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  • 102651.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lagercrantz, Lotta
    Rapport från Shanghaibiennalen2018In: UtställningsEstetiskt Forum, E-ISSN 2000-6934, no 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 12:e omgången av Shanghaibiennalen presenterar 70 konstnärer från 26 länder i ett stort gammalt elverk vid floden Huangpo i centrala Shanghai. Temat är ”proregress” – ett begrepp hämtat från den amerikanske poeten E. E. Cummings, om att blicka bakåt och framåt, samtidigt. År 2000 stängde polisen biennalen, arrangerad av Ai Weiwei och Feng Boyi. Det kommer inte att hända denna gång, konstaterar Wilhelm Östberg och Lotta Lagercrantz.

  • 102652.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mduma, Joseph
    Getting to Know Goima Anew / Tracing Change in a Tanzanian Village with a 25 Year Perspective2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102653.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Slegers, Monique F. W.
    Losing faith in the land: changing environmental perceptions in Burunge country, Tanzania2010In: Journal of Eastern African Studies, ISSN 1753-1055, E-ISSN 1753-1063, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 247-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies carried out among Burunge small-scale farmers disclosed a striking difference in their relation to the area's natural resources over a period of less than fifteen years. The paper outlines how the Burunge had come to develop essentially trustful attitudes to the world they inhabit. Dramatic changes in official land policies in the 1970s had not changed this by the early 1990s. However, this was also a time when a new mode of farming became dominant in the area, which caused Burunge farmers to move from a view of nature as a reliable provider to become concerned over increased drought, diminishing soil fertility and accelerated soil erosion. Rainfall records did not tally with the perceived increased severity of drought and therefore it is concluded that the Burunge did not relate drought only to meteorological events but also understand drought as a function of a diminishing resource base.

  • 102654.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Wahlquist, Håkan
    Etnografiska museet, Stockholm.
    När diasporan går på museum2010In: Utställningsestetiskt Forum #2009 / [ed] Eva Persson, Stockholm: Nobelmuseet , 2010, p. 146-149Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102655.
    Östborn, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jo tack, det går upp och ner: en intervjustudie om att ha premenstrual dysphoric disorder - PMDD2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den för många i samhället okända diagnosen Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder, PMDD, är en psykiatrisk diagnos som innebär kraftiga emotionella premenstruella symtom som påverkar den drabbades liv. Prevalensen är 3-8 %, etiologin delvis oklar, diagnosen omtvistad och behandlingsmetoderna bristfälliga. 9 kvinnor med PMDD intervjuades med syftet att undersöka deras upplevelse av och förhållningssätt till sina symtom och dessas konsekvenser. Induktiv tematisk analys gav resultatet att PMDD påverkar många områden i livet och kan vara förenat med skuld- och skamkänslor och svårigheter med självbilden. Det framkom att stress och höga krav kan förvärra symtomen och att kvinnorna önskar sig mer information om PMDD i samhället, acceptans från andra och förbättringar i vården. I diskussionen dras slutsatserna att ett multifaktoriellt synsätt på etiologi och behandling är av värde, samt att samhällets idealbilder och brist på kunskap kan vara ett hinder för acceptans. Skam- och skuldkänslornas betydelse samt idéer till psykoterapeutisk behandling diskuteras.

  • 102656.
    Östbye, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    da Silva, Diogo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Revol, Rebecca
    Nordholm, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Assembly co-cooperativity between the influenza 1 NA stalk and 2 transmembrane domain defines the insertion deletion boundaryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 102657.
    Öster, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kvinnor inom könshandel: orsaker, konsekvenser och lagstiftning2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen var att belysa situationen för kvinnor inom könshandeln, hur man försökt skapa förändring för dem genom lagen som förbjuder köp av sexuella tjänster samt att söka kunskap om vad som förändrats avseende situationen för kvinnor inom könshandeln sedan lagen infördes. Jag har intervjuat två personer som arbetar professionellt med kvinnor inom könshandeln och en kvinna som har egen erfarenhet av könshandel. I uppsatsen använde jag mig främst av intervjuerna och kompletterade med de utredningar och rapporter som kretsar kring lagstiftningen som förbjuder köp av sexuella tjänster. De två teoretiska perspektiv jag valde var feminism och stämplingsteori. Det rådande synsättet är att prostitution anses skadligt på många plan, främst far den säljande parten illa och därför infördes denna lag. Efter att lagen infördes har gatuprostitutionen minskat. I resultatavsnittet lyfts betydelsen av förebyggande arbete fram samt att man hoppas på att lagen kommer ha en normbildande effekt. Det framkom också att lagen eventuellt gjort att tillvaron som kvinna inom könshandeln nu är mer riskabel än förr samt att man som professionell inom människovårdande yrken inte bör väja för ämnet.

  • 102658.
    Öster, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies.
    Kommunikation av hållbarhetsfrågor: Jämförande analys av hållbarhetsredovisningar från SCA och Sveaskog2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to find out if there is any difference between how a state-owned company and a publicly listed private company communicate its sustainability performance in its sustainability report. It also aims to find out if the communication regarding sustainability has changed over time. The poll was conducted in two Swedish companies, Sveaskog AB and AB SCA, operating in the forestry industry and through a quantitative content analysis, the companies' sustainability reports from 2005 and 2010 were examined. To get a result, the reports has been examined by the GRI framework (Global Reporting Initiative) and an assessment of the communication was made based on a scale of 0-3. The results has been evaluated based on stakeholder theory, legitimacy theory and the growing interest in CSR. 

