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  • 104501.
    Westberg, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Biomarkers of internal exposure/dose: Methods to quantify adducts to protein and DNA by LC/MS studied with benzo[a]pyrene and isocyanates2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on methods for quantification by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) of specific biomarkers for internal dose of chemicals which induce toxicity through their electrophilic reactivity. In vivo such compounds are short-lived, and could feasibly be measured as their reaction products (adducts) with biomacromolecules. Analysis by MS methods of stable adducts offers the specificity and accuracy required to generate data on internal dose useful in risk estimation.

    The primary aim was to develop a method for quantification by LC/MS of bulky adducts to serum albumin (SA) from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, using the genotoxic diolepoxide (DE) of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) as a model. A method for analysis of the BPDE adducts to His146 in SA was developed which is robust, easy-to-use, has good reproducibility and which reached a high sensitivity. A method for quantification of BPDE adducts to N2-deoxyguanosine (dG) in DNA by LC/MS was also established.

    In mice exposed to BP, adducts to SA and DNA from stereoisomers of BPDE were identified and quantified. The adduct level was shown to be >400 times higher in DNA than in SA, which from an in vitro study could be concluded to mainly depend on a large difference in the rates of adduct formation to His in SA and to dG in DNA. BPDE adduct levels to SA and DNA, and a biomarker of genotoxic effect (frequency of micronuclei), were compared in BP-exposed mice. The results were used to evaluate how these methods could be used in procedures for cancer risk estimation.

    An LC/MS method for analysis of valine hydantoins (VH) formed as adducts from isocyanates to N-termini in haemoglobin was established. VH, formed from urea/isocyanic acid, was investigated in mice as a potential biomarker of renal failure and for dose adjustment during treatment with a radioactive cytostatic drug. The kidney dysfunction was not severe enough to give a significant increase of VH in the experiment. 

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  • 104502.
    Westberg, Emelie A. C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Singh, Rajinder
    Hedebrant, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Koukouves, Georgios
    Souliotis, Vassilis L.
    Farmer, Peter B.
    Segerbäck, Dan
    Kyrtopoulos, Soterios
    Törnqvist, Margareta Å.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Adduct levels from benzo[a]pyrenediol epoxide: Relative formation to histidine in serum albumin and to deoxyguanosine in DNA in vitro and in vivo in mice by LC/MS-MS methods2015In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 232, no 1, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable and specific biomacromolecular adducts can be used to measure in vivo doses of reactive compounds. An LC/MS-MS method to measure adducts from the benzo[a]pyrene (BP) metabolite (±)-anti-BP-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide ((±)-anti-BPDE) to His146 in serum albumin (SA), earlier evaluated on in vitro alkylated human SA, was tested for its applicability to mouse. It was shown that (+)-anti-BPDE form BPDE-His adducts to mouse SA. The method was applied to samples from BP-exposed mice (100 mg/kg of body weight for 1, 3, 7 and 28 days). BPDE-His in SA was close to the limit of quantification and showed the highest level (13 fmol/mg) 3 days after exposure. The level was 400 times lower (calculated per g macromolecule) than earlier measured level of BPDE-adduct to deoxyguanosine (dG) in DNA in the livers. The relative rate of formation of adducts from BPDE with His in SA and with dG in DNA was investigated. Quantification by LC/MS-MS of the adducts in human blood alkylated in vitro with (±)-anti-BPDE showed a 1850 times higher level of BPDE-dG compared to BPDE-His. The specific and stable BPDE-adducts to His in SA are potential biomarkers of in vivo dose of BPDE, though this requires a considerable improved analytical sensitivity of the LC/MS-MS method.

  • 104503.
    Westberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hedebrant, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Fred, Charlotta
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Karaktärisering av PAH-addukter till histidin och lysin i humant serum albumin (HSA) med LC-MS/MS2007In: Svensk-norsk miljökjemisk vintermöte: Dr. Holms Hotell, Geilo, Norge, 2007, p. 40-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 104504.
    Westberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hedebrant, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Haglund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Seidel, Albrecht
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Conditions for sample preparation and quantitative HPLC/MS-MS analysis of bulky adducts to serum albumin with diolepoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as models2014In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 406, no 5, p. 1519-1530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stable adducts to serum albumin (SA) from electrophilic and genotoxic compounds/metabolites can be used as biomarkers for quantification of the corresponding in vivo dose. In the present study, conditions for specific analysis of stable adducts to SA formed from carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were evaluated in order to achieve a sensitive and reproducible quantitative method. Bulky adducts from diolepoxides (DE) of PAH, primarily DE of benzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and also DE of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBPDE) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBADE), were used as model compounds. The alkylated peptides obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of human SA modified with the different PAHDE were principally PAHDE-His-Pro, PAHDE-His-Pro-Tyr and PAHDE-Lys. Alkaline hydrolysis under optimised conditions gave the BPDE-His as the single analyte of alkylated His, but also indicated degradation of this adduct. It was not possible to obtain the BPDE-His as one analyte from BPDE-alkylated SA through modifications of the enzymatic hydrolysis. The BPDE-His adduct was shown to be stable during the weak acidic conditions used in the isolation of SA. Enrichment by HPLC or SPE, but not butanol extraction, gave good recovery, using Protein LoBind tubes. A simple internal standard (IS) approach using SA modified with other PAHDE as IS was shown to be applicable. A robust analytical procedure based on digestion with pronase, enrichment by HPLC or SPE, and analysis with HPLC/MS-MS electrospray ionisation was achieved. A good reproducibility (coefficient of variation (CV) 11 %) was obtained, and the achieved limit of detection for the studied PAHDE, using standard instrumentation, was approximately 1 fmol adduct/mg SA analysing extract from 5 mg SA.

  • 104505.
    Westberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Motwani, Hitesh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Lindh, Christian
    Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Comparison of specific biomarkers of internal dose and genotoxic effect after exposure to BP with the aim to use in risk assessmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 104506.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Det legitima moderskapets genealogi: En transtextuell diskurshistorisk analys2017In: Sakprosa, ISSN 1502-6000, E-ISSN 1891-5108, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel syftar till att visa hur en diskurs om modern som primär förälder transformeras till en legitim och förgivettagen tankefigur under perioden 1870–2010. Med en sociosemiotisk och multimodal legitimeringsanalys (van Leeuwen, 2008) undersöks hur frågorna ”varför moderskap?” och ”varför moderskap på detta sätt?” besvaras i svenska och välspridda sakprosatexter publicerade under 1870, 1940- och 2010-talet. Inspirerad av Mackay (2015) analyseras vidare hur svaren på dessa frågor relaterar till varandra över tid och inom ett transtextuellt representationskontinuum mellan legitimering och legitimitet. Analysen visar hur kristna föreställningar legitimerar modern som primär förälder under 1870-talet, och att tankefiguren representeras som mer eller mindre legitim under 1940- och 2010-talet. Artikeln fångar samtidigt hur ett kristet tolkningssystem reproduceras som ett tyst fundament när diskursen representeras som legitim under de senare perioderna. Artikelförfattaren kritiserar avslutningsvis nutida diskurser om moderskap för att vara icke-rationella och manipulativa i habermasisk mening (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001, 2016), och resonerar kring hur kritisk diskursanalys kan tjäna som medel för att påverka diskurser i emancipatorisk riktning.

