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  • 1251.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Size and physiological effort in the production of signed and spoken utterances2001In: Fonetik 2001: Working Papers 49, 2001, p. 164-167Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the energy required in order to articulate manual and oral gestures at a given rate varies in proportion with the fifth power of linear body size, while the energy supply varies with its second power. This provides for a better understanding of the differences in peripheralness observed in the formant frequencies of vowels in speech articulated more or less forcefully by men, women and children.

  • 1252.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Some aspects of the sound of speech sounds1987In: The Psychophysics of Speech Perception, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht , 1987, p. 293-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1253.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Sound symbolism in deictic words2000In: Tongues and Texts Unlimited: Studies in Honour of Tore Jansson on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Anniversary / [ed] Hans Aili & Peter af Trampe, Dept. of Classical Languages, Stockholm University , 2000, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After a short introduction to the phenomenon of sound symbolism, its possible effects on the proximal and distal demonstratives and the personal pronouns of the first and second person are investigated. For this purpose, word pairs in which there is a straight forward difference that is compatible with or contrary to the expectations suggested by sound symbolism have been counted. Forms with a common etymology have been taken as a single case. The results confirm that vowels in proximal demonstratives tend to have a higher 'sibilant pitch', or F2', than do those in the distal demonstratives of the same languages, and they show that such forms have an advantage in their struggle for existence in languages. Counterexamples are found only in languages with a small number of speakers. It is, further, found that nasals are preferred in first person pronouns while stops and other obstruents are preferred in second person pronouns. This is attributed to the proprioceptive qualities of these classes of speech sounds. In addition, it is suggested that association with lingual or labial pointing gestures may affect the preferences of consonants. It is observed that the pronouns of most language groups of Europe and Northern Asia are likely to be etymologically related, while sound symbolism may have contributed to the survival of their similarities. It is, however, also shown that similarities that have been taken as evidence for far-reaching genetic relationships can sometimes be readily understood as genetically independent reflections of universal sound symbolism.

  • 1254.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    The role of F0 in vowel perception1998Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an on-line auditory demonstration.

  • 1255.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Towards a More Well-Founded Cosmology2018In: Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung A-A Journal of Physical Sciences, ISSN 0932-0784, E-ISSN 1865-7109, Vol. 73, no 11, p. 1005-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First, this paper broaches the definition of science and the epistemic yield of tenets and approaches: phenomenological (descriptive only), well founded (solid first principles, conducive to deep understanding), provisional (falsifiable if universal, verifiable if existential), and imaginary (fictitious entities or processes, conducive to empirically unsupported beliefs). The Big Bang paradigm and the ΛCDM `concordance model' involve such beliefs: the emanation of the universe out of a non-physical stage, cosmic inflation (hardly testable), Λ (fictitious energy), and `exotic' dark matter. They fail in the confidence check that empirical science requires. They also face a problem in delimiting what expands from what does not. In the more well-founded cosmology that emerges, energy is conserved, the universe is persistent (not transient), and the `perfect cosmological principle' holds. Waves and other field perturbations that propagate at c (the escape velocity of the universe) expand exponentially with distance. This results from gravitation. The galaxy web does not expand. Potential Φ varies as -H/(cz) instead of -1/r. Inertial forces reflect gradients present in comoving frames of accelerated bodies (interaction with the rest of the universe - not with space). They are increased where the universe appears blue-shifted and decreased more than proportionately at very low accelerations. A cut-off acceleration a0 = 0.168 cH is deduced. This explains the successful description of galaxy rotation curves by "Modified Newtonian Dynamics". A fully elaborated physical theory is still pending. The recycling of energy via a cosmic ocean filled with photons (the cosmic microwave background), neutrinos and gravitons, and the wider implications for science are briefly discussed.

  • 1256.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Viskningar och rop: Paralingvistisk fonetik2000In: Att förstå det mänskliga: Humanistisk forskning vid Stockholms universitet / [ed] Kerstin Dahlbäck, Natur och Kultur, Stockholm , 2000, p. 308-330Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1257.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wolfgang von Kempelen's speaking machine and its successors1997Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    History of speech synthesis, 1770-1970.