    The analyses found evidence that there is a link between the form of ownership of the company and how it communicates regarding sustainability. The results shows that the state-owned company has an inferior communication regarding these issues compared to the publicly listed private company. The results also shows that the communication has improved for both companies during the period for the analyses. 

  • 102659.
    Öster, Mathias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Biological diversity values in semi-natural grasslands: indicators, landscape context and restoration2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-natural grasslands, which are a declining and fragmented habitat in Europe, contain a high biodiversity, and are therefore of interest to conservation. This thesis examines how plant diversity is influenced by the landscape context, and how plant and fungal diversity can be targeted by practical conservation using indicator species and congruence between species groups. Reproduction and recruitment of the dioecious herb Antennaria dioica was also investigated, providing a case study on how fragmentation and habitat degradation may affect grassland plants.

    Grassland size and heterogeneity were of greater importance for plant diversity in semi-natural grassland, than present or historical connectivity to other grasslands, or landscape characteristics. Larger grasslands were more heterogeneous than smaller grasslands, being the likely reason for the species-area relationship.

    A detailed study on A. dioica discovered that sexual reproduction and recruitment may be hampered due to skewed sex-ratios. Sex-ratios were more skewed in small populations, suggesting that dioecious plants are likely to be particularly sensitive to reduced grassland size and fragmentation.

    A study on indicators of plant species richness, used in a recent survey of remaining semi-natural grasslands in Sweden, revealed several problems. A high percentage of all indicator species were missed by the survey, removing an otherwise significant correlation between indicator species and plant species richness. Also, a null model showed that the chosen indicator species did not perform significantly better than species chosen at random from the available species pool, questioning the selection of the indicators in the survey. Diversity patterns of the threatened fungal genus Hygrocybe were not congruent with plant species richness or composition. Plants are thus a poor surrogate group for Hygrocybe fungi, and probably also for other grassland fungi. Implications from this thesis are that conservation of semi-natural grasslands should target several species groups, and that an appropriate scale for plant conservation may be local rather than regional.

  • 102660.
    Öster, Mathias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Low congruence between the diversity of Waxcap (Hygrocybe spp.) fungi and vascular plants in semi-natural grasslands2008In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 514-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity of fungi in semi-natural grasslands is poorly known, partly due to difficulties in species identification in the field but also because there are few specialists available. Diversity assessments of grassland fungi would be facilitated if a potential surrogate group for fungal diversity could be identified. The aim of this study was to assess whether plant diversity patterns in semi-natural grasslands are congruent with diversity patterns of Waxcap (Hygrocybe spp.) fungi. Waxcaps, together with several other groups of fungi (e.g. the genera Entoloma, Dermoloma, Camarophyllopsis, and the families Clavariaceae and Geoglossaceae) have habitat requirements similar to many plants typical for semi-natural grasslands and they are all threatened by ceased management and nutrient enrichment. Diversity data from 31 semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden were used to examine if there is congruence in species richness, nestedness, β-diversity and species composition between plants and Hygrocybe fungi. Species richness of Hygrocybe was significantly positively correlated with plant richness, although the relationship was not strong (r2=0.14). Both plant and Hygrocybe species composition was significantly nested, i.e. species-poor sites contain a subset of species from species-rich sites, which suggests that rare species mostly occur in the species-rich sites. A species similarity analysis between the grassland sites showed that there is low overlap between species composition of plants and Hygrocybe, indicating that conservation decisions based solely on plants may not fulfil the requirements of the Hygrocybe species. The conclusion is that there is low congruence between plant and Hygrocybe species diversity, making plants a poor surrogate group for Hygrocybe fungi, and probably also for other grassland fungi.

  • 102661.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ask, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Cousins, S A O
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Dispersal and establishment limitation reduces the potential for successful restoration of species-rich grasslands on former arable fields2009In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 1266-1274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Ex-arable fields have been suggested as potential sites for re-creation of semi-natural grasslands, but information is still limited on the temporal scales needed for the natural assembly of these communities and whether colonization is related to dispersal or establishment limitation.

    2. We investigated grazed ex-arable fields of different age and adjacent semi-natural grasslands in terms of species richness of plants, community similarity, colonization pattern and recruitment ability of 16 sown grassland species. The functional trait distribution of successful and unsuccessful colonizing species was compared using five traits related to dispersal and persistence: seed mass, seed bank persistence, specific leaf area, plant height and potential for lateral spread.

    3. The youngest ex-arable fields had the lowest species richness and contained communities with the lowest similarity to semi-natural grassland. Species richness and similarity to semi-natural grassland both increased with time since grazing started on ex-arable fields, but were still significantly lower than in semi-natural grasslands even after more than 50 years of grazing.

    4. Colonization was not related to any of the investigated functional traits. The rank order of the species in terms of abundance was correlated between young and old ex-arable fields suggesting that species performance remains the same with field age.

    5. Recruitment after sowing was generally lower in ex-arable fields than in semi-natural grasslands, although the basic recruitment ability varied between species. Recruitment did not change with field age, suggesting that dispersal limitation rather than establishment limitation caused the temporal pattern of colonization. However, establishment limitation may act as a filter for colonization of all ex-arable fields, regardless of their age.