  • 104507.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Gudomlighet, patriotism och koloniala kunskapstraditioner: Legitimerat föräldraskap i Svenska Familj-Journalen 1870-18752013In: Svenskans beskrivning 32: Förhandlingar vid trettioandra sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Karlstad den 13–14 oktober 2011 / [ed] Björn Bihl, Peter Andersson, Lena Lötmarker, Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2013, p. 346-355Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104508.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Legitimerade föräldraskap 1870–2010: En diskurshistorisk undersökning2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to historize discourses of parenthood by analyzing how they are negotiated and legitimized in Swedish non-literary and wide spread texts published in the 1870s, 1940s and 2010s. The analyzed corpus consists of the following: family and women’s movement magazines from the 1870s; a public counseling brochure and weekly magazines from the 1940s; blog texts; online health counseling; parent magazines; and public welfare information from the 2010s. The study moreover aims to make an inventory of which visual and lexico-grammatical resources realize legitimating strategies in the texts.

    Theoretically, the thesis draws on constructivist and feminist discourse theories and social semiotics. There is an emphasis on subject positions and power relations. The thesis investigates which parental subject positions are legitimized in the corpus, what power relations they reproduce, and furthermore how different positions are transformed as discontinuities of each other and over time.

    The results are presented in four analytical chapters. In the first of these, findings derived from the legitimation analysis of the 1870s are presented. The following two chapters present the results derived from the analysis of the 1940s and 2010s. The fourth research chapter presents an inventory of semiotic resources with the potential to realize legitimating strategies.

    One crucial discourse-historical result regards how the position of the mother as primary caretaker predominates in the research data. However, the position is mainly legitimized during the 1870s and transformed into legitimacy during the 1940s and 2010s. The analysis furthermore captures how the same position is legitimized during the 1870s with reference to a discourse concerning a divine order of things. Although this divine discourse is muted during the 1940s and 2010s, it continues to imprint the representations. Moreover, the analysis captures how discourses of legitimate parenthood constitute discourses of manhood, Swedishness, expert knowledge, responsiveness to children, consumption and risk management throughout the investigated periods, yet in discontinuous ways.

    The overall conclusion drawn is that legitimized discourses from one historical setting can constitute silent foundations for representations in later historical contexts. By unraveling history from past to present, the thesis shows how it is possible to identify presupposed lineages of today’s ideas and discourses, and thereby to deconstruct hegemonic truths and the power relations they reproduce.

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  • 104509. Westberg, Gustav
    et al.
    Årman, Henning
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Common sense as extremism: the multi-semiotics of contemporary national socialism2019In: Critical Discourse Studies, ISSN 1740-5904, E-ISSN 1740-5912, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 549-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how national socialist aesthetics and semiotics are regimented within the Swedish Nazi milieu today. In order to treat fascism as contemporary ideology, the article applies intertextuality and provenance as analytical concepts in the analysis of how Nazism is re-emerging discursively. The analysis contributes unique insights, as the dataset consists of extremist discourse aimed at providing members of the most prominent Swedish Nazi movement with guidance on how to embody and express national socialism in their everyday lives. The analysis reveals that common-sense notions about 'a natural life' and mainstream aesthetics concerning an outdoor lifestyle emerge as central expressions of a 'natural' and 'healthy' embodiment of national socialism. This aesthetic finds its ideological motive in opposition to a 'sick', 'Jewish' and 'parasitical' way of living. Mainstream notions are thus turned into vehicles for political extremism.

  • 104510.
    Westberg, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Basinkomst – en modell för Sverige?: En litteraturstudie om vilka resultat som hittills framkommit i de experiment med basinkomst som gjorts runtom i världen, och om ett sådant transfereringssystem skulle kunna passa ”den svenska modellen”2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the experiments that have been presented regarding guaranteed Basic Income, performed around the world; to see if a BI might fit into ”the Swedish model”; and what further research would be needed to understand the mechanics of BI. A theory has been used, designed to compare the effects of cash transfer programs irrespective of economic level of the countries. The experiments show many similarities, such as improved school attendance and achievements, improved health, enhanced economic equality, a sense of inclusion and security, and also, where this has been studied, less crime. Where BI has been beneath the level of economic sustenance a growth of working hours including self employment has been noted, whereas in countries with an income high enough to sustain oneself a slight diminished work supply has been reported. The effects shown in the review seem to be well aligned with the visions of the Swedish welfare state, although might not be in alignment with the growing use of “work fare” in Sweden. Further research should focus on more long-lasting experiments and also to find a common ground, on which to perform them to be able to compare results.

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  • 104511. Westberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Elihn, Karine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Andersson, Eva
    Persson, Bodil
    Andersson, Lennart
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Karlsson, Cathe
    Sjögren, Bengt
    Inflammatory markers and exposure to airborne particles among workers in a Swedish pulp and paper mill2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 813-822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the relationship between exposure to airborne particles in a pulp and paper mill and markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood. Personal sampling of inhalable dust was performed for 72 subjects working in a Swedish pulp and paper mill. Stationary measurements were used to study concentrations of total dust, respirable dust, PM10 and PM2.5, the particle surface area and the particle number concentrations. Markers of inflammation, interleukins (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and fibrinogen and markers of coagulation factor VIII, von Willebrand, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and D-dimer were measured in plasma or serum. Sampling was performed on the last day of the work free period of 5 days, before and after the shift the first day of work and after the shifts the second and third day. In a mixed model analysis, the relationship between particulate exposures and inflammatory markers was determined. Sex, age, smoking, and BMI were included as covariates. The average 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) air concentration levels of inhalable dust were 0.30 mg/m(3), range 0.005-3.3 mg/m(3). The proxies for average 8-h TWAs of respirable dust were 0.045 mg/m(3). Significant and consistent positive relations were found between several exposure metrics (PM 10, total and inhalable dust) and CRP, SAA and fibrinogen taken post-shift, suggesting a dose-effect relationship. This study supports a relationship between occupational particle exposure and established inflammatory markers, which may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  • 104512.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den nationella drömträdgården: den stora berättelsen om den egna nationen i svensk och brittisk Europadebatt2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104513.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EU:s drivkrafter: En introduktion till teorier om europeisk integration.2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför skall vi ha den form av institutionaliserat samarbete som EU innebär? Hur skapar man ökat engagemang för EU-frågorna bland unionens medborgare? Vad utgör slutmålet för integrationsprocessen?De tidiga integrationsförespråkarna ville skapa en gemensam institutionell miljö där ledare för stater och organisationer skulle mötas och utveckla gemensamma europeiska intressen. Idag konkurrerar dessa ursprungliga målsättningar med nya problem och utmaningar.För att förstå de vägval som dagens EU står inför behövs kunskap om integrationsprocessens grundmotiv och dynamik. Boken lyfter fram de problemlösande aspekterna av integrationen och presenterar de viktigaste konkurrerande vetenskapliga teorierna om EU:s motiveringsgrunder och drivkrafter mot bakgrund av den historiska utvecklingen.

