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  • 107001.
    Örning, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Spridning av nakenbilder på internet: det svenska integritetsskyddet i ljuset av Europakonventionen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107002.
    Örnqvist, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nischbankers framväxt på den svenska finansmarknaden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska finansmarknaden har länge präglats av ett oligopol och består till stor del av universalbanker som erbjuder alla typer av finansiella tjänster, men sedan 1990-talet har även nischbanker uppkommit som erbjuder enbart vissa finansiella tjänster och betjänar huvuddelen av sina kunder via internet och telefoni. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer, mekanismer och strategier som ligger bakom nischbankers uppkomst på den svenska finansmarknaden. För att besvara syftet har följande frågor formulerats:

    1. Hur skapas utrymme för nischbanker på den svenska finansmarknaden?
    2. Vilka aktörer etablerar nischbanker? Är det nya aktörer eller redan etablerade företag från andra branscher?
    3. Vilka strategier använder nischbanker för att etablera sig på den svenska finansmarknaden och hur får de tillgång till resurser?

    Studien grundar sig på organisationsteorier och bygger på en kvalitativ ansats i form av sex semistrukturerade djupintervjuer med respondenter från Svenska Bankföreningen, Finansinspektionen och olika nischbanker.

    Resultatet visar att nischbankers uppkomst på den svenska finansmarknaden har främjats av den teknologiska utvecklingen och regleringar såsom lagen om bank- och finansieringsrörelse och Basel II. Nischbanker har främst uppkommit av etablerade organisationer från andra branscher. Detta medför att nischbanker har kunnat utnyttja kärnverksamhetens legitimitet och resurser. Vid etableringen har nischbanker främst varit i behov av kapital, kunder och infrastruktur. För att kunna etablera sig har nischbanker främst utnyttjat kärnverksamhetens kundbas och konkurrerat med låga priser. 

  • 107003.
    Örnólfsdóttir, Unnur Ósk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Swedish women´s self-esteem, body dissatisfaction and health2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Self-reported mental health problems have increased dramatically among young female high school (Swedish: gymnasium) and university students in Sweden since the 1990’s. The reasons for this increase are mostly unknown but self-esteem and body image might be important factors behind this problem. The aim of this study was to test whether self-esteem and body dissatisfaction predict health. All correlation directions were in accordance with previous studies on the subject. There was no age group difference in levels of self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or health among the women. Multiple regression analysis revealed that global self-esteem was the strongest single predictor of health. These results give support for the importance of global self-esteem for subjective health. This should be considered in future studies and in the battle against the development of depression, anxiety and eating disorders among women.

  • 107004.
    Örs, Aziza Juliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Frågor om bodelning: särskilt om utdelning och värdering av aktier i fåmansbolag2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107005.
    Örström, Åke
    Stockholm College.
    Über die chemischen Vorgänge, insbesondere den Ammoniakstoffwechsel, bei der Entwicklungserregung des Seeigeleies: Mit 14 Figuren im Text1941Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 107006.
    Örtenblad, Kim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Den osynliga gångtrafikanten: En studie om fotgängarnas roll vid planeringen av bostadsområden i tätort2009Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att förstå och förklara fotgängarnas roll i planeringen av bostadsområden i tätort, vidare hur detta har utvecklats och förändrats över tid. Dessutom ämnar uppsatsen undersöka om det finns effekter av olika tiders planering för dagens fotgängare. Genom att utföra observationer i de olika bostadsområdena Bredäng, Rissne och Sickla Udde besvaras den första frågeställningen där det efterfrågas hur områden från olika tidsepoker är planerade ur fotgängarnas perspektiv. Den andra frågan, om hänsyn tagits till fotgängarnas behov och hur detta förändrats, besvaras genom en diskursanalys där planerna av de tidigare nämnda områdena studeras. Vidare analyseras resultaten och de övergripande planeringsidealens effekter för fotgängarna klargörs. Studien kommer fram till att fotgängarna varit osynliga vid planeringen av bostadsområden från 1960-talet fram till 1990-talet. De förändringar som förekommer i planeringen som i viss utsträckning påverkar fotgängarna positivt, beror inte på att deras roll förändrats utan på att de övergripande planeringsidealen förändrats.

  • 107007.
    Örtenblad, Radia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    Att samtala i mötet om åtgärdsprogram: En kvalitativ studie av föräldrars upplevelser2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie handlar om föräldrars upplevelser av mötet med skolans personal samt om samtalet där åtgärdsprogram upprättas. Målgruppen för undersökningen är föräldrar. Den genomgående metoden är kvalitativa intervjuer, där sex föräldrar ingår.

    Av resultatet framgår att dessa föräldrar anser sig ha ett bra samarbete med skolans lärare. Det som nämns av föräldrarna som avgörande för en bra respektive mindre bra dialog med skolan är läraren.

    Grunden till att en elev får stöd eller inte återfinns i utvecklingssamtalet. Samtliga föräldrar i undersökningen refererar till det samtalet och dess betydelse för fortsatt samarbete mellan skola och hem. En bestämmande faktor för om stöd ska sättas in eller inte är även i detta fall läraren.

