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  • 104601.
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Sexualitetens geografi – nya möjligheter med normkritisk pedagogik2013In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 114-123Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 104602.
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Sexuality and Emotions Situated in Time and Space2019In: Affective Dimensions of Fieldwork and Ethnography / [ed] Thomas Stodulka, Samia Dinkelaker, Ferdiansyah Thajib, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 157-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, I discuss sexual emotions erupting during fieldwork and argue that sexualities are situated in time and space. In order to understand these emotions, we need to recognize that sexualities are conceptualized in many ways and that different ways of expressing sexuality coexist and are interlinked. Drawing from experiences from three fieldwork periods, I propose a framework for analyzing researcher emotions with an emphasis on individuals without ignoring structure and context. Building on the life course concept, this entails thinking of affect as divided into a “feeling position” and “feeling experience.” Developing a unique feeling position, closest to an understanding of a mental state, it is deeply individual and dependent on the bodies, structures and contexts as individuals go through in life. Feeling positions both enable and disable feeling experiences in the daily lives, i.e., the expressed emotions at any point of time. However, feeling experiences also feed back to the position and ultimately prompt individual change. The fieldwork experiences discussed in this chapter demonstrate how sexuality and race, albeit from a privileged position, are conceived in different ways depending on time and space. Traveling through these times and spaces means being interpellated in ways, perhaps other than learned, and simultaneously adding yet other ways to be understood. These potentially confusing situations can become tangible through the emotions expressed or felt in the field. Applying the proposed life course concept is one way to made sense of these situations.

  • 104603.
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Skolan - ett heterosexuellt rum?2009In: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, no 3, p. 150-156Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den senaste tiden har det dykt upp fler och fler arbeten inom kulturgeografi som använder sig av queerteori. Denna artikel behandlar begreppet queer och queerteori. Den framhåller även möjligheterna för kulturgeografer att använda queerteorin och visar exempel på hur forskningen om skolan skulle kunna berikas genom att implementera ett queerperspektiv.

  • 104604.
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The impact of family ties on the mobility decisions of gay men and lesbians2016In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 659-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the twenty-first century, life paths are becoming ever more unpredictable and unstandardised as lives are lived in more diverse ways. Theories of individualisation suggest that this is a sign of an increased focus on the individual and the weakening family ties. Gay and lesbian migration studies that have focused on the importance of individual identity and coming out fit well into this narrative. However, as most of these studies have been conducted in the West, less is known of the lives of gay men and lesbians in other contexts. This study examines how a non-Western context differs from the Western experience through a case study involving interviews with gay and lesbian individuals in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the interviews highlight four themes: (1) the importance of the family as both constraining and supportive, (2) the emergence of gay and lesbian identities in Turkey leading to different cohort experiences, (3) the significance of emotional ties and intergenerational living and (4) empowering educational and work trajectories. It is argued that gay and lesbian migration must be reconceptualised beyond the view of the family as an entity to escape from. Rather, the study highlights the significance of the family and demonstrates that while individuals are becoming more independent, family ties are not necessarily weakening. Instead other trajectories, such as education and employment function as empowering paths in order to support and sustain identities. Thus, in contexts where the act of coming out is challenging, the potential for other life course trajectories should be considered.

  • 104605.
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The life course and emotions beyond fieldwork: affect as position and experience2017In: Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, ISSN 0966-369X, E-ISSN 1360-0524, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 438-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key debate about emotions in the field of human geography exists between geographies of affect, emphasising the non-cognitive, and emotional geography, emphasising the cognitive. In this paper, I draw on life course theory to present a parallel between the two. By dividing affect into two entities, känsloläge and känsloupplevelse, referring to a ‘feeling position’ and a ‘feeling experience’, I argue that a unique life course position can be analysed through känsloläge, while the feelings that are actually expressed and felt can be analysed through feeling rules in känsloupplevelse. To exemplify this relationship, I draw on affects and emotions from my own fieldwork, illustrating the ways in which känsloläge and känsloupplevelse affect both the research process and the researcher. In the conclusion section, the need for further exploration of the juxtaposition between the feeling position and the feeling experience, where the subject is centred but is not the sole owner of affect, is emphasised.

  • 104606.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Tenure type landscapes and housing market change: a geographical perspective on neo-liberalization in Sweden2020In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 214-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions of tenure mix have received renewed interest as many have suggested that neo-liberalization has made way for gentrification of neighbourhoods and increasing segregation. Yet, few scholars have studied country-wide changes in tenure mix, due to the lack of data and appropriate methods. In this article, we propose to use tenure type landscapes to analyse changes in housing policy. We do so while acknowledging the evolution of housing policies in Sweden since 1990. Using individualized and multi-scalar tenure type landscapes to measure change in neighbourhoods, we analyse housing clusters in 1990 and 2012. We show that the tenure landscape in 1990 at the height of the welfare state was fairly diverse and mixed. During the next 22 years, however, the landscape changed to become more homogenized and dominated by ownership through tenure conversions and new housing. We argue that awareness of these changes is essential to understanding present and future segregation and gentrification processes.

  • 104607.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Migrant labor market integration: the association between initial settlement and subsequent employment and income among migrants2019In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 101, no 2, p. 118-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neighborhood effects literature indicates that a person’s place of residence may affect their socio-economic situation. This study examines the association between initial settlement and immigrants’ employment and income. Previous studies mostly used administratively defined geographical units of study, which may have led to an underestimation of neighborhood effects. The current study uses individualized neighborhoods, where neighborhoods are constructed based on each individual’s closest neighbors using geocoded register data, on different scales. In this way, more of the individual’s actual neighborhood is captured. The longitudinal study follows three cohorts of migrants and examines the relationship between the initial neighborhoods that migrants settle in and their employment and income, in the short and medium-long term. The results show clear associations between neighborhoods of initial settlement and labor market integration. Starting off in neighborhoods with high levels of deprivation is associated with lower levels of employment, while settling in affluent neighborhoods is associated with higher incomes. Findings are stable for different migrant cohorts and in the short and long term. Neighborhood effects are substantial especially for those settling in the most deprived or the most affluent neighborhoods.

  • 104608.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Hedlund, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Samlevnad som ideologi i migrationslagstiftningen2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 1-2, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we study how homosexuality has legally gone from exclusion to inclusion in migration law and what ideological understandings that underpin this inclusion. The data corpus of the study consisted of the preparatory work concerning same-sex sexuality, cohabitation and migration. Data was coded for patterns concerning the public administrative understandings of same-sex sexuality as described in the preparatory works. The coding was theoretically driven by critical and Marxist approaches to ideology. Conducting a thematic analysis, four themes were identified in the data. The overall finding is that the preparatory works give precedence to sexuality in terms of disposition (läggning) when it is linked to identity and intensions to engage in a long-term relationship. This means that alternative sexual identities and practices not compatible with the ”heterosexual matrix” have been excluded from the ideological lens. The ideological focus in the preparatory works could be seen as a reflection of the capitalist system, where some social categories are viewed as desirable to include in a capitalist society.