  • 104514.
    Westberg, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Kamlén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Affiliate Marketing: Ett potentiellt verktyg för co-branding på Internet?2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Affiliate marketing är en form av prestationsbaserad e-marknadsföring. Detta möjliggör det för företagen att exponera sina annonser på ett stort antal sajter, eftersom annonskostnaden uppstår endast då annonsen presterar, d v s ger upphov till en på förhand bestämd aktivitet, exempelvis försäljning. Vår problemformulering grundar sig på varumärkets aspekt. Idag verkar ökad försäljning vara det främsta syftet och få företag har ett strategiskt tänkande bakom affiliate programmet och dess eventuella påverkan på varumärket. Vilka risker kan uppstå i samband med denna form av varumärkessamarbete på Internet, och hur ska företagen i sådant fall undvika dessa och istället uppnå en positiv effekt och ett ökat gemensamt värdeskapande genom nyttjandet av affiliate program. Syftet med uppsatsen är således att söka ta reda på hur det gemensamma värdeskapandet i ett affiliate program kan ökas och om det är möjligt att utveckla denna marknadsföringsform till ett strategiskt co-branding samarbete.

  • 104515.
    Westberg, Kalle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Var optimist!: AGAs innovativa verksamhet 1904-19592002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation is an investigation of the Swedish engineering company AGA’s inventive activity during the years 1904-1959. Inventive activity denotes the company’s efforts in rying to develop innovations. Operations such as patents, experiments, business methods, business co-operations, technical development and other related activities have been studied. Through its lighting system for beacons, which emanated from the international gas industry, AGA had a strong economic base, and could thus go through periods of strong diversification. This led to the growth of more branches on the company’s product tree, and the aim of this dissertation has been to map out and understand how this AGA tree developed.

    One point of departure for this study has been to investigate how the inventive activity at AGA reacted to changes in the demand side of the economy. According to the American economist Jacob Schmookler the demand determines the development of innovative activity. The American economic historian Nathan Rosenberg has criticised Schmookler, however, arguing that it is the resources of knowledge which dictate the innovative course, since technology transfers are costly to put into economic practice. A third perspective, partly bridging these differences of opinions, is the discussion on the influence of technology procurement, which, among others, the Swedish innovation researcher Charles Edquist has presented. These perspectives frame my study, which maps AGA through two major changes in technology during the first half of the twentieth century.

    The AGA product tree consists of path dependent shifts in technology; possibilities to develop new technology opened up in the interaction between the company and the market. Among other things, the main innovation, the AGA flasher, originally developed for the lighting in beacons, proved to be functional for railway signalling devices and respirators. Through general market changes outside the company, similar opportunities arose for AGA to develop already existing technique for new markets. During the period of research the inventive activity was characterized by a constant experimenting, where the company’s success to a large extent rested on the engineers’ ingenuity. AGA, being product diversified, had little room to act independently on the market. Thus, to a high degree the company had to adjust its inventive activity to market demand. By cooperating with initiated customers, above all public ones, AGA had the opportunity to continuously develop products in demand, despite limited resources.

  • 104516. Westberg, Lars
    et al.
    Henningsson, Susanne
    Zettergren, Anna
    Svärd, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Hovey, Daniel
    Lin, Tian
    Ebner, Natalie C.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Variation in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene is Associated with Face Recognition and its Neural Correlates2016In: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5153, E-ISSN 1662-5153, Vol. 10, article id 178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to recognize faces is crucial for daily social interactions. Recent studies suggest that intranasal oxytocin administration improves social recognition in humans. Oxytocin signaling in the amygdala plays an essential role for social recognition in mice, and oxytocin administration has been shown to influence amygdala activity in humans. It is therefore possible that the effects of oxytocin on human social recognition depend on mechanisms that take place in the amygdala—a central region for memory processing also in humans. Variation in the gene encoding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) has been associated with several aspects of social behavior. The present study examined the potential associations between nine OXTR polymorphisms, distributed across the gene, and the ability to recognize faces, as well as face-elicited amygdala activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during incidental encoding of faces. The OXTR 3′ polymorphism rs7632287, previously related to social bonding behavior and autism risk, was associated with participants’ ability to recognize faces. Carriers of the GA genotype, associated with enhanced memory, displayed higher amygdala activity during face encoding compared to carriers of the GG genotype. In line with work in rodents, these findings suggest that, in humans, naturally occurring endogenous modulation of OXTR function affects social recognition through an amygdala-dependent mechanism. These findings contribute to the understanding of how oxytocin regulates human social behaviors.

  • 104517.
    Westberg, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Behandlingsrelationen: En kvalitativ studie med perspektiv från terapeuter på behandlingshem i olika sammanhang2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and analyse a common factor in therapeutic treatment and care – the relationship between therapist and client in treatment homes and especially which factors that effect this relationship. The study was conducted through qualitative method and four semi-structured interviews were held with therapists from four different treatment homes with different clientele. The main theoretical points of departure were both psychodynamic perspectives with the attachment theory by John Bowlby and humanistic perspectives with the client centred therapy developed by Carl Rogers. For analysing the transcribed interviews the method of sentence – categorization was used. The results of the study showed that a range of different factors effecting the therapeutic relationship between therapist and client where mentioned and discussed by the informants. A major finding was that the secure base is central for developing a deep connection with a client. Other important findings were that the therapist needs to be open and loving towards the client and in order to be that - to take care of his or her own emotional world and especially countertransference that may occur.

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  • 104518.
    Westberg, Ulrica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    EU-rättens domstolsbegrepp: en jämförelse av begreppet "domstol" i artikel 267 FEUF och artikel 47 stadgan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 104519.
    Westberg-Wohlgemuth, Hanna
    Stockholm University.
    Kvinnor och män märks: könsmärkning av arbete - en dold lärandeprocess = [Gendering of work and knowledge] : [sex-marking - a hidden learning-process]1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this thesis has been to increase knowledge on how sex marking of job tasks and jobs is constructed, and, based on that knowledge, to find ways and means of reaching real equality between the sexes in the labour market. Different factors are identified whiich are at play in the creation of women's and men's jobs i.e.- the sex marking process - and their function examined. The emphasis of the theoretical part is on gender, socialisation, immanent pedagogy, sexual division of labour and work organization. The empirical part contains three major separate studies. The studies represent three diferent approaches to the problem being explored : a register study on sex segregation, a questionnaire on representation of gender, work and qualities/skills, an interview study focusing individual's representations of the sex marking process.