    Studien visar att i de fall dialog finns mellan föräldrar och skola, upprättas åtgärdsprogrammet genom samarbete. Dessa föräldrar känner att de har möjlighet att påverka utformningen av åtgärdsprogrammet. Inga åtgärder är på förhand formulerade från skolans sida.

  • 107008.
    Örtenmark Nilsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Blomqvist, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    ”Jag är allt ifrån en hantverkare till säljare”: En kvalitativ studie om det osynliga kontraktets betydelse för arbetstagare och arbetsgivare inom handelsbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Något som anglosaxisk forskning har uppmärksammat i mycket större utsträckning än svensk forskning, är så kallade osynliga kontrakt. I Sverige har man stor tillit till sina arbetstagare och många inom handelsbranschen är anslutna till handelsavtalet, vilket skapar ett skyddsnät för både arbetstagare och arbetsgivare. Detta har gjort att de skriftliga anställningskontrakten i Sverige inte är så informationsrika och man specificerar endast det viktigaste såsom lön, anställningsform och semesterersättning. Det ger i sin tur utrymme för - och blir till viss del en nödvändighet - att arbetstagarna själva fyller i luckorna i anställningskontraktet med de mer osynliga och fram för allt oskrivna förväntningar, vilket är det som det osynliga kontraktet fångar upp. Problematiken med det osynliga kontraktet är att det sällan uttalas tydligt och konkret, vilket kan leda till missförstånd och dubbla budskap på arbetsplatser. I handelsyrket har man en bred roll och förväntningar som innefattar allt från att vara hantverkare till säljare - som en utav våra respondenter beskriver sin roll. Därmed kan det finnas en anledning till att skapa medvetenhet kring betydelsen av väl kommunicerade och därmed mer synliga osynliga kontrakt. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra arbetstagares och arbetsgivares förväntningar på arbetsplatsen utöver det som står i anställningskontraktet. Frågeställningarna uppsatsen ämnar besvara handlar om (1) förväntningar som finns parterna emellan, (2) vad som händer vi kontraktsbrott och (3) hur kommunikation kan förbättra osynliga kontrakt. För att besvara uppsatsens syfte och frågeställning har vi utformat en kvalitativ komparativ studie av den svenska handelsbranschen. Genomförandet baseras på semistrukturerade intervjuer med säljare och chefer från olika företag och butiker. Resultatet visar att förväntningarna skiljer sig åt i vissa områden, exempelvis gällande tillgänglighet och hur man ser på anställningsrelationer. Brustna osynliga kontrakt visar sig leda till förändrade inställningar till arbetet och i två fall till tankar om uppsägning. Detta skulle, enligt respondenterna, kunna undvikas genom goda relationer som grundas i tydlig och öppen kommunikation på arbetsplatsen. 

  • 107009.
    Örthagen, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Tvångshjälp på lika villkor?: om objektivitet vid tillämpning av rekvisitet annat socialt nedbrytande beteende i LVU 3 §2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107010.
    Örvell, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Orgna, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Estetik och intuition i produktutvecklingsprocessen2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen problematiserar estetikens utrymme och ställning i produktutvecklingsprocessen. Utifrån ett praktikfall från företaget Braun åskådliggörs de tekniska, ekonomiska, tillverkningstekniska och estetiska ställningstaganden som måste fattas vid utvecklandet av en ny kaffebryggare. Vårt mål med uppsatsen är att beskriva de metoder som designers och ansvariga använder för att fatta estetiska beslut och i vilken utsträckning som dessa beslut bygger på intiution. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva faktorer som påverkar design och formgivning i ett företag. Ytterligare ett syfte är att närma oss frågan hur formgivare och andra involverade i designprocessen hanterar mötet mellan intuitiva ansatser och rationellt tänkande i valet av formspråk.

  • 107011.
    Ösgård, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Vad är en Sjöstadsbo?: Platsidentitetens framväxt i ett nybyggt bostadsområde2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines some processes behind the creation of place identity and place attachment using a broad theoretical framework. The framework is structured around the creation of space and place, followed by theories and models on how places are given identity and finally some possible effects of place identity. These theories are then used to examine place identity formation among residents and real estate agents in Hammarby Sjöstad, a newly developed urban residential area in Stockholm, Sweden.

    A total of 5 in depth interviews were carried out with local residents in different parts of the residential area, as well as 3 in depth interviews with real estate agents active in different parts of the area. The interviews were transcribed and analysed in relation to the theoretical framework as well as documents relating to the planning of the area.

    The study shows that there has formed a local identity in Hammarby Sjöstad, not defined by the administrative borders of the area. The perceived extent of the area most probably stem from that the lake Hammarby Sjö acts as a physical barrier between the area and the rest of the inner city. This might be the reason to the evolution of a defined perceived community there. The effects of this could be a contributing factor in the segregation that is evident in urban areas, which calls for attention to the possible effects of place identity in urban planning. 

