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  • 104451.
    Wesslén, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Confinement Sensitivity in Quantum Dot Spin Relaxation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum dots, also known as artificial atoms, are created by tightly confining electrons, and thereby quantizing their energies. They are important components in the emerging fields of nanotechnology where their potential uses vary from dyes to quantum computing qubits. Interesting properties to investigate are e.g. the existence of atom-like shell structures and lifetimes of prepared states.

    Stability and controllability are important properties in finding applications to quantum dots. The ability to prepare a state and change it in a controlled manner without it loosing coherence is very useful, and in some semiconductor quantum dots, lifetimes of up to several milliseconds have been realized. Here we focus on dots in semiconductor materials and investigate how the confined electrons are effected by their experienced potential.

    The shape of the dot will effect its properties, and is important when considering a suitable model. Structures elongated in one dimension, often called nanowires, or shaped as rings have more one-dimensional characteristics than completely round or square dots. The two-dimensional dots investigated here are usually modeled as harmonic oscillators, however we will also consider circular well models.

    The effective potential confining the electrons is investigated both in regard to how elliptical it is, as well as how results differ when using a harmonic oscillator or a circular well potential. By mixing spin states through spin-orbit interaction transitioning between singlet and triplet states becomes possible with spin independent processes such as phonon relaxation. We solve the spin-mixing two-electron problem numerically for some confinement, and calculate the phonon transition rate between the lowest energy singlet and triplet states using Fermi's golden rule.

    The strength of the spin-orbit interaction is varied both by changing the coupling constants, and by applying an external, tilted, magnetic field. The relation between magnetic field parameters and dot parameters are used to maximize state lifetimes, and to model experimental results.

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    Confinement Sensitivity in Quantum Dot Spin Relaxation
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 104452.
    Wesslén, Carl-Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Many-Body effects in Semiconductor Nanostructures2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Low dimensional semiconductor structures are modeled using techniques from the field of many-body atomic physics. B-splines are used to create a one-particle basis, used to solve the more complex many-body problems. Details on methods such as the Configuration Interaction (CI), Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) and Coupled Cluster (CC) are discussed. Results from the CC singles and doubles method are compared to other high-precision methods for the circular harmonic oscillator quantum dot. The results show a good agreement for the energy of many-body states of up to 12 electrons.

    Properties of elliptical quantum dots, circular quantum dots, quantum rings and concentric quantum rings are all reviewed. The effects of tilted external magnetic fields applied to the elliptical dot are discussed, and the energy splitting between the lowest singlet and triplet states is explored for varying geometrical properties. Results are compared to experimental energy splittings for the same system containing 2 electrons.

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    Thesis_Wesslen.pdf
  • 104453.
    Wesslén, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Lindroth, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Confinement sensitivity in quantum dot singlet-triplet relaxation2017In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 29, no 45, article id 455302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spin-orbit mediated phonon relaxation in a two-dimensional quantum dot is investigated using different confining potentials. Elliptical harmonic oscillator and cylindrical well results are compared to each other in the case of a two-electron GaAs quantum dot subjected to a tilted magnetic field. The lowest energy set of two-body singlet and triplet states are calculated including spin-orbit and magnetic effects. These are used to calculate the phonon induced transition rate from the excited triplet to the ground state singlet for magnetic fields up to where the states cross. The roll of the cubic Dresselhaus effect, which is found to be much more important than previously assumed, and the positioning of 'spin hot-spots' are discussed and relaxation rates for a few different systems are exhibited.

  • 104454.
    Wesslén, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Lindroth, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Confinement sensitivity in quantum dot singlet-triplet relaxationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 104455.
    Wesslén, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    The Arctic Summer Atmosphere2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic climate has experienced large changes over recent decades, the largest for any region on Earth. To understand the underlying reasons for this climate sensitivity, we need both models and observations. Unfortunately, due to the rough climate and the inaccessibility to Polar Regions, there is a lack of meteorological observations over the Arctic Ocean. However, the few times series that are available are frequently used to evaluate, confirm and challenge our existing weather forecast and climate models and of course to increase our understanding of the Arctic climate system. For an additional contribution to this knowledge, reanalyses are valuable tools, but these reanalyses also need to be evaluated.

    The Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) is a regional reanalysis, forced by the global ERA-Interim reanalysis at the lateral boundaries, incorporating model physics adapted to Arctic conditions. ASR was developed to serve as a state-of-the-art high-resolution synthesis tool for assessing Arctic climate variability and monitoring Arctic climate change. In this thesis, data from the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) field experiment, conducted in August and early September 2008, have been used to evaluate the performance of ASR and ERA-Interim for the Arctic Ocean.

    It was found that the reanalyses captures basic meteorological variations, coupled to the synoptic scale systems, but have difficulties in estimating clouds and atmospheric moisture. While ERA-Interim has a systematic warm bias in the lowest troposphere, ASR has on average a cold bias of about the same magnitude. The roots to this are suggested to lie within the cloud description in ASR. The results indicate that more sophisticated descriptions of cloud microphysics in ASR did not significantly improve the modeling of cloud properties, especially for mixed-phase clouds, compared to ERA-Interim.

    These conclusions motivate a more detailed study of the characteristics of Arctic clouds, where some research questions are: how frequent are the clouds that are difficult to model? Can the satellite observations tell us more about the cloud phase and the vertical and horizontal structure of the clouds? How do the clouds influence the radiative balance? These questions can hopefully be answered using both ASCOS data and satellite observations from the remote sensing instrument MODIS onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. 

  • 104456.
    Wesslén, Cevilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Tjernström, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Bromwich, D. H.
    de Boer, G.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Bai, L. -S
    Wang, S. -H
    The Arctic summer atmosphere: an evaluation of reanalyses using ASCOS data2014In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 2605-2624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Arctic has experienced large climate changes over recent decades, the largest for any region on Earth. To understand the underlying reasons for this climate sensitivity, reanalysis is an invaluable tool. The Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) is a regional reanalysis, forced by ERA-Interim at the lateral boundaries and incorporating model physics adapted to Arctic conditions, developed to serve as a state-of-the-art, high-resolution synthesis tool for assessing Arctic climate variability and monitoring Arctic climate change. We use data from Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) to evaluate the performance of ASR and ERAInterim for the Arctic Ocean. The ASCOS field experiment was deployed on the Swedish icebreaker Oden north of 87 degrees N in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic during August and early September 2008. Data were collected during the transits from and to Longyearbyen and the 3-week ice drift with Oden moored to a drifting multiyear ice floe. These data are independent and detailed enough to evaluate process descriptions. The reanalyses captures basic meteorological variations coupled to the synoptic-scale systems, but have difficulties in estimating clouds and atmospheric moisture. While ERAInterim has a systematic warm bias in the lowest troposphere, ASR has a cold bias of about the same magnitude on average. The results also indicate that more sophisticated descriptions of cloud microphysics in ASR did not significantly improve the modeling of cloud properties compared to ERA-Interim. This has consequences for the radiation balance, and hence the surface temperature, and illustrate how a modeling problem in one aspect of the atmosphere, here the clouds, feeds back to other parameters, especially near the surface and in the boundary layer.