  • 104520. Westbury, Michael
    et al.
    Dalerum, Fredik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. University of Oviedo, Spain; University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Norén, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hofreiter, Michael
    Complete mitochondrial genome of a bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), along with phylogenetic considerations2017In: Mitochondrial DNA Part B: Resources, ISSN 0343-1223, E-ISSN 2014-1130, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 298-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bat-eared fox, Otocyon megalotis, is the only member of its genus and is thought to occupy a basal position within the dog family. These factors can lead to challenges in complete mitochondrial reconstructions and accurate phylogenetic positioning. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome of the bat-eared fox recovered using shotgun sequencing and iterative mapping to three distantly related species. Phylogenetic analyses placed the bat-eared fox basal in the Canidae family within the clade including true foxes (Vulpes) and the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes) with high support values. This position is in good agreement with previously published results based on short fragments of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, therefore adding more support to the basal positioning of the bat-eared fox within Canidae.

  • 104521. Westcott, Mark
    et al.
    Murray, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Financialisation and inequality in Australia2017In: Economic and Labour Relations Review, ISSN 1035-3046, E-ISSN 1838-2673, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 519-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of financialisation has been cast as a major contributor to increasing inequality of wealth and income in a number of advanced industrialised economies, but the nature of the link requires precise clarification. In this article, we argue that financialisation in Australia has advanced inequality, but in a particular way. Charting several features of financialisation of the macroeconomy', we accept that this process has contributed to increased inequality in the sense that the wealthy have increased their wealth faster than households and individuals at the lower end of the wealth distribution. However, there is limited Australian evidence to suggest that income redistribution has occurred as a result of the financialisation of the firm'. At the level of the firm, increased inequality of wealth can be attributed directly to financialisation if firm practices are oriented to increasing shareholder value at the expense of returns to other stakeholders such as workers or suppliers, and increased income inequality can be linked specifically to financialisation through increases in earnings to financial agents. We suggest several reasons for the relative absence of a firm-level dimension of financialisation but caution that such a trend remains possible, particularly if regulation of the labour market is weakened.

  • 104522.
    Westdahl, Ann-Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Finansiella nyckeltal - analysinstrument eller reklam?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Är de svenska storbankernas presentation av finansiella nyckeltal jämförbara? Det är frågan jag ställt mig i syfte att skapa förståelse för omfattningen av skillnaden mellan bankernas jämförande information via finansiella nyckeltal.

    Analysen har utförts genom en fallstudie, där ett systemsynsätt tillämpats, och har visat att vare sig bankernas presentation av finansiella nyckeltal, eller teorier kring nyckeltal, kan anses vara jämförbara. Stora skillnader existerar, både kring vilka nyckeltal som presenteras, vad de kallas och hur de beräknas. Finansiella nyckeltal kan således inte anses vara användbara som analysverktyg, eller bidra till den inre marknadens funktion.

    Resultatet av studien baserar sig på analyser av bankernas presenterade finansiella nyckeltal, resultat- och balansräkningar, ägarstrukturer och börskurser. Grunddata har hämtats från bankernas årsredovisningar under perioden 2004 – 2008, från Finansinspektionen och Stockholmsbörsen. Jag har även intervjuat representanter från bankerna och Finansinspektionen, en analytiker och en ekonomijournalist. Den övergripande bilden och djupa förståelsen har jag fått av Jacob Palmstierna, som haft godheten att dela med sig av sin fyrtioåriga erfarenhet och ovärderliga kunskap om den svenska bankbranschen.

    Uppsatsen innefattar även metodutveckling i form av en konceptuell omvärldsmodell.

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  • 104523.
    Westdahl, Ann-Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Finansiella nyckeltal - analysinstrument eller reklam?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Är de svenska storbankernas presentation av finansiella nyckeltal jämförbara? Det är frågan jag ställt mig i syfte att skapa förståelse för omfattningen av skillnaden mellan bankernas jämförande information via finansiella nyckeltal.

    Analysen har utförts genom en fallstudie, där ett systemsynsätt tillämpats, och har visat att vare sig bankernas presentation av finansiella nyckeltal, eller teorier kring nyckeltal, kan anses vara jämförbara. Stora skillnader existerar, både kring vilka nyckeltal som presente-ras, vad de kallas och hur de beräknas. Finansiella nyckeltal kan således inte anses vara användbara som analysverktyg, eller bidra till den inre marknadens funktion.

    Resultatet av studien baserar sig på analyser av bankernas presenterade finansiella nyckel-tal, resultat- och balansräkningar, ägarstrukturer och börskurser. Grunddata har hämtats från bankernas årsredovisningar under perioden 2004 – 2008, från Finansinspektionen och Stockholmsbörsen. Jag har även intervjuat representanter från bankerna och Finansinspek-tionen, en analytiker och en ekonomijournalist. Den övergripande bilden och djupa förstå-elsen har jag fått av Jacob Palmstierna, som haft godheten att dela med sig av sin fyrtioåri-ga erfarenhet och ovärderliga kunskap om den svenska bankbranschen.

    Uppsatsen innefattar även metodutveckling i form av en konceptuell omvärldsmodell.

    Nyckelord: IFRS, finansiella nyckeltal, jämförbarhet, användbarhet, omvärldsmodell.

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  • 104524.
    Westdahl, Marianne
    Stockholm University.
    Non-single crystal X-ray diffraction methods: applications to zink-compounds and polymers1996Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 104525.
    Wester, Bertil
    Stockholm College.
    Gotisk resning i svenska orglar: en undersökning med huvudsaklig begränsning till det svenska materialet under medeltiden1936Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104526.
    Wester, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Den ”bråkiga” skolfotbollsplanen: En studie om platsens innebörd för det sociala livet på fotbollsplanen och skolgården2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen Den ”bråkiga” skolfotbollsplanen är att synliggöra och skapa kunskap om skolans fotbollsplan som plats och vilken roll den har i det sociala livet på skolgården. Uppsatsen visar att fotbollsplanen kan förstås som en pluralistisk och föränderlig plats. Vid olika tider möjliggörs eller begränsas konflikt, exkludering, hierarkier och identiteter bland barnen. Skola, pedagoger och barn är medskapare till vad planen ges för mening, där den mest framträdande uppfattningen är att den är bråkig. När platsen används som att den har en singulär fixerad mening är den som mest konfliktfylld och exkluderande. I kontrast kan olika aktiviteter pågå parallellt utan konflikt under perioder då fotbollsplanen ”stängs” och omskapas till ett mellanrum. Identiteter bland barnen förhandlas, skapas och omskapas i relation till fotbollsplanen och de sociala relationer och förväntningar som omger den. Genom hur fotbollsplanen organiseras av skolan regleras utrymme och umgänge på skolgården, vilket skapar säsonger i barnens sociala geografier.