  • 107012.
    Öst, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Sköldmark, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Yazdi, Masih
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Optionsstrutar : Är överavkastning möjligt?2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Optionsstrutar har tecknats för ett antal utvalda företag på Stockholmsbörsen. Strutarna har med systematik tecknats inför företagens kvartalsrapporter och positionen har stängts två dagar efter rapporten. Detta har skett mellan åren 1998 och 2002, det vill säga under en period då börsen varit mer volatil än under tidigare perioder. Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka om marknaden prissatte dessa optioner på ett effektivt sätt, det vill säga om optionernas implicita volatilitet var tillräckligt hög innan rapport för att en överavkastning inte skulle vara möjlig.

  • 107013.
    Öst, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Beskattning av aktierelaterade incitamentsprogram: om beskattningstidpunkten för värdepapper och personaloptioner samt behovet av lagstiftningsöversyn på området2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107014.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Att utvärdera psykoterapi och kritiskt granska psykoterapistudier2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur avgör du som terapeut på ett tillförlitligt sätt att dina patienter blir bättre? Vad menas egentligen med begreppet evidens? Hur kan du bedöma om en studie är välgjord?

    Denna bok hjälper dig som kliniker att utvärdera den behandling du bedriver på ett systematiskt och evidensbaserat sätt. Paradoxalt nog har forskning visat att psykoterapeuter har svårt att bedöma om deras patienter förbättras eller försämras under behandlingens gång. Därför har Lars-Göran Öst här samlat beprövade utvärderingsskalor som är lämpliga att använda session för session, samt före, efter och vid uppföljning av behandling. 

    I boken finns även en mall för att granska och förstå den metodologiska kvaliteten hos psykoterapistudier i vetenskapliga tidskrifter. Med hjälp av denna kan du på ett säkrare sätt bedöma vilka slutsatser som kan dras och vilken användbarhet en studie har för ditt eget kliniska arbete. I grunden handlar detta om att dina patienter ska få bästa möjliga vård.

    Boken vänder sig till både blivande och yrkesverksamma psykologer, psykoterapeuter samt till alla andra som vill veta mer om evidensbaserad psykoterapi.

  • 107015.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders: 40 years of progress2008In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, no Suppl 47, p. 5-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT) have been evaluated in randomized controlled studies (RCT) and anxiety disorders since 1966 and for each disorder there are at least two CBT methods that are considered evidence based (empirically supported) today. Numerous meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of these methods against various control conditions. However, none has looked at whether modern CBT studies lead to better treatment effects than were obtained 10-40 years ago. The aim of this paper is to present a meta-analysis focusing on the mean extent of change achieved by the CBT treatments across decades (from the 1970s onwards). Database searches yielded a total of 432 RCTs for the anxiety disorders combined and 364 of these allowed calculation of within-group effect size (ES) or percentage clinical improvement. Separate ESs were calculated for three central measures: independent assessor rating, self-report and behavioral approach test. The results showed that in most instances there was no significant change in ES across time. In a few instances, the treatment effects were greater in modern studies. However, it was more common with a negative development, or a mixed development (first positive then negative or vice versa). There was no significant change in proportion of clinical improvement. Treatment time and attrition either increased or remained stable. If the single studies that gave the highest ES each decade were compared, all anxiety disorders besides panic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder showed a positive development. Possible explanations to the results are discussed.

  • 107016.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Det empiriska stödet för KBT vid psykiska störningar2013In: KBT inom psykiatrin / [ed] Lars-Göran Öst, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 389-407Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107017.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Efficacy of the third wave of behavioral therapies: A systematic review and meta-analysis2008In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 296-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last two decades a number of therapies, under the name of the third wave of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have been developed: acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP), functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP), and integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). The purposes of this review article of third wave treatment RCTs were: (1) to describe and review them methodologically, (2) to meta-analytically assess their efficacy, and (3) to evaluate if they currently fulfil the criteria for empirically supported treatments. There are 13 RCTs both in ACT and DBT, 1 in CBASP, 2 in IBCT, and none in FAP. The conclusions that can be drawn are that the third wave treatment RCTs used a research methodology that was significantly less stringent than CBT studies; that the mean effect size was moderate for both ACT and DBT, and that none of the third wave therapies fulfilled the criteria for empirically supported treatments. The article ends with suggestions on how to improve future RCTs to increase the possibility of them becoming empirically supported treatments.

  • 107018. Öst, Lars-Göran
    Experimental studies in behaviour therapy1976Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 107019.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Forskningsdesigner2012In: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, 1, p. 91-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 107020.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Inventing the wheel once more or learning from the history of psychotherapy research methodology: Reply to Gaudiano's comments on Öst's (2008) review2009In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 1071-1073Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Gaudiano's criticism of one part of my review of ACT outcome research (Öst, 2008) is refuted on all issues but one. It is clear that the average amount of grant support for the ACT-studies was smaller than that of CBT-studies, even if the proportion of studies having grant support was not lower. However, that fact should only influence 25% (2 out of 8) of the methodology variables on which ACT-studies had lower mean scores than CBT-studies. It is not acceptable that a relatively new treatment, such as ACT, should be evaluated by more lenient criteria than already established therapies like CBT. If proponents of a new treatment wish to claim that their therapy is empirically supported then they have to accept to be evaluated by the APA Task Force criteria. It is time that ACT researchers start using the current psychotherapy research methodology.