    6. Synthesis and applications. This study demonstrates that the temporal scale for natural assembly of semi-natural grassland communities in ex-arable fields extends over 50 years, even when source pools are nearby. Results suggest that a field age-independent establishment limitation, combined with dispersal limitation, cause the delayed assembly in ex-arable fields. Management that aims to re-create semi-natural grassland communities in ex-arable fields should consider introducing seeds or improving germination conditions at the sites.

  • 102662.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ask, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Römermann, Christine
    Tackenberg, Oliver
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Plant colonization of ex-arable fields from adjacent species-rich grasslands: the importance of dispersal vs. recruitment ability2009In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 130, no 3-4, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands have declined drastically in Europe over the last century and occur in modern landscapes as small and isolated fragments. Recreation of these species-rich plant communities and increasing connectivity of remaining grasslands are important goals for nature conservation. Ex-arable fields located adjacent to species-rich grasslands have been suggested as targets for such recreation, but we still lack knowledge about the processes determining colonization from grasslands to ex-arable fields. We examined transects from species-rich semi-natural grasslands to ex-arable fields in a nature reserve located in southeast Sweden, and analysed relationships between observed colonization of ex-arable fields and two characteristics of species: dispersal ability and recruitment ability. Colonization of ex-arable fields was not related to dispersal ability, assessed as adhesive potential to animal coat, wind dispersal potential and seed mass (related to seed production), but was positively related to recruitment ability, assessed by sowing experiment. The same relationships appeared when using a performance index from sowing experiments conducted in the UK. We conclude that recruitment ability is a key factor for colonization of ex-arable fields. In our study, around 50% of semi-natural grassland species were able to colonize adjacent ex-arable field margins spontaneously within a time window of less than 50 years. Seed sowing is however needed to increase the speed of the colonization process, because increasing seed density promotes colonization of species with poor recruitment in ex-arable fields. Actions to increase area and connectivity of species-rich grasslands should consider incorporating ex-arable fields.

  • 102663.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Size and heterogeneity rather than landscape context determine plant species richness in semi-natural grasslands2007In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 859-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Is plant diversity in fragmented semi-natural grasslands related to present and historical landscape context?

    Location: Southern Sweden.

    Methods: Plant diversity was described at 30 semi-natural grassland sites in terms of total and specialist plant species richness at the site and species density at different scales (0.5–10 m2). These measures are commonly used to assess conservation value of semi-natural grasslands. Landscape context was measured as contemporary connectivity to other semi-natural grasslands, historical connectivity 50 years ago, amount of linear elements potentially suitable for dispersal (road verges, power line clearings), and amount of forest (inverse of the openness of the landscape).

    Results: The diversity measures were generally correlated with each other, implying that species richness in a subset of the grassland can predict the total richness. Plant species density at three scales (0.5 m2, 10 m2 and total) was related to the landscape context using an information theoretic approach. Results showed that total species richness increased with increased size of grasslands, contrary to earlier diversity studies in semi-natural grasslands. Larger grasslands were more heterogeneous than smaller grasslands, and this is a likely reason for the species-area relationship. Heterogeneity was also of high importance at the smaller scales (0.5 m2, 10 m2). With increased amount of forest, total species richness increased but species density on 10 m2 decreased. There was no influence of connectivity in either the contemporary or the historical landscape, contrary to previous studies.

    Conclusions: Grassland size and heterogeneity are of greater importance for plant diversity in semi-natural grassland, than grassland connectivity in the landscape.

  • 102664.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Recruitment in species-rich grasslands: the effects of functional traits and propagule pressure2012In: Journal of Plant Ecology, ISSN 1752-9921, E-ISSN 1752-993X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 260-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assembly of plant communities is a complex process which combines impacts from the species pool, dispersal and propagule pressure, niche requirements of colonizing species and the niche structure of the community. Recent theory development has incorporated all these aspects, e.g. in 'stochastic niche theory'. We investigated recruitment into a species-rich grassland community, using an experimental approach where we manipulated the trait composition of the community and examined the success of colonizing species entering with various propagule pressure. Specifically, we examined two predictions: (i) colonization success increases with increasing difference between traits of the colonizing species and the trait profile of the community and (ii) colonization success increases with increasing propagule pressure. The examined communities were species-rich semi-natural grasslands located in southern Sweden. After a careful documentation of the composition of the plant communities at the experimental sites, we manipulated the trait profile of species-rich grassland plots based on the plant functional trait specific leaf area (SLA), which is correlated with several key life history functions. In addition to SLA, seed mass was also used to describe the trait profile of grassland plots. Seeds of 12 plant species from the regional species pool, varying in SLA and seed mass, were sown into plots using four different levels of propagule pressure. Recruitment was examined after 1 year. We also planted juvenile 'plug plants' of the same species which allowed us to examine survivorship and growth beyond the seedling stage. Overall we found very limited evidence for relationships between the traits of the colonizing species and the trait profile of the community and for recruitment after sowing these relationships were contrary to the prediction. Survival of plug plants after two seasons of growth was high irrespective of the trait profile of the community, but growth of plug plants was affected by the trait profile of the surrounding community. For four of the species there was a positive effect of increased propagule pressure on colonization. The results suggest that species assembly in species-rich grasslands is not strongly dependent on the niche structure of the community. However, the finding that colonization of only a third of the species responded positively to increased propagule pressure indicates that there might be niche-related effects that were not captured by our treatments. Overall, our results indicate that the factors determining colonization in this community are species specific. Some species are able to colonize irrespective of niche relationships, provided that the propagule pressure is sufficiently high to overcome stochastic mortality after seed arrival. For other species, however, we cannot exclude that niche assembly occurred, but we failed to identify the relevant niche factor.