  • 104457.
    Wesslén, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Från strandhugg till säsongsboplatser: En studie av människornas utnyttjande av Gladö på Södertörn under äldsta stenålder2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the early mesolithic sites in Gladö, a part of Hanveden situated south of Stockholm. It tries to explain the big amount of sites, why people came to these islands and what they were doing there. The large shore displacement together with the topography of the mesolithic islands resulted in a rapid change of suitible areas for camping. The prime occupation was sealhunting on the ice of the Ancylus lake in early spring. As the archipelago became larger other activities as fishing and birdhunting got more important and people stayed for longer periods.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 104458.
    Wesslén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Att skriva, tala och tänka samhällskunskap: En studie av gymnasisters lärandeprocess2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on the presumption that language is fundamental to the construction of knowledge. In addition, linguistic demands are incorporated in the policy documents of the upper secondary edu­cation of Sweden; students shall, during their education, be given the opportunity to appropriate certain linguistic tools. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how teachers and students in upper secondary education manage and utilize the discourse of social science in both speech and writing. More specifically, two classes are studied during three terms. The teachers’ ability to organize and support the students vocally and in written is examined, so are the effects of the teaching on students’ writing.

    The origin of the study is constituted by a sociocultural stance provided by Vygotskij, Bakhtin and Halliday. A combination of a functional perspective on language and a cognitive is probed, where the study is comparative in nature consisting of an experimental class and a control class. The importance of language for the creation of knowledge has been communicated to the teachers of the experimen­tal class, with provided complementary subject didactic literature. This literature offers support for teachers to augment the use of explicit teaching and enhance student awareness of how conceptual structures mould social science.

    Qualitative analyses are performed on the basis of teacher-student dialogue and written tasks by a group of selected students. The ana­lytical tools object languagemetalanguage, linguistic operations and knowledge structures are developed for the purpose of processing data, and have been combined with the tools activity analysis, subject-related concepts and text activity. The results from the analyses display no difference in the handling of the discourse of social science between the experimental class and the control class. The teachers of the experimental class, like the teacher of the control class, are primarily utilizing object language where knowledge structures are visible, as opposed to a combination of object language – metalanguage. Furthermore, they exhibit diminutive use of dialogue in their teaching. The students of both classes, on their hand, demon­strate an equal progress in textual development.

    This study concludes that the experimental class has not been provided with sufficiently explicit support to advance in the struc­turing of knowledge and in level of reasoning. A more efficient support to teachers to manage these analytical tools would, in all probability, give them, and through this the students, an increasingly profound insight into structuring of text activities, the meaning and signalling of linguistic operations, the construction of subject-related concepts and, most importantly, how these three tools are interrelated.

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    Lic.avh. Karin Wesslén Nordiska språk 2011 Mins 62
  • 104459.
    Wesslén, Siw
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Slavonic parchment fragments in Sweden: 2, Gospels : a text edition with glossary1985Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104460.
    Wessman, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Media Studies, JMK.
    Intern Kommun-ikation: En analys av Upplands-Bro Kommuns internkommunikation utifrån ett ledarskapsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom organisationer är den interna kommunikationen grundläggande för att det operativa arbetet ska fungera. Faktorer som kultur, struktur, ekonomi, tid och ledarskapsperspektiv påverkar kommunikationen i allra högsta grad.

    Denna studie har syftet att beskriva och analysera hur Upplands-Bro Kommuns interna kommunikationsprocesser är uppbyggda och fungerar, utifrån både ett ledarskaps- och medarbetsperspektiv. Studien kommer identifiera kommunikationsvägar och kanaler och vilka faktorer som påverkar de olika avdelningarnas interna kommunikation mellan chef och medarbetare utifrån teorier som behandlar organisationskultur- och struktur, ledarskapskommunikation och formella och informella kommunikationsperspektiv.

    Undersökningen är en fallstudie och har använt kvalitativa intervjuer som metod, både för de individuella chefsintervjuerna och för gruppintervjuerna. Metoden valdes för att kunna få en djupare förståelse och förklaringar för hur den interna kommunikationen fungerar mellan chef och anställd.

    Studien visar att den interna kommunikationen inom varje avdelning är bristande och många är missnöjda med utformningen, men på olika sätt. Några påpekar att dialogen är för fri och ostrukturerad, medan några saknar den öppna dialogen helt och hållet. Avdelningarna arbetar med kommunikationen på helt olika sätt, där vissa främst använder digitala kanaler, medan andra endast använder muntliga. De flesta medarbetare anser dock att APT-möten är de främsta kanalerna för både information och dialog.

    Avdelningarnas kultur- och struktur har väsentlig påverkan på alla avdelningar men i olika grad. Två av avdelningarna består nästan helt av kulturgemenskap för att kommunikationen ens ska fungera, medan två påverkas mer av strukturen inom avdelningen. Om de är vertikalt eller horisontellt uppbyggda spelade roll för både dialogen och för delaktigheten inom gruppen.

    Alla avdelningar använde sig av både formell- och informell kommunikationsstruktur i viss grad. Dock verkade de mer informellt uppbyggda avdelningarna mer tillfredsställda med kommunikationen, än de som främst bestod av formell information.

