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  • 102651.
    Zech, Lore
    Stockholm University.
    Growth and nuclear differentiation in some protozoa: with special reference to nucleic acid and protein synthesis1967Book (Other academic)
  • 102652.
    Zedek, Rfet Alla Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Geostatistical analysis of the Gorran water protection area in Nynäshamn municipality2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater level models have an important role in the development and application of water management and policies. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations of groundwater levels in the Gorran water protection area in Nynäshamn is important for developing management strategies. Geostatistical analysis with several different methods was used to compare groundwater level records for 13 observation wells in Gorran from 1994 to 2012. The performance of the different methods was evaluated by using mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) metrics. The results showed that geostatistical methods had a higher general accuracy when utilizing the Empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK) method in Gorran. EBK was the best method with highest precision and lowest mean absolute error. Cross-validation was also applied to evaluate the best (smallest) root mean square error (RMSE). A predicted potentiometric groundwater level was estimated from the basis of the available digital elevation model to extend the observation area within the same geological specification.

  • 102653.
    Zedenius, Fanny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Ideologi och människosyn på export: En undersökning av de ideologiska och teoretiska grunderna i IMF:s strukturanpassningsprogram - Ghanas och Etiopiens erfarenheter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    IMF:s lån till utvecklingsländer på 1980- och 90-talet kom med krav på strukturanpassningsprogram (SAPs), vilket innebar stort inflytande över utvecklingsländernas ekonomier. För många länder försämrades det ekonomiska läget, skulderna ökade och sociala förhållanden förvärrades. Bakom dessa strategier låg neoliberala idéer och neoklassisk ekonomisk teori. Den neoklassiska ekonomiska teorin kritiseras ofta av feministiska ekonomer för att innehålla en felaktig människosyn inom modellen om människors ekonomiska beteende: ’economic man’. Enligt dem leder ’economic man’ som människosyn till konsekvenser i den politiska praktiken då den neoklassiska ekonomiska teorin influerar beslutsfattande. Denna uppsats undersöker hur neoliberalismen och människosynen bakom ’economic man’ har influerat policydokumenten om SAPs. Uppsatsen utgår från de feministiska ekonomernas kritik mot neoklassisk ekonomisk teori och ’economic man’, samt Philip Mirowskis diskussioner om neoliberalism. Studien genomförs utifrån två fallstudier om SAPs, i Ghana (1987-2001) och i Etiopien (1992-2001), baserat på de dokument som innehåller de politiska omstruktureringarna som IMF anser nödvändiga och länderna avser genomföra för att få tillgång till IMF:s lån. Undersökningen visar att de neoliberala idéerna figurerar både explicit och implicit i utformandet av SAPs och påverkar utformandet av dem då de utgår från neoliberalsmens övertygelser om bästa sättet att nå tillväxt och önskad utveckling. Vidare indikerar resultatet att människosynen bakom ’economic man’, framförallt vad gäller antagandena om rationalitet och nyttomaximering, förekommer som en logisk premiss i utvecklingsstrategierna och därmed har influerat utformningen SAPs. Dessutom framgår det att makroperspektivet i dokumenten bidrar till att reproducera maktrelationer och strukturella hierarkier som missgynnar kvinnor.

  • 102654.
    Zeghbi, Paula
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kasagianni, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Balanced Scorecard: En studie om delaktighet och engagemang i styrkortsarbetet på operativ nivå2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionella metoder för att styra företag och organisationer har under de senaste decennierna fått kritik för att vara alltför kortsiktiga och för att ge bristfälliga underlag vid beslutsfattande. Denna kritik har gett upphov till flera nya koncept, som ger företagen möjlighet att frångå den traditionella ekonomistyrningen. En av dessa koncept är The Balanced Scorecard, vars syfte är att fungera som ett hjälpmedel för att på ett effektivt sätt styra och utveckla företagets rörelse mot dess mål och vision, genom att titta på företaget ur både finansiella och icke-finansiella perspektiv. På så sätt skapas en balans mellan finansiella och icke-finansiella mått. The Balanced Scorecard formulerar och synliggör företagets vision, affärsidé och mål i syfte att visa hur företagets olika delar samverkar och påverkar varandra. För att arbetet med det balanserade styrkortet ska ge positiva effekter, måste det förutom enighet och engagemang på ledningsnivå, förekomma delaktighet och förståelse för styrkortet hos de övriga i företaget. För att ett företag ska lyckas uppnå sin vision, måste både visionen och strategin förmedlas till alla medarbetare i företaget, för att dessa ska kunna jobba mot samma mål. Enligt en svensk undersökning är det få medarbetare som känner till företagets strategiska mål: ”Visionen översätts inte till operativa termer som ger handledning till verksamheten på lägre nivå”.

  • 102655.
    Zeghbi, Paula
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kasagianni, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Handelsbankens belöningssystem: För individen och kollektivet2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företagsledningens främsta uppgift är att styra företaget effektivt för att uppnå de av ägarna uppställda målen. För att säkerställa verksamhetens effektivitet används olika styrmedel. Förutom strategier, planer och strukturer för organisationen används även belöningssystem, vars syfte är att skapa rätt motivation hos medarbetarna. Genom att dela ut belöningar visar företagsledningen vilka slags beteenden som är önskvärda inom organisationen och på vilket sätt de anställda ska arbeta för att uppnå de resultat som i sin tur leder till belöning.

  • 102656. Zeiler, K.
    et al.
    Furberg, Eisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Tufveson, G.
    Welin, S.
    The ethics of non-heart-beating donation: how new technology can change the ethical landscape2008In: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 526-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global shortage of organs for transplantation and the development of new and better medical technologies for organ preservation have resulted in a renewed interest in non-heart-beating donation (NHBD). This article discusses ethical questions related to controlled and uncontrolled NHBD. It argues that certain preparative measures, such as giving anticoagulants, should be acceptable before patients are dead, but when they have passed a point where further curative treatment is futile, they are in the process of dying and they are unconscious. Furthermore, the article discusses consequences of technological developments based on improvement of a chest compression apparatus used today to make mechanical heart resuscitation. Such technological development can be used to transform cases of non-controlled NHBD to controlled NHBD. In our view, this is a step forward since the ethical difficulties related to controlled NHBD are easier to solve than those related to non-controlled NHBD. However, such technological developments also evoke other ethical questions.