  • 1258.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Zur Geschichte der Sprachsynthese1997Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    History of speech synthesis, 1770-1970

  • 1259.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Bigestans, Aina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of the quantity distinction in Swedish /VC/-sequences1988In: FONETIK 1988: Working Papers 34, 1988, p. 124-127Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1260.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acoustic effects of variation in vocal effort by men, women, and children.2000In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 3438-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic effects of the adjustment in vocal effort that is required when the distance between speaker and addressee is varied over a large range (0.3-187.5 m) were investigated in phonated and, at shorter distances, also in whispered speech. Several characteristics were studied in the same sentence produced by men, women, and 7 year-old boys and girls: duration of vowels and consonants, pausing and occurrence of creaky voice, mean and range of F0, certain formant frequencies (F1 in [a] and F3), SPL of voiced segments and [s], and spectral emphasis. In addition to levels and emphasis, vowel duration, F0, and F1 were substantially affected. “Vocal effort” was defined as the communicational distance estimated by a group of listeners for each utterance. Most of the observed effects correlated better with this measure than with the actual distance, since some additional factors affected the speakers’ choice. Differences between speaker groups emerged in segment durations, pausing behavior, and in the extent to which the SPL of [s] was affected. The whispered versions are compared with the phonated versions produced by the same speakers at the same distance. Several effects of whispering are found to be similar to those of increasing vocal effort.

  • 1261.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    The frequency range of the voice fundamental in the speech of male and female adults1993Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Published data on the frequency of the voice fundamental (F0) in speech show its range of variation, often expressed in terms of two standard deviations (SD) of the F0-distribution, to be approximately the same for men and women if expressed in semitones, but the observed SD varies substantially between different investigations. Most of the differences can be attributed to the following factors: SD is increased in tone languages and it varies with the type of discourse. The more ‘lively’ the type of discourse, the larger it is. The dependence of SD on the type of discourse tends to be mom pronounced in the speech of women than of men. Based on an analysis of various production data A is shown that speakers normally achieve an increased SD by increasing the excursions of F0 from a ‘base-value’ that lies about 1.5 SD below their mean F0. This is relevant to applications in speech technology as well as to general theories of speech communication such as the ‘modulation theory’ in which the base-value of F0 is seen as a carrier frequency.

  • 1262.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The perceptual evaluation of F0 excursions in speech as evidenced in liveliness estimations.1995In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 1905-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to learn how listeners evaluate F0 excursions, a set of experiments was performed in which subjects had to estimate the liveliness of utterances. The stimuli were obtained by LPC analysis of one natural utterance that was modified by resynthesizing F0 , the formant frequencies, and the time scale in order to simulate some of the natural extra- and paralinguistic variations that affect F0 and/or liveliness, namely the speaker's age, sex, articulation rate, and voice register. In each case, the extent of the F0 excursions was varied in seven steps. The results showed that, as long as the stimuli appeared to have been produced in the modal register (of men, women, and children), listeners judged F0 intervals to be equivalent if they were equal in semitones. When the voice register was shifted without adjustment in articulation , listeners appeared to judge the F0 excursions in relation to the spectral space available below F1 . The liveliness ratings were found to be strongly dependent on articulation rate and to be affected by the perceived age of the speaker which, with the manipulated stimuli used here, turned out to be significantly affected by the sex of the listener.

  • 1263.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Ménard, Lucie
    Perception of speaker age, sex and vowel quality inves­tigated using stimuli produced with an articulatory model2003In: Proceedings of the XVth ICPhS, 2003, p. 1739-1742Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the perception of linguistic and paralinguistic qualities conveyed by synthetic vowels produced with an articulatory model in which transfer func­tions of the French vowels /i y e ø E œ/ characteristic of five growth stages were each combined with five different F0 values. Listeners had to judge the speaker's age and sex in addition to vowel quality. Four subgroups of listeners were distinguished, according to sex and frequency of contact with children. The results were subjected to regression analy­sis based on ctitical band rate (z) and logarithmic values of F0, F1 to F5 and calculated values of F2’. This showed (Z1 -0.6 Z0) to correlate highly with vowel openness and 0.8 (Z4 -Z3) with roundedness in addition to Z2'. F0 and the formants above F1 contributed equally to age percep­tion. There were slight but significant differences between listener groups and there was a tendency to perceive vowels as produced by a younger speaker when perceived as rounded - older when not. This can be understood as due to a choice listeners have in interpreting lower formants as due to liprounding or a permanently longer vocal tract indicative of a higher age.