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    fulltext
  • 104461.
    Wessman, Julie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Lillith
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Är det fortfarande manligt som gäller?: Kvinnors och mäns bedömningar av egenskaper kopplade till könsstereotyper och ledarskap2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Män har historiskt såväl som idag dominerat de ledande positionerna inom organisationer, vilket lett till att kvinnor hindrats från att erhålla ledarpositioner på grund av att den kvinnliga stereotypen inte är förenlig med den manligt stereotypa ledarrollen. En förändring verkar ske, då även stereotypa kvinnliga egenskaper anses vara önskvärda inom ledarskap. Studiens syfte var att studera om det fanns en skillnad i värdering av könsstereotypa egenskaper och ledaregenskaper i förhållande till deltagarnas kön, samt vilka egenskaper som krävs för att kunna bli en ledare och vilka egenskaper som önskas hos en ledare. De könsstereotypa egenskaperna och ledaregenskaperna som användes genererades från vår pilotstudie. Totalt deltog 86 personer på enkätundersökningen. Resultatet visade inga skillnader i värdering som kan relateras till vilka egenskaper som krävs eller är önskvärda. Däremot fanns en signifikant skillnad som påverkades av deltagarnas kön. Detta visar på att både män och kvinnor favoriserar det egna könets stereotypa egenskaper.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 104462.
    Wessman, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Varumärkeskonflikter: förväxlingsrisk och anseendeskydd i varumärkesrätten2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation examines the interpretation of the concepts of likelihood of confusion and dilution in the area of trademark law. These concepts are of critical importance to trademark law; their interpretation is largely dependent upon several complex, oftentimes ambiguous legal principles. For a long time the general consensus was that the foundation of trademark protection was the prohibition of trademarks that ran the risk of giving rise to confusion regarding the commercial origin of the goods and services. During the 20th century, this basic principle regarding the objective of trademark protection was gradually refined; for example, the introduction of the concepts of dilution and association broadened the traditional emphasis on origin, which nonetheless remains at the core of trademark law. The principle of confusion of origin, which indirectly protects consumers from deceptive practices, has been consistently upheld by the Swedish Supreme Court. The Court has been more tentative, however, with regard to the relevance, in the determination of the scope of trademark protection, of factors such as association and dilution. The European protection of trademarks represents a more expansive view of the objectives of trademark law. Having once been the sole basis of trademark law, the principle of confusion of origin finds itself merely at the core of an entire body of protective rules, which, moreover, stress the importance of the trademark’s role in modern advertising—rules sprung from the principle of protection against detrimental use or unfair advantage. According to the principle of characterising force, which is upheld by the European Court of Justice, the scope of protection is related to the earlier trademark’s distinctiveness. This principle confers on the issue of likelihood of confusion the character of a question of law. The complex nature of the determination of the boundaries of trademark protection implies that the concepts on which these boundaries depend take on a precise juridical meaning that differ from the everyday sense of the words. Well-known trademarks enjoy protection against unfair advantage or detrimental use. The European Court of Justice has ruled that this extended protection does not presuppose likelihood of confusion. Thus, the protection of well-known trademarks exists in its own right; it is not merely dependent upon the principle of confusion of origin.

  • 104463. Wesson, R.
    et al.
    Cernicharo, J.
    Barlow, M. J.
    Matsuura, M.
    Decin, L.
    Groenewegen, M. A. T.
    Polehampton, E. T.
    Agundez, M.
    Cohen, M.
    Daniel, F.
    Exter, K. M.
    Gear, W. K.
    Gomez, H. L.
    Hargrave, P. C.
    Imhof, P.
    Ivison, R. J.
    Leeks, S. J.
    Lim, T. L.
    Olofsson, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Savini, G.
    Sibthorpe, B.
    Swinyard, B. M.
    Ueta, T.
    Witherick, D. K.
    Yates, J. A.
    Herschel-SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of the carbon-rich objects AFGL 2688, AFGL 618, and NGC 70272010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 518, p. L144-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present far-infrared and submillimetre spectra of three carbon-rich evolved objects, AFGL 2688, AFGL 618 and NGC 7027. The spectra were obtained with the SPIRE Fourier-transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory, and cover wavelengths from 195-670 mu m, a region of the electromagnetic spectrum hitherto difficult to study in detail. The far infrared spectra of these objects are rich and complex, and we measure over 150 lines in each object. Lines due to 18 different species are detected. We determine physical conditions from observations of the rotational lines of several molecules, and present initial large velocity gradient models for AFGL 618. We detect water in AFGL 2688 for the first time, and confirm its presence in AFGL 618 in both ortho and para forms. In addition, we report the detection of the J = 1-0 line of CH+ in NGC 7027.

  • 104464.
    West, R
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD).
    Stenius, Kerstin
    Use and abuse of citations2008In: Publishing Addiction Science. A guide for the perplexed. 2nd Edition., ISAJE & SSA: London , 2008, p. 98-109Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 104465. West, Sarah E.
    et al.
    Owen, Anne
    Axelsson, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    West, Chris D.
    Evaluating the Use of a Carbon Footprint Calculator: Communicating Impacts of Consumption at Household Level and Exploring Mitigation Options2016In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 396-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through an increasingly globalized supply chain, local consumption of goods and services has impacts around the world. The carbon footprint can be used to link local consumption to global greenhouse gas emissions. This study describes the development and use of REAP Petite, a household-level footprint calculator. We describe how the tool integrates geodemographic information with user-inputted data; allows users to compare their footprint with others in their community; and presents them with targeted pledges to help them reduce their impact. Such tools can help individuals to see the impact their consumption has on emissions and help promote alternative behaviors. Based on the lessons learned during tool development and through using the tool with individuals in the UK and Sweden, we make recommendations for the development of new footprinting tools for use in the public domain. We highlight the benefits of using bottom-up methods for calculating footprints; recommend that designers consider future-proofing their tools; discuss the trade-off between complexity and usability; and recommend that designers consider going “beyond carbon” to increase the appeal of tools to a wider audience. We also highlight the importance of providing opportunity for users to compare their footprints with those of others and of monitoring and evaluating user engagement with the tool.

  • 104466.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Meaning and Action in Sustainability Science: Interpretive approaches for social-ecological systems research2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-ecological systems research is interventionist by nature. As a subset of sustainability science, social-ecological systems research aims to generate knowledge and introduce concepts that will bring about transformation. Yet scientific concepts diverge in innumerable ways when they are put to work in the world. Why are concepts used in quite different ways to the intended purpose? Why do some appear to fail and others succeed? What do the answers to these questions tell us about the nature of science-society engagement, and what implications do they have for social-ecological systems research and sustainability science? This thesis addresses these questions from an interpretive perspective, focusing on the meanings that shape human actions. In particular, the thesis examines how meaning, interpretation and experience shape the enactment of four action-oriented sustainability concepts: adaptive management, biosphere reserves, biodiversity corridors and planetary boundaries/reconnecting to the biosphere. In so doing, the thesis provides in-depth empirical applications of three interpretive traditions – hermeneutic, discursive and dialogical – that together articulate a broadly interpretive approach to studying social-ecological complexity. In the hermeneutic tradition, Paper I presents a ‘rich narrative’ case study of a single practitioner tasked with enacting adaptive management in an Australian land management agency, and Paper II provides a qualitative multi-case study of learning among 177 participants in 11 UNESCO biosphere reserves. In the discursive tradition, Paper III uses Q-method to explore interpretations of ‘successful’ biodiversity corridors among 20 practitioners, scientists and community representatives in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. In the dialogical tradition, Paper IV reworks conventional understandings of knowledge-action relationships by using three concepts from contemporary practice theory – ‘actionable understanding,’ ‘ongoing business’ and the ‘eternally unfolding present’ – to explore the enactment of adaptive management in an Australian national park. Paper V explores ideas of human-environment connection in the concepts planetary boundaries and reconnecting to the biosphere, and develops an ‘embodied connection’ where human-environment relations emerge through interactivity between mind, body and environment over time. Overall, the thesis extends the frontiers of social-ecological systems research by highlighting the meanings that shape social-ecological complexity; by contributing theories and methods that treat social-ecological change as a relational and holistic process; and by providing entry points to address knowledge, politics and power. The thesis contributes to sustainability science more broadly by introducing novel understandings of knowledge-action relationships; by providing advice on how to make sustainability interventions more useful and effective; by introducing tools that can improve co-production and outcome assessment in the global research platform Future Earth; and by helping to generate robust forms of justification for transdisciplinary knowledge production. The interventionist, actionable nature of social-ecological systems research means that interpretive approaches are an essential complement to existing structural, institutional and behavioural perspectives. Interpretive research can help build a scientifically robust, normatively committed and critically reflexive sustainability science.