  • 104609.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lewis, Nathaniel M.
    Caretta, Martina A.
    A life course approach to the field and fieldwork2017In: Area (London 1969), ISSN 0004-0894, E-ISSN 1475-4762, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 390-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life course scholars have theorised the relationship between individual life trajectories and geographic phenomena such as migration, partnering, reproduction and locational choice. They have engaged less frequently with the politics of fieldwork or the interrelationship of the life course and the field. Feminist geographers, in contrast, have made significant interventions into the social dynamics of fieldwork (e.g. relationships between researchers and participants), but less so on the life trajectories that precede and follow the fieldwork encounter. This special section thus contributes to both life course geographies and ongoing feminist interventions into the fieldwork process. In understanding fieldwork experiences through a life course approach, the contributors to this special section simultaneously deepen and systematise much of feminist geographic research on fieldwork. Their work highlights how life events and turning points, including those before, during and beyond fieldwork, can profoundly change – or be changed by – research experiences and outcomes. They also reveal how the trajectories of researchers, participants and the field itself become interconnected within specific historical times and contexts.

  • 104610.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Boende och integration: Samband mellan invandrades initiala bosättning och deras sysselsättning och inkomst2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine the association between residential segregation and immigrants’ employment and income. Residential segregation, i.e. when individuals or groups with different characteristics live at geographical separate locations, is usually seen as problematic given its consequences for individual outcomes such as educational achievement and employment. When individuals live separately, they can be affected differently depending on what kind of neighbourhood they live in, through so-called neighbourhood effects. These neighbourhood effects have positive as well as negative outcomes for the individual’s socio-economic situation. For example, local norms concerning attitudes to higher education may influence the individual’s choice to seek higher education. There are studies showing that immigrants’ earnings may be affected positively if they settle in areas with a high share of immigrants, due to them benefitting from ethnic networks. On the other hand, several studies point to negative effects from living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas on employment integration. Generally, three political strategies to counteract the negative effects of segregation have been used in Sweden. The strategy of mixed housing is based on the idea that a mixed development of different forms of tenure, types of properties and housing sizes leads to a mixed population composition. Refugee allocation, i.e. spreading the refugee population evenly over Swedish municipalities, has been another strategy to decline segregation. Finally, the Metropolitan Development Initiative was launched as a strategy where conditions for economic development were created in a number of vulnerable areas in metropolitan municipalities. Research has shown that none of these strategies managed to counteract the levels of residential segregation to any significant degree. With a background of increasing ethnic segregation trends in Sweden, this study aims to answer the following research question: How are the initial neighbourhoods that migrants settle in associated with their labour market integration, both on the short and the medium long term? Previous studies that analysed changes in levels segregation over time and the association between segregation and individual outcomes only used administratively defined geographical units of study. This may have led to an underestimation of neighbourhood effects. The current study uses individualized neighbourhoods, where we construct neighbourhoods based on each individual’s closest neighbours using geocoded register data, on different scales. In this way, we can better capture individuals’ actual neighbourhoods. The longitudinal study follows three cohorts of migrants and examines the relationship between initial settlement after registration and employment and income on the short and medium long term. The migrant cohorts arriving to Sweden in the years 1995, 2001 and 2007 were included. The reason for studying three different migrant cohorts is to analyse whether a possible association between initial neighbourhood and labour market integration is sustainable over time and across cohorts. Labour market integration was measured as employment status and income four and ten years after arrival. We tested the association between initial residential neighbourhood and labour market integration through a model including both individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, whether people moved, municipal labour market conditions, and type of initial neighbourhood. We find a negative association between starting off in neighbourhoods with a high level of deprivation and the probability that migrants find employment, both in the short and medium long run. In addition, there is a clear association between initial neighbourhood and income level among those that have a job, by and large on the short and medium long term. The higher the level of wealth in the initial neighbourhood, the higher the probability for employment and the higher the income among those with a job, both on the short and long term. Similarly, the higher the level of deprivation in the neighbourhood, the lower the probability for work on the short and medium long term and the lower the income level on the short term. We also show that the association between migrants’ labour market integration and individual characteristics, especially for gender, education and mode of legal entry, is stronger than the association with initial neighbourhood. Our results show a negative correlation between initially residing in deprived areas and individual socio-economic outcomes. The results also show that there is a positive correlation between initially residing in neighbourhoods with high levels of affluence and individual socio-economic outcomes. A weakness of this type of study is that it is not possible to determine whether the measured correlations are causal, i.e. the associations may be due to other non-measured variables. Our model controls for mobility patterns and individual background factors, but there may be other factors that are not captured in our study. For example, we have no information about immigrants’ individual motivations, economic capital, contacts, etc. we can therefore not draw causal conclusions about how the initial neighbourhood affects immigrant labour market integration. Notwithstanding the study’s shortcomings, the results do give lead to reconsiderations of past policies. Firstly, the findings point in the direction of support for investment in new construction in prosperous areas to create better conditions for newly arrived immigrants. Since newly built apartments generally have higher rents or higher housing prices, they can be difficult to access for new immigrants. Therefore, we encourage solutions that enable housing opportunities for newly arrived immigrants in such areas to be cre- ated. Secondly, our findings also give support for strategies where new immigrants are allocated housing across geographical areas. One possibility might be to not only allocate newly arrived refugee migrants to municipalities, but also to consider what type of neighbourhood these groups are placed in. Thirdly, our results also hint at support for area-based initiatives that seek to counteract the negative correlations between settling in deprived areas and individual labour market outcomes. Previous research has advocated areabased initiatives that take into account disadvantages for immigrants to settle in disadvantaged neighbourhoods as well as advantages of settling close to the own ethnic group. Finally, we would like to point out that immigrant labour market integration is influenced by many different factors. The neighbourhood is one of these factors, but our results and previous research point to the importance of other factors, especially individual-level factors such as gender, mode of legal entry and educational level. This study has demonstrated the importance of individual socio-economic background, the municipal labour market and migration within the country, but there are more factors that influence labour market integration. Strategies aimed at improving the entrance of immigrants into the labour market need to take into account all these factors.

  • 104611.
    Wimark, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Östh, John
    The City as a Single Gay Male Magnet?: Gay and Lesbian Geographical Concentration in Sweden2014In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 739-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades, an increasing number of studies on the geographies of gay and lesbian couples have been carried out, stressing the urban significance, tolerance, and amenities. In this study, it is argued that former studies have only mapped a fraction of the gay and lesbian population, that is, the couples, and present a new method for retrieving information from the Internet to map gay and lesbian singles and couples. The findings indicate that there is a significant difference between gay and lesbian singles and couples and that the urban significance is much stronger for singles than for couples. In the conclusion, it is suggested that a life course perspective could explain this where gay and lesbian singles tend to concentrate in cities, but when they have found a partner and decide to move together, the city is less important. Finally, a recommendation reconsidering partnership data is made as it can be problematical to generalise such data for a gay and lesbian population.

  • 104612. Wimmer, Barbara C.
    et al.
    Bell, J. Simon
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wiese, Michael D.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Medication Regimen Complexity and Polypharmacy as Factors Associated With All-Cause Mortality in Older People: A Population-Based Cohort Study2016In: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 1060-0280, E-ISSN 1542-6270, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 89-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate whether medication regimen complexity and/or polypharmacy are associated with all-cause mortality in older people. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study among community-dwelling and institutionalized people >= 60 years old (n = 3348). Medication regimen complexity was assessed using the 65-item Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) in 10-unit steps. Polypharmacy was assessed as a continuous variable (number of medications). Mortality data were obtained from the Swedish National Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Cls for the association between regimen complexity and polypharmacy with all-cause mortality over a 3-year period. Subanalyses were performed stratifying by age (<= 80 and>80 years), sex, and cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] <26 and >= 2.6). Results: During follow-up, 14% of the participants (n = 470) died. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, educational level, activities of daily living, MMSE, and residential setting, a higher MRCI was associated with mortality (adjusted HR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.01-1.25). Polypharmacy was not associated with mortality (adjusted HR = 1.03; 95% Cl = 0.99-1.06). When stratifying by sex, both MRCI and polypharmacy were associated with mortality in men but not in women. MRCI was associated with mortality in participants <= 80 years old and in participants with MMSE but not in participants >80 years old or with MMSE <26. Conclusion: Regimen complexity was a better overall predictor of mortality than polypharmacy. However, regimen complexity was not predictive of mortality in women, in participants >80 years old, or in those with MMSE<26. These different associations with mortality deserve further investigation.

