higher work demands predicted disturbed sleep, whereas physical work characteristics, shift work, and overtime did not. In addition, disturbed sleep predicted subsequent higher work demands, perceived stress, less social support, and lower degree of control. The results suggest that remedial interventions against sleep disturbances should focus on psychosocial factors, and that such remedial interventions may improve the psychosocial work situation in the long run.

  • 131.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hallvig, David
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Normative data on the diurnal pattern of the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ratings and its relation to age, sex, work, stress, sleep quality and sickness absence/illness in a large sample of daytime workers2017Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 559-566Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-rated sleepiness responds to sleep loss, time of day and work schedules. There is, however, a lack of a normative reference showing the diurnal pattern during a normal working day, compared with a day off, as well as differences depending on stress, sleep quality, sex, age and being sick listed. The present study sought to provide such data for the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale. Participants were 431 individuals working in medium-sized public service units. Sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, scale 1-9) was rated at six times a day for a working week and 2 days off (>90.000 ratings). The results show a clear circadian pattern, with high values during the morning (4.5 at 07:00 hours) and evening (6.0 at 22:00 hours), and with low values (3-4) during the 10:0016: 00 hours span. Women had significantly higher (0.5 units) Karolinska Sleepiness Scale values than men, as did younger individuals (0.3 units), those with stress (1.3 units above the low-stress group) and those with poor sleep quality (1.0 units above those with qood sleep quality). Days off showed reduced sleepiness (0.7 units), while being sick listed was associated with an increased sleepiness (0.8 units). Multiple regression analysis of mean sleepiness during the working week yielded mean daytime stress, mean sleep quality, age, and sex as predictors (not sleep duration). Improved sleep quality accounted for the reduced sleepiness during days off, but reduced stress was a second factor. Similar results were obtained in a longitudinal mixed-model regression analysis across the 7 days of the week. The percentage of ratings at Karolinska Sleepiness Scale risk levels (8 + 9) was 6.6%, but most of these were obtained at 22:00 hours. It was concluded that sleepiness ratings are strongly associated with time of day, sleep quality, stress, work day/day off, being ill, age, and sex.

  • 132.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Anund, Anna
    Sandberg, David
    Wahde, Mattias
    Philip, Pierre
    Kronberg, Peter
    Reaction of sleepiness indicators to partial sleep deprivation, time of day and time on task in a driving simulator - the DROWSI project2010Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 298-309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of driving and sleepiness indicators have mainly focused on prior sleep reduction. The present study sought to identify sleepiness indicators responsive to several potential regulators of sleepiness: sleep loss, time of day (TOD) and time on task (TOT) during simulator driving. Thirteen subjects drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator in six 1-h sessions across a 24-h period, after normal sleep duration (8 h) and after partial sleep deprivation (PSD; 4 h). The results showed clear main effects of TOD (night) and TOT but not for PSD, although the latter strongly interacted with TOD. The most sensitive variable was subjective sleepiness, the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLAT) and measures of eye closure [duration, speed (slow), amplitude (low)]. Measures of electroencephalography and line crossings (LCs) showed only modest responses. For most variables individual differences vastly exceeded those of the fixed effects, except for subjective sleepiness and SDLAT. In a multiple regression analysis, SDLAT, amplitude/peak eye-lid closing velocity and blink duration predicted subjective sleepiness bouts with a sensitivity and specificity of about 70%, but were mutually redundant. The prediction of LCs gave considerably weaker, but similar results. In summary, SDLAT and eye closure variables could be candidates for use in sleepiness-monitoring devices. However, individual differences are considerable and there is need for research on how to identify and predict individual differences in susceptibility to sleepiness.

  • 133.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep, Work, and Occupational Stress2012Ingår i: The Oxford Handbook of Sleep and Sleep disorders / [ed] Charles M. Morin, Colin Espie, New York: Oxford University Press , 2012, s. 248-265Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 134.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Säkerhet, arbetstider och trötthet2013Ingår i: Patientsäkerhet: teori och praktik / [ed] Synnöve Ödegård, Stockholm: Liber, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    What work schedule characteristics constitute a problem to the individual? A representative study of Swedish shift workers2017Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 59, s. 320-325Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate which detailed characteristics of shift schedules that are seen as problems to those exposed. A representative national sample of non-day workers (N = 2031) in Sweden was asked whether they had each of a number of particular work schedule characteristics and, if yes, to what extent this constituted a "big problem in life". It was also inquired whether the individual's work schedules had negative consequences for fatigue, sleep and social life. The characteristic with the highest percentage reporting a big problem was "short notice (<1 month) of a new work schedule" (30.5%), <11 h off between shifts (27.8%), and split duty (>1.5 h break at mid-shift, 27.2%). Overtime (>10 h/week), night work, morning work, day/night shifts showed lower prevalences of being a "big problem". Women indicated more problems in general. Short notice was mainly related to negative social effects, while <11 h off between shifts was related to disturbed sleep, fatigue and social difficulties. It was concluded that schedules involving unpredictable working hours (short notice), short daily rest between shifts, and split duty shifts constitute big problems. The results challenge current views of what aspects of shift work need improvement, and negative social consequences seem more important than those related to health.

