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  • 1201.
    Smith, Kelly
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    The Rumble in the Disambiguation Jungle: Towards the comparison of a traditional word sense disambiguation system with a novel paraphrasing system2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is the process of computationally identifying and labeling poly- semous words in context with their correct meaning, known as a sense. WSD is riddled with various obstacles that must be overcome in order to reach its full potential. One of these problems is the aspect of the representation of word meaning. Traditional WSD algorithms make the assumption that a word in a given context has only one meaning and therfore can return only one discrete sense. On the other hand, a novel approach is that a given word can have multiple senses. Studies on graded word sense assignment (Erk et al., 2009) as well as in cognitive science (Hampton, 2007; Murphy, 2002) support this theory. It has therefore been adopted in a novel, paraphrasing system which performs word sense disambiguation by returning a probability distribution over potential paraphrases (in this case synonyms) of a given word. However, it is unknown how well this type of algorithm fares against the traditional one. The current study thus examines if and how it is possible to make a comparison of the two. A method of comparison is evaluated and subsequently rejected. Reasons for this as well as suggestions for a fair and accurate comparison are presented.

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    rumble
  • 1202.
    Smolentzov, Andre
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Automated Essay Scoring: Scoring Essays in Swedish2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Good writing skills are essential in the education system at all levels. However, the evaluation of essays is labor intensive and can entail a subjective bias. Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a tool that may be able to save teacher time and provide more objective evaluations. There are several successful AES systems for essays in English that are used in large scale tests. Supervised machine learning algorithms are the core component in developing these systems.

    In this project four AES systems were developed and evaluated. The AES systems were based on standard supervised machine learning software, i.e., LDAC, SVM with RBF kernel, polynomial kernel and Extremely Randomized Trees. The training data consisted of 1500 high school essays that had been scored by the students' teachers and blind raters. To evaluate the AES systems, the agreement between blind raters' scores and AES scores was compared to agreement between blind raters' and teacher scores. On average, the agreement between blind raters and the AES systems was better than between blind raters and teachers. The AES based on LDAC software had the best agreement with a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.475. In comparison, the teachers and blind raters had a value of 0.391. However the AES results do not meet the required minimum agreement of a quadratic weighted kappa of 0.7 as defined by the US based nonprofit organization Educational Testing Services.

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    Automated Essay Scoring: Scoring Essays in Swedish
  • 1203.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Presuppositions in spoken discourse2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1204.
    Staffansson, Martina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mitt hjärta är bittert: En lexikal typologisk studie om smaktermer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Taste is a complex blend of several factors and is highly dependent on many of our other senses. The study of taste is more limited in comparison with the study of the senses of sight and hearing and the typological study of taste terms has not played a particularly important role in lexical typology so far. This study is based on a triangulation where taste terms and their use is investigated in a fairly representative sample of the world's languages ​​as well as in more detail in Swedish. The purpose of the study is to explore how universal words for sweet are positively and words for bitter are negatively connotated in individual languages ​​such as Swedish and more generally in the world's languages. This is done by looking into polysemic relations, colexification patterns and metaphors across languages. The result shows that general trends are the same from the triangulation's two studies, but that there are differences at the level of details. The taste term sweet is used predominantly positively and bitter is used predominantly negatively.

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    Mitt hjärta är bittert - en lexikal typologisk studie om smaktermer
  • 1205.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Language, literacy and code-switching in a Papua New Guinean village1991Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the language and sociolinguistic practices of a small group of people living in a village called Gapun in the Papua New Guinean swamps. Gapun has traditionally been a highly multilingual society, but today two languages dominate the villagers’ verbal repertoire, the lingua franca Tok Pisin and the local vernacular Taiap.

    The papers that make up the thesis focus on various aspects of how villagers have creatively responded to the present-day situation of linguistic and cultural contact. One paper details some salient structural characteristics of the Taiap language. Another paper explores how multilingualism is distributed in the village, specifically with respect to how Tok Pisin has been incorporated into village speech, the social uses to which villagers have put it, the manner of its structural interaction with the local vernacular, and the question of individual variation in code-switching patterns. The two remaining studies expand upon a framework for working with contact phenomena that emphasizes the desirability of taking a consistent sociolinguistic perspective on language contact. These papers argue that in order to understand how code-switching is used in the community, and why Gapuners have incorporated literacy into their verbal repertoires, it is necessary to embed an account within an ethnographically sensitive analysis of the context in which language contact occurs. In Gapun, this means taking account of indigenous conceptions of language, and villagers’ understandings of the role of speech in the construction of the social order and in the symbolic presentation of personhood.

    The most important implication of the thesis as a whole is to argue that work which ignores the cultural embeddedness of language contact obscures the complexity and variation of the phenomena, and misrepresents the active role of speakers in the linguistic constructions of their social realities.  

  • 1206. Strömbergsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Edlund, Jens
    Götze, Jana
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Approximating phonotactic input in children’s linguistic environments from orthographic transcripts2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 2214-2217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Child-directed spoken data is the ideal source of support for claims about children’s linguistic environments. However, phonological transcriptions of child-directed speech are scarce,compared to sources like adult-directed speech or text data. Acquiring reliable descriptions of children’s phonological environments from more readily accessible sources would mean considerable savings of time and money. The first step towards this goal is to quantify the reliability of descriptions derived from such secondary sources. We investigate how phonological distributions vary across different modalities (spoken vs. written), and across the age of the intended audience (children vs. adults). Using a previously unseen collection of Swedish adult- and child-directed spoken and written data, we combine lexicon look-up and grapheme-to-phonemeconversion to approximate phonological characteristics. The analysis shows distributional differences across datasets both for single phonemes and for longer phoneme sequences. Some of these are predictably attributed to lexical and contextual characteristics of text vs. speech.The generated phonological transcriptions are remarkably reliable. The differences in phonological distributions between child-directed speech and secondary sources highlight a need for compensatory measures when relying on written data or onadult-directed spoken data, and/or for continued collection ofactual child-directed speech in research on children’s language environments.