  • 104613. Wimmer, Barbara C.
    et al.
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Jokanovic, Natali
    Wiese, Michael D.
    George, Johnson
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Diug, Basia
    Bell, J. Simon
    Clinical Outcomes Associated with Medication Regimen Complexity in Older People: A Systematic Review2017In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 747-753Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To systematically review clinical outcomes associated with medication regimen complexity in older people.

    Design

    Systematic review of EMBASE, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane library.

    Setting

    Hospitals, home, and long-term care.

    Participants

    English-language peer-reviewed original research published before June 2016 was eligible if regimen complexity was quantified using a metric that considered number of medications and at least one other parameter, regimen complexity was calculated for participants’ overall regimen, at least 80% of participants were aged 60 and older, and the study investigated a clinical outcome associated with regimen complexity.

    Measurements

    Quality assessment was conducted using an adapted version of the Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool.

    Results

    Sixteen observational studies met the inclusion criteria. Regimen complexity was associated with medication nonadherence (2/6 studies) and higher rates of hospitalization (2/4 studies). One study found that participants with less-complex medication administration were more likely to stop medications when feeling worse. One study each identified an association between regimen complexity and higher ability to administer medications as directed, medication self-administration errors, caregiver medication administration hassles, hospital discharge to non-home settings, postdischarge potential adverse drug events, all-cause mortality, and lower patient knowledge of their medication. Regimen complexity had no association with postdischarge medication modification, change in medication- and health-related problems, emergency department visits, or quality of life as rated by nursing staff.

    Conclusion

    Research into whether medication regimen complexity is associated with nonadherence and hospitalization has produced inconsistent results. Moderate-quality evidence from four studies (two each for nonadherence and hospitalization) suggests that medication regimen complexity is associated with nonadherence and higher rates of hospitalization.

  • 104614. Wimmer, Barbara C.
    et al.
    Dent, Elsa
    Bell, J. Simon
    Wiese, Michael D.
    Chapman, Ian
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Visvanathan, Renuka
    Medication Regimen Complexity and Unplanned Hospital Readmissions in Older People2014In: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, ISSN 1060-0280, E-ISSN 1542-6270, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1120-1128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Medication-related problems and adverse drug events are leading causes of preventable hospitalizations. Few previous studies have investigated the possible association between medication regimen complexity and unplanned rehospitalization. Objective: To investigate the association between discharge medication regimen complexity and unplanned rehospitalization over a I 2-month period. Method: The prospective study comprised patients aged >= 70 years old consecutively admitted to a Geriatrics Evaluation and Management (GEM) unit between October 2010 and December 2011. Medication regimen complexity at discharge was calculated using the 65-item validated Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs for factors associated with rehospitalization over a 12-month follow-up period. Result: Of 163 eligible patients, 99 patients had one or more unplanned hospital readmissions. When adjusting for age, sex, activities of daily living, depression, comorbidity, cognitive status, and discharge destination, MRCI (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.81-1.2), number of discharge medications (HR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.94-1.08), and polypharnnacy (>= 9 medications; HR = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.69-1.80) were not associated with rehospitalization. In patients discharged to nonhome settings, there was an association between rehospitalization and the number of discharge medications (HR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.01-1.25) and polypharmacy (HR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.02-4.94) but not between rehospitalization and MRCI (HR = 1.32; 95% CI = 0.98-1.78). Conclusion: Medication regimen complexity was not associated with unplanned hospital readmission in older people. However, in patients discharged to nonhonne settings, the number of discharge medications and polypharmacy predicted rehospitalization. A patient's discharge destination is an important factor in unplanned medication-related readmissions.

  • 104615. Wimmer, Barbara Caecilia
    et al.
    Bell, J. Simon
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wiese, Michael David
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Medication Regimen Complexity and Number of Medications as Factors Associated With Unplanned Hospitalizations in Older People: A Population-based Cohort Study2016In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 831-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse drug events are a leading cause of hospitalization among older people. Up to half of all medication-related hospitalizations are potentially preventable. The objective of this study was to investigate and compare the association between medication regimen complexity and number of medications with unplanned hospitalizations over a 3-year period. Data were analyzed for 3,348 participants aged 60 years or older in Sweden. Regimen complexity was assessed using the 65-item Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) and number of medications was assessed as a continuous variable. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compute unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between regimen complexity and number of medications with unplanned hospitalizations over a 3-year period. Receiver operating characteristics curves with corresponding areas under the curve were calculated for regimen complexity and number of medications in relation to unplanned hospitalizations. The population attributable fraction of unplanned hospitalizations was calculated for MRCI and number of medications. In total, 1,125 participants (33.6%) had one or more unplanned hospitalizations. Regimen complexity (hazard ratio 1.22; 95% CI 1.14-1.34) and number of medications (hazard ratio 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.09) were both associated with unplanned hospitalizations and had similar sensitivity and specificity (area under the curve 0.641 for regimen complexity and area under the curve 0.644 for number of medications). The population attributable fraction was 14.08% (95% CI 9.62-18.33) for MRCI and 17.61% (95% CI 12.59-22.35) for number of medications. There was no evidence that using a complex tool to assess regimen complexity was better at predicting unplanned hospitalization than number of medications.

  • 104616. Wimmer, Barbara Caecilia
    et al.
    Dent, Elsa
    Visvanathan, Renuka
    Wiese, Michael David
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Chapman, Ian
    Bell, J. Simon
    Polypharmacy and Medication Regimen Complexity as Factors Associated with Hospital Discharge Destination Among Older People: A Prospective Cohort Study2014In: Drugs & Aging, ISSN 1170-229X, E-ISSN 1179-1969, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 623-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Older people often take multiple medications. It is a policy priority to facilitate older people to stay at home longer. Three-quarters of nursing home placements in the US are preceded by a hospitalization. Objective To investigate the association between polypharmacy and medication regimen complexity with hospital discharge destination among older people. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised patients aged >= 70 years consecutively admitted to the Geriatric Evaluation and Management unit at a tertiary hospital in Adelaide, Australia, between October 2010 and December 2011. Medication regimen complexity at discharge was calculated using the 65-item validated Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). Unadjusted and adjusted relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for medication-related factors associated with discharge directly to home versus non-community settings (rehabilitation, transition care, and residential aged care). Results From 163 eligible patients, 87 were discharged directly to home (mean age 84.6 years, standard deviation [SD] 6.9; mean MRCI 26.1, SD 9.7), while 76 were discharged to non-community settings (mean age 85.8 years, SD 5.8; mean MRCI 29.9, SD 13.2). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, and activities of daily living, having a high medication regimen complexity (MRCI > 35) was inversely associated with discharge directly to home (RR 0.39; 95 % CI 0.20-0.73), whereas polypharmacy (>= 9 medications) was not significantly associated with discharge directly to home (RR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.53-1.58). Conclusion Having high medication regimen complexity was inversely associated with discharge directly to home, while polypharmacy was not associated with discharge destination.