  • 102657.
    Zeilich-Jensen, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Den centraleskimåiska världsbilden: huvuddragen av eskimåisk religion mot bakgrunden av termerna för orientering1974Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 102658. Zeilinger, Michael
    et al.
    Baran, Volodymyr
    van Wuellen, Leo
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Faessler, Thomas F.
    Stabilizing the Phase Li15Si4 through Lithium-Aluminum Substitution in Li15-xAlxSi4 (0.4 <= x <= 0.8)-Single Crystal X-ray Structure Determination of Li15Si4 and Li14.37Al0.63Si42013In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 25, no 20, p. 4113-4121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystals of Li15Si4 and Li15-xAlxSi4 (x = 0.63(1)) were obtained from equilibrated melts with compositions Li100-xSix (x = 10, 15) and Li83Al13Si4, respectively, and isolated by isothermal centrifugation. Li15Si4 and Li14.37(1)Al0.63(1)Si4 crystallize with the Cu15Si4 structure type (I (4) over bar 3d, a(x=0) = 10.6322(9) angstrom, a(x=0.63(1)) = 10.6172(4) angstrom, Z = 4, T = 123 K). The incorporation of Al equally affects both crystallographically distinguished Li positions in the Li15Si4 structure. The replacement of about 4% of Li is firmly established by the refinement of single crystal diffraction data and NMR spectroscopy. The homogeneity range of Li15-xAlxSi4 was assessed as 0.4 < x < 0.8 from synthesis experiments using stoichiometric proportions of the elements. Differential scanning calorimetry studies confirm the metastable character of Li15Si4, decomposing exothermally at temperatures around 200 degrees C. However, the decomposition process of Li15Si4, is sluggish and appreciable rates are not observed before temperatures reach 400 degrees C. In contrast Li15-xAlxSi4 is thermodynamically stable. The decomposition temperature is at about 700 degrees C. It is speculated that the thermodynamic stability of Li15-xAlxSi4 is a consequence of the increased electron concentration, shifting the Fermi level to a pseudo-gap in the electronic density of states. Since metastable Li15Si4 plays an important role during electrochemical lithiation of a silicon anode, thermodynamically stable Li15-xAlxSi4 may have interesting properties as anode material in lithium ion batteries.

  • 102659. Zeilinger, Michael
    et al.
    Benson, Daryn
    Haussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Faessler, Thomas F.
    Single Crystal Growth and Thermodynamic Stability of Li17Si42013In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1960-1967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single crystals of Li17Si4 were synthesized from melts LixSi100-x (x > 85) at various temperatures and isolated by isothermal centrifugation. Li17Si4 crystallizes in the space group F (4) over bar 3m (a = 18.7259(1) angstrom, Z = 20). The highly air and moisture sensitive compound is isotypic with Li17Si4. represents a new compound and thus the lithium-richest phase in the binary system Li-Si superseding known Li21Si5 (Li16.8Si4). As previously shown Li22Si5 (Li17.6Si4) has been determined incorrectly. The findings are supported by theoretical calculations of the electronic structure, total energies, and structural optimizations using first-principles methods. Results from melt equilibration experiments and differential scanning calorimetry investigations suggest that Li17Si4 decomposes peritectically at 481 +/- 2 degrees C to Li4Si and melt. In addition a detailed investigation of the Li-Si phase system at the Li rich side by thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry is given.

  • 102660. Zeilinger, Michael
    et al.
    Jantke, Laura-Alice
    Scherf, Lavinia M.
    Kiefer, Florian J.
    Neubueser, Gero
    Kienle, Lorenz
    Karttunen, Antti J.
    Konar, Sumit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Faessler, Thomas F.
    Alkali Metals Extraction Reactions with the Silicides Li15Si4 and Li3NaSi6: Amorphous Si versus allo-Si2014In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 26, no 22, p. 6603-6612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The silicides Li15Si4 and Li3NaSi6 were subjected to chemical extraction of the alkali metal component by liquid ammonia and ethanol, respectively, which after washing yielded black powders of amorphous silicon. The investigated reactions are interesting with respect to both the formation of novel Si modifications and the delithiation process in Si anode materials. The products termed a-Si (from Li15Si4) and a-allo-Si (from Li3NaSi6) were characterized by a combination of methodologies (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis, Raman, atomic absorption, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) which revealed (i) a porous microstructure for a-Si built from spherically shaped particles with sizes around 10 nm, (ii) partial surface oxidation of both materials and (iii) the presence of nanocrystalline Si in both materials. The result of the protic oxidation of Li3NaSi6 is at variance with earlier findings reporting the formation of a crystalline bulk allotrope of silicon (allo-Si) from the topotactic combination of silicon layers present as polyanions in Li3NaSi6. Additionally, quantum chemical calculations show that silicon layers in Li3NaSi6 cannot combine to energetically favorable allotropic forms of Si. This is different from Li7Ge12, where polyanionic germanium layers topotactically convert to the germanium allotrope m-allo-Ge upon oxidation.