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    fulltext
  • 1207. Strömbergsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Götze, Jana
    Edlund, Jens
    Simulating Speech Errors in Swedish, Norwegian and English2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1208.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for General Linguistics.
    Folke vs Henry: En jämförelse av förståelse mellan syntetisk och mänsklig uppläsning av sammanhängande texter2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en studie som kan vara den första i Sverige i sitt slag har vuxna testpersoner med och utan synnedsättning fått lyssna till texter som lästs upp med antingen unit selection-syntesen Folke eller en mänsklig röst. Genom förståelsefrågor till varje text har det undersökts om en syntetisk uppläsning av sammanhängande text ger en sämre förståelse än en mänsklig uppläsning. Genom testet har också faktorer som ansträngning samt korrelation med längd, svårighetsgrad och vana av syntetiskt tal undersökts. Testet visar att för relativt enkla texter som inte är längre än ca 700 ord eller inte har en uppläsningstid på mer än ca fem minuter så ger en syntetisk uppläsning inte någon påvisbar försämring i förståelse. Resultat och analys visar dock att det vid längre texter än så kan finnas en skillnad i förståelse mellan de två uppläsningssätten samt att det kan finnas en korrelation med textens längd och svårighetsgrad. Testpersonernas subjektiva uppfattning och det kvantitativa resultatet visar också delvis att syntetiska uppläsningar är mer ansträngande än mänskliga. Dock behöver ytterligare studier genomföras för att bekräfta en försämrad förståelse och större ansträngning.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1209.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Grammatisk finithet i Cupeño2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i både traditionell och samtida syn på finithet har det uto-aztekiska språket cupeño studerats. Flera grammatiska markörer för såväl subjektskongruens som temporala, modala och aspektuella distinktioner definieras. Dessa markörer kan i huvudsatser i cupeño uppträda i antingen ett auxiliarkomplex i Wackernagels position eller som affix på verbet. Subjektskongruens och olika TMA-markörer definieras som två skilda grammatiska system. Framför allt markörerna för subjektskongruens kan bibehållas i underordnade satser, som också har speciella markörer för underordning. Även om skillnader finns mellan över- och underordnade satser så finns ingen distinktion mellan finita och icke finita verb. Förutom verbkonstruktioner i över- respektive underordnade satser definieras också verbkonstruktioner med nominal morfologi och imperativ som egna typer av verbkonstruktioner, som varierar i vilken utsträckning finita drag förekommer.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1210. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    Analyzing Emotion Expression in Singing via Flow Glottograms, Long-Term-Average Spectra, and Expert Listener Evaluation2019In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Acoustic aspects of emotional expressivity in speech have been analyzed extensively during recent decades. Emotional coloring is an important if not the most important property of sung performance, and therefore strictly controlled. Hence, emotional expressivity in singing may promote a deeper insight into vocal signaling of emotions. Furthermore, physiological voice source parameters can be assumed to facilitate the understanding of acoustical characteristics.

    Method

    Three highly experienced professional male singers sang scales on the vowel /ae/ or /a/ in 10 emotional colors (Neutral, Sadness, Tender, Calm, Joy, Contempt, Fear, Pride, Love, Arousal, and Anger). Sixteen voice experts classified the scales in a forced-choice listening test, and the result was compared with long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) parameters and with voice source parameters, derived from flow glottograms (FLOGG) that were obtained from inverse filtering the audio signal.

    Results

    On the basis of component analysis, the emotions could be grouped into four “families”, Anger-Contempt, Joy-Love-Pride, Calm-Tender-Neutral and Sad-Fear. Recognition of the intended emotion families by listeners reached accuracy levels far beyond chance level. For the LTAS and FLOGG parameters, vocal loudness had a paramount influence on all. Also after partialing out this factor, some significant correlations were found between FLOGG and LTAS parameters. These parameters could be sorted into groups that were associated with the emotion families.

    Conclusions

    (i) Both LTAS and FLOGG parameters varied significantly with the enactment intentions of the singers. (ii) Some aspects of the voice source are reflected in LTAS parameters. (iii) LTAS parameters affect listener judgment of the enacted emotions and the accuracy of the intended emotional coloring.

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    fulltext
  • 1211. Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Scherer, Klaus R.
    What does LTAS tell about the voice source?2018In: 47th Annual Symposium: Care of the Professional Voice: Program Abstracts, 2018, p. 15-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The long-term-average spectrum, or LTAS has been extensively used in voice research. It provides an overall measure of voice characteristics allowing to derive a large number of parameters. A minimalistic set of parameters has been identified which offers the most essential properties [Eyben et al., 2015; 2016; Scherer et al., 2017]. LTAS analysis is typically applied to audio signals of running speech or continuous singing. It reflects the combination of formant frequency and voice source characteristics. Often, e.g. in clinical settings, it is relevant to distinguish between these two sources Voice source analysis can be performed by means of inverse filtering. The aim of the present work was to analyse the relationships between LTAS and voice source properties.

    Method: Three internationally touring male singers sang scales in eleven different emotional colours. This material was analysed by inverse filtering as well as in terms of LTAS. The correlations between the averages across the scale tones of the flow glottogram parameters and minimalistic set of LTAS parameters were analysed.

    Results/Conclusions: A strong negative correlation was found between spectral slope and the flow glottogram’s maximum flow declination rate MFDR, and a strong positive correlation between proportion of spectral energy below 1000Hz and H1-H2. Somewhat surprisingly, a strong negative correlation was found between equivalent sound level and the normalized and un-normalized amplitude quotients (the ratio between AC peak-to-peak amplitude of the flow glottogram and MFDR). Thus, these LTAS parameters seem particularly informative with respect to voice source characteristics.

  • 1212.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    En flygande start - barnets första steg mot talat språk2007In: Barn och sång: - om rösten, sångerna och vägen dit, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 2007, p. 25-31Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1213.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mother tongue - Phonetic Aspects of Infant-Directed Speech1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonetic aspects of mother-infant interaction are discussed in light of a functionalist Mother-infant phonetic interaction (MIPhI) model. Adults addressing infants typically use a speech style (infant-directed speech, IDS) characterized by, for instance, extensive suprasegmental (prosodic) modulations. This type of speech seems to interest young infants whose active experience with the spoken language appears to focus their speech perception on the phonological properties of the ambient language during the first year of life.

    This thesis consists of four articles discussing phonetic modifications at the suprasegmental, segmental and phonological levels, based on data from six Swedish mothersí IDS to their 3-month-olds. The first study concerns the tonal word accent 2 in disyllabic words, and shows how the lexical, bimodal, tonal characteristics of this accent are enhanced in IDS as compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). The second is a cross-linguistic investigation of vowel formant frequencies in Swedish, Am. English and Russian IDS. It shows that vowels like /i/, /u/, and /a/ are more clearly separated in IDS than in ADS, in all three languages. The third study addresses the voiced /voiceless contrast in stop consonants as measured by voice onset time (VOT) and shows that stop consonants seem to be poorly separated in early IDS samples. The fourth study investigates the quantity distinction in V:C and VC: sequences and indicates that this phonological contrast is well maintained in the IDS.