  • 104617. Wimmer, Barbara Caecilia
    et al.
    Johnell, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fastbom, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Wiese, Michael David
    Bell, J. Simon
    Factors associated with medication regimen complexity in older people: a cross-sectional population-based study2015In: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, ISSN 0031-6970, E-ISSN 1432-1041, Vol. 71, no 9, p. 1099-1108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of population-based research about factors associated with medication regimen complexity. This study investigated factors associated with medication regimen complexity in older people, and whether factors associated with regimen complexity were similar to factors associated with number of medications. This cross-sectional population-based study included 3348 people aged a parts per thousand yen60 years. Medication regimen complexity was computed using the validated 65-item Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). Multinomial logistic regression was used to compute unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with regimen complexity. Multivariable quantile regression was used to compare factors associated with regimen complexity and number of medications. In adjusted analyses, participants in the highest MRCI quintile (MRCI > 20) were older (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.02;1.05), less likely to live at home (OR = 0.35, 95 % CI 0.15;0.86), had greater comorbidities (OR = 2.17, 95 % CI 1.89;2.49), had higher cognitive status (OR = 1.06, 95 % CI 1.01;1.11), a higher prevalence of self-reported pain (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 2.16;3.76), had impaired dexterity (OR = 2.39, 95 % CI 1.77;3.24) and were more likely to receive help to sort their medications (OR = 4.43 95 % CI 2.39;8.56) than those with low regimen complexity (MRCI > 0-5.5). Similar factors were associated with both regimen complexity and number of medications. Older people with probable difficulties managing complex regimens, including those with impaired dexterity and living in institutional settings, had the most complex medication regimens even after adjusting for receipt of help to sort medications. The strong correlation between regimen complexity and number of medications suggests that clinicians could use a person's number of medications to target interventions to reduce complexity.

  • 104618. Wimmer, Daniela
    et al.
    Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro
    Manninen, Hanna Elina
    Kangasluoma, Juha
    Franchin, Alessandro
    Nieminen, Tuomo
    Backman, John
    Wang, Jian
    Kuang, Chongai
    Krejci, Radovan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Brito, Joel
    Morais, Fernando Goncalves
    Martin, Scot Turnbull
    Artaxo, Paulo
    Kulmala, Markku
    Kerminen, Veli-Matti
    Petäjä, Tuukka
    Ground-based observation of clusters and nucleation-mode particles in the Amazon2018In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 18, no 17, p. 13245-13264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) in the Amazon rainforest using direct measurement methods. To our knowledge this is the first direct observation of NPF events in the Amazon region. However, previous observations elsewhere in Brazil showed the occurrence of nucleation-mode particles. Our measurements covered two field sites and both the wet and dry season. We measured the variability of air ion concentrations (0.8-12 nm) with an ion spectrometer between September 2011 and January 2014 at a rainforest site (T0t). Between February and October 2014, the same measurements were performed at a grassland pasture site (T3) as part of the GoAmazon 2014/5 experiment, with two intensive operating periods (IOP1 and IOP2 during the wet and the dry season, respectively). The GoAmazon 2014/5 experiment was designed to study the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the changing climate in the Amazon region. The experiment included basic aerosol and trace gas measurements at the ground, remote sensing instrumentation, and two aircraft-based measurements. The results presented in this work are from measurements performed at ground level at both sites. The site inside the rainforest (T0t) is located 60 km NNW of Manaus and influenced by pollution about once per week. The pasture (T3) site is located 70 km downwind from Manaus and influenced by the Manaus pollution plume typically once per day or every second day, especially in the afternoon. No NPF events were observed inside the rainforest (site T0t) at ground level during the measurement period. However, rain-induced ion and particle bursts (hereafter, rain events) occurred frequently (643 of 1031 days) at both sites during the wet and dry season, being most frequent during the wet season. During the rain events, the ion concentrations in three size ranges (0.8-2, 2-4, and 4-12 nm) increased up to about 10(4)-10(5) cm(-3). This effect was most pronounced in the intermediate and large size ranges, for which the background ion concentrations were about 10-15 cm(-3) compared with 700 cm(-3) for the cluster ion background. We observed eight NPF events at the pasture site during the wet season. We calculated the growth rates and formation rates of neutral particles and ions for the size ranges 2-3 and 3-7 nm using the ion spectrometer data. The observed median growth rates were 0.8 and 1.6 nm h(-1) for 2-3 nm sized ions and particles, respectively, with larger growth rates (13.3 and 7.9 nm h(-1)) in the 3-7 nm size range. The measured nucleation rates were of the order of 0.2 cm(-3) s(-1) for particles and 4-9 x 10(-3) cm(-3) s(-1) for ions. There was no clear difference in the sulfuric acid concentrations between the NPF event days and nonevent days (similar to 9 x 10(5) cm(-3)). The two major differences between the NPF days and nonevent days were a factor of 1.8 lower condensation sink on NPF event days (1.8 x 10(-3) s(-1)) compared to nonevents (3.2 x 10(-3) s(-1)) and different air mass origins. To our knowledge, this is the first time that results from ground-based sub-3 nm aerosol particle measurements have been obtained from the Amazon rainforest.

  • 104619.
    Wimmer, Ulrich
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Dagvattnets föroreningar som potentiellt hot för en god ekologisk och kemisk status i ytvattnet: En kartläggning av Vallentuna tätorts dagvattenhantering utifrån dess tillsynsbehov2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The EU's Water Framework Directive aims to a long-term and sustainable use of our water resources and wants to ensure good water quality in Europe's water bodies. Discharge of polluted stormwater into receiving waters can be a threat to their ecological and chemical status. Municipalities are responsible for supervision of the environmental quality standards (EQS) and therefore need to gain knowledge of current stormwater management, the expected level of pollution emissions and possible appropriate purification steps to ensure that the goal of good water quality is achieved.

    This master thesis aims to provide this knowledge in the example case of Vallentunas urban area and wants to prepare future oversight so that it can be assessed how much the discharge of polluted stormwater into the local receiving water is a threat to its status. With the help of maps, aerial photographs, site observations and individual discussions those areas are mapped where appearance of moderate to highly polluted stormwater could be suspected. The degree of pollution at the discharge points is determined based on land use upstream and uses standard values according to the administrators assistance "Tillsyn av dagvatten" (MSL 2014).

    The study identifies 100 areas in need of supervision regarding their stormwater management. The information is digitized and made available to all affected departments in the municipality via the internal GIS. Through literature review this thesis highlights even the legal provisions for the supervision and its importance to the environmental quality standards and also consider the importance of the expected climate change for the stormwater pollution. The work emphasizes the importance of increased information flow and communication between the different actors that are significant for surface water management and environmental quality standards for water. For being able to look at the examination area from an international perspective the essay does a simpler comparison of the municipal supervision of stormwater management between Sweden and the state of Schleswig Holstein in Germany.

  • 104620.
    Wimmerstedt, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Bengtsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Snacka om nyheter - en studie om vikten av kommunikation vid förändringsarbete2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen handlar om den interna kommunikationen i organisationer vid förändringsarbete. Aspekter som förståelse, delaktighet och motivation tas upp och diskuteras.