  • 102661. Zeilinger, Michael
    et al.
    Kurylyshyn, Iryna M.
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Faessler, Thomas F.
    Revision of the Li-Si Phase Diagram: Discovery and Single-Crystal X-ray Structure Determination of the High-Temperature Phase Li4.11Si2013In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 25, no 22, p. 4623-4632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon has been regarded as a promising anode material for future lithium-ion batteries, and Li-Si phases play an important role. A detailed reinvestigation of the Li-rich part of the binary Li-Si phase diagram revealed the existence of a new phase, Li4.106(2)Si (Li16.42Si4). Li16.42Si4 forms through the peritectic decomposition of the Li-richest phase Li17Si4 at 481-486 degrees C and was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (a = 4.5246(2) angstrom, b = 21.944(1) angstrom, c = 13.2001(6) angstrom, space group Cmcm, Z = 16), differential scanning calorimetry, and theoretical calculations. Li16.42Si4 represents a high-temperature phase that is thermodynamically stable above similar to 480 degrees C and decomposes peritectically at 618 +/- 2 degrees C to Li13Si4 and a melt. Li16.42Si4 can be retained at room temperature. The structure consists of 3 and 10 different kinds of Si and Li atoms, respectively. Two Li positions show occupational disorder. Si atoms are well-separated from each other and have only Li atoms as nearest neighbors. This is similar to Li17Si4 and Li15Si4 compositionally embracing Li16.42Si4. The SiLin coordination polyhedra in the series Li15Si4, Li16.42Si4, and Li17Si4 are compared. Li15Si4 exclusively features coordination numbers of 12, Li16.42Si4 of 12 and 13, and Li17Si4 reveals 13- and 14-coordinated Si atoms. The band structure and density of states of Li16.42Si4 were calculated on the basis of two ordered model structures with nominal compositions Li16Si4 (a hypothetical Zintl phase) and Li16.5Si4. Both reveal a metallic character that is analogous to Li17Si4. In contrast, the electronic structure of Li15Si4 is characteristic of a p-doped semiconductor.

  • 102662. Zeilinger, Michael
    et al.
    van Wüllen, Leo
    Benson, Daryn
    Kranak, Verina F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Konar, Sumit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Fässler, Thomas F.
    Häussermann, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    LiBSi2: A Tetrahedral Semiconductor Framework from Boron and Silicon Atoms Bearing Lithium Atoms in the Channels2013In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 52, no 23, p. 5978-5982Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102663.
    Zeilon, Nils
    Stockholm College.
    Sur les intégrales fondamentales des équations à caractéristique réelle de la physique mathématique1914Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 102664.
    Zeinali, Arash
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Golod, Taras
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Krasnov, Vladimir M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Surface superconductivity as the primary cause of broadening of superconducting transition in Nb films at high magnetic fields2016In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 94, no 21, article id 214506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the origin of broadening of superconducting transition in sputtered Nb films at high magnetic fields. From simultaneous tunneling and transport measurements we conclude that the upper critical field H-c2 always corresponds to the bottom of transition R similar to 0, while the top R similar to R-n occurs close to the critical field for destruction of surface superconductivity H-c3 similar or equal to 1.7H(c2). The two-dimensional nature of superconductivity at H > H-c2 is confirmed by cusplike angular dependence of magnetoresistance. Our data indicates that surface superconductivity is remarkably robust even in disordered polycrystalline films and, surprisingly, even in perpendicular magnetic fields. We conclude that surface superconductivity, rather than flux-flow phenomenon, inhomogeneity, or superconducting fluctuations, is the primary cause of broadening of superconducting transition in magnetic field.

  • 102665.
    Zeinali, Sheila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hagenstam, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Utveckling av försäljningskanaler inom IT-branschen: En explorativ undersökning med fokus på mobiltelefoner och datorer då utvecklingen inom IT-branschen leder till produktintegration2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen inom IT-branschen ger oss ständigt nya produkter med nya funktioner. Mobiltelefoner utvecklas från att vara en telefon till något mycket mer. Genom dessa mer tekniskt avancerade produkter ska företag kunna öka sin effektivitet genom att utöka kommunikationen mellan medarbetarna från enbart röstöverföring till dataöverföring. Detta kan vara av stor betydelse då människor blir alltmer rörliga i sina yrken och samtidigt måste vara nåbara.

  • 102666.
    Zeinali, Sheila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Hendil-Forssell, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Affärsförbindelser mellan företag inom fordonsindustrin: En explorativ undersökning med inriktning på fordonstillverkare och leverantörer2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning saknas.

  • 102667.
    Zeising, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Samling i förskolan: En studie om förskolebarns möjlighet till inflytande och delaktighet i samlingen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka möjligheter till inflytande och delaktighet barnen har i samlingen i förskolan och vad det är i pedagogens agerande som möjliggör respektive förhindrar delaktighet och inflytande. Studien är kvalitativ och genomfördes på två förskolor i västra Stockholm genom både observationer av verksamheten och intervjuer med två förskollärare. Fokus har legat på observationerna och intervjuerna har varit ett komplement för att öka förståelsen för pedagogernas tankar, planering och synpunkter. Jag har skrivit en bakgrund med definition av begreppen samling, delaktighet och inflytande samt en modell för inflytande och delaktighet. I teoribakgrunden presenteras tidigare forskning och den socialkonstruktionistiska teorin som ligger till grund för studien. Resultaten presenteras skiljt fån analysen för att ge läsaren möjlighet till egna tolkningar och består av material från observationer och intervjuer. Resultaten analyseras utifrån valda begrepp och teorier och diskuteras avslutningsvis.

    Studiens resultat visade att barnens möjligheter till inflytande och delaktighet i förskolornas samlingar står i stark beroendeställning till pedagogernas förhållningssätt och vilja att närma sig barnens perspektiv. Pedagogerna i studien utgår från en barnsyn då de ser barn som medmänniskor men resultaten från observationerna visar att deras planering av och agerande under några av samlingarna mer kan liknas vid barnsynen vuxna vet bättre. Det blev tydligt att det var när pedagogerna hade kontroll över samlingen genom att lyssna på barnen, gjorde försök att närma sig deras perspektiv och bjöd in barnen i samtal genom att ställa nyfikna frågor, som samtalen utvecklades och barnen fick inflytande och möjlighet att påverka innehållet i samlingen. Detta skedde inte under alla samlingar och det fanns tillfällen då den färdiga planeringen för samlingen fick styra allt för mycket. Istället för att fånga barnens tankar och försöka förstå deras intentionervalde pedagogerna att fortsätta med de förutbestämda momenten i samlingen. Pedagogerna tog då kontroll över samlingen genom att bestämma vem som fick prata och om vad de skulle prata om, vilket begränsade barnens möjligheter till inflytande och delaktighet. 