  • 107021.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    KBT inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrin2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här beskrivs hur KBT kan tillämpas vid de vanligaste psykiatriska tillstånden hos barn och unga. Boken inleds med en beskrivning av vad som är utmärkande för arbete med barn, ungdomar, och deras familjer och nätverk. De diagnoser som tas upp är bland annat social ångest, generaliserat ångestsyndrom, tvångssyndrom, PTSD, stresstörning, depression, ADHD och autism. Författarna visar hur KBT-modellen och beteendeanalysen kan se ut, beskriver olika behandlingsvägar och ger belysande fallvinjetter. Boken avslutas med en genomgång av det ökande empiriska stödet för KBT vid de olika tillstånden.

  • 107022.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Klinisk signifikans2012In: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, p. 493-502Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 107023.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    One-Session Treatment: Principles and Procedures with Adults2012In: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, p. 59-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When I started research and clinical work with specific phobics in the mid 1970s, very little differentiation was made in the research literature between agoraphobia, social phobia, and specific phobia regarding the number of therapy sessions. Thus, I used eight 1-hour sessions in my early studies on specific phobias. After having worked with that format for about 5 years I started getting bored seeing the same patients week after week. I also began to question why behavior therapists should follow the same format as devised by psychodynamic short-term therapy (i.e. one session per week for 12–20 weeks).

  • 107024.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Rebuttal of Atkins et al. (2017) critique of the Öst (2014) meta-analysis of ACT2017In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 97, p. 273-281Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Atkins et al. strongly criticize my (Öst, 2014) systematic review and meta-analysis of ACT. The bulk of their re-examination of my article is divided into four parts: a) Selection of studies, b) Ratings of methodological quality, c) Meta-analysis, and d) Judgments of quality of evidence. It is evident from my paper that I have refuted their claims regarding each of these parts. Regarding a) Selection of studies I showed that only four studies had a cell size of less than 10 and their inclusion did not change the mean effect size or increased variability. Concerning b) Ratings of methodological quality I have showed that my ratings were reliable and had accuracy. As for c) Meta-analysis, I have demonstrated that I got very similar results to those of A-Tjak et al. (2015) that Atkins et al. describes as a much better meta-analysis. Regarding d) Judgments of quality of evidence, Atkins et al. brought up 23 studies for which they argued that I have done an incorrect evaluation but for every single study I have disproved their arguments and maintain my 2014 evaluation of the evidence base of ACT. Thus, there is no reason to follow Atkins et al. suggestion that my review “should now be set aside in making decisions regarding the treatment efficacy of ACT.”

  • 107025.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Specifik fobi2013In: KBT inom psykiatrin / [ed] Lars-öran Öst, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2013, 2, p. 75-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107026.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Klinisk psykologi.
    The Claustrophobia Scale: A psychometric evaluation2007In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1053-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a psychometric evaluation of the Claustrophobia Scale (CS), consisting of one subscale for measuring anxiety (20 items, 0-4) and one for avoidance (18 items, 0-2). Participants were 87 claustrophobic patients and 200 normal controls randomly selected from the community. The results show that CS has excellent internal consistency, high test--retest reliability, concurrent and discriminant validity. The patients and controls differ significantly on the total scores of anxiety and avoidance, as well as on each individual item scores. The CS was also found to be sensitive to change after cognitive behavioral treatment. Preliminary factor analyses yielded two factors for each subscale; "Being in small enclosed spaces" and "Other people present", accounting for large proportions of the variance. The CS is useful both as a state, and as an outcome self-report measure of claustrophobia.

  • 107027.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis2014In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 61, p. 105-121Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) has attracted a lot of interest during the last 10-15 years with a strong increase of the number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The present review and meta-analysis includes 60 RCTs (4234 participants) on psychiatric disorders, somatic disorders, and stress at work. The mean effect size across all comparisons was small (0.42). Compared to the Ost (2008) meta-analysis there was no significant improvement in methodological quality and deterioration in effect size (from 0.68). When ACT was compared to various forms of cognitive or behavioral treatfnents a small and non-significant effect size of 0.16 was obtained. An evidence-base evaluation showed that ACT is not yet well-established for any disorder. It is probably efficacious for chronic pain and tinnitus, possibly efficacious for depression, psychotic symptoms, OCD, mixed anxiety, drug abuse, and stress at work, and experimental for the remaining disorders.

  • 107028.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Training Therapists in One-Session Treatment and Assessing Their Competence2012In: Intensive One-Session Treatment of Specific Phobias / [ed] Thompson E. Davis III, Thomas H. Ollendick, & L.-G. Öst, Springer , 2012, 1, p. 161-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is no formalized training for therapists to do one-session treatment (OST), at least not any which has been empirically evaluated. However, a description follows of the way the training for people aspiring to become a protocol therapist in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), or just wanting to work clinically with OST, has been arranged. The major part of this chapter consists of a detailed description of the different items included in the competence rating scale, and explanations of why the respective competencies are important for carrying out OST successfully. This means that the training should focus on providing therapists with adequate skills in the areas covered by the rating scale.