    Adult data are discussed within the MIPhI model, assuming that suprasegmental and segmental specifications in IDS follow different phonetic specification paths adapted to the infantsí capacities as these develop over the first 18 months of life. The adultsí phonetic adaptations appear to reflect a selective strategy of presenting linguistic structure in a ìgift-wrappingî that is attractive and functional for the infant.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1214.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Acoustic characteristics of onomatopoetic expressions in child-directed speech2009In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2009 / [ed] P. Branderud, F. Lacerda, H. Traunmuller, 2009, p. 40-41Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to identify preliminary acoustic and phonological characteristics of onomatopoetic expressions (OE) in Swedish child-directed speech. The material of a mother interacting with her 4-year-old child were transcribed and used for pitch contour measurements on OE. Measurements were also made on some non-onomatopoetic expressions to be used as controls. The results showed that OE were often composed of CV or CVC syllables, as well as that the syllables or words of the expressions were usually reduplicated. Also, the mother’s voice was often modified when OE were used. It was common that the quality of the voice was creaky or that the mother whispered these expressions. There were also changes in intonation and some of the expressions had higher fundamental frequency (f0) as compared to non-onomatopoetic expressions. In several ways then, OE can be seen as highly modified child-directed speech.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1215.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A longitudinal study on early gestures and lexical development: A longitudinal case study on the relationship between early gestures and lexical development2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 17-21 August, 2011. Hong Kong, China / [ed] Wai-Sum Lee and Eric Zee, 2011, p. 1922-1925Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that children who are early or frequent users of gestures also develop expressive language at an early age. This assumption has been questioned on the grounds that studies performed under controlled laboratory conditions in which gestures are elicited in the absence of contextual support (e.g. in relation to a new object) have shown to correlate positively to vocabulary size, while parent observations of gestural behavior performed with associated objects in naturalistic settings have not. The current longitudinal case study of infants’ early gestural and linguistic development is based on parent reports collected by the standardized Swedish analog of MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI). Results showed that a positive correlation between frequency of use of early gestures andocabulary size could be found for a subset of subjects.

  • 1216. Suni, Antti
    et al.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vainio, Martti
    Šimko, Juraj
    Comparative Analysis of Prosodic Characteristics Using WaveNet Embeddings2019In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2019 / [ed] Gernot Kubin, Zdravko Kačič, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2019, p. 2538-2542Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a methodology for assessing similarities and differences between language varieties and dialects in terms of prosodic characteristics. A multi-speaker, multi-dialect WaveNet network is trained on low sample-rate signal retaining only prosodic characteristics of the original speech. The network is conditioned on labels related to speakers’ region or dialect. The resulting conditioning embeddings are subsequently used as a multi-dimensional characteristics of different language varieties, with results consistent with dialectological studies. The method and results are illustrated on a Swedia 2000 corpus of Swedish dialectal variation.

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    fulltext
  • 1217. Sutton-Spence, Rachel
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    What are norms of sign language poetry? Studies from sign language poetry anthologies and collections2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research uses recent developments in online, digital collections and anthologies of sign language poetry to describe the poetic norms that govern the expectations of sign language poets and their audiences. We follow Toury’s idea of norms, as “the general values or ideas shared by a community […] appropriate for and applicable to particular situations, specifying what is prescribed and forbidden as well as what is tolerated and permitted in a certain behavioural dimension.” (1995: 55). Norms are particularly important to avoid prescriptivism, enabling researchers of sign language literature and poetry to describe what is currently considered good, and what has been considered good in different times and different communities, without prescribing how sign language poetry should be done. We draw on sign language poetry anthologies from three different sign languages to look at the language, literary and cultural norms underlying the poetry, in search of what may be considered “the best” in each culture. We find similarities and differences across the anthologies and their languages.

    Anthologies of literary productions in sign languages are needed as a resource for research and teaching in sign language literary and linguistics and for translators and poets to develop their work. Early research on sign language poetry focused on the work of a small selection of poets, simply because that was all that was available for research purposes (for example Christie and Wilkins, 2007; Sutton-Spence, 2005, Crasborn 2006; Rose, 2006). Such limited materials enabled researchers to perform in-depth analyses of signed poetry and afforded great insights into the art form but could not give broader overviews of the range of norms existing in the poets’ communities.

    Anthologies pre-suppose that their selected content is “the best” (Hopkins 2008), as considered by the community’s “expectancy norms” (Pym, 2010). Di Leo (2004) has noted that traditional views of anthologies require them to include work that has been published previously and has “stood the test of time”. Sign language anthologies rarely follow this maxim because of the recency of the art-form, and the collections used for this research include new material as well as previously published works. The relationship between canons and anthologies is also well-recognised (Guillory, 1993; Finke 2004), as anthologies reflect and create canons of literature.

    We investigated the poems and literary performances in four online anthologies and collections of sign language literature in three countries (two in Brazilian Sign language, one in British Sign Language, and one in Swedish Sign Language). Although our primary interest was sign language poetry, we note (along with Peters 2000) that there is no watertight definition of a poem in sign language (or possibly in any language). One Brazilian anthology contains 35 poems by 21 poets, and the other contains 20 poems by 19 poets. There is no overlap in the content of poems, although several poets are represented in both. The British anthology contained 100 poems. The majority were by 9 individual poets, although three poems, being Renga poems were composed and performed by an additional 25 people. The Swedish collection contains 25 poems by 14 individual poets and also some collective Renga poems.

    In our study, we find that the accepted and valued forms of sign language poetry are diverse, with a range of genres. Analysis of the poems found that some norms for sign language poems arise from within the wider literary world (for example signed haiku and renga), with varying degrees of adaptations (including duets and lyric poems), but some are specific to sign languages (such as multiple perspective poems, classifier poems and Visual Vernacular pieces). Basic concepts, such as how closely the poetry fits sign language grammar may be seen within the poems in the anthologies.

    As Pym (2010) acknowledges, however, norms have a prescriptive undertone, given that work that does not adhere to the current norms may not be considered “good”. Difficult work (Shetley 1993) may be seen as deviating from the norm and thus risks not being included in anthologies and not being considered as material for research (which promotes poetic work considerably). Anthologies are traditionally seen as conservative phenomena (Gilbert and Guber, 1979). Knowing that norm-breaking leads to innovation and that poetry’s business is innovation, norms are in constant tension with the games that poets play, as new trends emerge. In the anthologies studied, we see evidence of new forms developing, and more established forms being created.