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    Meaning and Action in Sustainability Science
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 104467.
    West, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Negotiating social-ecological fit through knowledge practice2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive governance and management (AG and AM) have been proposed to address the “problem of fit” between ecosystems and governance systems. AG and AM are intended to reconfigure the relations between knowledge and action through, for instance, experimentation, collaboration and monitoring, to enhance social-ecological feedbacks. However, apparent gaps have emerged between the theory of AG and AM, and the ability to enact them in practice. These gaps have developed, at least in part, because descriptions of and prescriptions for the ‘doing’ of AG and AM have rarely been situated in the context of negotiations over the production, mobilization and circulation of knowledge. This thesis addresses this lacuna by exploring how three knowledge practices – legal adjudication, scientific monitoring, and scientific narratives – negotiate social-ecological fit in a range of governance contexts and scales. Paper I examines the proposed ‘misfit’ between AG and the law in the context of environmental cases in the European Court of Human Rights. We find that adjudication in the Court frames deliberation of environmental change and human dignity in terms of the interplay between individual rights, public interests and state responsibilities. This practice enhances AG by facilitating the interaction of different ways of knowing the environment, supporting AM in member states in the context of public participation, and enhancing polycentricity at the European scale. Paper II addresses the apparent ‘gap’ between the theory and practice of AM by exploring the enactment of an ecological monitoring programme in an Australian land management organization. We find that knowledge in the programme is produced from emergent translations made between scientific logics prioritising experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency, effectiveness and organizational performance. Paper III explores ‘sensemaking’ – proposed as a way to enhance social-ecological fit by mobilizing actors, uniting networks and communities of practice, and inspiring environmental action on particular issues – in relation to the concept of ‘invasive alien species’ (‘IAS’) in South Africa. We analyse ‘IAS’ as a narrative, tracking it through governance realms of science, law, policy and media, and suggest how and why the ‘IAS’ narrative has been so predominant. We use the ‘IAS’ example to illustrate the complexities of meaning in sensemaking narratives, and highlight the ways in which certain narratives – despite best intentions – can also preponderate unproductive, potentially maladaptive ways of understanding and engaging with complex social-ecological change. In summary, this thesis recasts the pursuit of social-ecological fit as a complex onto-epistemic process, where knowledge about ecosystems and governance systems is produced, contested and transformed through material and conceptual practices. The thesis brings together AG and AM scholarship with deliberative, reflexive and decentered governance literatures, which helps to untangle the relationships between ‘knowing’ and ‘doing’ and paves the way for performative accounts of AG and AM ‘in action.’

  • 104468.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Beilin, Ruth
    Wagenaar, Hendrik
    Embracing the primacy of experience: How a practice perspective can bring accounts of adaptive management to lifeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In complex, dynamic and uncertain environments, where the appropriate course of action is unclear, natural resource managers often pose the question, “what should I do now?” Over the past thirty years, the answer from applied ecology and the complexity sciences has generally been, “adaptive management,” or in everyday terms “learning-by-doing.” Adaptive management, rooted in pragmatism, suggests that many problems can only be solved through experience, and therefore management action should be structured as a process of scientific experimentation. While these ideas have been widely embraced by ecologists, managers and policy-makers, outcomes in practice have been disappointing to advocates. There is a widespread perception that adaptive management is a great idea that rarely works in practice. In this paper we suggest, however, that while adaptive management is certainly challenging, diagnoses of failure have been largely made within implicitly linear models of the links between knowledge, practice and context that run counter to contemporary pragmatic thought. Indeed, while adaptive management prioritizes experience and ‘doing’ as way to learn about complex ecologies, the character of experience is reduced to producing more accurate representations thought to underlie better practice. In this paper we therefore reach back to the pragmatic origins of adaptive management to develop a theoretical account of the practice of learning-by-doing that begins from a transactional conception of experience, and explains knowledge and context in terms of practical action in the present. We apply three concepts from contemporary practice theory – ‘actionable understanding,’ ‘ongoing business’ and ‘the eternally unfolding present’ – to an in-depth case study of adaptive management in the Wyperfeld National Park, Australia. We illustrate the utility of a practice perspective by highlighting implications for a) assessments of success and failure in adaptive management, b) the roles of ecologists and managers, and c) the use of ecological information by managers. The key message of the paper is that embracing the inevitable complexity and ‘mess’ of experience may lead to more realistic accounts of adaptive management in action and creative forms of practice. 

  • 104469.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cairns, Rose
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    What constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor?: A Q-study in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa2016In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 198, p. 183-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Success’ is a vigorously debated concept in conservation. There is a drive to develop quantitative, comparable metrics of success to improve conservation interventions. Yet the qualitative, normative choices inherent in decisions about what to measure — emerging from fundamental philosophical commitments about what conservation is and should be — have received scant attention. We address this gap by exploring perceptions of what constitutes a successful biodiversity corridor in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa, an area of global biodiversity significance. Biodiversity corridors are particularly illustrative because, as interventions intended to extend conservation practices from protected areas across broader landscapes, they represent prisms in which ideas of conservation success are contested and transformed. We use Q method to elicit framings of success among 20 conservation scientists, practitioners and community representatives, and find three statistically significant framings of successful corridors: ‘a last line of defence for biodiversity under threat,’ ‘a creative process to develop integrative, inclusive visions of biodiversity and human wellbeing,’ and ‘a stimulus for place-based cultural identity and economic development.’ Our results demonstrate that distinct understandings of what a corridor is — a planning tool, a process of governing, a territorialized place — produce divergent framings of ‘successful’ corridors that embody diverse, inherently contestable visions of conservation. These framings emerge from global conservation discourses and distinctly local ecologies, politics, cultures and histories. We conclude that visions of conservation success will be inherently plural, and that in inevitably contested and diverse social contexts success on any terms rests upon recognition of and negotiation with alternative visions.