  • 107029.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cederlund, Rio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: Does parent education training improve the outcome?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if

    a parent education course would improve the outcome for the children and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel et al. (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow- up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia, but significantly better. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre- to post-treatment, and from post- to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy. 

  • 107030.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cederlund, Rio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behavioral treatment of social phobia in youth: Does parent education training improve the outcome?2015In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 67, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social phobia is one of the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, and it runs a fairly chronic course if left untreated. The goals of the present study were to evaluate if a parent education course would improve the outcome for children with a primary diagnosis of social phobia and if comorbidity at the start of treatment would impair the outcome of the social phobia. A total of 55 children, 8-14 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 1) Child is treated, 2) Child is treated and parent participates in the course, or 3) A wait-list for 12 weeks. The treatment consisted of individual exposure and group social skills training based on the Beidel, Turner, and Morris (2000) SET-C. Children and parents were assessed pre-, post-, and at one year follow-up with independent assessor ratings and self-report measures. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two active treatments and both were better than the wait-list. The treatment effects were maintained or furthered at the follow-up. Comorbidity did not lead to worse outcome of social phobia. Comorbid disorders improved significantly from pre-to post-treatment and from post-to follow-up assessment without being targeted in therapy.

  • 107031.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Bergen, Norway; Haukeland University Hospital, Norway.
    Havnen, Audun
    Hansen, Bjarne
    Kvale, Gerd
    Cognitive behavioral treatments of obsessive-compulsive disorder. A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies published 1993-20142015In: Clinical Psychology Review, ISSN 0272-7358, E-ISSN 1873-7811, Vol. 40, p. 156-169Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is ranked by the WHO as among the 10 most debilitating disorders and tends to be chronic without adequate treatment. The only psychological treatment that has been found effective is cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs (N = 37) of CBT for OCD using the interview-based Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, published 1993 to 2014. The effect sizes for comparisons of CBT with waiting-list (1.31), and placebo conditions (1.33) were very large, whereas those for comparisons between individual and group treatment (0.17), and exposure and response prevention vs. cognitive therapy (0.07) were small and non-significant. CBT was significantly better than antidepressant medication (0.55), but the combination of CBT and medication was not significantly better than CBT plus placebo (0.25). The RCTs have a number of methodological problems and recommendations for improving the methodological rigor are discussed as well as clinical implications of the findings.

  • 107032.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karlstedt, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Widén, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy Delivered by Students in a Psychologist Training Program: An Effectiveness Study2012In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 160-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively little is known about the efficacy of clinically inexperienced student therapists carrying out cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) under supervision during a professional, psychologist training program. The current study evaluated this by collecting pre- and posttreatment data on 591 consecutive patients receiving treatment at the Psychotherapy Clinic of the Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden, over an 8-year period. The patients had mainly anxiety disorders or depression with a mean duration of 15 years, and received individual CBT for a mean of 18 sessions. They improved significantly on both general measures (Beck Anxiety Inventory [BAI], Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], and Quality of Life Inventory [QOLI]) and disorder-specific self-report scales. The proportions of recovered patients on the BAI (63%) and the BDI (60%) were higher than those of a comparison effectiveness study. On the specific self-report scales the current sample improved as much as the samples in extant efficacy trials. We conclude that clinically inexperienced student therapists who receive supervision from experienced supervisors can achieve treatment effects that are on a par with those of experienced licensed psychotherapists.

  • 107033.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden .
    Ollendick, Thomas H.
    Brief, intensive and concentrated cognitive behavioral treatments for anxiety disorders in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 97, p. 134-145Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common disorders affecting youths in the general population, with up to 10% of children and 20% of adolescents meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder at any one point in time. Cognitive-behavior therapies (CBT), varying between 9 and 18 weeks of treatment, are considered evidence-based for the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth. During the last two decades treatments that are brief, intensive, or concentrated (BIC) have been developed and this meta-analysis includes 23 RCTs of these new approaches across the anxiety disorders. BIC yielded a lower attrition (2.3%) than standard CBT (6.5%). The effect sizes (ES) for comparison of BIC with waiting-list (1.47) and placebo (0.91) were significant, whereas that with standard CBT (0.01) was not. Regarding remission at post/recovery at follow-up BIC (54%/64%) and standard CBT (57%/63%) were comparable and both were significantly higher than placebo (26%/35%), which was higher than WLC (7%/9%). Within-group ES at post and follow-up were 1.50 and 1.53 for BIC, and 0.98 and 1.05 for standard CBT, indicating maintenance of the effects up to 12 months after therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of BIC are discussed and we suggest that BIC-interventions represent a paradigm shift in the delivery of services for youth with anxiety disorders.

  • 107034.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reuterskiöld, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Specific phobias2013In: CBT for Anxiety Disorders: a practitioner book / [ed] G. Simos, S. G. Hofmann, Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 107-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the state of the art for the specific phobias, bringing both updates and discussion on the preliminary recommendations put forward to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) work group. It discusses diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, and two important issues: how we might categorize dental phobia and test anxiety, and the boundary between specific phobia and agoraphobia. It also highlights clinical features (e.g., age of onset, gender, focus of fear, neurobiology and physiology, comorbidity, impairment, risk factors, and treatment response) of specific phobia. Then, it presents a broad overview of evidence-based treatment methods (variants of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)) and the efficacy of these. The chapter concludes with a description of the treatment of a complex case of specific phobia.