  • 102668.
    Zejan, Irene
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Diriye, Fadumo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Snålhet, Stress, Självuppfyllelse eller Status - vad driver studenten i köpsituationen?: En fallstudie om studenters köpbeteende vid konsumtion av kurslitteratur2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har genomfört en studie om studenters konsumtion av kurslitteratur och tittat på vilka faktorer som avgör valet av införskaffningskanal. Med utgångspunkt i studenters pressade ekonomiska situation kan man tänka sig att de flesta studenter torde välja de billigaste införskaffningsalternativen. En studie gjord vid Uppsala universitet visar dock att studenter väljer att köpa sin kurslitteratur istället för att skaffa den genom andra kanaler, såsom kopiering och lån. Detta beteende fick oss att vilja studera varför studenter, trots sin ansträngda ekonomi, väljer att köpa sin litteratur trots att det finns billigare sätt att skaffa den på.

  • 102669.
    Zekarias, Eden
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hur andra generationen invandrare upplever integration2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 102670.
    Zelada, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Jonegård, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kvalitetskontroller inom revision: Vågar vi lita på kvalitetskontrollerna?2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med anledning av de senaste årens redovisningsskandaler kom nya EU-direktiv i slutet av år 2000, vilket innebär att samtliga personer som utför lagstadgad revision ska omfattas av ett kvalitetssäkringssystem. I november år 2003 ingick därför Revisorsnämnden (RN), FAR och SRS ett kvalitetssäkringsavtal, i vilket RN gav branschorganisationerna i uppdrag att utföra kvalitetskontrollerna på myndighetens begäran. Frågan är om det bland dessa finns revisorer som godkänner fel och oegentligheter. Om så är fallet, upptäcks de i kvalitetskontrollerna som FAR och SRS genomför? Vågar vi lita på kvalitetskontrollerna?

  • 102671. Zelan, M.
    et al.
    Hagman, H.
    Labaigt, G.
    Jonsell, Svante
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Dion, C. M.
    Experimental measurement of efficiency and transport coherence of a cold-atom Brownian motor in optical lattices2011In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 020102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rectification of noise into directed movement or useful energy is utilized by many different systems. The peculiar nature of the energy source and conceptual differences between such Brownian motor systems makes a characterization of the performance far from straightforward. In this work, where the Brownian motor consists of atoms interacting with dissipative optical lattices, we adopt existing theory and present experimental measurements for both the efficiency and the transport coherence. We achieve up to 0.3% for the efficiency and 0.01 for the Peclet number.

  • 102672.
    zeller tiilikainen, ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    En skolas organisering av arbetssättet med elevers olikheter2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En skolas organisering anses idag vara viktigare än organisationen, det är i handlingsnäten i organiseringen som organisationen byggs. Organisering av en skolas arbetssätt har samband med pedagogers möjligheter att arbeta med elevers olikheter. Samarbete blir betydelsefullt. Gemensamma visioner och mål får betydelse för samarbetet. För pedagogerna underlättas arbetet om samarbete organiseras in i verksamheten och vision och mål är tydliga. Forskning visar på skolor som är framgångsrika. I skolorna har mål, samarbete och positivt klimat samband med elevernas resultat. I en inkluderad undervisningsmiljö bör dessa faktorer vara tillgodosedda.

    Studien är en etnografisk studie som pågått genom olika fältstudier i utbildningen till specialpedagog. Syftet med studien är att se hur organisering sker av arbetssättet i en skola som ger uttryck för att utgå från elevers olikheter. Skolan är en högstadiefriskola och arbetar målmedvetet med elevernas olikheter. Analysen i studien har utgått från organisationsteori, socialpsykologisk teori, symbolisk interaktionism, teorier om roller och gruppdynamik, framgångsrika skolor, handlingsteori och pedagogiska synsätt. Resultatet visar att organiseringen av skolans arbetssätt leder till en formell organisering som är uppgiftsorienterad och en informell organisering som är relationsorienterad. I den formella organiseringen finns skolans vision och pedagogiska synsätt som bas till den struktur som innehåller ett tydligt arbetssätt, delaktighet, är flexibelt efter elevers olikheter och har fokus på kunskap. Den formella organiseringen har konkreta verktyg/artefakter som stöd i organiseringen, loggbok och handledande samtal. Den informella organiseringen uttrycker de relationer som den formella organiseringen grundlägger. Elever och lärare möts genom kunskapandet, blir synliggjorda, möts i samspel, respekt, ansvar, krav och empowerment. Den formella och den informella organiseringen leder till att lärare och elever får systemiska roller. Centralt blir samspel och kommunikation mellan alla aktörer. Arbetssättets organisering för att möta elevers olikheter bygger på medveten pedagogik och ansvarstagande från lärare. Lärares handledande samtal med eleven femton minuter varje vecka är centralt på skolan. Elever uttrycker lärares vägledning som betydelsefull. Vägledningen blir komplex då elever uttrycker både ett beroende av lärares vägledning men också att den leder till autonomi. Genom att organisering av arbetssättet utgår från elevers olikheter leder olikheter inte till svårigheter i undervisningen. Skolans fokus ligger på kunskapandet och skolarbetet blir uppgiftsfokuserat. Det leder till att samarbetet mellan lärare och elever blir en relation. Skolans fokus på kunskapandet blir även en norm på skolan. I studien gjordes en kartläggning av den formella och informella organiseringen för att kritiskt granska och förstå hur en verksamhet bäst tillgodoser elevers olikheter i lärandet genom samarbete och positivt klimat.