  • 102665.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Sex-ratio mediated pollen limitation in the dioecious herb Antennaria dioica2007In: Ecoscience, ISSN 1195-6860, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 387-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined how population structure affects seed set and recruitment in the dioecious plant Antennaria dioica, which is a declining species inhabiting semi-natural grasslands in Sweden. Flowering and sex ratio in A. dioica were studied over 4 y at a local (1.2 km2) scale and over 1 y at a regional (742 km2) scale in southern Sweden. Antennaria dioica was also hand-pollinated during 2y to examine whether sex ratios, male abundance, and distance to nearest male influence the degree of pollen limitation. Seed-sowing experiments were conducted to assess whether recruitment is limited by seed or microsite availability. There was a considerable spatio-temporal variation in both flowering and sex ratios. The regional scale survey showed that patch size and number of patches per site were positively correlated, and small patches of A.dioica tended to have biased sex ratios. Experimental hand-pollinations showed that the degree of pollen limitation increased with increasingly female-biased sex ratios in the closest vicinity of the experimental plants. Thus, even though A. dioica is pollinated by many different insects, a fragmented population structure has a large influence on reproductive performance of A. dioica. The seed-sowing experiments showed that recruitment is limited by a combination of seed and microsite availability. It is therefore plausible that reduced seed production due to pollen limitation translates into reduced recruitment. The results from the local and the regional scale indicate that a large fraction of local patches and populations of A. dioica have decreased sexual reproduction. The conclusion is that A. dioica is likely to be particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation.

  • 102666.
    Öster, Mathias
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Persson, Kill
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Validation of plant diversity indicators in semi-natural grasslands2008In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 125, no 1-4, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of plant biodiversity indicators in a nationwide survey of semi-natural grasslands in Sweden was examined by comparing results from the survey with additional in-depth studies of plant diversity at the same 30 sites in southern Sweden. Additional grasslands, that were not subjected to the nationwide survey (i.e. rejected after an initial site selection), were also investigated in order to examine the quality of the initial site selection and to assess to what extent they harboured species rich plant communities. Results showed that grasslands that were not included in the nationwide survey were generally smaller in size and that they contained significantly lower plant diversity than sites that were included by the survey. However, some indicator species, including indicators for poor management, were abundant in both types of sites. Biodiversity indicators correctly indicated both plant species richness and plant species density when using data from the in-depth study. However, by comparing indicator species found by the nationwide survey and by the in-depth study, it was shown that the survey overlooked 42% of all indicator species occurrences, which removed the significant relationship between indicator richness and total plant species richness. Furthermore, a null model showed that the chosen indicator species did not perform significantly better than species chosen at random from the available species pool. The conclusion was that validation of indicators is crucial, because even though real correlations exist between taxa or between a subset of species and overall diversity, poor precision of surveys might make these indicators useless. This also suggests that the effort put into searching for the indicator species may have to be so high, that it may be more efficient to go directly into assessing the biological values they are supposed to indicate.

  • 102667. Österberg, Carin
    et al.
    Fahlquist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Brown, Craig M.
    Udovic, Terrence J.
    Karlsson, Maths
    Dynamics of Pyramidal SiH3- Ions in ASiH(3) (A = K and Rb) Investigated with Quasielastic Neutron Scattering2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 12, p. 6369-6376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two alkali silanides ASiH(3) (A = K and Rb) were investigated by means of quasielastic neutron scattering, both below and above the order-disorder phase transition occurring at around 275-300 K. Measurements upon heating show that there is a large change in the dynamics on going through the phase transition, whereas measurements upon cooling reveal a strong hysteresis due to undercooling of the disordered phase. The results show that the dynamics is associated with rotational diffusion of SiH3- anions, adequately modeled by H-jumps among 24 different jump locations radially distributed around the Si atom. The average relaxation time between successive jumps is of the order of subpicoseconds and exhibits a weak temperature dependence with a small difference in activation energy between the two materials, 39(1) meV for KSiH3 and 33(1) meV for RbSiH3. The pronounced SiH3- dynamics explains the high entropy observed in the disordered phase resulting in the low entropy variation for hydrogen absorption/desorption and hence the origin of these materials' favorable hydrogen storage properties.

  • 102668.
    Österberg, Chriss
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Talent Management: Möjlighet eller hot? Sett ur HR-anställdas perspektiv.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute with new knowledge of  how Talent Management can be seen as a an opportunity or threat for organizational development, concerning competence, on the basis of HR. The research questions asked are: Out of wich aspects can Talent Management be seen as an opportunity or threat on the basis of HR-employees? How can it affect the work of HR? To answer these questions qualitative interviews with five employees within HR from four different companies has been executed. The essay has been investigated on the basis of an explorative aim and with a qualitative method. The empirical results has indicated common themes such as director support, HRs view of Talent Management, HRs development and shifts of generations. Talent Management can be seen as a possibility for employees within HR to work with comtemporary HR-questions and for them to secure key competence for thier companies. Talent Management can be seen as a threat against HRs own development, since their mian focus is to develop others. The support from directors and management and their influence on the work of HR and HRs oportunity to development need to be examined in a future, more extensive, study.