  • 1218.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    35 anos de Educação Bilínguede surdos – e então?/35 years of Bilingual Deaf Education – and then?2014In: Educar em Revista, ISSN 0104-4060, E-ISSN 1984-0411, no 2, p. 33-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, an overview of the last 35 years of bilingual education forthe deaf in Sweden is presented. A short presentation is given of the terms‘first language/mother tongue’ and ‘second/foreign language’, used in thisspecific context, to debate some of the main assumptions underlying first andsecond language teaching to deaf children. We discuss the main results fromthe bilingual approach, demonstrating the high level of achievements whenconsidered in an international perspective. These results are compared todata from the first period of deaf education in Sweden, after the foundationof the Manilla school in 1809. The common basis for these examples ofsuccessful deaf education can be summarized as a positive attitude to signlanguage and its users. Then, we analyze some differences between naturalsign languages versus simultaneous use of signs and speech, wherein thedeaf addressee usually receives inconsistent linguistic information, thusmaking this practice less appropriate for the language learner. A discussionfollows up language teaching to deaf children, including teaching a thirdlanguage to them, such as English, for example. It is noted that the groupof sign language users is currently undergoing a great change, especiallybecause of the growing number of children with cochlear implants: theirneed for bilingualism, including sign language, is emphasized.

  • 1219.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Bilingual education for deaf children in Sweden2010In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 159-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1220.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Bilingual Education for the Deaf2009In: New Ideas in Studying and Supporting the Development of Exceptional People: Essays in Honor of Tadeusz Galkowski, Warszawa: Warsaw University Press , 2009, 1, p. 180-195Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1221.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Carta Aberta de Kristina Svartholm Sobre Escolas Especiais Para Surdos2011In: Surdos Qual Escola? / [ed] Nídia Regina Limeira de Sá, Manaus: EDUA Editora da Universidade Federal do Amazonas , 2011, p. 283-292Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1222.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för svenska som andraspråk för döva.
    Educação Bilíngüe para os Surdos na Suécia: Teoria e Prática2008In: Educação para Surdos:: Práticas e Perspectivas, 2008, p. 119-144Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1223.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    O Bilinguismo sob o Ponto de Vista de Kristina Svartholm - Suécia2011In: Educacão para Surdos: Práticas e Perspectivas II / [ed] Maria Cecilia de Moura, Sandra Regina Leite de Campos, Sabine Antonialli Arena Vergamini, São Paulo: Santos , 2011, p. 147-155Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1224.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    The written Swedish of deaf children: A foundation for EFL2008In: English in International Deaf Communication, Peter Lang AG, Bern , 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1225.
    Svartholm, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tvåspråkighet och måluppfyllelse i ett historiskt perspektiv.2010In: Dövas Tidning, Tidskrift för Sveriges Dövas Riksförbund, ISSN 1402-1978, no 1/2, p. 24/24-25/25Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1226.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Discourse Markers in Dardic Languages: Palula ba and ta in a comparative perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates discourse markers in Dardic languages (Indo-Aryan; Pakistan), focusing on the discourse markers ba and ta in Palula in comparison with other languages of the region, particularly Dameli in which two markers with the same form and similar functions have been observed. The results showed that Palula ba functions as a topic-marker, in addition to other functions, whereas ta only signals subsequence, except in an adversative construction ta... ba. In Dameli, both ba and ta function as topic-markers, in addition to other functions such as ta marking subsequence, and the ta... ba construction functions similarly to Palula. Interestingly, Kalasha and Gawri showed some similarities, as both have a topic-marker surfacing as ta and tä respectively, which can be used in the adversative constructions ta... o and tä... i respectively, both of which have another marker as the second element. No other language in the sample was found to have a construction similar to the ta... ba construction nor a marker similar in form and function to ba, but all have a subsequence marker resembling ta. These results indicated that the Palula markers ba and ta are part of an areal phenomenon encompassing at least the Chitral, Panjkora and Swat valleys, where Palula originally only had the Shina subsequence marker and later adapted the Dameli system into the language.

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    Svärd2014-Discourse-Markers-in-Dardic-Languages.pdf
  • 1227.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gender in New Guinea2019In: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume I: General issues and specific studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, p. 225-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study classifies gender systems of 20 languages in the New Guinearegion, an often neglected area in typological research, according to five criteriaused by Di Garbo (2014) for African languages. The results show that gender in NewGuinea is diverse, although around half of the languages have two-gendered sex-based systems with semantic assignment, more than four gender-indexing targets,and no gender marking on nouns. The gender systems of New Guinea are remark-ably representative of the world, although formal assignment is underrepresented.However, the gender systems of New Guinea and Africa are very different. Themost significant difference is the prevalence of non-sex-based gender systems andgender marking on nouns in Africa, whereas the opposite is true in New Guinea.Finally, four typologically rare characteristics are singled out: (1) size and shapeas important criteria of gender assignment, with large/long being masculine andsmall/short feminine, (2) the co-existence of two separate nominal classificationsystems, (3) no gender distinctions in pronouns, and (4) verbs as the most commonindexing target.

  • 1228.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatical gender in New Guinea2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the gender systems of 20 languages in the New Guinea region, an often overlooked area in typological research. The languages were classified with five criteria used by Di Garbo (2014) to classify gender systems of African languages. The results showed that the gender systems were diverse, although around half of the languages have two-gendered sex-based systems with semantic assignment, more than four gender-indexing targets, and no gender marking on nouns. The gender systems of New Guinea are remarkably representative of the world, although formal assignment is much less common. However, the gender systems of New Guinea and Africa are very different. The most significant difference isthe prevalence of non-sex-based gender systems and gender marking on nouns in Africa, whereas the opposite is true in New Guinea. However, gender in Africa is also less diverse largely due to the numerous Bantu languages. Finally, four typologically rare characteristics were found in the sample: (1) size and shape as important criteria of gender assignment, with large/long being masculine and small/short feminine, (2) the presence of two separate nominal classification systems, (3) no gender distinctions in pronouns, and (4) verbs as the most common indexing target. 

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    Grammatical gender in New Guinea
  • 1229.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Selected Topics in the Grammar of Nalca2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes a selection of topics in the grammar of Nalca (Mek language; Papua), with a focus on verbs and nominals. No published grammar or dictionary is available for Nalca, but a translation of the New Testament was used as a parallel text. The results showed that Nalca is split-ergative, strongly suffixing and agglutinating, with subject-object-verb (SOV) as the dominant word order. Verbs consist of a stem and a series of suffixes expressing tense/aspect/mood, negation, number and person. The case alignment is ergative-absolutive for nouns, for which syntactic function is indicated by a series of postpositions. These postpositions agree with nouns in gender. Ergativity was not observed for pronouns; while the results were inconclusive, they appeared to show a nominative-accusative case alignment. The numeral system is an extended body-part system with the base 27. Many of the features found in Nalca are comparable with other Mek languages, with the gender system and split-ergativity being two major exceptions. Finally, the use of the New Testament as a parallel text was a success, with a basic description of the grammar of Nalca having been made, although further investigation is needed.