  • 104621.
    Wimnell, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Karlén, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Brandin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Att mjölka ett varumärke: En studie av Arla Foods lansering av mjölk i plastflaska2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor del av alla nya produktintroduktioner misslyckas. Denna uppsats tar upp olika märkesdrivna utvecklingsstrategier ett företag kan använda sig av för att minimera denna risk. Dessa är linjeutvidgningar, kategoriutvidgningar, vertikala utvidgningar och varumärkessamarbeten. Gemensamt för dessa märkesdrivna utvecklingsstrategier är att samtliga försöker kapitalisera på det befintliga varumärkeskapitalet vid lansering av nya produkter. Tyngdpunkten läggs på linjeutvidgningar, den strategi som är mest frekvent och syftar till att företag använder sig av ett befintligt varumärke för att introducera en ny produkt i samma kategori. Fokus läggs på Arlas linjeutvidgning, mjölk i plastflaska, och på vilka sätt den påverkar och påverkas av modervarumärket. Denna linjeutvidgning är ämnad att möta ett nytt konsumtionsmönster där en förskjutning från hemmet skett till en allt mer påtaglig konsumtion av mat och dryck ”på språng”. Tidigare har nästan all mjölk konsumerats i hemmet och med mjölk i plastflaska vill Arla vara där konsumenten är och öka antalet användningstillfällen för mjölken.

  • 104622.
    Wimnell, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Karlén, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Brandin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Medveten produktplacering i film: Hjärtekrossare och gravplundrare2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens informationssamhälle blir vi dagligen överösta med tusentals budskap från olika avsändare genom olika medier. För att företagen ska kunna nå fram med just sitt budskap till konsumenterna genom detta ”brus” krävs det hela tiden nya och innovativa metoder och tekniker. Sponsring, event-marketing, gratistidningar, megaaffischer, ballongreklam och produktplacering är några av de nya grepp de använder sig av för att få konsumenterna att uppmärksamma deras produkter eller tjänster. Vi ser produktplacering i storfilmer som Tomorrow Never Dies där James Bond i en sekvens styr sin specialbyggda BMW med sin Ericssontelefon, i Cast Away med Tom Hanks i huvudrollen där FedEx är en del av handlingen filmen igenom.

  • 104623.
    Wimo, A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Sweden; HC Bergsjö, Sweden.
    Elmståhl, S.
    Fratiglioni, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Stockholm Gerontology Research Center, Sweden.
    Sjlölund, B. -M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sköldunger, A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fagerström, C.
    Berglund, J.
    Lagergren, M.
    Formal and informal care of community-living older people: A population-based study from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care2017In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Study formal and informal care of community-living older people in the Swedish National study of Aging and Care (SNAC). Design: Cross-sectional, population based cohort. Setting: Three areas in Sweden: Municipality of Nordanstig, Stockholm and Skane County. Participants: 3,338 persons >= 72 years. Measurements: Patterns and amounts of informal and formal care by cognition and area of residence. Results: 73% received no care; 14% formal care; and 17% informal care (7% received both). In the whole study population, including those who used no care, individuals in small municipalities received 9.6 hours of informal care/month; in mid-size municipalities, 6.6; and in urban areas, 5.6. Users of informal care received 33.1 hours of informal care/month in small municipalities, 54.6 in mid-size municipalities and 36.1 in urban areas. Individuals with cognitive impairment received 14.1 hours of informal care/month, 2.7 times more than people with no/slight impairment. In the whole study population, individuals in small municipalities received an average of 3.2 hours of formal care/month; in mid-size municipalities 1.4; and in urban areas, 2.6. Corresponding figures for formal care users were 29.4 hours in small municipalities, 13.6 in mid-size municipalities and 16.7 in urban areas. Formal care users received 7.1 hours, and informal care users, 5.9 hours for each hour/month received by people in the study population as a whole. Conclusions: More informal than formal care was provided. Informal care is more frequent in small municipalities than urban areas and for those with than without cognitive impairment. The relationship between data on the whole population and the data on users or care indicates that population-based data are needed to avoid overestimates of care.

  • 104624.
    Wimo, A
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sjölund, B M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sköldunger, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Johansson, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Nordberg, G
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    von Strauss, E
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Incremental patterns in the amount of informal and formal care among non-demented and demented elderly persons results from a 3-year follow-up population-based study:  2011In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Elderly care includes complex interactions between formal services, informal care, morbidity and disabilities. Studies of the incremental effects of formal and informal care are rare and thus the objective was to describe the longitudinal patterns in formal and informal care given to non-demented and demented persons living in a rural area in Sweden.

    Methods Transitions in the Kungsholmen-Nordanstig Project (n=919) was followed up 3 years later (n=579), presented as different combinations of informal and formal care, institutionalization and mortality. Number of hours spent on care was examined by the Resource Utilization in Dementia instrument (RUD). Bootstrapped descriptive statistics and regression models were applied.

    Results The overall mortality during follow-up was 34%, and 15% had been institutionalized. Of those who lived at home, those receiving only formal care had been institutionalized to the greatest extent (29%; p<0.05). In terms of hours, informal care decreased amongst demented. The ratio between demented and non-demented was greater at baseline, both regarding informal care (10:1 and 3:1, respectively) and formal care (5:1 and 4:1, respectively). People with mild cognitive decline and no home support at baseline had a great risk of being receiver of care (formal or informal) or dead at follow-up.

    Conclusions The amount of informal care was lower for demented persons still living at home at follow-up than at baseline, probably due to selection effects (institutionalization and mortality). Mild cognitive decline of non-users of care at baseline was strongly associated with receiving care or being dead at follow-up.

  • 104625.
    Wimo, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Guerchet, Maelenn
    Ali, Gemma-Claire
    Wu, Yu-Tzu
    Prina, A. Matthew
    Winblad, Bengt
    Jonsson, Linus
    Liu, Zhaorui
    Prince, Martin
    The worldwide costs of dementia 2015 and comparisons with 20102017In: Alzheimer's & Dementia, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In 2010, Alzheimer's Disease International presented estimates of the global cost of illness (COI) of dementia. Since then, new studies have been conducted, and the number of people with dementia has increased. Here, we present an update of the global cost estimates. Methods: This is a societal, prevalence-based global COI study. Results: The worldwide costs of dementia were estimated at United States (US) $818 billion in 2015, an increase of 35% since 2010; 86% of the costs occur in high-income countries. Costs of informal care and the direct costs of social care still contribute similar proportions of total costs, whereas the costs in the medical sector are much lower. The threshold of US $1 trillion will be crossed by 2018. Discussion: Worldwide costs of dementia are enormous and still inequitably distributed. The increase in costs arises from increases in numbers of people with dementia and in increases in per person costs.

  • 104626.
    Wimo, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Jönsson, Linus
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sandman, Per Olof
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Demenssjukdomarnas samhällskostnader i Sverige 20122014Report (Other academic)
  • 104627.
    Wimo, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Uppsala University, Sweden; County Council of Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Sandman, Per Olof
    Gustavsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Johansson, Lennarth
    The societal costs of dementia in Sweden 2012-relevance and methodological challenges in valuing informal care2016In: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 8, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this study, we sought to estimate the societal cost of illness in dementia in Sweden in 2012 using different costing approaches to highlight methodological issues.

    Methods: We conducted a prevalence-based cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective.

    Results: The societal costs of dementia in Sweden in 2012 were SEK 62.9 billion (approximately (sic) 7.2 billion, approximately US$ 9.0 billion) or SEK 398,000 per person with dementia (approximately (sic) 45,000, approximately US$ 57,000). By far the most important cost item is the cost of institutional care: about 60% of the costs. In the sensitivity analysis, different quantification and costing approaches for informal care resulted in a great variation in the total societal cost, ranging from SEK 60 billion ((sic) 6.8 billion, US$ 8.6 billion) to SEK 124 billion ((sic) 14.1 billion, US$ 17.8 billion).