  • 102673.
    zeller tiilikainen, ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    En studie i pedagogers syn på sambandet mellan fortbildning och skolutveckling i grundskolan: fortbildning-skolutveckling-implementering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka pedagogers uppfattningar om sambandet mellan fortbildning och skolutveckling i grundskolans år F-5. Vad har pedagogerna för uppfattningar om organisationen av fortbildningen? Hur uppfattar de att skolledningen planerar in reflektionstid efter fortbildningen? Pedagogens egen uppfattning om fortbildningen, hur ser den ut? Upplever pedagogerna att deras fortbildning implementeras i verksamheten och bidrar till skolutveckling? Känner pedagogerna till kommunens skolutvecklingsprojekt Våga Visa? Studien är en enkätstudie. Enkäten är utformad som en strukturerad enkät med en öppen fråga där pedagogen fick ge sin egen syn på fortbildning. Det är 41 pedagoger från fyra grundskolor i en kommun som har svarat på enkäten. Resultatet visade att pedagogerna inte hade någon gemensam uppfattning om vem det är som organiserar och planerar deras fortbildning. De hade dessutom en bristfällig uppfattning om skolan hade någon strategi för fortbildningen. Pedagogerna i studien har olika syn på fortbildningen. En tredjedel menar att den enbart leder till kompetensutveckling. Hälften av pedagogerna tror inte att den leder till skolutveckling. Studien bekräftar tidigare studier som visar att pedagogerna är mycket intresserade och blir inspirerade av fortbildningen. I enkätstudiens fria fråga är det flera pedagoger som efterfrågar fortbildning som utgår från deras egna behov. Flera pedagoger menar att fortbildningen ska vara genomtänkt. Pedagogerna i studien har en osäker uppfattning om fortbildningen leder till ett gemensamt förhållningssätt eller om den förändrar pedagogens arbetssätt. Studien visade att fortbildningen diskuterades och reflekterades sällan efteråt. Majoriteten menade att man bara diskuterat fortbildningen ”någon gång” efter ett fortbildningstillfälle eller på en arbetsplatsträff trots att de flera gånger velat få reflektionstid efter ett fortbildningstillfälle. I studien är en stor majoritet intresserade av begreppet skolutveckling. Hälften av pedagogerna i studien kände inte till projektet Våga Visa som styr en stor del av kommunens mål för skolutveckling. Begreppet skolutveckling är ett stort och subjektivt begrepp som innehåller många delar bl.a. implementering. Skolutveckling handlar om så mycket mer än om pedagogernas fortbildning och kompetens. Alla i kedjan, från skolledning i kommunhus ner till pedagoger, har en roll i skolutvecklingen. Den största delen av skolutvecklingen ligger i skolans egen kultur. Det är i samspelet med kollegor och i systematisk reflektion av frågor och ifrågasättande som skolutveckling sker. En skolas kultur uppstår i samarbetet mellan rektor, pedagoger, elever och föräldrar. Den kulturen är det viktigt att få stöd för från skolledningen i kommunen. Ju bättre samarbete i alla led desto bättre skolkultur och skolutveckling.

    Nyckelord: Fortbildning, skolutveckling och implementering.

     

  • 102674.
    Zeller Tiilikainen, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lärares möjligheter och svårigheter att utforma gemensamma värderingar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine what enables and makes it difficult for teachers to create common values ​​in a school. The study is a case study of a school in Kunskapsskolan Education Sweden (KED). The organization has common values as a goal with the purpose to be a tool for teachers in the work, and to create an organizational culture. The empirical material consists of interviews and observations. The result shows that the school's operation and structure provides support for teachers' collaboration and it will be fundamental to the ability to create consensus about the school's goals. The organization, cooperation and a common goal is expressed as a key condition for the possibility of developing common values. The teachers are aware of the organization's formal goals and values, but the most important is the informal values ​​created through the collaboration in teams and by common perceptions of the target in the work. The pedagogical approach in the school also affects to the common values expressed in the school's culture. Organization and cooperation on goal must have the potential to become a common system of thought in the school's inner workings if they are to be shared values. They then expressed in the school's culture and in everyday work and contribute to school activities is perceived as a shared responsibility.

  • 102675. Zelli, Fariborz
    et al.
    Gupta, Aarti
    van Asselt, Harro
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Horizontal institutional interlinkages2012In: Global environmental governance reconsidered / [ed] Frank Biermann and Philipp Pattberg, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2012, p. 175-198Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 102676.
    Zellmani, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bauer, Betty
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Två sidor av samma mynt: En studie om mötet inom ekonomiskt bistånd2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this paper is to study the professional encounter in its complexity. The requirements for receiving welfare is set by the professional and it's the professionals decision if they are met in the proper manner. This makes the assessment of the clients conditions and the correctness of the assessment hence important. There are several levels which is necessary for the social worker to take into consideration.

    We have therefore made a socio-analysis by using a theoretical model of Johansson (2006) where he uses the Social Psychology of the encounter to create a model with four levels, which is always present in the professional encounter: structural, positional, relational, and experience level.  Our base was that the one responsible for handling these levels was the professional which led us to search for literature concerning the professional approach.

    Our study is formed as a qualitative case-study. Our empirical data consist of qualitative interviews with four social workers handling social allowance.The results shows that the complexity of the professional encounter requires a professional approach. Furthermore it shows a need for more reflection of all factors of the meeting in its context.  But these abilities are by no means obvious.