  • 104470.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Haider, Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Sinare, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Karpouzoglou, Tim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Beyond divides: Prospects for synergy between resilience and pathways approaches to sustainability2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of rapid social, ecological and technological change, there is rising global demand from private, public and civic interests for trans-disciplinary sustainability research. This demand is fuelled by an increasing recognition that transitions toward sustainability require new modes of knowledge production that incorporate social and natural sciences and the humanities. The Social, Technological and Environmental Pathways to Sustainability (STEPS) Centre’s ‘pathways approach’ and the Stockholm Resilience Centre’s (SRC) ‘resilience approach’ are two distinct trans-disciplinary frameworks for understanding and responding to sustainability challenges. However, the varieties of trans-disciplinarity pursued by the SRC and STEPS each have distinct origins and implications. Therefore, by selecting either the ‘resilience’ or ‘pathways’ approach, or indeed any distinct approach to sustainability, the researcher must contend with a range of foundational ontological and epistemological commitments that profoundly affect the definition of problems, generation of knowledge and prescriptions for action.

    What does an (un)sustainable world look like? How might we ‘know’ and research (un)sustainability? How should sustainability researchers position themselves in relation to civil society, policy, business and academic communities? In this paper we explore how resilience and pathways address these questions, identifying points of overlap and friction with the aim of generating new research questions and illuminating areas of potential synergy. As a group of early-career trans-disciplinary researchers we think that exciting areas of sustainability research lie in the boundaries between emerging trans-disciplinary research communities such as the SRC and STEPS. We propose future research that draws energy from current tensions between, for instance, competing visions of reflexive and policy-relevant research, and between ‘functional’ and ‘equity’ perspectives on social- ecological change. More broadly, we aim to stimulate thinking and debate about possible research agendas for sustainability that are more reflexive about the boundaries of trans-disciplinary research and encourage greater collaboration across and between research with different ontological and epistemological starting points. 

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  • 104471.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Haider, L. Jamila
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Masterson, Vanessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Enqvist, Johan P.
    Svedin, Uno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Tengö, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stewardship, care and relational values2018In: Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, ISSN 1877-3435, E-ISSN 1877-3443, Vol. 35, p. 30-38Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stewardship is a popular term for describing action in pursuit of sustainability. There is growing interest in how relational values, such as care, animate stewardship action. In this paper we develop relational understandings of care in stewardship, in so doing infusing the relational values literature with modes of 'relational thinking' increasingly adopted in sustainability science. We use three theoretical perspectives - dwelling, sense of place and biocultural diversity - to articulate three key aspects of relational approaches to care in stewardship: firstly, care as emergent from social-ecological relations, secondly, care as embodied and practiced, and thirdly, care as situated and political. Relational approaches to stewardship research and practice can lead to more nuanced, ethical and effective pathways to sustainability.

  • 104472.
    West, Simon P.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Learning for resilience in the European Court of Human Rights: adjudication as an adaptive governance practice2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing for social-ecological resilience requires ongoing learning. In the context of nonlinear dynamics, surprise, and uncertainty, resilience scholars have proposed adaptive management, in which policies and management actions are treated as experiments, as one way of encouraging learning. However, the implementation of adaptive management has been problematic. The legal system has been identified as an impediment to adaptive management, with its apparent prioritization of certainty over flexibility, emphasis on checks and balances, protection of individual rights over public interests, and its search for “transcendent justice” over “contingent truth.” However, although adaptive management may encourage learning for ecological resilience, it is only one aspect of the institutional change needed to foster learning for social-ecological resilience. The mechanisms, including law, that provide for pursuit and protection of evolving ideas of justice and equity are critical for guiding human understanding of and interaction with the material environment. A broader agenda for learning within and about social-ecological resilience that focuses on the interaction between ideas of justice and equity with ecosystem dynamics is captured in the concept of adaptive governance. We have built on recent literature that has elaborated on the role of law in governance of social-ecological systems by analyzing environmental cases in the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR). We find that the ECtHR contributes to adaptive governance by supporting multiple ways of knowing the environment, enhancing polycentricity, and encouraging adaptive management and policy making by member states in the context of public participation. We have argued that the environmental case law of the ECtHR constitutes an important site of learning for governance of social-ecological systems, because it situates knowledge and experience of environmental change in the context of discussions about the relative rights, duties, and responsibilities of social actors, facilitating the mutually adaptive evolution of truth and justice across scales.

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  • 104473.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Learning to live with social-ecological complexity: An interpretive analysis of learning in 11 UNESCO Biosphere ReservesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning is increasingly considered a means to achieve sustainability in practice and has become a prominent goal of sustainability interventions. The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves seeks to bring environmental conservation, socio-economic development and research together in ‘learning sites for sustainable development.’ The World Network is globally significant, with 669 sites in 120 countries, yet as with many paradigmatic sustainability interventions there is a widespread notion that biosphere reserves suffer from a ‘concept-reality gap.’ When assessing practical, ‘on-ground’ manifestations of the concept in accordance with UNESCO documentation and formally stated aims and ambitions, observers have often been disappointed. But while many biosphere reserves (BRs) no doubt face significant challenges, these approaches to assessing outcomes – taken alone – may not reveal the complete picture. They tend to assume that BRs are a single, standardized concept (against which local actions should be measured), and carry implicit assumptions about how learning for sustainability should take place and what it should include. In this paper, we suggest that taking the inverse approach – paying close attention to practitioners’ interpretations of BRs and their experiences of working with the BR concept – can help build a richer picture of learning for sustainability, with significant implications for the ways that BR may fulfil their role as learning sites. To this end, we provide an interpretive, multi-case analysis of learning in 11 BRs around the world. We ask: (a) How is the BR concept interpreted and enacted by people involved with BR work? (b) What kinds of learning emerge through BR work, as described by the people involved? We find that participants interpret BRs in a number of different ways, from ‘collaborative platform’ to ‘marketing label’, and that that these meanings are entangled with the institutional, political and ecological histories of each location. BR work therefore encompasses a range of activities, from clearing invasive species to arranging art-science festivals, and these activities shape and are shaped by the meaning of each BR as well as the evolving social-ecological context. Learning occurs around three broad themes across the sites – human-environment relationships; actors and governance arrangements; and skills and capacities to negotiate the ad hoc, unplanned nature of much BR work – but is expressed very differently in each BR.  While our results make identifying generic ‘lessons learned’ difficult, they illustrate the BR’s value in providing opportunities for participants to learn about the complex social-ecological processes involved in pursuing sustainability. In particular, the BR’s position ‘in the middle’ of local, regional and global forces; social, ecological and economic goals; and government, business and civil society actors, points toward a potential role for BRs as experimental arenas for sustainability, rather than replicable models per se. Our interpretive, multi-case approach provides a novel contribution to research on biosphere reserves and the broader literature on learning for sustainability.