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    Wester, Julia. Den ”bråkiga” skolfotbollsplanen: En studie om platsens innebörd för det sociala livet på fotbollsplanen och skolgården.
  • 104527.
    Wester, Kjell
    Stockholm University.
    Spectral signature measurements and image processing for geological remote sensing1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on (i) spectral signatures of rocks and lichens, and on the use of satellite images for (ii) survey mapping of areas dominated by exposed bedrock, (iii) bedrock mapping and mineral prospecting.

    (i) Laboratory measurements demonstrate that a lichen cover can significantly mask the spectral reflectance of rocks. But reflectance measurements on young basalts show that the degree of lichen cover can be helpful when mapping basalts of different age. Measurements of rocks and lichens show the potential of the near infrared regions (0.98-1.11 µm and 1.20-131 µm), which are not covered by Landsat TM.

    (ii) Landsat TM and SPOT HRV provide good possibilities for mapping of areas dominated by exposed  bedrock to be presented  on the Swedish topographical map (scale 1:50 000). The classification errors can be reduced by the use of a slicing procedure on the training data using transformed data, and by combining the automatic classification with a subsequent manual improvement.

    (iii) The third part concerns image processing methods for geological studies in two different climatic zones of the world; a high mountain region in Scandinavia, and an arid region in Saudi Arabia. Recommendations of best spectral bands and various methods for image enhancement for geological purposes are discussed. The results demonstrate the importance of the spectral information in TMl , TM4, and TM? (or TMS). The Scandinavian study shows that by extracting bedrock areas using a preprocessing masking technique before additional image enhancement better results are achieved. Preprocessing methods for the removal of picture elements influenced by vegetation, deep shadows, snow and clouds are presented. A manual classification method tested was better than a M-L classification for bedrock mapping. The results from the Saudi Arabia study demonstrate   the potential for including Landsat TM's thermal information for geological mapping.  A further enhancement of high-pass filtered images can be achieved by the use of a spectral shading technique.

  • 104528.
    Wester, Kristin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Wålsten, Lydiah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    Vad styr den journalistiska autonomin?: En studie av anställningsformens betydelse2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar effekterna av den ökande andelen visstidsanställda journalister på landets redaktioner. Fokus är journalisternas autonomi, det vill säga möjlighet att styra det egna arbetet och att agera självständigt. Mer specifikt behandlar uppsatsen vilken betydelse anställningsform har för hur journalister uppfattar sin autonomi.Studien är kvantitativ och består av enkätdata från Journalist 2005, vilken är den senaste av de journalistundersökningar i projektet Svenska Journalister som har genomförts vid Institutionen för Journalistik och Masskommunikation vid Göteborgs universitet, JMG.Teoretiskt utgår uppsatsen från forskning kring journalisters autonomi samt John Atkinsons teori om ”The Flexible Firm” där anställda förväntas vara uppdelade mellan en kärngrupp och en perifer grupp. Fyra hypoteser om vad som påverka autonomin har konstruerats och operationaliserats genom sex variabler; kön, ålder, kommersiell/icke-kommersiell, TV/radio, huvudsaklig arbetsuppgift och anställningsform. Dessa har sedan analyserat gentemot fem frågor som berör journalistens autonomi.Slutsatsen är att anställningsform och arbetsuppgifter är mer avgörande för hur journalisters upplever sin autonomi än kön och ålder.

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  • 104529.
    Wester, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Jakas, Agneta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Revisorers anmälningsskyldighet: - i ett brottsförebyggande syfte2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har revisorer numera en lagstadgad plikt att anmäla misstanke om brott begångna av styrelse och VD i aktiebolag. Syftet med vår uppsats är att studera huruvida anmälningsplikten har någon möjlighet att verka brottsförebyggande på den ekonomiska brottsligheten. Vår avsikt har även varit att försöka ta reda på vilka orsaker som kan ligga bakom att enbart ett fåtal anmälningar från revisorer har inkommit sedan anmälningsskyldigheten infördes 1999. Vi har studerat lagstiftningen, tidigare forskning samt genomfört intervjuer och en enkätundersökning. Detta har givit oss en god bas för att skapa oss en egen uppfattning i frågan.

  • 104530. Wester, Misse
    et al.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    My Husband Usually Makes Those Decisions": Gender, Behavior, and Attitudes Toward the Marine Environment2011In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 70-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human behavior impacts the environment we live in. In order to better understand how one group, boat owners, in three Nordic countries adjacent to the Baltic Sea; Sweden, Finland and Denmark, viewed the relationship between the marine environment, leisure boats and issues of responsibility, a survey study was conducted (n = 1701). The results show that there are differences between gender in many areas and those women in general are more environmentally friendly than men in their views and behavior. Men and women seek information about boating by different channels and this knowledge may be used in future information campaigns. Both men and women ranked boat owners as having the lowest impact on the marine environment and perceived these to be responsible for addressing environmental issues caused by leisure boat activities. The results also show that it is important to prove the effectiveness of an environmentally safe product since this factor is ranked higher than price when considering buying a product. The results suggest that once environmentally friendly behavior is established, such as recycling, this behavior continues. One implication of this study is that small changes in human behavior are seen as acceptable but larger commitments are more difficult to achieve. If individuals do not feel responsible for causing environmental damage, this aspect needs to be addressed in information aimed at this group. Novel approaches on framing the information and new ways of disseminating information are needed.

  • 104531.
    Wester, Moa
    Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies, Centre for the study of children's culture. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences.
    Barns tidiga läslärande: En studie av forskning och metoder för tidigt läslärande ur ett barndomssociologiskt perspektiv2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ur ett barndomssociologiskt perspektiv studeras i denna uppsats tre riktningar i forskningen om barns läslärande samt de metoder som bygger på denna. De tre riktningarna är: Traditionell pedagogisk och psykologisk forskning om barns läslärande; Emergent literacy/Early literacy samt Literacy from infancy. I första hand studeras skrifter av tre svenska forskare: Ingvar Lundberg, Caroline Liberg och Ragnhild Söderbergh. Syftet är att undersöka vilka barndomsdiskurser och vilka sätt att se på begreppen barn och barndom som speglas.