  • 136.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Impaired sleep after bedtime stress and worries.2007Ingår i: Biol Psychol, ISSN 0301-0511, Vol. 76, nr 3, s. 170-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Akerstedt T, Kecklund G, Axelsson J.

    torbjorn.akerstedt@stressforskning.su.se

    Stress is assumed to impair sleep, but there is very little empirical evidence for this using sleep recordings. Here, we recorded sleep (at home) in 33 normal participants on three nights, which followed days with low, high and intermediate stress. The participants made daily ratings of the level of stress/worries at bedtime and also two-hourly ratings of stress. Only those 16 individuals who differed in stress/worries between two nights were analysed. There was a significantly lower sleep efficiency (81.0% versus 85.2%) a higher percent Wake (22.6% versus 15.6%) and a longer latency to Stage 3 (33.9 versus 18.3 min) during the nights with a higher stress/worry bedtime rating. None of the other sleep variables were affected. Also mean daytime stress ratings were significantly higher on the day preceding and following the high stress/worries sleep. It was concluded that moderate increases in stress/worries at bedtime are associated with moderately impaired sleep.

    PMID: 17884278 [PubMed - in process]

  • 137.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Subjective and objectiv quality of sleep2008Ingår i: Somnologie, ISSN 1432-9123, E-ISSN 1439-054X, Vol. 12, s. 104-109Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively few studies have tried to relate subjective sleep quality to objective sleep parameters and most have been carried out in laboratory settings and often with patients and usually only for a single night. The present study used a group of 33 subjects who had sleep polysomnographically recorded in their homes for three nights during a period of several weeks. First a multiple regression analysis was carried out for each night with a 4-item sleep quality index as the dependent variable and conventional sleep parameters as predictors. This yielded a significant beta value for percent Stage O for each of the three nights. Sleep efficiency showed a significant correlation with sleep quality for two nights but did not enter the regression. When the night with the best and poorest sleep were compared, the only significant variable became percent SWS. It was suggested that the differing results may have been due to the large age span confusing SWS/quality correlations.

  • 138.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Selén, Jan
    Disturbed sleep and fatigue as predictors of return from long-term sickness absence2010Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 209-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term sickness absence has doubled in Sweden, as has complaints of disturbed sleep. The present study sought to investigate the prospective link between long-term sickness absence and disturbed sleep or fatigue. Sleep and fatigue from a representative national sample was followed up 1.5-2 yr later in terms of return from long-term (>or=90 d) and intermediate term (14-89 d) sickness absence. 8,300 individuals participated in the survey, out of which 372 were on long-term and 1,423 were on intermediate term sick leave. The data was analyzed using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for background and work environment variables. Separate analyses were carried out for disturbed sleep and fatigue since they were correlated. The results showed that those with disturbed sleep at the start had an Odds Ratio (OR) of 0.56 (95% Confidence Interval (CI)=0.35-0.90) for returning from long-term sickness absence. For fatigue the results were OR=0.56 (CI=0.34-0.90). Intermediate term sickness absence showed similar, but slightly weaker, results. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of lack of return from long term and intermediate term sickness absence.

  • 139.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Svedberg, Pia
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Night work and breast cancer in women: a Swedish cohort study2015Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 4, artikel-id e008127Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Recent research has suggested a moderate link between night work and breast cancer in women, mainly through case-control studies, but non-significant studies are also common and cohort studies are few. The purpose of the present study was to provide new information from cohort data through investigating the association between the number of years with night work and breast cancer among women.

    DESIGN: Cohort study of individuals exposed to night shift work in relation to incidence of breast cancer in women.

    SETTING: Individuals in the Swedish Twin registry, with follow-up in the Swedish Cancer Registry.

    PARTICIPANTS: 13 656 women from the Swedish Twin Registry, with 3404 exposed to night work.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Breast cancer from the Swedish Cancer Registry (463 cases) during a follow-up time of 12 years.