  • 102669. Österberg, Frederik W.
    et al.
    Rizzi, Giovanni
    Donolato, Marco
    Bejhed, Rebecca S.
    Mezger, Anja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Strömberg, Mattias
    Nilsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Strømme, Maria
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Hansen, Mikkel F.
    On-Chip Detection of Rolling Circle Amplified DNA Molecules from Bacillus Globigii Spores and Vibrio Cholerae2014In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 10, no 14, p. 2877-2882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the first time DNA coils formed by rolling circle amplification are quantified on-chip by Brownian relaxation measurements on magnetic nanobeads using a magnetoresistive sensor. No external magnetic fields are required besides the magnetic field arising from the current through the sensor, which makes the setup very compact. Limits of detection down to 500 Bacillus globigii spores and 2 pM of Vibrio cholerae are demonstrated, which are on the same order of magnitude or lower than those achieved previously using a commercial macro-scale AC susceptometer. The chip-based readout is an important step towards the realization of field tests based on rolling circle amplification molecular analyses.

  • 102670.
    Österberg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brännmark, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "We all go a little mad sometimes": En kvalitativ studie om framställningen av psykopati i film2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie har undersökt psykopati som begrepp i populärkulturen och i relation till film. Psykopaten i film framställs som alltifrån en sadistisk våldtäktsman, en charmig gentleman till en våldsam seriemördare. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur väl bilden av filmpsykopaten stämmer överens med den kliniska definitionen och Hares Psykopatichecklista, PCL-R.

    Nitton filmer valdes ut som underlag där minst en karaktär beskrevs som psykopat. Vid analys noterades huruvida en specifik bedömningspunkt på PCL-R förekom hos en filmkaraktär eller inte. Således jämfördes karaktärerna med den kliniska psykologins bedömning av psykopati. Resultatet antydde att endast 6 av 20 filmkaraktärer kunde klassas som psykopater. Detta på grund av att filmskapare eftertraktar en intressant karaktär, och kan då överdriva vissa drag samt utnyttja de rådande stereotyperna av psykopati för att skapa spänning. Konsekvensen av detta kan bli att allmänheten får en förvrängd bild av psykopati på grund av hur det porträtteras i populärkulturen.

  • 102671.
    Österberg, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Höglind, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Att vara en del av helheten: Pedagogers inkluderande arbetssätt av förskolebarn med hörselnedsättning2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how pedagogues apply an inclusive method of teaching preschool children with hearing impairment. This process will be examined from a sociocultural perspective, where language and interaction is considered a basic foundation for teaching. Interviews and field observations have been conducted in order to effectively address our outlined research questions. The results indicate that frequent use of signs and body language is crucial in providing children with hearing impairment with the same opportunity to engage in contextual learning. Our findings illustrate the importance of environmental factors, as well as how they are utilized when adapting school curriculums to individual circumstances. This study is summarized into six points, which lists important things to consider while working with children with hearing impairment. Our findings conclude that the foundation for an inclusive learning environment is to adapt the school curriculum without emphasizing or neglecting the hearing impairment.

  • 102672.
    Österberg, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    What’s in? What’s out? And how did it get there?: Studies on topologies and insertion of membrane proteins2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of their hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature and the need for a lipid bilayer for retaining the native structure, membrane proteins are hard to study. Nevertheless, they are important, as many of our diseases are related to membrane proteins and around 60% of the different pharmaceutical drugs are directed against a membrane proteins [1]. There are many ways to study a protein, you can study function, structure, how the protein is targeted and inserted into its specific organelle, the interactions with other proteins or ligands etc. In the absence of a high-resolution structure, a topology model for a membrane protein is often useful. We have obtained reliable topologies for 546 of the membrane proteins going through the secretory pathways in S. cerevisiae by combining experimental data with topology prediction programs. In addition we have produced topology models for over 15,000 membrane proteins from 38 sequenced eukaryotic genomes using homology to the experimentally determined group.

    We also examined the growth rates and tolerance to certain stress conditions for our large set of clones that over-express membrane proteins. This provides important information both for structural studies of membrane proteins where large amounts of protein is needed for further studies, and for getting some insight in the function of specific proteins. Finally we have studied the integration of membrane proteins by the Tim23 translocon in the inner membrane of mitochondria. We have investigated the hydrophobicity required for efficient integration of transmembrane (TM) helices by Tim23. From this data we have derived an in vivo hydrophobicity scale for the insertion of different amino acids into the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and have made a comparison with a previously determined hydrophobicity scale for the ER translocon Sec61. We concluded that charged residues flanking the TM segment are of major importance for insertion into the membrane.

    We therefore further investigated the importance of charged residues flanking the first, weakly hydrophobic, TM segment in the mitochondrial inner membrane protein Mgm1p with regard to membrane insertion by the Tim23 complex.