    I Lundbergs forskning ser jag diskursen om Barnet som kultur- och kunskapsåterskapare – ett förhållningssätt som säkrar makthierarkin mellan barn och vuxen. Barnet tränas under strukturerade former under ledning av en vuxen och syftet är att ge en stadig grund inför den senare läsundervisningen i skolan, undervisning som i första hand bygger på syntetiska metoder med bokstavsinlärning och ljudning. I Libergs forskning syns diskursen Barnet som aktiv kultur och kunskapsåterskapare. Förhållningssättet liknar det som beskrivs av Lundberg men man hyser en större tilltro till barnets kompetens och förmåga att dra egna slutsatser. Utifrån barnets frågor och intresse stöttar den vuxne genom att visa på bokstävers betydelse och ljudningens principer. En alternativ väg visar Söderbergh på. Hennes metod bygger på att en vuxen aktivt försöker väcka det lilla barnets intresse för skriftspråket genom att fokusera på skrivna ords betydelse, innehåll och funktion snarare än på form och avkodningsteknik. När intresset finns lämnas lärandet helt över till barnet och den vuxnes roll blir att stimulera på rätt nivå. Här syns diskursen om det kompetenta barnet och även ett ifrågasättande av makthierarkin mellan barn och vuxen.

    Inom Lundbergs och Libergs forskningstraditioner rör man sig inom ramen för den diskurs som jag valt att benämna Skolan som läsandets arena t ex på så sätt att aktiviteterna utgår ifrån de enskilda bokstäverna och ljudningen och därmed initierar det man tänker sig att skolan senare kommer att ta över. Söderberghs forskning innebär ett ifrågasättande av denna diskurs då den handlar om läslärande vid en avsevärt mycket tidigare ålder och dessutom med en helt annan metod. Forskningen/metoden blir därtill problematisk då den både hamnar inom ramen för den vedertagna diskursen om Det naturliga barnet och inom diskursen om Det kompetenta barnet, i meningen läskunnigt. Den ifrågasätter därmed både lärarens roll och kanske också skolsystemet i stort. Anledningen till att hennes metod inte får större genomslag kanske i sin tur kan förklaras som en rädsla för Det kompetenta, läskunniga lilla barnet.

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  • 104532.
    Wester, Nils
    Stockholm College.
    Kungliga politi- och brandkommissionen: studier rörande Stockholms stads politiväsen under 1700-talet1946Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104533. Wester Oxelgren, Ulrika
    et al.
    Myrelid, Åsa
    Annerén, Göran
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    More severe intellectual disability found in teenagers compared to younger children with Down syndrome2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 5, p. 961-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We investigated the severities and profiles of intellectual disability (ID) in a population-based group of children with Down syndrome and related the findings to coexisting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Methods: There were about 100 children with Down syndrome living in Uppsala County, Sweden, at the time of the study who all received medical services from the same specialist outpatient clinic. The 60 children (68% male) were aged 5-17 years at inclusion: 41 were assessed within the study and 19 had test results from previous assessments, performed within three years before inclusion. We compared two age groups: 5-12 and 13-18 years old.

    Results: Of the 60 children, 49 were assessed with a cognitive test and the 11 children who could not participate in formal tests had clinical assessments. Mild ID was found in 9% of the older children and in 35% of the younger children. Severe ID was found in 91% of the older children and 65% of the younger children. Verbal and nonverbal domains did not differ.

    Conclusion: Intellectual level was lower in the older children and patients with Down syndrome need to be followed during childhood with regard to their ID levels.

  • 104534. Wester Oxelgren, Ulrika
    et al.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Cognitive psychology. Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Myrelid, Åsa
    Annerén, Göran
    Johansson, Lotta
    Åberg, Marie
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    An intervention targeting social, communication and daily activity skills in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and autism: a pilot study2019In: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, ISSN 1176-6328, E-ISSN 1178-2021, Vol. 15, p. 2049-2056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate whether an intervention, targeting deficits in social communication, interaction and restricted activities in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and autism could lead to enhanced participation in family and school activities.

    Methods: The intervention included education for parents and school staff about autism, and workshops to identify social-communication and daily living activities that would be meaningful for the child to practice at home and at school. Thereafter, a three-month period of training for the child followed. Outcome measures comprised evaluation of goal achievement for each child, the Family Strain Index questionnaire and a visual scale pertaining to the parents' general opinion about the intervention.

    Results: On average, more than 90% of the goals were (to some extent or completely) achieved at home and at school. The mean scores of the Family Strain Index were almost identical at the follow-up to those before intervention. The evaluation supported that the use of strategies, intended to facilitate activities and communication, remained largely 18 months after start of the intervention.

    Conclusion: Despite the group involved in this study being composed of older children and adolescents, most of whom had severe and profound intellectual disability, the goal achievements and parents' views on the intervention were encouraging.

  • 104535. Westerberg, Bengt
    et al.
    Björklund, JohannaFolke, CarlStockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.Jagers, SverkerLundholm, CeciliaFaculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.Moberg, FredrikSörlin, SverkerStockholm University, interfaculty units, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Utmaningen — forskare om en hållbar mänsklighet2008Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104536. Westerberg, Bengt
    et al.
    Folke, CarlStockholm University.Jagers, SverkerLundholm, CeciliaStockholm University.Moberg, FredrikStockholm University.Sörlin, Sverker
    Utmaningen: Forskare om en hållbar framtid2008Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104537.
    Westerberg, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Aspects of anyons1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 104538. Westerberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Overwintering dormancy behaviour of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) in a large lake2015In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 532-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overwintering dormancy behaviour was studied in female silver eels in Lake Mälaren in Sweden between 2008 and 2010. Depth choices and movements in relation to temperature were analysed from pressure andtemperature records for 13 eels with implanted data storage tags, covering 17 overwintering periods and threeintervening summer periods. Dormancy commenced in October–November as temperatures fell below 4–12 °C.Eels tended to remain motionless throughout the winter, with some short periods of activity signalled by smallchanges in depth distributions. During dormancy, the eel shows a clear avoidance of shallow areas <5 m in favourof the 10–25-m-depth interval. Activity tended to resume 4–6 months later in April–May as temperatures roseabove 3–7 °C and ice cover broke, and eels spent more time at shallower depths of <5–10 m. The majority of theeels were assessed as being in the silver eel stage at the time of tagging. During the autumn months, the divingbehaviour, with frequent and large vertical excursions and periods at the surface, was similar to that seen inmigrating eels in the Baltic and Atlantic Ocean. In spring and summer, the behaviour differed, being dominated bymore gradual depth variations, implying that the eels reverted from silver eel migration behaviour to yellow eelforaging behaviour. Body weight declined during dormancy, but other studies of starvation over comparable timeperiods showed significantly higher average specific weight losses, implying that the Mälaren silver eels must havefed between the end of dormancy and recapture.