    RESULTS: A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with control for a large number of confounders showed that the HR was HR=1.68 (95% CI 0.98 to 2.88) for the group with >20 years of night work. When the follow-up time was limited to ages below 60 years, those exposed >20 years showed a HR=1.77 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.04). Shorter exposure to night work showed no significant effects.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present results, together with previous work, suggest that night work is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women, but only after relatively long-term exposure.

  • 140.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Gruber, G.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Women sleep better and have a stronger response to late night curtailed sleep than men, particularly in older individuals - effects on polysomnographical sleep2016Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 25, s. 156-156, artikel-id P206Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Higher age is associated with poorer sleep and women report more sleep problems than men, despite indications of better physiological sleep. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a common daily life sleep problem, late night curtailed sleep, would have different effects depending on gender and age. Methods: 60 healthy individuals (equal groups of gender and age (20–30 and 65–75 years)) participated in an experiment with a full night’s sleep and one night with reduced sleep between 0400 h and 0700 h, in a balanced design. Sleep was recorded through standard polysomnography (PSG) at home. Results: The results showed the expected main effect of sleep loss. Older participants had a lower TST, N3%, sleep efficiency, but more N1%, longer N3 latency, and fewer awakenings. Women had more N3%, more REM%, more N3%, and shorter N3 latency compared with men. The curtailed late night sleep caused a stronger increase in N3%, and more pronounced reductions in REM%, a stronger reduction in N1%, and N3 latency in women than men. In the higher age group the N3% response in men was strongly attenuated compared to that of women. Conclusions: The results show that women, apart form getting more N3% and less N1% even in the normal sleep condition, have a stronger response to late night sleep, particularly in higher age groups.

  • 141.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, S.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Petrovic, P.
    Månsson, Kristoffer N.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Klinisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gray Matter Volume Correlates Of Sleepiness: A Voxel-based Morphometry Study In Younger And Older Adults2018Ingår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 41, s. A58-A58, artikel-id 0149Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sleepiness is prevalent in society, often linked to disturbed sleep, shift work, stress, or diseases. It is also associated with an increased risk of accidents. Sleepiness may be related to brain metabolism and, we hypothesize that it is associated with brain gray matter (GM) volume. The present study investigated the association between sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus and insula, with a special focus on age, since both sleepiness and GM volume change with age.

    Methods: In all, 84 healthy individuals participated in the experiment, of which 46 were in the age range 20–30 years and 38 ranging between 65–75 years. Data was collected in a 3 T scanner during a 5 minute anatomical scan (first in a several sessions in the scanner) in the evening after a full night of sleep. Momentary sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale) was rated 7 times during the time in the scanner.

    Results: Results showed that, in older, relative to younger adults, areas within bilateral insular cortex and thalamus GM regions of interest were negatively associated (FWE-corrected) with sleepiness (Z=4.02, p=.015 left insula and Z=4.42, p=.009 for right insula; Z=3.75, p=.020 for left thalamus and Z=4.60, p=.001 for right thalamus). Larger volume was associated with low sleepiness in the older group, but not in the older group. The effect in the insula was mainly present in the mid-anterior parts of the structure.. In addition, after applying a conservative small volume correction including all ROIs simultaneously, age-interaction effects remained significant.

    Conclusion: It was concluded that self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation is negatively associated with GM volume in areas within both thalamus and insula in older individuals. The results are in line with notions of thalamus as a driver of arousal and of anterior insula as a structure evaluating the state of the organism. Possibly, a larger GM volume in these structures may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals, a hypothesis that needs confirmation in further studies.

  • 142.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    D'onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Effects of late-night short-sleep on in-home polysomnography: relation to adult age and sex2018Ingår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 27, nr 4, artikel-id e12626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bedtime is frequently delayed by many factors in life, and a homeostatic response to the delay may compensate partly for increased time awake and shortened sleep. Because sleep becomes shorter with age and women complain of disturbed sleep more often than men, age and sex differences in the homeostatic response to a delayed bedtime may modify the homeostatic response. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of late-night short-sleep (3 h with awakening at about 07:00 hours) on in-home recorded sleep in men and women in two age groups (20-30 and 65-75 years). Results (N = 59) showed that late-night short-sleep was associated with an increase in percentage of N3 sleep and a decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep, as well as decreases in several measures of sleep discontinuity and rapid eye movement density. Men showed a smaller decrease in percentage of rapid eye movement sleep than women in response to late-night short-sleep, as did older individuals of both sexes compared with younger. Older men showed a weaker percentage of N3 sleep in response to late-night short-sleep than younger men. In general, men showed a greater percentage of rapid eye movement sleep and a lower percentage of N3 sleep than women, and older individuals showed a lower percentage of N3 sleep than younger. In particular, older men showed very low levels of percentage of N3 sleep. We conclude that older males show less of a homeostatic response to late-night short-sleep. This may be an indication of impaired capacity for recovery in older men. Future studies should investigate if this pattern can be linked to gender-associated differences in morbidity and mortality.