    Conclusions: The societal costs of dementia are very high. The cost per person with dementia has decreased somewhat, mainly because of de-institutionalisation. The majority of the costs occur in the social care sector, but the costing of informal care is crucial for the cost estimates.

  • 104628.
    Wimo, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Sjölund, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Sköldunger, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Klarin, Inga
    Nordberg, Gunilla
    von Strauss, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). The Swedish Red Cross University College, Sweden.
    Cohort Effects in the Prevalence and Survival of People with Dementia in a Rural Area in Northern Sweden2016In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 387-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies suggest that trends in cardiovascular risk may result in a decrease in age-specific prevalence of dementia. Studies in rural areas are rare.

    Objectives: To study cohort effects in dementia prevalence and survival of people with dementia in a Swedish rural area.

    Methods: Participants were from the 1995-1998 Nordanstig Project (NP) (n = 303) and the 2001-2003 Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Nordanstig (SNAC-N) (n = 384). Overall 6-year dementia prevalence and mortality in NP and SNAC-N were compared for people 78 years and older. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dementia occurrence using the NP study population as the reference group. Cox regression models were used to analyze time to death.

    Results: The crude prevalence of dementia was 21.8% in NP and 17.4% in SNAC-N. When the NP cohort was used as the reference group, the age- and gender-adjusted OR of dementia was 0.71 (95% CI 0.48-1.04) in SNAC-N; the OR was 0.47 (0.24-0.90) for men and 0.88 (0.54-1.44) for women. In the extended model, the OR of dementia was significantly lower in SNAC-N than in the NP cohort as a whole (0.63; 0.39-0.99) and in men (0.34; 0.15-0.79), but not in women (0.81; 0.46-1.44). The Cox regression models indicated that the hazard ratio of dying was lower in the SNAC-N than NP population.

    Conclusions: Trends toward a lower prevalence of dementia in high-income countries seem to be evident in this Swedish rural area, at least in men.

  • 104629.
    Win, Adrian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Multilingual Embassy Corridors: Codeswitching at an International Department2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Departmental divisions of foreign ministries assigned to foster bilateral trade overseas employ multilingual staff on foreign embassy posts. This is done to account for the internationalization of business, enhanced transnational mobility and the spread of multilingualism. The present study seeks to understand how English and Swedish are reportedly used and what effects such language utilization might entail at an embassy post located in Sweden. The study used semi-structured interviews to gain such insights by deriving considered implications and attitudinal notions towards codeswitching (CS) in both client- and colleague oriented communication. Interviews were conducted with four informants being fulltime employees at the embassy. The study concludes that CS was reportedly used mainly by staff-members fluent in both Swedish and English. The study further concludes that CS usage is reportedly used as a means for projecting linguistic flexibility in order to foster clearness and patency in client oriented communication, whereas being used as a facilitator of communicative flow when interacting in Swedish amongst colleagues on work related topics. Multiple aspects determined the informant’s language choice, further concluding that CS usage is highly contextual. The study leaves an opening for future research to account for the limitations faced by the researcher due to concerns of confidentiality and scope.

  • 104630.
    Winai, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Gränsorganisationer: egenskaper, problem och utvecklingsmöjligheter hos organisationer i gränslandet mellan privat och offentlig sektor = [Interface organizations] : [properties, problems and opportunities of organizations in the interface between private and public sector]1989Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104631.
    Winander Schönning, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Maktspelet bakom Östlig förbindelse: Vetenskapens roll i beslutsfattandet och kontrollen av informationen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att studera makt och påverkan i anslutning till ett större infrastrukturprojekt, i detta fall Östlig förbindelse. För att undersöka syftet har fyra intervjuer genomförts med personer som är insatta i samhällsdebatten kring projektet och som i varierande utsträckning kan påverka. Dessa intervjuer har tillsammans med officiella dokument rörande projektet granskats med en argumentationsanalys för att ta reda på i vilken utsträckning det råder konsensus och vilken mån det finns en skillnad i olika aktörers perspektiv på påverkande och makt. Resultaten redovisas under tre frågeställningar, den första ger en bakgrund till problemformuleringen till projektet, den andra analyserar detta och prövar om premisser som problemformuleringen samt lösningen bygger på håller och den sista frågeställningen kopplar detta till påverkande och makt. Slutsatsen ligger i linje med tidigare litteratur och visar att det finns ett maktspel i beslutsprocesser samt att vetenskapens och forsknings roll är begränsad i sammanhanget.

  • 104632.
    Winberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History of Literature and History of Ideas.
    Karaktärerna som djur: Djursymbolik hos karaktärerna i Birgitta Trotzigs novellsamling Berättelser2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Karaktärerna som djur

    Djursymbolik hos karaktärerna i Birgitta Trotzigs novellsamling Berättelser

    Utgångspunkten för följande studie är att inslag hämtade från djurriket kan användas som ett verktyg för att gestalta karaktärer i modern svensk prosa. Novellsamlingen Berättelser som ligger till grund för uppsatsen rymmer de fyra novellerna ”Teresa”, ”En man ur natten”, ”Skämtet” samt ”En vinterberättelse”. Berättelser utkom 1970, och i samlingen använder sig författaren Birgitta Trotzig i stor utsträckning av djursymbolik för att gestalta sina karaktärer.

    Olika symboler hämtade från naturen har stor plats i novellsamlingen som helhet men kan specifikt skönjas hos de karaktärer som gestaltas i novellerna. Studien utgår från frågeställningar kring hur Trotzig skapar denna gestaltning med hjälp av djursymbolik, på vilka olika sätt den framträder och vad detta i sin tur gör för läsarens uppfattning av texten som helhet.

    Vidare undersöks hur man kan tolka de symboler Trotzig använder, och om hon använder dem i en klassisk eller personlig kontext. Urvalet för studien begränsas till de fyra noveller som utgör novellsamlingen, men hänvisningar görs även till andra delar av Trotzigs litterära produktion och visar på så sätt hur djursymboliken hos skönlitterära karaktärer är ett grepp som kan skönjas genom hela hennes författarskap.

  • 104633.
    Winberg, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Frågan om syndikerade låneavtals ställning i svensk rätt: en undersökning av bankers ansvar vid brott mot avtalsförpliktelsen att lämna kredit2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 104634. Winblad, Bengt
    et al.
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Andrieu, Sandrine
    Ballard, Clive
    Brayne, Carol
    Brodaty, Henry
    Cedazo-Minguez, Angel
    Dubois, Bruno
    Edvardsson, David
    Feldman, Howard
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Frisoni, Giovanni B.
    Gauthier, Serge
    Georges, Jean
    Graff, Caroline
    Iqbal, Khalid
    Jessen, Frank
    Johansson, Gunilla
    Jonsson, Linus
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI). Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Knapp, Martin
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Melis, Rene
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Rikkert, Marcel Olde
    Qiu, Chengxuan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sakmar, Thomas P.
    Scheltens, Philip
    Schneider, Lon S.
    Sperling, Reisa
    Tjernberg, Lars O.
    Waldemar, Gunhild
    Wimo, Anders
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Defeating Alzheimer's disease and other dementias: a priority for European science and society2016In: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 455-532Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 104635.
    Winblad, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    De e bara ”ja har inte tid innan dess.”: en diskursanalytisk studie av arbetsplaneringen inom hemtjänst2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This descriptive study of a case of Swedish home help service is theoretically based on social constructivist assumptions about the role of language for the creation of reality. The analysis was based on a discourse analytical theory called discursive psychology. The aim of the study was to describe which types of discourses exist regarding the execution of work in a group of home help workers, and by that describe the reality of the planning of care. The empirical body of information consisted of recorded conversations from planning morning meetings in a home help service unit in the city of Stockholm. The analysis resulted in the identification of four discourses concerning the work and the users. The content of the dominating discourse was that the time pressures of work define the planning of care. This discourse was showed to dominate through a flexible use of language. It has the power to define this context and to rule out alternative discourses as more or less impossible to articulate. The emerging picture of the reality of home help service is that of a business dominated by the norms of time efficiency, where work methods characterized by the rationality of care are subordinate.