  • 104539. Westerberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Institute of Freshwater Research, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lagenfelt, Ingvar
    Aarestrup, Kim
    Righton, David
    Behaviour of stocked and naturally recruited European eels during migration2014In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 496, p. 145-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One objection to the stocking of translocated eels as a management measure for the European eel Anguilla anguilla L. is that these eels may lack the ability to find their way back to the spawning area in the Sargasso Sea because the translocation will confuse their imprinted navigation. We undertook a series of tagging experiments using satellite tags, data storage tags and acoustic tags to test the hypothesis that eels translocated 1200 km from the UK to Sweden differed in their ability to migrate compared to naturally recruited eels. Eels to be tagged were caught in 2 locations, one with a record of eel stocking for more than 20 yr and with a series of barriers to upstream migration and another in a river with only natural immigration and without barriers to upstream migration. In the first year, the naturally recruited and stocked eels were released in a fjord where the initial escapement behaviour could be monitored by acoustic tagging in addition to using archival tags to track the subsequent marine migration. In the second year, eels were tagged with archival or satellite tags and released on the open coast, and only their marine migration was investigated. Eels were tracked more than 2000 km along a route that, after leaving the Skagerrak, followed the Norwegian Trench to the Norwegian Sea, turned south and west along the Faroe-Shetland channel before emerging into the Atlantic Ocean, and then continued west. There were no statistically significant differences in estuarine or oceanic behaviour regarding route, swimming speed and preferred swimming depth between stocked and naturally recruited eels. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a Nordic migration route and do not support the hypothesis that a sequential imprinting of the route during immigration is necessary for adequate orientation or behaviour during the adult spawning migration.

  • 104540. Westerberg, I.
    et al.
    Guerrero, J. -L
    Seibert, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Beven, K. J.
    Halldin, S.
    Stage-discharge uncertainty derived with a non-stationary rating curve in the Choluteca River, Honduras2011In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 603-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty in discharge data must be critically assessed before data can be used in, e. g. water resources estimation or hydrological modelling. In the alluvial Choluteca River in Honduras, the river-bed characteristics change over time as fill, scour and other processes occur in the channel, leading to a non-stationary stage-discharge relationship and difficulties in deriving consistent rating curves. Few studies have investigated the uncertainties related to non-stationarity in the stage-discharge relationship. We calculated discharge and the associated uncertainty with a weighted fuzzy regression of rating curves applied within a moving time window, based on estimated uncertainties in the observed rating data. An 18-year-long dataset with unusually frequent ratings (1268 in total) was the basis of this study. A large temporal variability in the stage-discharge relationship was found especially for low flows. The time-variable rating curve resulted in discharge estimate differences of -60 to +90% for low flows and +/- 20% for medium to high flows when compared to a constant rating curve. The final estimated uncertainty in discharge was substantial and the uncertainty limits varied between -43 to +73% of the best discharge estimate.

  • 104541. Westerberg, I. K.
    et al.
    Guerrero, J. -L
    Younger, P. M.
    Beven, K. J.
    Seibert, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Halldin, S.
    Freer, J. E.
    Xu, C. -Y
    Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves2011In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 2205-s were tested - based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of = ter. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the = aditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WAS-MOD model = the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL = aluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great = itain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in = th catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and = aporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series = uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in = libration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the = thod is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the = certainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen = reflect the aims of the modelling application, e. g. using more/less =Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1) uncertain discharge data, (2) variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3) influence of unknown input/output errors and (4) inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs) to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs) on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested - based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WAS-MOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e. g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of acceptability applied directly to the time series of discharge, it still requires a reasonable representation of the distribution of inputs. Additional constraints might therefore be required in catchments subject to snow and where peak-flow timing at sub-daily time scales is of high importance. The results suggest that the calibration method can be useful when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. The method could also be suitable for calibration to regional FDCs while taking uncertainties in the hydrological model and data into account.

  • 104542.
    Westerberg, Ida Maria Isaksdotter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Värdet av skapande i förskolan: En studie om pedagogers förhållande till skapande verksamhet i Stockholm och i Tornedalen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how preschool pedagogues in Stockholm and in Tornedalen speak about and relate to creative activities. By qualitative interviews in two geographically distant areas, one minority culture and one majority culture, I have collected information from six pedagogues, three in each area. Values in, and the significance of culture in creative activities have been the main focus. From this study I conclude that all pedagogues agreed upon the creative activity having an extensive role in the preschool work. The role of the individual pedagogue within the creative activity is multiple and dependent on where, when and how the activity is carried out. The focus in creative activities varied; while the pedagogues in Stockholm mostly spoke about creativity as a phenomenon of art, the pedagogues in Tornedalen spoke about creativity in a wider sense and often connected to practical problems. Another important factor relevant to creative activities was the environment like the preschool, the home, the nature and the society. The way the pedagogues used these environments differed remarkably; in Tornedalen they spoke more about the family and different professions in the society while the pedagogues in Stockholm spoke about the nature and exhibitions. My opinion, after this study, is that it is difficult to discriminate the creative activities from other preschool work, since creativity is permeated with playing and vice versa. Creativity is also a natural part of children exploring and if you like creative activities can permeate everything a pedagogue attends to.

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  • 104543.
    Westerberg, Isabella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Journalism, Media and Communication (JMK).
    A case study of the relationship between journalism and politics in Sri Lanka2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is conducted as a Minor Field Study (MFS) in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between journalism and politics from three questions at issue: 1) What is the role of media according to the journalists? 2) How do journalists work with political reporting in the Sri Lankan print media? 3) How does print media and politics correspond to each other in Sri Lanka?.

    The theoretical framework consists of theories onmedia systems, democracy models, the notion of the public sphere, media during elections and types of regulations.

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 informants, both editors and journalists, at eight different editorial offices. The newspapers at which the informants were employed were either state-owned or privately owned. The qualitative material was transcribed and analysed using thematisation and meaning concentration to reveal patterns, attitudes and opinions.

    The analysis is divided into two major sections; 'Media's Role in the Society' and 'Media and Politics'. The first section investigates the first question at issue. Informing and educating people are valued as important responsibilities amongst the informants. Media is considered to be powerful in terms of affecting both people and politicians, although, some reservations are made. The second section examines the second and third questions at issue. The ideal execution of political reportage includes notions of neutrality, fairness, balance and unbiased reporting. In reality this is not necessarily accomplished. The state newspapers seem to report on behalf of the government in a positive and uncritical way. Private newspapers consider themselves to be more independent, but political ties and restrictions can disable their independence. Tendencies towards clientelism, political parallelism and instrumentalization are noted in the media environment. Sensitive, political news is often self-censored by journalists due to fear of consequences.

    In 'Conclusions and Discussion' the questions at issue are connected to each other in an attempt to discuss the complex relationship between journalism and politics in Sri Lanka.