  • 107035.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Riise, Eili N.
    Wergeland, Gro Janne
    Hansen, Bjarne
    Kvale, Gerd
    Cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatments of OCD in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis2016In: Journal of Anxiety Disorders, ISSN 0887-6185, E-ISSN 1873-7897, Vol. 43, p. 58-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is ranked by the World Health Organization (WHO) among the 10 most debilitating disorders. The treatments which have been found effective are cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI). This meta-analysis includes all RCTs of CBT (25) and SRI (9) for OCD in youth using the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (C-YBOCS). CBT yielded significantly lower attrition (12.7%) than SRI (23.5%) and placebo (24.7%). The effect sizes for comparisons of CBT with waiting-list (1.53), placebo (0.93), and SRI with placebo (0.51) were significant, whereas CBT vs. SRI (0.22) and Combo (CBT + SRI) vs. CBT (0.14) were not. Regarding response rate CBT (70%) and Combo (66%) were significantly higher than SRI (49%), which was higher than placebo (29%) and WLC (13%). As for remission CBT (53%) and Combo (49%) were significantly higher than SRI (24%), placebo (15%), and WLC (10%), which did not differ from each other. Combo was not more effective than CBT alone irrespective of initial severity of the samples. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have a number of methodological problems and recommendations for improving research methodology are discussed as well as clinical implications of the findings.

  • 107036. Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Thulin, Ulrika
    Ramnerö, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cognitive behavior therapy vs. exposure in-vivo in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia2004In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 1105-1127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 107037.
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wicksell, R.
    Moderatorer, mediatorer och verkningsmekanismer2012In: Att göra effektutvärderingar / [ed] Knut Sundell, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2012, p. 425-466Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokinformation: Varje år berörs hundratusentals personer av psykosociala och pedagogiska interventioner. Det handlar exempelvis om behandling av missbruk, insatser för utsatta barn och läsundervisning i grundskolan. Endast undantagsvis har dessa interventioner utvärderats, vilket innebär att vi inte vet vilken effekt de har eller om de rentav kan skada. I antologin Att göra effektutvärderingar beskrivs hur man genomför effektutvärderingar, som ger kunskap om hur interventioner fungerar. Boken ger detaljerad och praktisk vägledning som är till nytta för alla som är intresserade av att lära sig mer om effektutvärderingar – både forskarstuderande och forskare som redan ansvarat för effektutvärderingar. Ämnen som tas upp är bland annat forskningsetik, studiedesign, mätinstrument, urval och rekrytering av undersökningspersoner, datainsamling, ekonomiska analyser, dataanalys och tolkning samt rapportskrivning. Bokens författare har lång erfarenhet inom området och representerar olika discipliner såsom psykologi, folkhälsovetenskap, socialt arbete, pedagogik, statistik, epidemiologi, sociologi, evolutionsbiologi, medicinsk vetenskap och datavetenskap. Redaktör för boken är Knut Sundell, docent i psykologi och socialråd på Socialstyrelsen, som har lång erfarenhet av att utvärdera interventioner inom förskola, skola och socialtjänst.

  • 107038.
    Östangård, Paul S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Formen för en företagsöverlåtelse: en jämförelse av aktie- och inkråmsöverlåtelse och dess inverkan på beskattningen och behandlingen av goodwill2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107039.
    Östanskog-Rothoff, Fredrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svenska Generation Y:s drivkrafter i arbetet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning på vad som motiverar Generation Y är begränsad då generationen är relativt ny på arbetsmarknaden. Trots detta finns det mycket föreställningar om hur denna generation beter sig. Dagens arbetsgivare står inför utmaningen att uppfatta vad den nya generationen på väg in på arbetsmarknaden drivs av i arbetet samt att kunna tillgodose detta. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vilka drivkrafter den svenska Generation Y upplever att de har i relation till arbetet. Undersökningen utgick från en kvalitativ ansats och utgjordes av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Deltagarna bestod av sex personer som var mellan 21 och 31 år. Resultatet indikerar att deltagarna drivs av återkoppling, utvecklingsmöjligheter, varierande arbetsuppgifter samt möjligheten till att kunna påverka sina arbetstider och uttrycka sina åsikter. Deltagarna är oavsett ålder, roll och branschtillhörighet relativt samstämmiga om vilka drivkrafter som de upplever att de har i relation till arbetet. Resultatet går i linje med vad tidigare forskning och studier har indikerat på.