  • 104474.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Schultz, Lisen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bekessy, Sarah
    Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management2016In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 399-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  • 104475.
    West, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Australian National University, Australia; Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae
    Wagenaar, Hendrik
    Beyond linking knowledge and action: towards a practice-based approach to transdisciplinary sustainability interventions2019In: Policy Studies, ISSN 0144-2872, E-ISSN 1470-1006, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 534-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The imperative to link knowledge and action is widely invoked as a defining characteristic of sustainability research. The complexities of sustainability challenges such as climate change and biodiversity loss mean that linear models of knowledge and action, where knowledge is produced first (by researchers) then applied to action (by policy actors), are considered insufficient. Researchers have developed more dynamic, open-ended and collaborative forms of policy engagement such as transdisciplinary and co-production research. Although promising these approaches often remain captive to linear assumptions that hinder their transformative potential. We contribute by providing a relational model of knowledge and action rooted in contemporary practice theory. A practice-based approach suggests the primary task of participants in transdisciplinary interventions is to find workable solutions to situations of dynamic complexity that are fundamentally indeterminate and unpredictable. Knowledge is not applied to action, but drawn upon, produced and used from within the situation at hand, allowing researchers and policy actors alike to better harness the emergent character of situational developments and outcomes. A practice-based approach provides a conceptual language that captures the experienced complexities of intervening for sustainability, reconfigures the nature of actionable knowledge, and identifies appropriate modes of evaluation for transdisciplinary and co-produced research.

  • 104476.
    West, Stuart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy.
    Is supernova iPTF15dtg powered by a magnetar?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    iPTF15dtg is a supernova (SN) Type Ic (lacking hydrogen and helium in its spectrum) with a light curve indicating that it is the result of a massive star explosion. Taddia et al. (2016) suggested that the progenitor star was a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star that previously suffered strong mass loss. More recent observations show that the SN light curve did not decline as expected, indicating the existence of an additional power source. One possibility is a magnetar, a hyper-magnetic neutron star capable of injecting its rotational energy into the light curve during relevant time scales. This bachelor thesis adds previously unpublished data to the iPTF15dtg light curve and compares simple semi-analytical models to rule out a radioactive scenario and discuss the possibility of a magnetar as the primary source of luminosity.

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  • 104477.
    West, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Didaktisk interaktionsdesign2008In: Design för lärande, 2008, p. 157-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 104478.
    West, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Learning Through the Arts: En kritisk forsknings- och dokumentationsöversikt2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna översikt görs en kritisk granskning av dokumentationen om skolundervisning där en yrkesverksam konstnär deltar enligt programmet ”Learning Through the Arts” (LTTA). LTTA är utvecklat i Kanada och introduceras nu i Sverige i ett samarbete mellan The Royal Conservatory of Music i Toronto (RCM), Kungl. Musikhögskolan i Stockholm (KMH) och Kista stadsdelsnämnd. 

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    Learning through the arts
  • 104479.
    West, Tore
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication(LHS).
    Multi-layered Analysis of Teacher-student interactions: Concepts and perspectives guiding video analysis with Tattoo, The Analytic Transcription Tool2007In: Pedagogies: An International Journal, ISSN 1554-480X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 139-150Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104480.
    West, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Music and designed sound2009In: The Routledge Handbook of Multimodal Analysis, 2009Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104481.
    West, Tore
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication(LHS).
    Åter till ordningen?2007In: Märkte du när det vände?: Slutrapport från Farstaprojektet/Farsta gymnasium, Statsledningskontoret, Kompetensfonden, Stockholms kommun , 2007, p. 48-58Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104482.
    West, Tore
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Benyamine, Isak
    Åkerfeldt, Anna
    Selander, Staffan
    Bedömning i högre konstnärlig utbildning: ett designteoretiskt, multimodalt perspektiv2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här artikeln intresserar vi oss för bedömning som sker i interaktionen mellan lärare och student i relation till hur undervisningssituationen utformats och gestaltats i sin specifika institutionella inramning. Artikel fokuserar och belyser bedömning som en aspekt och resurs för lärande i högre konstnärlig utbildning. Studenter som antas till dans- och filmutbildningar samt till de bildkonstnärliga högskolorna erbjuds i stor utsträckning en fri studiegång där fokus på personlig och konstnärlig utveckling ofta är central. Till skillnad från andra högskoleutbildningar där det finns ett större fokus på att inhämta ett specifikt, avgränsat och definierat kunskapsstoff i utbildningen handlar studierna inom konstnärlig högre utbildning i större utsträckning om att tillhandahålla förutsättningar för framgångsrikt konstnärligt arbete. I högre konstnärliga utbildningar bedöms studenters resultat inte främst utifrån fastställda och generella betygskriterier utan i relation till personlig utveckling (Högskoleverket 2006). Det behövs därför nya perspektiv och begrepp som – utifrån utbildningarnas förutsättningar – kan ge en förståelse av bedömning inom högre konstnärlig utbildning. 

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  • 104483.
    West, Tore
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Kempe, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Design för lärande i musik2010Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104484.
    West, Tore
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Kempe, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Didactic Science and Early Childhood Education.
    Musical transformations2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this presentation is to apply key concepts from design theory and social semiotics in order to investigate how the design of different forms of representation in music teaching and learning shapes the semiotic configuration of tuition and the process of meaning making and learning. There are several historically developed systems for representing music, even though the printed score seems to be the most frequently used system. In fact, the printed score seems to be the general focus of attention during one-to- one situations in formal instrumental teaching. Different systems of signs and forms of representation have emerged for different settings and functions. Within the context of such systems specific signs can be interpreted to make meaning. Dissimilar systems of representations of the same phenomena – like musical notation or tablature – bring different features of the phenomena in focus and leave other aspects in the shadow. Different systems also require various interpretation strategies and affect the patterns of interaction in the social settings where they come to use.

    We analyse and compare different systems for representation of music with a particular focus on how they shape the social power relations during tuition and how they bring forward certain musical features while leaving out others. We also discuss musical literacy in relation to different types of systems for representations. The printed music score is often taken to be a perfect image of the sounding music although it requires many years of experience to understand how to interpret the score of a musical work in a specific context. Instruction books for tuition in instrumental teaching and learning seldom have a written text, and leave the student with just the printed music as a guide. A discussion will be made regarding how different systems of signs can affect students’ possibilities to learn.