  • 102673.
    Österberg, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Botelho, Salomé Calado
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    von Heijne, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kim, Hyun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Charged flanking residues control the efficiency of membrane insertion of the first transmembrane segment in yeast mitochondrial Mgm1p2011In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 585, no 8, p. 1238-1242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mgm1p is a nuclearly encoded GTPase important for mitochondrial fusion. Long and short isoforms of the protein are generated in a unique alternative topogenesis process in which the most N-terminal of two hydrophobic segments in the protein is inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane in about half of the molecules and translocated across the inner membrane in the other half. In the latter population, the second hydrophobic segment is cleaved by the inner membrane protease Pcp1p, generating the short isoform. Here, we show that charged residues in the regions flanking the first segment critically affect the ratio between the two isoforms, providing new insight into the importance of charged residues in the insertion of proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane.

  • 102674.
    Österberg, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Kim, Hyun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Warringer, Jonas
    Melén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Blomberg, Anders
    von Heijne, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Phenotypic effects of membrane protein overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.2006In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 103, no 30, p. 11148-11153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale protein overexpression phenotype screens provide an important complement to the more common gene knockout screens. Here, we have targeted the so far poorly understood Saccharomyces cerevisiae membrane proteome and report growth phenotypes for a strain collection overexpressing ≈600 C-terminally tagged integral membrane proteins grown both under normal and three different stress conditions. Although overexpression of most membrane proteins reduce the growth rate in synthetic defined medium, we identify a large number of proteins that, when overexpressed, confer specific resistance to various stress conditions. Our data suggest that regulation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and the Na+/K+ homeostasis system constitute major downstream targets of the yeast PKA/RAS pathway and point to a possible connection between the early secretory pathway and the cells’ response to oxidative stress. We also have quantified the expression levels for >550 membrane proteins, facilitating the choice of well expressing proteins for future functional and structural studies.

  • 102675.
    Österberg, Rakel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Motivación, aptitud y desarrollo estructural: Un estudio sobre la actuación lingüística en aprendientes suecos de español L22008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine how the development of syntactic complexity and accuracy in spoken Spanish L2 is related to two parameters, motivation and aptitude, in which individual differences are often claimed to correlate with successful second language learning (Dörnyei and Skehan 2003). The study shows how an understanding of the relationship between progression in second language proficiency and motivation is gained through the study of longitudinal data and the assessment of motivation in discourse. The development of syntactic complexity and accuracy in oral performance has been chosen as main indicators of proficiency level. Correlations have been computed between proficiency levels, development coefficients, quantitative outcomes of aptitude tests and quantified assessment of motivation. The study is based on longitudinal data consisting of recorded interviews and conversations in Spanish in Swedish upper secondary school.

    The results from the progression analysis show that the whole group develops syntactic complexity, and that individual learners concentrate on either syntactic complexity or accuracy in their development.

    Discourse analytical methods have been applied to the in-depth interviews in order to identify motivational types expressed by the learner and the strength of each type. These have been represented in terms of values on a self-determination scale, the extreme points of which are 'intrinsic' vs. 'extrinsic' motivation. An aptitude test (Lat03, Meara 2005) has also been administered to the participants and analysed .

    Correlations (Spearman) have been further calculated between the relevant parameters. The results indicate that self-determined, intrinsic motivation correlates with progression. Analytic aptitude, however, does not predict progression to the same extent as intrinsic motivation seems to do at this level.

  • 102676.
    Österberg, Rakel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Det andra främmande språket i svensk skola2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 13-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 102677. Österberg, Torun
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Björn
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Children in Out-of-Home Care and Adult Labor-Market Attachment: A Swedish National Register Study2016In: Journal of Public Child Welfare, ISSN 1554-8732, E-ISSN 1554-8740, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 414-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using longitudinal national register data, we investigated labor-market attachment during the years 1993-1995 in Sweden for persons aged 25-35 years who had been in out-of-home care before the age of 18 in Sweden during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. We consider whether an immigrant background has an additional influence on labor-market attachment. Compared to majority population peers, young persons who had been in foster care had shorter educations. Fewer had a strong labor-market attachment and more were dependent on social assistance. Results from multinomial regression models indicated that having been in foster care during childhood reduced the probability of high attachment to the labor-market and increased the probability of social assistance dependency, even after making adjustments for education, marital status, parenthood, domicile, and birth country. Few signs of additive effects from being both an immigrant and a former foster child are found.

  • 102678.
    Österblom, H.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Human Impacts on Marine and Freshwater Environments2009In: Fisheries, Sustainability and Development / [ed] Ackefors, H., Cullberg, M., & Wramner, P, Stockholm: Swedish Academy for Agriculture and Forestry, , 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102679.
    Österblom, H.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Policy dialogue April 17th: Conclusions from the Resilience 2008 policy dialogue2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102680.
    Österblom, H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Olsson, O.
    Blenckner, T.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Furness, R.W.
    Junk Food in Marine Ecosystems2008In: Oikos, Vol. 117, p. 1075-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102681.
    Österblom, H.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Wulff, F.
    Stockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Aktionsplan för Östersjön: äntligen kan arbetet börja!2008Report (Other academic)
  • 102682.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Catching Up on Fisheries Crime2014In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 877-879Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102683.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    CCAMLR XXVIII: Hobart, Tasmania2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102684.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Complexity and Change in a Simple Food Web: Studies in the Baltic Sea (FAO Area 27.IIId)2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An influence at one trophic level can result in dynamic impacts also on other components of a food web. These dynamics are known as trophic cascades, and can be both top-down and bottom-up. After a near-collapse of the Baltic cod Gadus morhua stock in the 1980s, its main prey sprat Sprattus sprattus increased dramatically. The main food of sprat, marine copepods, decreased during the same time period, likely a combined effect of increased predation pressure from sprat and decreasing salinities. This shortage of food for sprat resulted in decreasing quality of sprat as a food source for common guillemots Uria aalge. However, a recent increase in fishing for sprat has again resulted in better feeding conditions for guillemots.