  • 107040.
    Östberg, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Patienters rätt till självbestämmande under psykiatrisk tvångsvård2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 107041.
    Östberg, Erik Emil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Yokoichi, Mari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Huang, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Business.
    Relationers betydelse för etablering i Japan: Utifrån tre svenska IT-företags perspektiv2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att belysa hur tre svenska IT-företags egna uppfattningar om relationers betydelse har påverkat deras handlande inför Japanetableringen. En kvalitativ metod har använts för denna undersökning och intervjuer ligger till grund för resultatet. Vi har studerat hur företagens och marknadens internationaliseringsgrad påverkat deras möjligheter att använda sig av befintliga relationer vid sin etablering samt vilken typ av relation som företagen ansett vara viktiga för etableringen och hur företagens nätverkskompetens och förståelse påverkat deras beslut och handlande. Nätverksteorier och förståelse- och handlingsteori tillämpades för att göra undersökningen. Två av IT-företagen har medvetet skapat relationer med japanska företag för att underlätta etableringen. Det finns hos de tre IT-företagen olika grad av nätverkskompetens som bygger på förståelse för målet och syftet med en specifik relation. De tre IT-företagens förståelse för vad som krävs för att lyckas på den japanska marknaden tycks ha påverkat deras beslut och handlande vid etableringen.

  • 107042.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Asessments and decisions: from report to intervention in child welfare2011In: Book of Abstracts: Social Work and Social Care Research: Innovation, Interdisciplinarity and Impact, 2011, p. 137-137Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the factors that influence decision making in front-line child welfare in Sweden and the implications for different groups of children, types of social problems and for the character of the work. Data stem from a study of social workers’ handling of reports and requests that were followed until interventions were decided upon or cases closed without intervention. Risks were found to be considered in a narrow perspective. Where no distinct criteria for eligibility are at hand voluntary counselling is offered, mainly directed to mothers. Children are not in focus and the attitude is to keep them out of the system for their own good. In deciding eligibility to scarce services of the ‘right’ clients, high work pressure creates a focus on sorting and gate-keeping activities. This crucial sorting process displays the pattern of a heavily tapered funnel with few interventions at the end. Put into an institutional context, social workers discretion can be explained as a rational way for practice to handle organizational limitations, restricted resources and changing policies. By using a ‘consensual ideology’ to handle the contradictory demands of protection and welfare issues, practice keeps clients at a distance instead of working closely together with them.

  • 107043.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barnavårdsutredningar: Stora skillnader beroende på var barnet bor2000In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 3, p. 43-47Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 107044.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bedömningar och beslut: Från anmälan till insats i den sociala barnavården2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this thesis is on social workers’ role in assessing and making decisions in child welfare cases. The primary aim is to identify factors that influence decisions concerning reports assessed, investigated, dismissed or processed to intervention within child welfare agencies in Swedish municipalities. Social policy, professional and organisational factors are perspectives considered in the analysis.

    All reports and requests for support for children and adolescents in the 0–19 age group were collected during two months in two local agencies, in 2003 (n= 260) and followed by interviews with social workers. Factors connected to social workers’ assessments at different stages in the process were tested in regression models and grounds for their assessments explored.

    Main results: two-thirds of reports are sorted out without investigation. One-fifth led to interventions. The highest probability for a report to be investigated was if it was assessed as acute, concerned abuse, came from a professional (not the police) concerned a girl and handled in the integrated agency. The most common problems, such as family conflicts and antisocial behaviour were investigated the least. A majority of the children came from underprivileged families, mainly poor single mothers.

    The process draws the pattern of a heavily tapered funnel with few interventions at the end. Children are not in focus and the attitude is to keep them out of the system for their own good. Social policy and organisational factors restrict social workers’ discretion. Contradictory demands are solved by a ‘consensual ideology’. Parallel tracks appear on risks in a narrow perspective and on voluntary counselling mainly directed to mothers. This forms child welfare into a rejecting practice, where hard social conditions are individualized. Legislation gives municipalities considerable leeway to produce a variety of services and interventions, but practice works on the basis of another kind of rationality.

  • 107045.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Child Welfare and Child Protection: Differences and similarities in policy and practice in Sweden and Great Britain2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from research on front line practice in Child Welfare in Sweden and in Child Protection in Great Britain have shown interesting similarities in spite of differences in policies and general welfare. Drawing from my own study and two British ones practice strategies to handle policy are discussed. In recent years there have been changing policies in Great Britain to support The Child Protection Services from a protection approach to a more Child Welfare one. However researchers show that the notion of risk is still central and a precondition for interventions as well as for services. They argue that the so-called risk-discourse will lead to more families being referred and investigated and less given help and support. In Sweden Child Protection has been conceived quite differently, with fewer laws dealing specifically with child abuse and neglect, problems that are not a typical reason for providing child-welfare services. The preventive approach implies that investigations are not limited to cases of suspected maltreatment. They may also be initiated if needs of services is assessed as well as by an application from a parent or a child. Policy changes in Sweden have been reversed to them in Great Britain and Child Protection issues are nowadays more stressed acknowledging the best interests of the child. British researchers argue that focus on protection makes social work more investigatory and procedurally driven with more families being referred and resources allocated to the sorting process, thus draining time and resources from prevention and family support. In Sweden as in Great Britain the accountability of social work has been questioned. The critique in Sweden concerns the variety of procedures as well as deficiencies in documentation and reviews leading to a lack of knowledge on the effects of interventions as well as risks of missing maltreated children.