  • 104636.
    Winbladh, Laila
    Stockholm University.
    Endocrine pancreas in cyclostomes1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 104637.
    Wincent, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) metabolism2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 104638.
    Wincent, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Direct and indirect mechanisms for aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation mediated by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is mostly recognized for mediating the adverse effects of dioxins. In addition, endogenous activation of the AhR seems to have important biological functions.

     Several studies have demonstrated an activation of the receptor when no exogenous ligand was added. Furthermore, different physical stimuli such as UV irradiation, fluid shear stress, and hyperoxia have been shown to induce AhR-dependent transcriptional activity. Together these reports indicate either the presence of endogenous ligands or a non-ligand dependent activation. While the mechanisms behind such responses are still elusive, formation of tryptophan photoproducts with high AhR-affinity has been suggested to explain the activation observed after UVB irradiation. The photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) has been proposed to be an endogenous signal substance, and is the focus of the present thesis.

     The objective of the work presented in this thesis was to further characterize the formation and metabolism of FICZ, to identify the biotransforming enzymes required for its metabolism, and subsequently to isolate FICZ-derived metabolites in human urine.

     The studies reveal that FICZ is an excellent substrate for CYP1 enzymes resulting in an efficient metabolism and rapid clearance of FICZ, and a reduced or abolished affinity for the AhR. The hydroxylated metabolites are in turn very good substrates for sulfo-conjugation, and monosulfated derivatives of FICZ were identified in human urine, proving the existence of FICZ in vivo. Furthermore, disturbing the CYP1-dependent metabolic clearance of FICZ efficiently attenuated the rapid depletion of intracellular levels of FICZ, and resulted in a delayed and prolonged AhR-activation. These results suggest that inhibition of degradation of FICZ provides a potent mechanism for indirect regulation of the AhR response.

     The high affinity and AhR activating capacity, together with its rapid clearance by AhR regulated biotransforming enzymes and presence in humans in vivo, all strengthen the hypothesis that FICZ is an endogenous ligand for the AhR and an important biological signaling molecule.

     

  • 104639.
    Wincent, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Indirect activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling caused by inhibitors of the metabolic degradation of the natural ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazoleManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 104640.
    Wincent, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Amini, Nahid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Luecke, Sandra
    Glatt, H.
    Bergman, Jan
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Rannug, Agneta
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    The suggested physiologic aryl hydrocarbon receptor activator and cytochrome P4501 substrate 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole is present in humans2009In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 284, no 5, p. 2690-2696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dioxins and other polycyclic aromatic compounds formed during the combustion of waste and fossil fuels represent a risk to human health, as well as to the well being of our environment. Compounds of this nature exert carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects in experimental animals by binding to the orphan aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Understanding the mechanism of action of these pollutants, as well as the physiological role(s) of the AhR, requires identification of the endogenous ligand(s) of this receptor. We reported earlier that activation of AhR by ultraviolet radiation is mediated by the chromophoric amino acid tryptophan (Trp), and we suggested that a new class of compounds derived from Trp, in particular 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), acts as natural high affinity ligands for this receptor. Here we describe seven new FICZ-derived indolo[3,2-b]carbazole-6-carboxylic acid metabolites and two sulfoconjugates, and we demonstrate the following. (i) FICZ is formed efficiently by photolysis of Trp upon exposure to visible light. (ii) FICZ is an exceptionally good substrate for cytochromes P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1, and its hydroxylated metabolites are remarkably good substrates for the sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, and 1E1. Finally, (iii) sulfoconjugates of phenolic metabolites of FICZ are present in human urine. Our findings indicate that formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazols are the most potent naturally occurring activators of the AhR signaling pathway and may be the key substrates of the CYP1 and SULT1 families of enzymes. These conclusions contradict the widespread view that xenobiotic compounds are the major AhR ligands and CYP1 substrates.

  • 104641.
    Wincent, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Bengtsson, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Bardbori, Afshin Mohammadi
    Alsberg, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Luecke, Sandra
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Rannug, Agneta
    Inhibition of cytochrome P4501-dependent clearance of the endogenous agonist FICZ as a mechanism for activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 12, p. 4479-4484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Altered systemic levels of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), an enigmatic endogenous ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), may explain adverse physiological responses evoked by small natural and anthropogenic molecules as well as by oxidative stress and light. We demonstrate here that several different chemical compounds can inhibit the metabolism of FICZ, thereby disrupting the autoregulatory feedback control of cytochrome P4501 systems and other proteins whose expression is regulated by AHR. FICZ is both the most tightly bound endogenous agonist for the AHR and an ideal substrate for cytochrome CYP1A1/1A2 and 1B1, thereby also participating in an autoregulatory loop that keeps its own steady-state concentration low. At very low concentrations FICZ influences circadian rhythms, responses to UV light, homeostasis associated with pro-and anti-inflammatory processes, and genomic stability. Here, we demonstrate that, if its metabolic clearance is compromised, femtomolar background levels of this compound in cell-culture medium are sufficient to up-regulate CYP1A1 mRNA and enzyme activity. The oxidants UVB irradiation and hydrogen peroxide and the model AHR antagonist 3'-methoxy-4'-nitroflavone all inhibited induction of CYP1A1 enzyme activity by FICZ or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, thereby subsequently elevating intracellular levels of FICZ and activating AHR. Taken together, these findings support an indirect mechanism of AHR activation, indicating that AHR activation by molecules with low affinity actually may reflect inhibition of FICZ metabolism and raising questions about the reported promiscuity of the AHR. Accordingly, we propose that prolonged induction of AHR activity through inhibition of CYP1 disturbs feedback regulation of FICZ levels, with potential detrimental consequences.

  • 104642. Wincent, Emma
    et al.
    Bergander, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Amini, Nahid
    Rannug, Agneta
    Crescenzi, Carlo
    Rannug, Ulf
    Predicting the in vivo metabolism of the AhR-ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole employing human metabolic enzymesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 104643.
    Wincent, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Shirani, Hamid
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Rannug, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology.
    Janosik, Tomasz
    Department of Bioscience and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Synthesis and biological evaluation of fused thio- and selenopyrans as new indolocarbazole analogues with aryl hydrocarbon receptor affinity2009In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1648-1653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of thio- and selenopyrans having two fused indole units, structurally related to indolocarbazoles, have been prepared and evaluated for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) affinity, leading to the identification of several new significant AhR ligands. In particular, the parent thiopyrano[2,3-b:6,5-b′]diindole and its derivative having a methyl group in the central ring, as well as the two corresponding selenopyrans, displayed the highest potencies of the compounds tested.