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  • 104544.
    Westerberg, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Styrningen av en Shared Service Organisation: Interndebitering och vikten av kommunikation2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en magisteruppsats skriven i företagsekonomi med inriktning mot verksamhetsstyrning och i samarbete med AstraZeneca i Södertälje. Ämnet som behandlas är utformandet och styrningen av en shared service organisation. Shared service är ett koncept som utvecklats med början på 1980-talet och som går ut på att större organisationer samlar in servicefunktioner under ett enda tak. Det finns ännu så länge inte någon större mängd med forskning och teorier kring shared service och den här uppsatsen har därför ett teoriutvecklande syfte; att med hjälp av de tre teoriområdena: struktur, interndebitering och kultur skapa en genensam teoretisk referensram kring utformningen och den ekonomiska styrningen av shared service centers. Arbetet har skett i samarbete med AstraZeneca AB i Södertälje och uppsatsen har därför även ett normativt syfte där empirin, som utarbetats med en etnografisk metod, analyseras i relation till den framtagna referensramen. Interndebitering som ekonomisk styrmodell studeras dels därför att det är den mest förekommande i shared service organisationer och dels för att det är den modell som används av AstraZeneca.

  • 104545.
    Westerberg, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Borison, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Söderlind, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Tillvaratagandet av lärande och kunskap. En fallstudie av kunskapsföretaget Celemi: Organisatoriskt Lärande, Lärande Organisationer och Knowledge Management2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en fallstudie av hur ett kunskapsföretag väljer att hantera och strukturera de anställdas kunnande. Det är även en diskussion kring huruvida företag kan sägas vara lärande eller inte. Vi menar att det inte går att se på hanteringen av de anställdas kunskap som ett isolerat fenomen utan att hanteringen av den måste synas på alla nivåer i företaget. Utöver själva arbetet med att strukturera och omarbeta de anställdas kunskap till lagringsbar information måste det skapas en kultur som stärker den sociala överföringen av kunskap inom företaget. Detta innebär att företagskulturen måste vara sådan att de anställda uppmuntras att dela med sig av det de kan och sina erfarenheter. Detta i sin tur leder till att företaget även bör ha en grundläggande förståelse för hur organisatoriskt lärande går till. Var kunskap uppstår, i vilka miljöer och under vilka förutsättningar kunskapstillväxten är som kraftigast.

  • 104546.
    Westerberg, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Elväng, Annelie M.
    Stackebrandt, Erko
    Jansson, Janet K.
    Biodegradation of high concentrations of 4-chlorophenol: Isolation and characterisation of Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus sp. nov.2000In: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, Vol. 50, p. 2083-2092Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104547.
    Westerberg, Lars-Ove
    Stockholm University.
    Mass Movements in East African Highlands: Processes, Effects and Scar Recovery1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104548.
    Westerberg, Lars-Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hagberg, Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Geomorphology and pedology of the Engaruka archaeological environment, Tanzania, and the effects of the 1997-1998 El Nino flash-flood2018In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 163, p. 244-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we analyse geomorphic, pedologic and hydrologic processes of relevance to archaeological research on the pre-colonial irrigation system at Engaruka, Tanzania. Although archaeological studies have been carried out in Engaruka for several decades; geophysical processes have not been in focus, despite having the potential to contribute to the understanding of both the ancient irrigation system and the current land use in Engaruka. Geomorphology and pedology were explored through field surveys and mapping using air photos and satellite images. The effects of the flash-flood during the 1997-1998 El Nino were mapped and quantified in the field. Maximum flash-flood discharge in Engaruka River was estimated using Marming's Equation. The geomorphic study revealed that Engaruka is an environment where high-magnitude processes (debris flows, flash-floods, rock slides) dominate landform development. Low-magnitude processes (sheet-wash, wind erosion), transfer fine-textured sediment to low terrain, causing successive coarsening of soil texture in fields of the ancient irrigation system. Andisol occurrence in the dry environment is associated with current irrigation, indicating incremental improvement of arable land resulting from human land use. Andisols appear transient; discontinuation of irrigation has caused a reversion to Entisols, as water retention and structure deteriorate upon drying. A flash-flood during the 1997-1998 El Nino caused destruction of parts of the archaeological remains, with severe impact on current land use and settlements. Approximately 80 ha (4%) of the total area of the ancient remains were covered by debris flow deposits and alluvium, or scoured by new drainage lines of the water courses. The denudation caused by the single flash-flood is estimated to 9 mm in the catchment of Engaruka River. Manning's Equation yielded a least possible maximum discharge in Engaruka River, in the order of 270 m(3)/s, some 600-700 times higher than normal, dry season discharge.

  • 104549.
    Westerberg, Lars-Ove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Håkansson, Thomas
    Laulumaa, Vesa
    Ryner, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Öberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    The development of the ancient irrigation system at Engaruka, northern Tanzania: Physical and societal factors2010In: Geographical Journal, ISSN 0016-7398, E-ISSN 1475-4959, Vol. 176, no 4, p. 304-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate data from Empakaai Crater in northern Tanzania, covering the last 1200 years, are related to the establishment, development and decline of the ancient irrigation system at Engaruka. New dates for the system are linked to reconstructed climatic variations and historical data on long-distance and regional trade and migration patterns. A shift from a comparatively humid climate to drier conditions in the 1400s prompted the establishment of irrigated agriculture at Engaruka, and a flourishing long-distance trade increased its value as a water and food source for passing caravans. Once established, the land-use system at Engaruka was sufficiently resilient to survive and even intensify during much drier climate from c. 1500 to 1670 CE (Common Era) and during the decline of caravan trade between c. 1550 and 1750. The ancient land-use system probably reached its maximum extension during the humid conditions between 1670 and 1740, and was deserted in the early to mid 1800s, presumably as a result of the added effects of climate deterioration, the Maasai expansion, and change of livelihood strategies as agriculturalists became pastoralists. Towards the end of the 1800s irrigated agriculture was again established at Engaruka, in part driven by the transfer from pastoral to agricultural livelihoods caused by the Rinderpest.

  • 104550.
    Westerberg, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School.
    Föreställningar på arenan: ett utvecklingsarbete kring eget budgetansvar på kommunala barnstugor1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Public welfare services delivered by the Day Care Centers met with problems during the late 1980’s owing to a very rapid expansion and raised costs. I had a solution, to decentralize economic responsibility to the Day Care Centers with the help of the guidelines of the LOM-Programme, financed by Arbetsmiljöfonden:

    • The research was to be oriented towards actions.
    • The organizational development was to be inititated and executed by the participants.
    • The participants were to come from all hierachical levels of the organization, i.e. the management, the middle management and the shop floor as well as from the union.
    • The role of the researcher was not to that of an expert, but to support a development without knowing what path would lead to the goal. Search Conferences were used as a method.

    The participants chose to work with relations and only a few projects concerning economic responsibility were established. The aim of this disseration is to give reasonable explanations to this outcome by investigating three areas: the guidelines of the Programme, the conditions of the work at the Day Care Centers and the contents of Economic Responsibility.

    Data were collected in several ways: by arranging and conducting the search conferences, by participating observation at the day care centers and by inquiries and interviews to the personnel and parents.

    My findings show that the information between the day care centers and the local administration ought to be better but there were also different conceptions between the two areas Economics and Care. Since shared values is one condition for organization development according to the Research Programme, this value difference contributes to the explanation of the absence of organization development concering economic responsibility.

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