  • 102677.
    Zellweger, Tobias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    The Dark Side of Fast Fashion -: In Search of Consumers’ Rationale Behind the Continued Consumption of Fast Fashion2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the underlying rationale of environmentally and socially conscious young Swedish consumers for their continued consumption of fast fashion. Furthermore this study assesses influential factors that shape young Swedish consumers’ attitudes and beliefs towards fast fashion. The fast fashion business model is largely based on the exploitation of poor working conditions and lack of environmental protection laws in the production countries. However, consumers are becoming increasingly aware of this dark side of fast fashion and the retailers are addressing their concerns with selective organic clothing collections. In order to gain in debt understanding of young Swedish consumers rationalizations, I applied an inductive research approach based on the philosophy of interpretive social science. More specifically I conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 Swedish participants between the ages of 18 and 25. The findings of this study show that the participants prioritize price, quality and how the clothes look over where they have been produced and under what circumstances. Furthermore, the interviewees indicate a high dependency on the Swedish government to punish misconducts of fast fashion retailers. Greenwashing, the Swedish school system as well as a green trend in contemporary Swedish society seem to shape young consumers attitudes and beliefs towards fast fashion. Future research could investigate how the Swedish government and the Swedish school system can take a more pro-active role in educating their citizens and students about the actual negative impacts caused by the overconsumption of fast and disposable fashion towards society and environment. 

  • 102678. Zellweger, Tobias
    et al.
    Thomas, Amos Owen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Overlooking the dark side of fast fashion: consumers' rationale for continued patronage2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fast fashion business model is largely based on the exploitation of poor working conditions and lack of environmental protection laws in the production countries. Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of this dark side of fast fashion and the retailers are addressing their concerns with selective organic clothing collections. This study investigates the underlying rationale of environmentally and socially conscious young Swedish consumers for their continued consumption of fast fashion. The findings of this study show that the participants prioritize price, quality and how the clothes look over where they have been produced and under what circumstances. Future research could investigate how Sweden can take a more pro-active role in educating their citizens about the negative impact on people and environment caused by the overconsumption of disposable fashion.

  • 102679. Zemp, D. C.
    et al.
    Schleussner, C. F.
    Barbosa, H. M. J.
    van der Ent, R. J.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), Germany.
    Heinke, J.
    Sampaio, G.
    Rammig, A.
    On the importance of cascading moisture recycling in South America2014In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 23, p. 13337-13359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continental moisture recycling is a crucial process of the South American climate system. In particular, evapotranspiration from the Amazon basin contributes substantially to precipitation regionally as well as over other remote regions such as the La Plata basin. Here we present an in-depth analysis of South American moisture recycling mechanisms. In particular, we quantify the importance of cascading moisture recycling (CMR), which describes moisture transport between two locations on the continent that involves re-evaporation cycles along the way. Using an Eulerian atmospheric moisture tracking model forced by a combination of several historical climate data sets, we were able to construct a complex network of moisture recycling for South America. Our results show that CMR contributes about 9-10% to the total precipitation over South America and 17-18% over the La Plata basin. CMR increases the fraction of total precipitation over the La Plata basin that originates from the Amazon basin from 18-23 to 24-29% during the wet season. We also show that the south-western part of the Amazon basin is not only a direct source of rainfall over the La Plata basin, but also a key intermediary region that distributes moisture originating from the entire Amazon basin towards the La Plata basin during the wet season. Our results suggest that land use change in this region might have a stronger impact on downwind rainfall than previously thought. Using complex network analysis techniques, we find the eastern side of the sub-tropical Andes to be a key region where CMR pathways are channeled. This study offers a better understanding of the interactions between the vegetation and the atmosphere on the water cycle, which is needed in a context of land use and climate change in South America.

  • 102680. Zemp, D. C.
    et al.
    Wiedermann, M.
    Kurths, J.
    Rammig, A.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Node-weighted measures for complex networks with directed and weighted edges for studying continental moisture recycling2014In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 107, no 5, p. 58005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many real-world networks nodes represent agents or objects of different sizes or importance. However, the size of the nodes is rarely taken into account in network analysis, possibly inducing bias in network measures and confusion in their interpretation. Recently, a new axiomatic scheme of node-weighted network measures has been suggested for networks with undirected and unweighted edges. However, many real-world systems are best represented by complex networks which have directed and/or weighted edges. Here, we extend this approach and suggest new versions of the degree and the clustering coefficient associated to network motifs for networks with directed and/or weighted edges and weighted nodes. We apply these measures to a spatially embedded network model and a real-world moisture recycling network. We show that these measures improve the representation of the underlying systems' structure and are of general use for studying any type of complex network.

  • 102681. Zemp, Delphine Clara
    et al.
    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich
    Barbosa, Henrique M. J.
    Hirota, Marina
    Montade, Vincent
    Sampaio, Gilvan
    Staal, Arie
    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Rammig, Anja
    Self-amplified Amazon forest loss due to vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 14681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced rainfall increases the risk of forest dieback, while in return forest loss might intensify regional droughts. The consequences of this vegetation-atmosphere feedback for the stability of the Amazon forest are still unclear. Here we show that the risk of self-amplified Amazon forest loss increases nonlinearly with dry-season intensification. We apply a novel complexnet-work approach, in which Amazon forest patches are linked by observation-based atmospheric water fluxes. Our results suggest that the risk of self-amplified forest loss is reduced with increasing heterogeneity in the response of forest patches to reduced rainfall. Under dry-season Amazonian rainfall reductions, comparable to Last Glacial Maximum conditions, additional forest loss due to self-amplified effects occurs in 10-13% of the Amazon basin. Although our findings do not indicate that the projected rainfall changes for the end of the twenty-first century will lead to complete Amazon dieback, they suggest that frequent extreme drought events have the potential to destabilize large parts of the Amazon forest.

  • 102682. Zemp, M.
    et al.
    Thibert, E.
    Huss, M.
    Stumm, D.
    Rolstad Denby, C.
    Nuth, C.
    Nussbaumer, S. U.
    Moholdt, G.
    Mercer, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Mayer, C.
    Joerg, P. C.
    Jansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Hynek, B.
    Fischer, A.
    Escher-Vetter, H.
    Elvehøy, H.
    Andreassen, L. M.
    Reanalysing glacier mass balance measurement series2013In: The Cryosphere, ISSN 1994-0416, E-ISSN 1994-0424, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1227-1245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glacier-wide mass balance has been measured for more than sixty years and is widely used as an indicator of climate change and to assess the glacier contribution to runoff and sea level rise. Until recently, comprehensive uncertainty assessments have rarely been carried out and mass balance data have often been applied using rough error estimation or without consideration of errors. In this study, we propose a framework for reanalysing glacier mass balance series that includes conceptual and statistical toolsets for assessment of random and systematic errors, as well as for validation and calibration (if necessary) of the glaciological with the geodetic balance results. We demonstrate the usefulness and limitations of the proposed scheme, drawing on an analysis that comprises over 50 recording periods for a dozen glaciers, and we make recommendations to investigators and users of glacier mass balance data. Reanalysing glacier mass balance series needs to become a standard procedure for every monitoring programme to improve data quality, including reliable uncertainty estimates.