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    Selected Topics in the Grammar of Nalca
  • 1230.
    Swärd, Elias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Semantiska aspekter av lexikal pluralitet: En typologisk studie av kushitiska språk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lexikal pluralitet är en term för vissa substantiv som har en inneboende pluralbetydelse. Lexikal pluralitet är ett relativt outforskat område, särskilt ur ett typologiskt perspektiv. Några studier som gjorts inom lexikal pluralitet har visat att de lexikalt plurala substantiven tenderar att finnas inom vissa tvärspråkligt återkommande semantiska kategorier. Föreliggande studie bygger på dessa tidigare studiers kategorier, och syftet är att utveckla kategorierna för att bättre fånga in den semantiska variationen hos de kushitiska språken. Detta görs genom att samla lexikalt plurala substantiv ur grammatikor och sedan klassificera substantiven utifrån deras semantik. Resultatet visar, förutom att de semantiska kategorierna i stor utsträckning överlappar med tidigare studier, att de semantiska kategorierna grupper, granulära ämnen, duala enheter och vätskor & fasta ämnen tenderar att vara mer frekventa än kategorierna tidsuttryck, sjukdomar, platser och koncept/aktiviteter som involverar flera deltagare.

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    Semantiska aspekter av lexikal pluralitet. En typologisk studie av kushitiska språk
  • 1231. Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aggregating dialectology, typology, and register analysis: linguistic variation in text and speech2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume aims to overcome sub-disciplinary boundaries in the study of linguistic variation - be it language-internal or cross-linguistic. Even though dialectologists, register analysts, typologists, and quantitative linguists all deal with linguistic variation, there is astonishingly little interaction across these fields. But the fourteen contributions in this volume show that these subdisciplines actually share many interests and methodological concerns in common. The chapters specifically converge in the following ways: First, they all seek to explore linguistic variation, within or across languages. Second, they are based on usage data, that is, on corpora of (more or less) authentic text or speech of different languages or language varieties. Third, all chapters are concerned with the joint analysis (also sometimes known as “aggregation” or “data synthesis”) of multiple phenomena, features, or measurements of some sort. And lastly, the contributors all marshal quantitative analysis techniques to analyse the data. In short, the volume explores the text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies, demonstrating that there is much mutual inspiration to be had by thinking outside the disciplinary box.

  • 1232.
    Söderberg, Benny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Double Passive in Swedish: A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analysis showed that when the AGENT in a Double Passive construction is suppressed, it creates an argument structure that triggers an equi verb to occur as a raising verb (cf. Ørsnes 2006:404). Overt agents within constructions containing the Double Passive showed an even lower frequency than the low frequencies documented in previous research of passive constructions by Silén (1997) and Laanemets (2010). The lower frequency is partly a result of the fact that agents in a Double Passive construction are suppressed twice. The results of a corpus study showed a frequency of 3.57 % of overt agents within constructions containing Double Passives. The complementizer att ‘to’ in the subordinated infinitive clause of a Double Passive is overtly expressed, partly depending on the degree of modality of the matrix verb (cf. Sundman 1983; Teleman 1999; Lagerwall 1999), and the degree of semantic bonding between the matrix verb and the complement (Givón 2001b). The data (matrix verbs) collected in the corpus study were analysed according to a categorising-system in SAG (Teleman et al. 1999) and in Givón (2001a) and Givón (2001b). The matrix verbs with strong nominal (lexical) properties, e.g. planera ‘plan’, showed a high frequency of co-occurrence with full infinitives, as compared to matrix verbs with largely grammatical meaning, e.g. avse ‘intend’.

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    The Double Passive in Swedish: A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.
  • 1233.
    Söderlund, Göran B. W.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Southampton, UK.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Loftesnes, Jan M.
    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.
    The effects of background white noise on memory performance in inattentive school children2010In: Behavioral and Brain Functions, ISSN 1744-9081, E-ISSN 1744-9081, Vol. 6, no 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, a recent computational model based on the concepts of stochastic resonance and dopamine related internal noise postulates that a moderate amount of auditive noise benefit individuals in hypodopaminergic states. On the basis of this model we predicted that inattentive children would be enhanced by adding background white noise while attentive children's performance would deteriorate. Methods: Fifty-one secondary school pupils carried out an episodic verbal free recall test in two noise conditions. In the high noise condition, verb-noun sentences were presented during auditory background noise (white noise, 78 dB), and in the low noise condition sentences were presented without noise. Results: Exposure to background noise improved performance for inattentive children and worsened performance for attentive children and eliminated episodic memory differences between attentive and inattentive school children. Conclusions: Consistent with the model, our data show that cognitive performance can be moderated by external background white noise stimulation in a non-clinical group of inattentive participants. This finding needs replicating in a larger sample using more noise levels but if replicated has great practical applications by offering a non-invasive way to improve school results in children with attentional problems.

  • 1234.
    Söderlund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Auditory White Noise Enhances Cognitive Performance Under Certain Conditions: Examples from Visuo-Spatial Working Memory and Dichotic Listening Tasks2009In: Proceedings FONETIK 2009 / [ed] Peter Branderud & Hartmut Traunmüller, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm Universitet , 2009, p. 160-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines when external auditive noise can enhance performance in a dichotic listening and a visuo-spatial working memory task. Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental for cognitive performance; however, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR), a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. In particular we predict that low performers will be aided by noise whereas high performers decline in performance during the same condition. Data from two experiments will be presented; participants were students at Stockholm University.