  • 104485.
    West, Tore
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Centrum för musikpedagogisk forskning (MPC).
    Rostvall, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Centrum för musikpedagogisk forskning (MPC).
    Interaktion och kunskapsutveckling: en studie av frivillig musikundervisning2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint dissertation project, 11 brass instrument and guitar lessons, with 4 teachers and 21 students aged 9-35 years, were videotaped, transcribed and ana­lyzed. Two were group lessons and 9 were private lessons. The object of the pro­ject was to study how music teaching and learning can be under­stood from an institutional perspective by describing, analyzing and in­terpreting musical in­strument lessons. The lessons were viewed as social encounters in which the action of participants creates and re-creates social orders at different institutional levels, by means of communication rou­tines using speech, music and gesture.

    Data were derived from micro-ethnographic transcriptions of speech, gesture and music of a total of five hours of videotape, supplemented by text analyses of 14 method-books. The transcripts were analyzed as text from the perspective of critical discourse analysis. At the analytical level the study applied the cognitive concepts of experiencing and learning music, as well as those of educational gen­res of speech and music use. The analyzed data were interpreted and discussed from the per­spectives of interaction-theory and institution-theory.

    The results show how the music during the lessons was broken down into sepa­rate notes, as read from the score. Music was not addressed as phrases, rhythms, or melodies. Expressive qualities of music performance were not ad­dressed. The characteristics of the interaction were found to be asymmetric, with the teacher being the one controlling the definition of the situation. Student at­tempts to take initiative were ignored by teachers. This asymmetric pattern of interaction had negative consequences for students’ as well as teachers’ opportu­nities to learn. The organization of the teaching situation as well as teaching methods is discussed from the perspective of institution-theory. A major conclu­sion is that the way instrument teaching is organized leaves little room for stu­dents and teachers to discuss and reflect on the teaching process. 

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  • 104486.
    West, Tore
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rostvall, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Verkligheten och kartan (The Real World versus the Map)1999In: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104487.
    Westas, Olle
    Stockholm University.
    Structure and methods of teaching in economic subjects: a comparative study of six countries towards models for curriculum development1982Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims at exploring international experience about methods of teaching general business/economic subjects and elementary accounting, with a special emphasis on the problem of structure, as to the upper secondary school level. It aims also at comparatively studying this experience and at developing curriculum models, based on the comparison, for structure (defined as the set of fundamental questions applied to the data of the subject for the learner to reflect upon) in teaching learning. The study contains thus both descriptive and normative parts. The problem area - methods of teaching - is limited by the content of American methods courses in business education. As to the empirical material gathering, curricula of six countries (Sweden, The United States, The United Kingdom, Switzerland, The Federal Republic of Germany, and The German Democratic Republic) constitute the base material for the study. This material was selected after having addressed questions to leading people and institutions for outstanding curricula of business/economic subjects. As to the method of the study, comparisons are made of the main problems. Sane assumptions are tested for the conclusions as to structure. The comparison showed, that general recommendations for motivation, visualization, and learning activity were included in most methods material, but with different emphasis. The importance of planning was generally underlined, and proposals were given for contacts with society. Especially the American material gave ample proposals for teaching. But the matter of man's situation, and of tensions and conflicts in economic systems were lightly treated (except in West German material). The determinant content of general economic subjects was in general material oriented theory. Elementary accounting instruction went generally on with traditional T-accounts. Some outlines of models for structure are suggested.

  • 104488.
    Westberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Den upproriska skötsamheten: Att vara ung och scout2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to describe children’s own perspectives on being scouts and to describe the scout movement as a cultural phenomenon. The thesis is based on interviews with 34 members of the movement and studies of archive material and contemporary documents. It is also based on a social constructivist view of knowledge.

    The results show that the movement seems to lack profile and is decentralised and secularised from the children’s point of view. They say that the movement’s history, the scout law, the scout oath and religion do not have great meaning. The movement has changed and membership today is not what it used to be. The children are scouts, but not too “scouty”.

    The informants find that outsiders think that the movement is “geeky”, but it can have a high status among elderly people. The informants react to the “geekiness” by not caring, hiding the fact that they are members, not telling anyone or protesting against other people’s views on the subject. This “geeky” label and the informants’ reactions to it can be seen as an unexpressed initiation rite to becoming a scout. It is something the members have to go through to be seen as worthy scouts.

    Being a scout is not considered rebellion against adults. Scouts can be seen as lacking youth culture patterns, adapting to an organized recreational activity. However, being a scout can be considered rebellion against other youngsters; some informants for example wore the scout uniforms in school. Some informants think that they have the correct picture of the movement and that outsiders have the wrong one. This strengthens their feeling of togetherness. Thus they are rebellious by being well-behaved. They fight against a dominating culture. Hence the scout movement works as a subculture even though it was created by adults.

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  • 104489.
    Westberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Human Development, Learning and Special Education .
    Scoutskjortan: mer än ett klädesplagg2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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    Scoutskjortan
  • 104490.
    Westberg Bernemyr, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Ljud som samarbetspartners: En intra-aktiv studie om yngre barns ljudutforskande i förskolan2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine children's intra-active relations with sounds in an explorative work at a preschool (1-to 2-year old children) analyzed through the lens of agential realism (Barad 2007, 2008), and to examine its didactical effects. This study has a transdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary design based on preschool didactics and the natural sciences, mainly physics andbiology. Research data consist of pedagogical documen-tation in the form of a short video sequence generated in a preschool sound project. An agential realistic approach in this study means an analysis of how sound is produced intra-actively in children's play and exploration in a pre-school. Barad’s agential realism also defines specific ethical stances for both the researcher’s involvement in the production of knowledge and the ethical implications of what that new knowledge and reality reveals(Barad 2007, 2008). The results of this study demonstrate the possibility to work with young preschool children around sound and how sound can be understood as a significant partner in children's play and exploration. This work ́s transdis-ciplinary goal, which is to work across the boundaries of preschool practice and scientific theory, contributes new knowledge about how sound vibration, frequency, loudness, hearingand acoustics intra-acts with children ́sbodies, feelings and thoughtsand the educational environmentsand discourses that children face in preschool. This study's specific impact on practice is that preschool staff can gain a greater understanding on the significance and im-pact of furnishings, architecture and organization according to time and place on how children express themselves and explore sound as a material-discursive phenomenon.