  • 102683.
    Zemp, Michael
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Jansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Holmlund, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Gärtner-Roer, Ingrid
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Koblet, Thomas
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Thee, Patrick
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Haeberli, Wilfried
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich.
    Reanalysis of multi-temporal aerial images of Storglaciären, Sweden (1959-1999) – Part 2: Comparison of glaciological and volumetric mass balances2010In: The Cryosphere, Vol. 4, p. 345-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal glaciological mass balances have been measured on Storglaciären without interruption since 1945/46. In addition, aerial surveys have been carried out on a decadal basis since the beginning of the observation program. Early studies had used the resulting aerial photographs to produce topographic glacier maps with which the in-situ observations could be verified. However, these maps as well as the derived volume changes are subject to errors which resulted in major differences between the derived volumetric and the glaciological mass balance. As a consequence,the original photographs were re-processed using uniform photogrammetric methods, which resulted in new volumetric mass balances for 1959–69, 1969–80, 1980–90, and 1990–99. We compared these new volumetric mass balances with mass balances obtained by standard glaciological methods including an uncertainty assessment considering all related previous studies. The absolute differences between volumetric and the glaciological mass balances are 0.8 m w.e. for theperiod of 1959–69 and 0.3 m w.e. or less for the other survey periods. These deviations are slightly reduced when considering corrections for systematic uncertainties due to differences in survey dates, reference areas, and internal ablation, whereas internal accumulation systematically increases the mismatch. However, the mean annual differences between glaciological and volumetric mass balance are less than the uncertainty of the in-situ stake reading and stochastic error bars of both data series overlap. Hence, no adjustment of the glaciological data series to the volumetric one is required.

  • 102684.
    Zena, Yenebilh Bantayehu
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Enforcement under the global climate regime: reflections on the design and experience of the Kyoto-Marrakesh compliance system2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 102685. Zencak, Z.
    et al.
    Elmquist, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Quantification and radiocarbon source apportionment of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols using the CTO-375 method2007In: Atmos. Environ., Vol. 41, p. 7895-7906Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102686. Zencak, Z.
    et al.
    Klanova, J.
    Holoubek, I.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Source Apportionment of Atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by Natural Abundance Radiocarbon Analysis2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 3850-3855Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102687. Zencak, Z.
    et al.
    Reddy, C.M.
    Teuten, E.L.
    Xu, L.
    McNichol, A.P.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Evaluation of Gas Chromatographic Isotope Fractionation and Process Contamination by Carbon in Compound-Specific Radiocarbon Analysis2007In: Anal. Chem., Vol. 79, p. 2042-2049Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102688. Zeng, Fanyi
    et al.
    Peritz, Tiina
    Kannanayakal, Theresa J.
    Kilk, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Eiríksdóttir, Emelía
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Langel, Ülo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Eberwine, James
    A protocol for PAIR: PNA-assisted identification of RNA binding proteins in living cells2006In: Nature Protocols, ISSN 1754-2189, E-ISSN 1750-2799, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 920-927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All aspects of RNA metabolism are regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that directly associate with the RNA. Some aspects of RNA biology such as RNA abundance can be readily assessed using standard hybridization technologies. However, identification of RBPs that specifically associate with selected RNAs has been more difficult, particularly when attempting to assess this in live cells. The peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-assisted identification of RBPs (PAIR) technology has recently been developed to overcome this issue. The PAIR technology uses a cell membrane–penetrating peptide (CPP) to efficiently deliver into the cell its linked PNA oligomer that complements the target mRNA sequence. The PNA will then anneal to its target mRNA in the living cell, and then covalently couple to the mRNA-RBP complexes subsequent to an ultraviolet (UV) cross-linking step. The resulting PNA-RNA-RBP complex can be isolated using sense oligonucleotide magnetic beads, and the RBPs can then be identified by mass spectrometry (MS). This procedure can usually be completed within 3 d. The use of the PAIR procedure promises to provide insight into the dynamics of RNA processing, transport, degradation and translation in live cells.

  • 102689. Zeng, Hong Li
    et al.
    Hertz, John
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark.
    Roudi, Yasser
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Norwegian University of Science & Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    L-1 regularization for reconstruction of a non-equilibrium Ising model2014In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. 89, no 10, p. 105002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The couplings in a sparse asymmetric, asynchronous Ising network are reconstructed using an exact learning algorithm. L-1 regularization is used to remove the spurious weak connections that would otherwise be found by simply maximizing the log likelihood of a finite data set. In order to see how L-1 regularization works in detail, we perform the calculation in several ways including (1) by iterative minimization of a cost function equal to minus the log likelihood of the data plus an L-1 penalty term, and (2) an approximate scheme based on a quadratic expansion of the cost function around its minimum. In these schemes, we track how connections are pruned as the strength of the L-1 penalty is increased from zero to large values. The performance of the methods for various coupling strengths is quantified using receiver operating characteristic curves, showing that increasing the coupling strength improves reconstruction quality.