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    fulltext
  • 1235.
    Söderlund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    sikström, Sverker
    Lunds Universitet.
    Positive effects of noise on cognitive performance: Explaining the moderate brain arousal model2008In: Noise as a Public Health Problem: Proceedings / [ed] Barbara Griefhan, Dortmund: Leibniz Gemeinschaft , 2008, p. 378-386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distractors and environmental noise has long been regarded as detrimental for different kinds of cognitive processing. In particular children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are extremely sensitive to distraction from task irrelevant stimuli. However, recently the opposite has been shown in an empirical study by Söderlund et al. (2007). Exposure to auditory white noise facilitated cognitive performance in ADHD children whereas control children performed worse in the noise condition. The mechanisms behind this paradoxical effect is described by the moderate brain arousal (MBA) model (Sikström & Söderlund, 2007) where the selective effect of noise is accounted for by the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR).  Stochastic resonance exists in any threshold-based system with random noise that requires passing of a threshold, e.g. the all or none nature of action potentials in neural systems. The basic assumption is that noise in the environment, through the perceptual system introduces internal noise in the neural system. According to the SR phenomenon moderate noise is beneficial for cognitive performance whereas both excessive and insufficient noise is detrimental. The MBA model suggests that dopamine levels modulate the amount of noise required for optimal cognitive performance. The model prediction is that low dopamine children, as in ADHD, require more noise as high dopamine children for optimal cognitive performance; in short, when dopamine is low noise is good.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 1236.
    Söderstedt, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    En studie av blickar och pekningars språkliga funktion hos barn i interaktion.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera hur blickar och pekningar förhåller sig till barns verbala yttranden. Jag har använt ett videoinspelat material där 8 hörande barn med typisk utveckling mellan 0;8 och 5;10 år interagerar. Ur detta har jag klippt sekvenser som passar min frågeställning, implementerat dem i annotationsprogrammet ELAN, och sedan annoterat och analyserat materialet. Av 77 deklarativa-informativa pekningar i det slutliga materialet fann jag 68 ha den tidigare kända funktionen för denna pekningstyp, att förekomma i en vanlig påståendesats. De återstående 9 hade ett blickmönster som skilde sig från dessa. Jag anser att dessa pekningar tillför yttrandet en betonande funktion. Jag fann även ytterligare 7 pekningar i samband med interrogativa satser som inte är tidigare beskrivna. De följde samma blickmönster som de betonade pekningarna. De slutsatser jag drog var att blickar i kombination med pekningar hos barn kan ha en betonande och en interrogativ funktion.

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  • 1237.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Beröringens roll för barns språkutveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Beröring är en modalitet som visat sig spela en stor roll i människans utveckling. Föreliggande studie hade för avsikt att undersöka beröringens roll i barnets språkutveckling, utifrån hur beröring förändras över tid och hur det påverkar barnets produktiva ordförråd. Fri interaktion mellan förälder och barn analyserades utifrån annoteringar med information om beröring, som duration och beröring med eller utan hud-mot-hudkontakt. I undersökningen inkluderades alla former av beröring i den totala beröringsdurationen. Tio barn studerades under det första levnadsåret och då de var 24 månader gamla. Resultaten visar att en minskning av beröringsduration sker under barnens första två levnadsår. Resultatet indikerar några intressanta tendenser som diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning. Beröring med hud-mot-hudkontakt verkar ha en annan roll än total beröring. Studien utformades explorativt och fann inget signifikant samband mellan beröring vid barns första och andra levnadsår och deras produktiva ordförråd vid 30 månader, varken med eller utan hud-mot-hudkontakt. Studien förser dock framtida forskning med tendenser som behöver studeras vidare.

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    Beröringens roll för barns språkutveckling
  • 1238.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Emblem use in parent-child interaction: A longitudinal study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates emblem use exploratory in parent-child interaction. Emblems are conventional gestures with a verbal equivalent. The aim of this study was to answer if emblem use facilitates language acquisition. Formulaic gestures – fixed gestures accompanying songs – were examined as a subgesture of emblems. 20 children and their parents’ emblem use were recorded when interacting freely at seven age points: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months. Emblem use was correlated to the children’s productive vocabulary at 30 months. The results showed that parental emblem use at 24 months and child emblem use at 15 months predicted child productive vocabulary at 30 months. T-tests showed how emblem production of children in a lower productive vocabulary group differed from children in a higher productive vocabulary group. A difference between the children of the lower productive vocabulary group and the children of the higher productive vocabulary group emblem use was also found at 15 months, indicating emblem use being important in language acquisition. Formulaic gestures did not correlate to child productive vocabulary. Emblem use developed along with child age and probably inherently with word production. Parents adjust their emblem use to the child’s age and/or possibly language skills, suggesting that child-directed gesturing occurs in parent-child interaction.

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    Emblem use in parent - child interaction
  • 1239.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The acquisition of Swedish prepositions: A longitudinal study of child comprehension and production of spatial prepositions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Prepositions are acquired at earliest during the second year of life. This thesis investigates 16 children acquiring Swedish spatial prepositions, i.e. ‘on/at’, i ‘in/at’, under ‘under’, bredvid ‘beside/next to’, bakom ‘behind/back’ and framför ‘in front’. This thesis aimed toinvestigate how preposition acquisition relates to language acquisition. The thesis used three different methods: eight sessions of free parent-child interaction, one structured experiment at 2;9 years and parental reports on child passive/active vocabulary from when the children were 0;9 years until they were 3;0 years old. The data gathered was correlated to scores in the parental reports at 4;0 years, which was used as a measure of communicative level, and used as a base when dividing the children into three groups: lower, average and higher score. The results showed that both parental and child preposition production, comprehension at 2;9 years, and comprehension and production predicted communicative level at 4;0 years. The results of the thesis varied depending on the method used. This highlights the importance if using several methods when investigating child language acquisition.

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    The acquisition of Swedish prepositions
  • 1240.
    Thofelt, Unn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Något om den konstruerade dialogen i svenskt teckenspråk2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppen rapporterat tal och citat är missvisande, enligt Tannen (1986, 1989), eftersom den som lyssnar på en utsaga, noterar kärnan och budskapet i utsagan. Vi återberättande. lägger dennen in sin egen tolkning i återgivningen. Den berättadne minns inte ordagrant vad som sades, utan återger den ur sitt eget perspektiv och minne. Tannen (1986, 1989) menar att det är bättre att kalla dessa återgivningar konstruerad dialog (constructed dialogue)och har definierat olika kategorier i sammanhanget.

    Metzger (1995) undersöker bruket av konstruerad dialog, enligt Tannens kategorier, inom amerikanskt teckenspråk. Metzger (1995) menar att sex av tio kategorier går att applicera.

    Föreliggande arbete visar att sju av Tannens tio kategorier är applicerbara på svenskt teckenspråk. Fyra kategorier är desamma som Metzger funnit, men övriga skiljer sig åt. I de analyserade texterna använder de berättande sig av konstruerad dialog i form av kategorierna Dialog representerande vad som inte sades, Dialog som typexempel, Sammanfattning av dialog, Dialog i kör, Dialog som inre tal, Vag referent och Icke-mänsklig talare.