    Human impacts on this simple food web can be complex. In the early 20th century, marine mammals were abundant and nutrient levels were low in the Baltic Sea. This thesis illustrate that this situation corresponded to lower fish biomass. A reduction of seals early in the century led to reduced top-down control, which resulted in increasing fish stocks. Later, in the 1950s, the largest inflow of salt water during the century mobilized accumulated phosphorus from the deep sediments, which stimulated nitrogen fixation. Combined with increasing anthropogenic nutrient loads, this led to increased primary production and a rapid change from an oligotrophic to a eutrophicated state. This change can be termed a regime shift, which also stimulated fish production. Subsequent over-fishing of cod likely caused a second regime shift, from a cod- to a clupeid- dominated state, which led to the described effects on the common guillemots.

    Several factors affect the life-history of this long-lived seabird. Bycatches in gillnet fisheries is one factor directly affecting guillemot survival, and the proportion of bycatches increased during a period of increasing fishing effort. Surprisingly, avian cholera, a previously undocumented disease in common guillemots, was found at times to cause considerable adult mortality. Common guillemot life-history information can communicate the diversity of factors influencing marine ecosystems – hopefully this can increase our understanding of how complex even "simple" food webs are.

  • 102685.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Havens superhjältar2011In: Framtider, no 3, p. 22-25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Världens hav och fiskbestånd befinner sig i ett utsatt läge. Men flera år av larmrapporter väcker inte bara oro, utan skapar även en förändringsvilja. Även om problemen kan verka oöverstigliga finns en enorm potential att förändra situationen. Några vardagliga superhjältar – en forskare, en yrkesfiskare och en politiker – visar oss hur enskilda människor faktiskt kan visa vägen till ett mer hållbart fiske.

  • 102686.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Illegalt fiske kring Antarktis2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 102687.
    Österblom, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Reimagining ocean governance using the keystone species concept2017In: Nature Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 1, no 5, article id 0133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102688.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bignert, Anders
    Fransson, Thord
    Olsson, Olof
    A decrease in fledging body mass in common guillemot Uria aalge chicks in the Baltic Sea2001In: Marine Ecology Progres Series, ISSN 0171-8630, Vol. 224, p. 305-309Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102689.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Global Cooperation among Diverse Organizations to Reduce Illegal Fishing in the Southern Ocean2012In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 638-648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is prevalent globally and has detrimental effects on commercial fish stocks and nontarget species. Effective monitoring and enforcement aimed at reducing the level of IUU fishing in extensive, remote ocean fisheries requires international collaboration. Changes in trade and vessel activities further complicate enforcement. We used a web-based survey of governmental and nongovernmental organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing in the Southern Ocean to collect information on interorganizational collaborations. We used social-network analyses to examine the nature of collaborations among the identified 117 organizations engaged in reducing IUU fishing. International collaboration improved the ability to control and manage harvest of commercially important toothfish (Dissostichus spp.) stocks and reduced bycatch of albatrosses (Diomedeidae) and petrels (Procellariidae) in longlines of IUU fishing vessels. The diverse group of surveyed organizations cooperated frequently, thereby making a wide range of resources available for improved detection of suspected IUU vessels and trade flows, cooperation aimed at prosecuting suspected offenders or developing new policy measures. Our results suggest the importance of a central agency for coordination and for maintaining commonly agreed-upon protocols for communication that facilities collaboration. Despite their differences, the surveyed organizations have developed common perceptions about key problems associated with IUU fishing. This has likely contributed to a sustained willingness to invest in collaborations. Our results show that successful international environmental governance can be accomplished through interorganizational collaborations. Such cooperation requires trust, continuous funding, and incentives for actors to participate.

  • 102690.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bodin, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Press, Anthony J.
    Sumaila, U. Rashid
    The High Seas and IUU (Illegal, Unregulated, Unreported) Fishing2015In: Routledge Handbook of Ocean Resources and Management / [ed] Hance D. Smith, Juan Luis Suárez de Vivero, Tundi S. Agardy, Abingdon: Routledge, 2015, p. 232-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 102691.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Casini, Michele
    Olsson, Olof
    Bignert, Anders
    Fish, seabirds and trophic cascades in the Baltic Sea2006In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 323, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

    In the relatively simple Baltic Sea ecosystem, zooplankton-feeding sprat

     

     

    Sprattus sprattus

    is a major food source for breeding seabirds and piscivorous fish, and an important resource for

    commercial fisheries. Large-scale and long-term ecosystem changes resulting mainly from over fishing

    and recruitment failure of cod

     

     

    Gadus morhua

    , which is the main fish predator of sprat, have

    affected natural-history patterns in a piscivorous seabird, the common guillemot

     

     

    Uria aalge

    , in a complex

    way. As the sprat stock increased, leading to lower energy content of fish, common guillemot

    chick body mass at fledging decreased. However, chick fledging body mass recovered in recent years

    as the sprat stock diminished, which brought about corresponding increases in sprat weight-at-age

    and energy content. The cod and sprat fishery affect the common guillemots in the Baltic Sea, but the

    effects differ depending on the management strategy.