  • 143.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tamm, Sandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    d'Onofrio, Paolo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Månsson, Kristoffer NT
    Gray Matter Volume Correlates of Sleepiness: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study in Younger and Older Adults2020Ingår i: Nature and Science of Sleep, ISSN 1179-1608, Vol. 12, s. 289-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Subjectively experienced sleepiness is a problem in society, possibly linked with gray matter (GM) volume. Given a different sleep pattern, aging may affect such associations, possibly due to shrinking brain volume.

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between subjectively rated sleepiness and GM volume in thalamus, insula, hippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex of young and older adults, after a normal night’s sleep.

    Methods: Eighty-four healthy individuals participated (46 aged 20– 30 years, and 38 aged 65– 75 years). Morphological brain data were collected in a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Sleepiness was rated multiple times during the imaging sessions.

    Results: In older, relative to younger, adults, clusters within bilateral mid-anterior insular cortex and right thalamus were negatively associated with sleepiness. Adjustment for the immediately preceding total sleep time eliminated the significant associations.

    Conclusion: Self-rated momentary sleepiness in a monotonous situation appears to be negatively associated with GM volume in clusters within both thalamus and insula in older individuals, and total sleep time seems to play a role in this association. Possibly, this suggests that larger GM volume in these clusters may be protective against sleepiness in older individuals. This notion needs confirmation in further studies.

  • 144.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Lekander, Mats
    Petersén, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Axelsson, John
    Sleep Polysomnography and Reported Stress across 6 Weeks2014Ingår i: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 52, nr 1, s. 36-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the common notion that stress impairs sleep there is little published data showing that sleep (polysomnography [PSG]) is impaired across several sleep episodes in individuals who complain of daily stress during the same period. The present paper aimed at investigating such a connection. 33 subjects had 3 sleeps recorded with PSG at home across 6 weeks and kept a sleep/wake diary each day, including 3-hourly ratings of stress (scale 1-9). The stress ratings and the conventional PSG parameters were averaged across time. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictors of stress were Stage 1 sleep (beta=0.49), latency to Stage 1 sleep (0.47) (adjusted for anxiety and age). Other sleep continuity variables had significant correlations with stress (reversed) but did not enter the multiple regression analysis. The correlation between stress before the start of the study and PSG data was not significant. It was concluded that moderately increased stress over a longer period of time is related to moderate signs of disturbed sleep during that period. This may be of importance when considering stress as a work environment problem.

  • 145.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Svedberg, Pia
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Radboud University, The Netherlands .
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    Night work and prostate cancer in men: a Swedish prospective cohort study2017Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikel-id e015751Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men, but the contributing factors are unclear. One such may be night work because of the day/night alternation of work and the resulting disturbance of the circadian system. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prospective relation between number of years with night work and prostate cancer in men.

    Design Cohort study comparing night and day working twins with respect to incident prostate cancer in 12 322 men.

    Setting Individuals in the Swedish Twin Registry.

    Participants 12 322 male twins.

    Outcome measures Prostate cancer diagnoses obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry with a follow-up time of 12 years, with a total number of cases=454.

    Results Multiple Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, showed no association between ever night work and prostate cancer, nor for duration of night work and prostate cancer. Analysis of twin pairs discordant for prostate cancer (n=332) showed no significant association between night work and prostate cancer.

    Conclusions The results, together with previous studies, suggest that night work does not seem to constitute a risk factor for prostate cancer.