  • 1241.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Andraspråkstalares realisering av svenskans kvnatitetsdistinktion2006In: Svenskans beskrivning 28: Förhandlingar vid tjugoåttonde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning - Örebro den 14-15 oktober 2005, 2006, p. 369-378Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie utgår från de behov som finns inom undervisningen i svenska som andraspråk,

    t.ex. vilka fonologiska kontraster och vilka fonetiska korrelat som är viktigast för att göra sig

    förstådd. Hur kan man beskriva de viktiga fonologiska/fonetiska egenskaperna så att de blir

    hanterliga för lärare och inlärare?

    Långvarigt arbete med undervisning, studier samt diskussioner med lärare och forskare har lett till

    slutsatsen att framförallt betoning och kvantitet är avgörande för att man ska göra sig förstådd.

    Forskning inom svensk prosodi ger stöd för tanken att duration (fysisk längd) är den viktigaste

    perceptuella ledtråden till både betoningen och kvantiteten i svenska.

    Svenskans ordbetoning kan illustreras med ordpar som kallas-kalas, racket-raket m.fl. medan

    kvantitetsdistinktion enklast illustreras med ordpar som tal-tall, vila-villa etc. Mitt avhandlingsarbete

    handlar främst om durationens roll som förmedlare av svenskans kvantitet, och om durationens

    samspel med vokalljudens spektrala egenskaper (klangfärg). Den komplementära konsonantlängden,

    som är nödvändig för generell förlängning av betonade stavelser spelar också en central roll i min

    forskning.

    Infödda svenskars realisering av kvantitetsdistinktionen är känd för att bestå av ett intrikat samspel

    mellan duration, spektrum och diftongering, för att skilja mellan lång och kort vokalallofon. Detta

    samspel skiljer sig mellan olika vokalfonem och dessutom mellan olika regionala varianter/dialekter.

    På grund av den nämnda komplexiteten kan man vänta sig att en andraspråkstalare medvetet eller

    omedvetet väljer en mindre komplex realisering och tar fasta på någon av de nämnda parametrarna

    på bekostnad av övriga. På grund av den dominans som durationen har som korrelat hos infödda

    talare, inom såväl vokalinventariet som det geografiska språkområdet, kan man förvänta att

    andraspråkstalare använder sig mer av duration än av klangfärgsskillnader och diftongering.

    Huvudfrågor för den aktuella studien är:

    • Hur gör framgångsrika andraspråkstalare rent fonetiskt/akustiskt för att förmedla svenskans

    kvantitetsdistinktion?

    • Har de framgångsrika talarnas förstaspråk fonologisk kvantitet i högre grad än icke

    framgångsrika talares?

    33 andraspråkstalare med 18 olika förstaspråk spelades in när de uttalade testorden gratis, matta,

    vila, sillen, mäta och etta. Orden uttalades i bärfrasen ”Det var ……… jag menade”. 10 infödda

    svenska talare, 5 män och 5 kvinnor, spelades in som referensmaterial. Durationer för hela

    yttranden, testorden, betonad vokal och efterföljande konsonant mättes och några relativa mått

    beräknades. Då gratis och matta är det ordpar där infödda svenskar oftast har klart hörbar spektral

    skillnad mellan lång och kort vokalallofon, mättes för dessa ord även värdet hos första och andra

    formanten, som är det gängse akustiska måttet på skillnaden i vokalspektrum i dimensionerna

    främre-bakre samt öppen-sluten. För ordparet vila-sillen undersöktes även graden av

    diftongering/palatalisering hos lång vokalallofon, som är ett typiskt drag i central standardsvenska.

    Analysen skedde med hjälp av lyssning, oscillogram och spektrogram i talanalysprogrammet Praat.

    Den huvudsakliga studien jämför andraspråkstalarnas lyckade uttal av testorden dels med de

    misslyckade uttalen och dels med de infödda svenska talarnas uttal av samma ord. Resultatet visar

    att de andraspråkstalare som fått ”godkänt” av samtliga 10 infödda svenska lyssnare, använde

    duration i ungefär samma utsträckning som de svenska talarna och spektrum/diftongering i betydligt

    mindre utsträckning.

    Modersmålets nyttjande av fonologisk kvantitet hade i detta material inte någon nämnvärd inverkan

    på hur talarna lyckades förmedla kvantiteten i svenska.

  • 1242.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Funderingar och forskning kring en basprosodisk undervisningsstrategi för uttalsundervisning i svenska som andraspråk2007In: Språklig mångfald och hållbar samhällsutveckling: Rapport från ASLA:s höstsymposium Eskilstuna, 9-10 november 2006, 2007, p. 265-284Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    In all teaching, some parts of the material probably is more important than others. It can be felt that for a long time all phonetic features in the field of Swedish as an L2, have been considered equally important for an acceptable L2-speech. In the late 70:s, however, distinct ideas of priority developed: A research project in Lund, conducted by Eva Gårding and Robert Bannert, aimed at optimizing Swedish pronunciation, concluded that prosody is a prerequisite for making oneself understood in spoken Swedish. Olle Kjellin (1978) contributed with the book Svensk prosodi i praktiken ’Swedish prosody in practice’. Here prosody was described in an easily comprehensible and consistent way..

    Some 30 years later many teaching media have adopted a simplified method for prosody marking in texts, that mostly is manifested in the underlining of letters that correspond to phonologically long segments, e.g. mata ‘feed’ – matta ‘carpet’, instead of just marking long or short vowel. This simple strategy contains – among others – the following assumptions:

    · Stressed syllables have longer duration than unstressed ones, and the extra length lies in the vowel or the postvocalic consonant.

    · Lengthening the correct segment in stressed syllables is the primary way of realizing both stress and quantity – vowel and consonant durations are equally important.

    · The rhythmical properties of Swedish, i.e. stress and quantity – are more important than tonal properties e.g. the word accents 1/acute and 2/grave.

    · Segment duration, as a means of realizing quantity, is more important than spectral differences between /V:/ and /V/

    My research focuses on the duration of the postvocalic consonant, and my results imply that:

    · Duration is the main perceptual cue for quantity in Swedish, for all vowels except /ʉ/, but duration does contribute the categorization in long and short /ʉ/.

    · The duration of the postvocalic consonant helps listeners to perceive quantity category when the vowel duration is between typical values for long and short allophone.

    · Unambiguous L2-realizations of Swedish quantity and word stress always follow the temporal pattern /V:C/-/VC:/.

    · Native Swedish speakers produced longer postvocalic consonants after short vowel in English and German words, than did native speakers of English and German.