  • 102692.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Constable, Andrew
    Fukumi, Sayaka
    Illegal fishing and the organized crime analogy2011In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 261-262Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102693.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Crona, Beatrice I.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Marine Ecosystem Science on an Intertwined Planet2017In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 54-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystem science has developed since the 1940s, when humans obtained the ability to spend substantial time underneath the surface of the ocean. Since then, and drawing on several decades of scientific advances, a number of exciting research frontiers have emerged. We find: Understanding interacting drivers of change, Identifying thresholds in ecosystems, and Investigating social-ecological dynamics to represent particularly interesting frontiers, which we speculate will soon emerge as new mainstreams in marine ecosystem science. However, increasing human impacts on ecosystems everywhere and a new level of global connectivity are shifting the context for studying, understanding, and managing marine ecosystems. As a consequence, we argue that ecosystem scientists today also need to address a number of critical challenges and devote new energy and expertise to Modeling the Anthropocene, Operationalizing resilience, and Understanding social-ecological dynamics across scales. This new deep dive into unknown waters requires a number of strategies to be successful. We suggest that marine ecosystem scientists need to actively: Prepare for the unexpected, cross boundaries, and understand our cognitive limitations to further develop the exciting field of marine ecosystem science.

  • 102694.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics.
    Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources2013In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 4-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH) that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry), and later (COLTO) linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR). The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding social-ecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes.

  • 102695.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Fransson, Thord
    Olsson, Olof
    Bycatches of common guillemot (Uria aalge) in the Baltic Sea gillnet fishery2002In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-8630, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 309-319Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102696.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gardmark, A.
    Bergstrom, L.
    Muller-Karulis, B.
    Folke, C.
    Lindegren, M.
    Casini, M.
    Olsson, P.
    Diekmann, R.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Humborg, Cristoph
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Moellmann, C.
    Making the ecosystem approach operational-Can regime shifts in ecological- and governance systems facilitate the transition?2010In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 1290-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effectively reducing cumulative impacts on marine ecosystems requires co-evolution between science, policy and practice. Here, long-term social-ecological changes in the Baltic Sea are described, illustrating how the process of making the ecosystem approach operational in a large marine ecosystem can be stimulated. The existing multi-level governance institutions are specifically set up for dealing with individual sectors, but do not adequately support an operational application of the ecosystem approach. The review of ecosystem services in relation to regime shifts and resilience of the Baltic Sea sub-basins, and their driving forces, points to a number of challenges. There is however a movement towards a new governance regime. Bottom-up pilot initiatives can lead to a diffusion of innovation within the existing governance framework. Top-down, enabling EU legislation, can help stimulating innovations and re-organizing governance structures at drainage basin level to the Baltic Sea catchment as a whole. Experimentation and innovation at local to the regional levels is critical for a transition to ecosystem-based management. Establishing science-based learning platforms at sub-basin scales could facilitate this process.

  • 102697.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hansson, Sture
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Wulff, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Human-induced trophic cascades and ecological regime shifts in the Baltic Sea2007In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 877-889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystems of coastal and enclosed seas are under increasing anthropogenic pressure worldwide, with Chesapeake Bay, the Gulf of Mexico and the Black and Baltic Seas as well known examples. We use an ecosystem model (Ecopath with Ecosim, EwE) to show that reduced top-down control (seal predation) and increased bottom-up forcing (eutrophication) can largely explain the historical dynamics of the main fish stocks (cod, herring and sprat) in the Baltic Sea between 1900 and 1980. Based on these results and the historical fish stock development we identify two major ecological transitions. A shift from seal to cod domination was caused by a virtual elimination of marine mammals followed by a shift from an oligotrophic to a eutrophic state. A third shift from cod to clupeid domination in the late 1980s has previously been explained by overfishing of cod and climatic changes. We propose that the shift from an oligotrophic to a eutrophic state represents a true regime shift with a stabilizing mechanism for a hysteresis phenomenon. There are also mechanisms that could stabilize the shift from a cod to clupeid dominated ecosystem, but there are no indications that the ecosystem has been pushed that far yet. We argue that the shifts in the Baltic Sea are a consequence of human impacts, although variations in climate may have influenced their timing, magnitude and persistence.

  • 102698.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nevonen, Nea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Veem, Katarina
    Tinkering with a tanker-slow evolution of a Swedish ecosystem approach2017In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystem approach is a salient policy paradigm originating from a scientific understanding of the reality of complex ecosystem dynamics. In this article, we investigate how Swedish national marine policies and practice between 2002 and 2015 have changed towards an ecosystem approach. Government documents, the scientific literature, institutional changes, changes in legislation, pilot projects, and changes in science and public opinion were reviewed and combined with information from expert interviews. We found that changes in policy and practice have slowly stimulated the development of an ecosystem approach, but that limited political leadership, challenges of coordination, different agency cultures, and limited learning appears to be key barriers for further and more substantial change. We compare and contrast the Swedish national process of change with other documented experiences of implementing an ecosystem approach and find that several countries struggle with similar challenges. Substantial work still remains in Sweden and we provide suggestions for how to stimulate further and more substantial change at the national level.

  • 102699.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Crona, Beatrice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Troell, Max
    Merrie, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Transnational Corporations as 'Keystone Actors' in Marine Ecosystems2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0127533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons) and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  • 102700.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 34, p. 9038-9043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

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