  • 146.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nordin, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Westerholm, Peter
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Predicting changes in sleep complaints from baseline values and changes in work demands, work control, and work preoccupation - The WOLF-project2012Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 73-80Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: Stress as a cause of disturbed sleep is often taken for granted, but the longitudinal evidence is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate new cases of poor sleep as a function of changes in reported work demands, work control, and work preoccupation. Methods: Longitudinal study of change with measures occurring twice within a 5-year interval during a period when the prevalence of impaired sleep was increasing in Sweden. The sample of companies was taken from northern Sweden (Norrland) and included 3637 individuals from the "WOLF Norrland" longitudinal cohort, collected through company health services. Measurement and results: During the measurement period, 16% of those studied developed new cases of impaired sleep. Logistic regressions adjusted for demographics, work environment factors, and disturbed sleep at T1 period one showed a significant increase in new cases for high work demands and high work preoccupation (OR = 1.37; Ci = 1.09-1.72 and OR = 1.80; CI = 1.42-2.28, respectively). The analysis of change in the predictors showed effects of a change from low to high work demands (OR = 1.39; Ci = 1.00-1.95) on new cases of impaired sleep. Consistent high work demands (high at both points) showed a similar increase (OR = 1.49; Ci = 1.06-2.11) but no effect was seen for reduced demands. Change in work preoccupation yielded stronger effects with OR = 2.47 (1.78-2.47) for increased work preoccupation and OR = 3.79 (2.70-5.31) for consistent high work preoccupation. Also, a reduction in work preoccupation was associated with a reduction in new cases of disturbed sleep. Control at work was not related to sleep. Stratification with respect to gender mainly led to fewer significant results (particularly for women) due to larger confidence intervals. Conclusions: It was concluded that self-reported work preoccupation predicts subsequent impairment of sleep and that increased preoccupation is associated with new cases of impaired sleep. Similar, but weaker, results were obtained for work demands.

  • 147.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    National institute for psychosocial factors and health and Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Olsson, Birgitta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning. Lund Universitet.
    Ingre, Michael
    National institute for psychosocial factors and health and Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Holmgren Caicedo, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Redovisning.
    Kecklund, Göran
    National institute for psychosocial factors and health and Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    A 6-hour working day: effects on well-being2001Ingår i: Journal of Human Ergology, ISSN 0300-8134, Vol. 30, nr 1/2, s. 197-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the total amount of work hours and the benefits of a shortening is frequently debated, but very little data is available. The present study compared a group (N=41) that obtained a 9h reduction of the working week (to a 6h day) with a comparison group (N=22) that retained normal work hours. Both groups were constituted of mainly female health care and day care nursery personnel. The experimental group retained full pay and extra personnel were employed to compensate for loss of hours. Questionnaire data were obtained before and 1 year after the change. The data were analyzed using two-factor ANOVA with the interaction of year*group for social factors, sleep quality, mental fatigue, and heart/respiratory complaints, and attitude to work hours. In all cases the experimental group improved whereas the control group did not change. It was concluded that shortened work hours have clear social effects and moderate effects on well-being.

  • 148.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Orsini, Nicola
    Petersen, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Axelsson, John
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Predicting sleep quality from stress and prior sleep - a study of day-to-day covariation across six weeks2012Ingår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 674-679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/objectives: The connection between stress and sleep is well established in cross-sectional questionnaire studies and in a few prospective studies. Here, the intention was to study the link between stress and sleep on a day-to-day basis across 42 days.

    Methods: Fifty participants kept a sleep/wake diary across 42 days and responded to daily questions on sleep and stress. The results were analyzed with a mixed model approach using stress during the prior day to predict morning ratings of sleep quality.

    Results: The results showed that bedtime stress and worries were the main predictors of sleep quality, but that, also, late awakening, short prior sleep, high quality of prior sleep, and good health the prior day predicted higher sleep quality.

    Conclusions: Stress during the day predicts subsequent sleep quality on a day-to-day basis across 42 days. The observed range of variation in stress/worries was modest, which is why it is suggested that the present data underestimates the impact of stress on subsequent sleep quality.

  • 149.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Perski, Aleksander
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Sleep, Occupational Stress, and Burnout2016Ingår i: Principles and Practise of Sleep Medicine / [ed] Meir H. Kryger, Thomas Roth, William C. Dement, Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2016, 6, s. 736-741Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 150.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    Philip, Pierre
    Capelli, Aurore
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet.
    Sleep loss and accidents: Work hours, life style, and sleep pathology2011Ingår i: Human Sleep and Cognition Part II: Clinical and Applied Research / [ed] Hans P. A. Van Dongen and Gerard A. Kerkhof, Elsevier Science , 2011, Vol. 190, s. 169-188Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A very important outcome of reduced sleep is accidents. The present chapter will attempt to bring together some of the present knowledge in this area. We will focus on the driving situation, for which the evidence of the link between sleep loss and accidents is quite well established, but we will also bring up working life in general where evidence is more sparse. It should be emphasized that reduced sleep as a cause of accidents implies that the mediating factor is sleepiness (or fatigue). This link is discussed elsewhere in this volume, but here we will bring in sleepiness (subjective or physiological) as an explanatory factor of accidents. Another central observation is that many real life accident studies do not link accidents to reduced sleep, but infer reduced sleep and/or sleepiness from the context, like, for example, from work schedules, life styles, or sleep pathology. Reduced sleep is mainly due to suboptimal work schedules (or to a suboptimal life style) or to sleep pathology. We have divided the present chapter into two areas.

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