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  • 104491.
    Westberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law.
    Nordisk mervärdesskatterätt: behandlingen av utländska företag, varor eller tjänster inom ramen för nationella lagar1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104492.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Constructing childhood in the scout movement – a presentation of a new research project2009In: 9th conference of the European Sociological Association. Esa 2009. 2-5 September 2009 Lisbon, Portugal. Abstract book, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scout movement was founded in England 100 years ago. Today, it is established globally and has 38 million members. The Swedish branch of the movement is coeducational and it is based on voluntary work, membership fees and support from the state. The scout movement organizes the free time for many children, youth and adults in Sweden. It is a milieu and a context where children are being trained. The movement contains both traces of continuity and change. In that way it can say something about the development of society. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the design of a coming research project about the scout movement. The study, which further develops some of the research questions arising from my dissertation research, seeks to contribute with knowledge about how childhood is being constructed. The aim of the thesis was to describe children's own perspectives on being scouts and to describe the scout movement as a cultural phenomenon (Westberg, 2007). In the coming study, I will study the leaders' perspectives on the children. Instead of studying the movement in general I will study the movement's construction of childhood and its view of knowledge in particular. The project aims to study a culture which is created for children. What does the movement think is best for children? How is childhood constructed within the scout movement? These questions are of particular interest in a time when the movement tries to modernize itself to suit a wider target group among the population.

  • 104493.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Learning to lead: the transition from youth to adult within the Swedish scout movement2016In: World Leisure Journal, ISSN 0441-9057, E-ISSN 1607-8055, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 12-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present article is to explore how members transit from participants to leaders within Swedish scouting. It is a contribution to the ongoing discussion about the continued involvement of older participants within youth cultures [Bennett, A. (2006). Punk's not dead: The continuing significance of punk rock for and older generations of fans. Sociology40, 219–235; Bennett, A., & Hodkinson, P. (2012). Ageing and youth cultures: Music, style and identity. London: Berg; Davis, J. R. (2006). Growing up punk: Negotiating aging identity in a local music scene. Symbolic interaction29(1), 63–69; Hodkinson, P. (2011). Ageing in a spectacular “youth culture”: Continuity, change and community amongst older goths. The British Journal of Sociology62(2), 262–282], through investigating a different case; that of a youth organization. Both educators, who take charge, as well as participants taking part in scout leadership courses, have been interviewed. The present study demonstrates there is an end to childhood and youth within scouting. In order to stay involved, the participant has to become a leader. Paradoxically, though, no significant difference between being a scout and a leader is however experienced. The only difference is that the member has to be more responsible as a scout leader. None of the informants, however, mention responsibility as their main motive for continued participation. Rather, the main motive for volunteering as leaders seems to be the prospect of remaining scouts. Through becoming a leader, the scout is able to stay a scout and concomitantly; to stay youthful.

  • 104494.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Scouterna – en subkultur för ungdomar? 2008In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 3-4, p. 4-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 104495.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
     Ung men inte ungdomlig.: Barn- och ungdomsdiskurser inom och i samband med den svenska scoutrörelsen.2011In: RIG Kulturhistorisk Tidskrift, no 1, p. 13-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104496.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    "Wild Scouts": Swedish scouting preparing responsible citizens for the twenty-first century2013In: Child & Youth Services, ISSN 0145-935X, E-ISSN 1545-2298, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 9-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish scout program.Socialization is used as a theoretical tool in the analysis. Themethod is inspired by critical discourse analysis. What are childrenand young people being prepared for, how is it accomplished, andby whom? The findings reveal two discourses: doing things as aninvestment for the future versus having fun. In ‘‘the scout factory,’’the movement is the initiator, the leader the performer, and theyoung person the individual who is to become the finalproduct—a responsible citizen.

  • 104497.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    You Can't Be Young & Well-Behaved: Discourses about Childhood and Youth with the Swedish Scout Movement as an Empirical Example 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 104498.
    Westberg Broström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Young or youthful: the Scout Movement and youth discourses2012In: Leisure/Loisir, ISSN 1492-7713, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore the discourses surrounding the contemporary Swedish Scout Movement and young people. The method is based on discourse analysis. Newspaper articles about, and leaflets from, the movement from 2007 to 2009 were analyzed. The findings suggest that scouts are described as well-behaved, decent, sinful, “geeky,” young or youthful. The leaflets demonstrate that the organization wants to promote itself as youthful. It has trouble recruiting young people and tries to change its image by borrowing symbols from other youth cultures. Paradoxically, this approach leads to a conclusion that the Scout Movement's youth are not seen as youthful by their own organization. They cannot signal youthfulness by themselves.

  • 104499.
    Westberg, C. Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The Path Not Yet Taken: Bilateral Trade Agreements to Promote Sustainable Biofuels Under the EU Renewable Energy Directive2014In: The Environmental Law Reporter, ISSN 0046-2284, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 10607-10629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for biofuels to count as renewable energy for transport under the European Union Renewable Energy Directive, most applicants have relied on certification by the European Commission. But bilateral agreements can also be used to meet the sustainability criteria. This Article examines the bilateral agreement option, particularly whether such agreements might provide more flexibility in developing countries that export to the EU, while also addressing more general land use policies and cross-sector linkages in natural resource management.

  • 104500.
    Westberg, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Betydelse av att få en dyslexidiagnos: Fördelar och nackdelar med en dyslexidiagnos2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet dyslexi beskriver en person med svårigheter för ord, dys = svårigheter och lexia = ord. Dyslexi handlar framför allt om brister i det fonologiska systemet. Både miljö och biologi påverkar hur väl en elev lär sig läsa och skriva. Genetiska förmågor som t.ex. minne och förmåga till koncentration, ärvs samtidigt som olika förutsättningar i omgivningen blir avgörande faktorer. Vanliga problem vid dyslexi är svårigheter med att snabbt och säkert identifiera ord och stava korrekt. Skolan har till ansvar att ge alla elever en likvärdig utbildning  samt möjlighet att tillgodogöra sig kunskap. Med rätt sorts behandling kan risken för att, de elever med läs- och skrivproblem utvecklar skuld, ångest och modlöshet förebyggas. Syfte är att söka svar på hur tre skolor arbetar med elever som har läs- och skrivsvårigheter samt att undersöka om det finns resurser att hjälpa elever utan diagnostiserad dyslexi men som behöver läs och skrivstöd. För att söka svar på mina frågeställningar har jag som metod använt mig av en kvalitativ intervjustudie där jag intervjuat tre pedagoger. Utifrån dessa intervjuer har jag har kommit fram till att diagnosen dyslexi har betydelse för resurstilldelning. Att det finns resurser tillgängligt för de elever som inte har diagnostiserad dyslexi, men som ändå är i behov av extra stöd. Detta under förutsättning att det redan finns tillgängligt på skolan.

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