  • 1243.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    SWEDISH ACCENT: DURATION OF POST-VOCALIC CONSONANTS IN NATIVE SWEDES2007In: 16th International Conference of Phonetic Sciences: 6-10 August 2007 Saarbrücken Germany, 2007, p. 1693-1696Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In order to test the persistency of the Swedish

    complementary durational pattern of VCsequences

    in stressed syllables, a number of native

    Swedish speakers were recorded when

    pronouncing words in English and German. The

    words were of a kind that were expected to be

    perceived by Swedes as having “short vowel”.

    Swedish speakers pronounced the test words with

    significantly longer post-vocalic stop consonant /k/

    and /t/, than did native English and German

    speakers, but not when the test word contained a

    post-vocalic nasal /m/. This asymmetry was not

    found when native Swedish speakers pronounced

    Swedish words with the same segments in the VCsequence.

  • 1244.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The priority of temporal aspects in L2-Swedish prosody: Studies in perception and production2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign accent can be everything from hardly detectable to rendering the second language speech unintelligible. It is assumed that certain aspects of a specific target language contribute more to making the foreign accented speech intelligible and listener friendly, than others. The present thesis examines a teaching strategy for Swedish pronunciation in second language education. The teaching strategy “Basic prosody” or BP, gives priority to temporal aspects of Swedish prosody, which means the temporal phonological contrasts word stress and quantity, as well as the durational realizations of these contrasts. BP does not prescribe any specific tonal realizations. This standpoint is based on the great regional variety in realization and distribution of Swedish word accents. The teaching strategy consists virtually of three directives:

    · Stress the proper word in the sentence.

    · Stress proper syllables in stressed words and make them longer.

    · Lengthen the proper segment – vowel or subsequent consonant – in the stressed syllable.

    These directives reflect the view that all phonological length is stress-induced, and that vowel length and consonant length are equally important as learning goals. BP is examined in the light of existing findings in the field of second language pronunciation and with respect to the phonetic correlates of Swedish stress and quantity. Five studies examine the relation between segment durations and the categorization made by native Swedish listeners. The results indicate that the postvocalic consonant duration contributes to quantity categorization as well as giving the proper duration to stressed syllables. Furthermore, native Swedish speakers are shown to apply the complementary /V: C/ - /VC:/ pattern also when speaking English and German, by lengthening postvocalic consonants. The correctness of the priority is not directly addressed but important aspects of BP are supported by earlier findings as well as the results from the present studies.

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  • 1245.
    Thöny, Luzius
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Universität Zürich, Schweiz.
    Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Althochdeutschen, unter der Leitung von Rosemarie Lühr erarbeitet von Harald Bichlmeier, Maria Kozianka und Roland Schuhmann mit Beiträgen von Albert L. Lloyd unter Mitarbeit von Karen K. Purdy, Bd. V: iba – luzzilo, Göttingen 20142015In: Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur, ISSN 0044-2518, Vol. 144, no 3, p. 384-389Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1246.
    Thöny, Luzius
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Universität Zürich.
    Zum diachronen Verhalten von Diphthongen in einigen germanischen Sprachen2014In: Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik, ISSN 0165-7305, E-ISSN 1875-6719, Vol. 71, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1247. Tjong Kim Sang, Erik
    et al.
    Bollmann, Marcel
    Boschker, Remko
    Casacuberta, Francisco
    Dietz, Feike
    Dipper, Stefanie
    Domingo, Miguel
    van der Goot, Robe
    van Koppen, Marjo
    Ljubešić, Nikola
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Petran, Florian
    Pettersson, Eva
    Scherrer, Yves
    Schraagen, Marijn
    Sevens, Leen
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Vanallemeersch, Tom
    Zervanou, Kalliopi
    The CLIN27 Shared Task: Translating Historical Text to Contemporary Language for Improving Automatic Linguistic Annotation2017In: Computational Linguistics in the Netherlands Journal, ISSN 2211-4009, Vol. 7, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CLIN27 shared task evaluates the effect of translating historical text to modern text with the goal of improving the quality of the output of contemporary natural language processing tools applied to the text. We focus on improving part-of-speech tagging analysis of seventeenth-century Dutch. Eight teams took part in the shared task. The best results were obtained by teams employing character-based machine translation. The best system obtained an error reduction of 51% in comparison with the baseline of tagging unmodified text. This is close to the error reduction obtained by human translation (57%).

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  • 1248. Toyota, Junichi
    et al.
    Hallonsten, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kovačević, Borko
    The gerund and the infinitive as indicators of time reference2011In: ELLSIIR Proceedings, Vol. I / [ed] Jelena Vujić, Nenad Tomović, Belgrade: University of Belgrade Press , 2011, p. 325-333Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1249.
    Trampe, Peter af
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Two experimental studies in foreign language learning/teaching1982Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The case for experimental research on the efficiency of methods of foreign language teaching is pleaded. In the first study, the effects of different practice materials on beginners' word-decoding ability in Russian was examined. The Russian words were divided into three categories: 1. The KTO-type. These words are in conflict with Swedish phonotactic rules and their meaning is not evident to a Swedish beginner. 2. The MAKET-type These words are phonotactically non-contrastive. To a Swedish learner, they are semantically opaque, however. 3. The ATOM-type. These words are also phonotactically non-contrastive and their meaning is potentially transparent to the Swedish beginner. Three groups of subjects were formed — each group practising on one and only one of the word-types. All subjects were then given a decoding test on all three types. No significant differences between groups were found, but there was significant interaction to the effect that the group that had practised on the more difficult KTO-type of words was better at decoding that type than the other groups. This group got the decoding of the MAKET and ATOM types into the bargain. Thus, in this case, progression need not be ' from the simple to the difficult ". In fact, it seems preferable to start with the more difficult words In the second experiment, two different ways of learning vocabulary in a foreign language (English) were compared, viz. concept learning in 11 with subsequent memorization of the L2 labels vs. concept learning in L2 with subsequent memorization of the L1 labels. The concepts and vocabulary of heraldry were used. With a group of university students of English, the English labels were learned more efficiently in the L2 concept learning case. With a group of 17-year-old high-school pupils, however, the results were inconclusive. It is suggested that the outcome in the latter case is due to language (LI) preference in connection with, or rather than, poorer foreign language proficiency The results indicate, then, that concept learning as a means to foreign language vocabulary acquisition will be effective in many cases, where the learning situation is comparable to the present experimental situation: i.e. where it is possible to combine the learning of L2 with the acquisition of new knowledge about the world. The L2 proficiency and language preferences of the learners must be taken into account, however

  • 1250.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    A note on hidden factors in vowel perception experiments.1990In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 2015-9Article in journal (Refereed)
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