  • 102690. Zeng, Hong-Li
    et al.
    Alava, Mikko
    Aurell, Erik
    Hertz, John
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Roudi, Yasser
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita).
    Maximum Likelihood Reconstruction for Ising Models with Asynchronous Updates2013In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 110, no 21, p. 210601-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe how the couplings in an asynchronous kinetic Ising model can be inferred. We consider two cases: one in which we know both the spin history and the update times and one in which we know only the spin history. For the first case, we show that one can average over all possible choices of update times to obtain a learning rule that depends only on spin correlations and can also be derived from the equations of motion for the correlations. For the second case, the same rule can be derived within a further decoupling approximation. We study all methods numerically for fully asymmetric Sherrington-Kirkpatrick models, varying the data length, system size, temperature, and external field. Good convergence is observed in accordance with the theoretical expectations.

  • 102691. Zeng, Lunjie
    et al.
    Tran, Dung Trung
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Tai, Cheuk-Wai
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Svensson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Olsson, Eva
    Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 29679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits.

  • 102692. Zeng, Yu
    et al.
    Lou, Shang Ling
    Liao, Wen Bo
    Jehle, Robert
    Kotrschal, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Sexual selection impacts brain anatomy in frogs and toads2016In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 19, p. 7070-7079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural selection is a major force in the evolution of vertebrate brain size, but the role of sexual selection in brain size evolution remains enigmatic. At least two opposing schools of thought predict a relationship between sexual selection and brain size. Sexual selection should facilitate the evolution of larger brains because better cognitive abilities may aid the competition for mates. However, it may also restrict brain size evolution due to energetic trade-offs between brain tissue and sexually selected traits. Here, we examined the patterns of selection on brain size and brain anatomy in male anurans (frogs and toads), a group where the strength of sexual selection differs markedly among species, using a phylogenetically controlled generalized least-squared (PGLS) regression analyses. The analysis revealed that in 43 Chinese anuran species, neither mating system, nor type of courtship, or testes mass was significantly associated with relative brain size. While none of those factors related to the relative size of olfactory nerves, optic tecta, telencephalon, and cerebellum, the olfactory bulbs were relatively larger in monogamous species and those using calls during courtship. Our findings support the mosaic model of brain evolution and suggest that while the investigated aspects of sexual selection do not seem to play a prominent role in the evolution of brain size of anurans, they do impact their brain anatomy.

  • 102693. Zenius Jespersen, Naja
    et al.
    Juhlin Larsen, Therese
    Peijs, Lone
    Daugaard, Søren
    Homøe, Preben
    Loft, Annika
    de Jong, Jasper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Mathur, Neha
    Cannon, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Nedergaard, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Klarlund Pedersen, Bente
    Møller, Kirsten
    Scheele, Camilla
    A classical brown adipose tissue mRNA signature partly overlaps with brite in the supraclavicular region of adult humans2013In: Cell Metabolism, ISSN 1550-4131, E-ISSN 1932-7420, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 798-805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been detected in adults but was recently suggested to be of brite/beige origin. We collected BAT from the supraclavicular region in 21 patients undergoing surgery for suspected cancer in the neck area and assessed the gene expression of established murine markers for brown, brite/beige, and white adipocytes. We demonstrate that a classical brown expression signature, including upregulation of miR-206, miR-133b, LHX8, and ZIC1 and downregulation of HOXC8 and HOXC9, coexists with an upregulation of two newly established brite/beige markers, TBX1 and TMEM26. A similar mRNA expression profile was observed when comparing isolated human adipocytes from BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) depots, differentiated in vitro. In conclusion, our data suggest that human BAT might consist of both classical brown and recruitable brite adipocytes, an observation important for future considerations on how to induce human BAT.

  • 102694.
    Zenker, Sebastian
    et al.
    Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    Andéhn, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    The problem of focus on essence in place branding discourse and why it is all about perception2011In: 21st Nordic Academy of Management Conference (NFF), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 102695.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. IFN, Germany; GAINS, Germany.
    A Dynamic Model of Weak and Strong Ties in the Labor Market2015In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 891-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study develops a simple model where workers can obtain a job through either their strong or weak ties. It shows that increasing the time spent with weak ties raises the employment rate of workers. It also shows that when the job-destruction rate or the job-information rate increases, workers choose to relymore on their weak ties to find a job. The model is extended so unemployed workers can also learn of a vacancy directly from an employer. Results show that equilibrium employment and time spent with weak ties are sometimes, but not in all cases, positively related.

  • 102696.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Crime and the City2008In: The New Palgrave, A Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition, 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 102697.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Efficiency Wages and Unemployment in Cities: The Case of High Relocation Costs2006In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, Vol. 36, p. 49-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102698.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Endogenous Job Destruction and Job Matching in Cities2009In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a spatial search-matching model where both job creation and job destruction are endogenous. Workers are ex ante identical but not ex post since their jobs can be hit by a technological shock which decreases their productivity. They reside in a city, and commuting to the job center involves both pecuniary and time costs. As a result, workers with high wages are willing to live closer to jobs to save on time commuting costs. We show that, in equilibrium, there is a one-to-one correspondence between the productivity space and the urban location space. Workers with high productivities and wages reside close to jobs, have low per distance commuting costs and pay high land rents. We also show that higher per distance commuting costs and higher unemployment benefits lead to more job destruction.

  • 102699.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    From Neighborhoods to Nations: The Economics of Social Interactions2013In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 706-710Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 102700.
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    High-Relocation Costs in Search-Matching Models. Theory and Application to Spatial Mismatch2009In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 534-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a standard search-matching model in which mobility costs are so high that it is

    too costly for workers to relocate when a change in their employment status occurs. We show

    that, in equilibrium, wages increase with distance to jobs and commuting costs because firms

    need to compensate the transportation cost difference between the employed and

    unemployed workers at each location in the city. We also show that the equilibrium land rent

    is negatively affected by the unemployment benefit because an increase in the latter induce

    firms to create less jobs, which, in turn, reduces the competition in the land market. We then

    use this model to provide a mechanism for the observed spatial mismatch between where

    black workers live and where jobs are. Because blacks and whites differ by their contact rate,

    we show that the former reside far away from jobs, have higher unemployment rates and

    lower wages. This is because the housing market amplifies the negative effects of the labor

    market by creating additional frictions.

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