    In the ambition of a more systematic, child focused and evidence based social work Sweden has implemented a Swedish variant of the English system The Integrated Children´s System (ICS) by the National Board of Health and Welfare, Children’s needs in focus (BBIC). It has been adapted to Swedish law and practice and a majority of Swedish municipalities are now licensed to use it. On the whole implementation has been a success, mostly because the profession itself has been a driving force in testing and implementing BBIC. However real knowledge on how it has affected social work is lacking as no thorough evaluation has been done.

    Demands on accountability make social workers ‘risk concerned’. Structured systems for documentation and tools for practice built on scientific knowledge is a way for practice to handle expectations on them to identify those children at greatest risk. The question can be put if more structured procedures and risk-assessment tools will lead to better targeting and a possibility to create necessary resources to develop family support services. Swedish as well as British local studies of practice show that a lot of energy in Child Welfare is put down in gate-keeping activities, with few decided services in the end.

  • 107046.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Den nya frivilligheten1998In: Nordisk sosialt arbeid, ISSN 0333-1342, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 2-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new voluntarism.

    The article is based on an evaluation of the first two years of the Swedish volunteer centre Viljan. The aim is to arrive at a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of voluntary work based on the experience of one volunteer centre. The stydy comprised 39 users and 62 volunteers. Viljan's users consists of two main groups frail, elderly women and single mothers. The group of single mothers needed baby-sitters but also wanted an adult contact for themselves. It is difficult for Viljan to meet this need. The direction taken by Viljan has been a relatively traditional role of befriending the old and the sick, initially with strong control from the social services. All the interviewees were satisfied with the help they had recieved, but it was clear that they want more assistance and contact, which they do not dare to ask for out of fear if becoming a burden. Volunteers and the users appear to have the same needs for social contact which is why they turned to Viljan. There is a serious risk, however, that the volunteer centre may emphasize assistance to people to the expence of meetings between people and that the volunteers may be proffesionalized. The volunteers live all over the Stockholm area, few of them living close to the people they help. The volunteer centre can be seen as a modern welfare phenomenon, which make visible civic needs which the family, the public sphere and the private sphere have not been able to satisfy. Viljan appears to be able to fill this vacuum partially.

  • 107047.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    I skuggan av LVU: om tvångsmöjligheternas närvaro i sorteringsprocessen2017In: Tvångsvård av barn och unga: rättigheter, utmaningar och gränszoner / [ed] Pernilla Leviner, Tommy Lundström, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 107048.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. FoU Södertörn, Sverige.
    Insatser inom socialtjänstens öppna barn- och ungdomsvård i Botkyrka, Gotland, Haninge, Huddinge, Nacka, Nynäshamn, Salem, Södertälje, Tyresö och Värmdö2015Report (Other academic)
  • 107049.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Reflection groups using Vignettes – a method to deepen professional knowledge2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the pursuit of integrating practice and research a successful method has been created that uses a research technique (the Vignette method) as a way for practitioners to come together and reflect on their own practice. Over 600 professionals from the social services, nursery schools and schools have participated in these Reflection groups. The aim of Reflection groups using Vignettes is a way to elucidate practice knowledge in social work by critical reflections and research techniques. Assembling social workers exclusively or together with other professional partners in reflection groups together with a researcher creates new knowledge. Typical cases with problematic situations or episodes are described in intensifying sequences. Each sequence demonstrates information crucial for assessments and decision making. Questions are put to each vignette on how to go about in the case and why. Thus comparisons can be made on social workers attitudes and work procedures as they are put in front of the same information. Themes that arise in the group process are put together and with the help of the researcher linked to theoretical concepts and current research. By using an example from a reflection group with vignettes about a Child Protection investigation in an ethnic minority family, issues on ethnic sensitivity in social work are discussed. The method becomes a tool for making visible ethnocentrisms, prejudices about gender, class and sexuality as well as hidden structures in the work process. The overall aim is to develop assessments in Child Protection investigations.

  • 107050.
    Östberg, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Using ‘Consensual Ideology’: A Way to Sift Reports in Child Welfare2014In: British Journal of Social Work, ISSN 0045-3102, E-ISSN 1468-263X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 63-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the factors that influence decision making in front line child welfare in Sweden and the implications for different groups of children, types of social problems and for the character of the work. Data stem from a study of social workers’ handling of reports and requests that were followed until interventions were decided upon or cases closed without ntervention. Risks were found to be considered in a narrow perspective. Though Swedish child welfare has been recognised as a family service system, need aspects are down-prioritised. Gender-related attitudes are reflected in the labelling of ‘capable’ mothers and in the higher probability of girls being investigated. In deciding eligibility to scarce services of the ‘right’ clients, high work pressure creates a focus on gate-keeping activities and the attitude is to keep children out of the system for their own good. This crucial sorting process displays the pattern of a heavily tapered funnel with few interventions at the end. Put into an institutional context, social workers’ discretion can be explained as a rational way for practice to handle organisational limitations, restricted resources and changing policies. Demands of protection and welfare issues are handled by individualising difficult social conditions and by ‘consensual ideology’.

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