  • 104644.
    Wind, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Norberg, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Ledarskap och Generationsskifte: En studie om hur ledarskap i organisationer påverkas av generationsskiftet2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En omfattande generationsväxling har precis påbörjats på den svenska arbetsmarknaden, där 40 % av arbetskraften bestående av 40/50-talister ska ersättas av 70/80-talister. De frågor vi vill belysa är vilka skillnader det finns i synen på ledarskap mellan 40/50-talister och 70/80-talister. Vad beror skillnaderna på och hur kommer ledarskapet i organisationer att påverkas av generationsskiftet. Syftet med uppsatsen är därmed att få en förståelse för vad det kommande generationsskiftet kan innebära. Vi har valt den kvalitativa forskningsmetoden, då vi genomför fem semistrukturerade intervjuer. Våra respondenter representeras av både den äldre och den yngre generationen och de arbetar i byggbranschen (Skanska), offentlig verksamhet (Universitetsbibliotek) samt IT-företag (Skype). Valet av organisationer beror på den teori vi studerat om generationsväxling och olika åldersstrukturer. Teorin behandlar begreppet ledarskap i allmänhet samt ledarskapsteorier från såväl äldre som yngre ledarskapsforskning. Teorin behandlar även generationsväxlingen och vad den kommer att innebära för organisationer med olika åldersstrukturer. Vår empiriska studie pekar på att det finns skillnader i synen på ledarskap mellan den äldre och den yngre generationen. Dock har de äldre cheferna förändrat sitt ledarskap i takt med samhällets förändringar. Skillnad gällande synen på ledarskap mellan generationerna kan förklaras av skilda uppväxtförhållanden samt olika uppfostran. Våra slutsatser är att chefen som en statussymbol kraftigt reducerats, då medarbetarna fått en allt större central roll i organisationer, vilket kräver ett annat ledarskap. Andra slutsatser som vi kunnat dra är att synen på ledarskap beror på branschtillhörighet samt den enskilda individens egenskaper. Vi kan även konstatera att åldersstrukturen skiljer sig åt beroende på bransch. Dock bör de flesta organisationer ha människor från samtliga åldrar, men den tekniska branschen kräver flexibla personer som kan den senaste tekniken. Då den yngre generationen besitter den kunskapen bör de vara mest lämpade för denna bransch.

  • 104645.
    Windahl, Gunilla
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education.
    Undervisning av barn med koncentrationssvårigheter i vanligt klassrum: En intervjustudie med utgångspunkt i tre lärares livshistoria2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Undervisning av barn med koncentrationssvårigheter i vanligt klassrum. En intervjustudie med utgångspunkt i tre lärares livshistoria Gunilla Windahl Sammanfattning Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur ”erkänt duktiga” klasslärare anpassar klassrumsmiljö, bemötande och undervisning för barn med koncentrationssvårigheter i grundskolans vanliga klasser. Frågeställningarna var: Anser de intervjuade lärarna att man genom anpassningar av klassrumsmiljön kan underlätta skolgången för barn med koncentrationssvårigheter och vilka är i sådana fall dessa anpassningar av klassrumsmiljön? Anser de intervjuade lärarna att man genom anpassningar av bemötande och i undervisning kan underlätta skolgången för barn med koncentrationssvårigheter och vilka är i sådana fall dessa anpassningar av bemötande och i undervisning? De data som används i denna studie är kvalitativa. Genom att göra djupintervjuer med tre verksamma lärare har jag undersökt och försökt förstå hur det kommer sig att en del lärare lyckats att göra skolgången ”bra” för barn med koncentrationssvårigheter. Intervjuerna var utforskande och genomfördes som en ”livshistoria”. Detta innebär att forskaren tillsammans med den intervjuade diskuterar olika händelser med speciell och central innebörd, som påverkat dennes val i livet. Urvalet av lärare gjordes via rekommendation och personlig kännedom. De lärare som valdes ut för intervju kan sägas vara nyckelpersoner med unika egenskaper. De var kända på sina arbetsplatser för att ”klara av de barn som behöver lite extra”. Genom att genomföra en ”Livshistorie-intervju” med dem hoppades jag, att genom analys, kunna se likheter i deras erfarenheter och undervisningsmetoder som till någon del kan förklara deras framgångar i klassrummet. Efter analys av intervjuerna skrevs tre ”Porträtt” och tre olika temaområden växte fram. Resultatet av undersökningen blev att de tre lärarna visade sig ha flera gemensamma erfarenheter och gemensamma uppfattningar om hur man bäst anpassar skolgången för barn med koncentrations-svårigheter. De reflekterade mycket över hur klassrumsmiljön kunde anpassas och var i rummet elever med koncentrationssvårigheter bäst placeras. De var överens om att dessa elever behöver struktur i undervisningen och under hela sin skoldag. Lärarna sa att de arbetade medvetet med att främja ett accepterande klassrumsklimat genom att medvetandegöra eleverna om att alla människor är olika. De ville låta eleverna känna delaktighet och inflytande. De försökte stärkta elevernas självkänsla genom att ”se alla”. Lärarna lyckades att kombinera struktur med ett bra samspel med eleverna. NYCKELORD: Koncentrationssvårigheter Skola Grundskola Livshistoria ADHD Diagnos Inkludering

    Teaching children with attention difficulties in an ordinary classroom. An interview study based on the Life Histories of three teachers. Gunilla Windahl Abstract The purpose of this study is to investigate how teachers with “acknowledged skill” adapt classroom environment, interplay and teaching methods to children with attention difficulties in compulsory school classes. The questions at issue in the study are: Do the interviewed teachers believe that teachers, through adaptation of the classroom environment, can facilitate schooling for children with attention difficulties and if so, in what way? Do the interviewed teachers believe that teachers, through adaptation of interplay and teaching methods, can facilitate schooling for children with attention difficulties and if so, in what way? Data used in this study are qualitative. I have, by conducting deep interviews with three currently active teachers, investigated and tried to understand how some teachers succeed in making school a “good experience” for children with attention difficulties,. The interviews were explorative and were conducted as “Life Histories”. This means that the researcher and the interviewee discuss different events, “critical incidents”, which have affected the respondent’s choices in life. The selection of the teachers was done through recommendations and personal knowledge. The selected teachers can be considered as “key people” with unique qualities. They are known at their schools for being able to “handle children who need a little extra”. By conducting “Life History” interviews I hoped, through analysis, to be able to see similarities in there experiences and teaching methods, which could in some way explain their success in the classroom. I wrote three “Portraits” after analysing the interviews and three different themes developed. The results of the study showed that the teachers had multiple experiences and ideas in common about how to best adapt schooling for children with attention difficulties. They reflected a lot about how to adapt classroom environment and where to best seat children with attention difficulties. They all agreed on the importance of structure for these students both in teaching and throughout the day. The teachers said that they deliberately promote an accepting climate in the classroom by making the students aware of the differences in people. They wanted the students to feel participation and the ability to influence. They tried to strengthen the student’s self-esteem by “seeing them all”. The teachers succeeded in combining structure with a good interplay with the students. Keywords: Attention difficulties, School, Compulsory School, Life History, ADHD, Inclusive Education.

  • 104646.
    Windelhed, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Barknåre by: markanvändning och bebyggelse i en uppländsk by under tusen år1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104647.
    Windell, Karolina
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Corporate Social Responsibility under Construction: Ideas, Translations, and   Institutional Change2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 104648.
    Windell, Karolina
    Uppsala universitet.
    CSR as catwalks: the translation of an idea2010In: Corporate social responsibility: challenges and practices / [ed] Peter Dobers, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press Sweden, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 104649.
    Windell, Karolina
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    CSR Conferences as Catwalks – the Construction of CSR at Conferences in Europe.2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 104650.
    Windell, Karolina
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    CSR: En tidlös fråga i ropet!2008In: Corporate Intelligence, Vol. 9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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