  • 1264.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    An experiment on the cues to the identification of fricatives1987In: Proceedings, XIth ICPhS, 1987, p. Vol. 5: 205-208Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic fricatives with two spectral peaks scanning a wide range of frequencies were put into three versions of the context [a_'ɛ:], also generated synthetically, and imitating a male speaker (1), a child (2), and an aroused male speaker (3) with elevated F0 and F1. The stimuli were presented in two orders, with increasing or decreasing frequencies of the spectral peaks, to 16 speakers of Swedish who identified the fricatives as [f], [s], [ɕ], [ʂ], or [ɧ]. In a given context, the obtained phonetic boundaries followed mainly the spectral peak lowest in frequency, while the upper peak contributed only marginally even if it was at a distance less than the "critical distance" of about 3 Bark. In context (2), as conpared with (1), the phonetic boundaries were shifted up, but less (in Bark) than the vowel formants.

  • 1265.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.2003In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 187-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high.

  • 1266.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    van Dommelen, Wim A.
    Local speaking rate and perceived quantity2003In: Fonetik 2003: PHONUM 9, 2003, p. 41-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier experiment, we have shown that the local speaking rate affects the perception of quantity of Estonian listeners. In order to see if this effect is language dependent, we presented the same stimuli to Finns and a subset to Norwegians, whose languages have a different and smaller functional load of quantity distinctions. The results obtained with Estonian and Finnish listeners are compatible with a model of speech perception in which variations in speaking rate are reflected in the pace of an "inner clock" by which listeners measure segment durations. More 'absolute' and narrow scoped results with Norwegians are compatible with such a model only if the inner clocks of listeners with a less demanding linguistic background are assumed to resist such an influence to a higher degree.

  • 1267.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perceptual relativity in identification of two-formant vowels1987In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is attempted to reduce the phonetic quality of vowels to the positions of the peaks in their tonotopical spectra relative to the other peaks, simultaneous or preceding in context. Synthetic two-formant vowels were identified by speakers of languages that differentiate richly among high vowels (Swedish, Turkish). The parameters F1 (204-801 Hz) and F2' (509-3702 Hz) were systematically varied in steps of 0.75 critical bandwidth. F0 was kept close below F1 in all vowels. These were presented in two orders with subsequently rising or falling F2'. Most subjects heard predominantly close vowels. The "isophones" of most subjects could be described in a uniform manner implying a normalization with respect to two reference points, one at a distance of 3 critical bands above F0 and the other one at an absolute position corresponding to 2.8 kHz. It is speculated that this second reference point might represent a default position of the third formant or the like.

  • 1268.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    van Bezooijen, Renée
    The auditory perception of children’s age and sex1994In: Proceedings ICSLP-94, 1994, p. vol. 3: 1171-1174Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiments reported here provided some data on the accuracy with which listeners rate the age of speakers, and some knowledge about the relative contributions of underlying factors such as F0, the formant frequencies, and the 'verbal maturation' of children. The speech material consisted of excerpts from interviews with boys and girls in the age groups 5, 7, 9, and 11 years. Utterances which contained verbal cues to age were eliminated after presenting written versions to a panel of judges. The retained utterances were LPC-analyzed and resynthesized with modifications, to obtain (1) natural speech, (2) whispered speech, (3) speech of 9 year olds with F0, formants, and speech rate modified as at an age of 5, 7, 9, and 11 years, and (4) whispered versions of (3). The listeners agreed in their age ratings with an SD that increased from 1.3 at 5 to 1.8 at 11 years. The differences in SD between the four types of speech were small, but there was a bias toward 8 to 9 years in the modified versions. Multidimensional regression analysis showed the perceptual weight of the factors to decrease slightly in the order (1) verbal maturation, (2) formants (and rate), (3) F0. As for the distinction boy/girl, there was a slight improvement in correctness with age and a general bias to classify the younger children as girls and the older ones as boys.

  • 1269.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual perception of openness and lip rounding in front vowels2007In: Journal of Phonetics, Vol. 35, p. 244-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables /gig/, /gyg/, /geg/ and /gøg/, produced by four speakers, were video-recorded and presented to male and female subjects in auditory, visual and audiovisual mode and also in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with incongruent cues to vowel openness, roundedness, or both. With audiovisual stimuli, subjects perceived openness nearly always by ear. Most subjects perceived roundedness by eye rather than by ear although the auditory conditions were optimal and the sensation was an auditory one. This resulted in fused percepts such as when an acoustic /geg/ dubbed onto an optic /gyg/ was predominantly perceived as /gøg/. Since the acoustic cues to openness are prominent, while those to roundedness are less reliable, this lends support to the “information reliability hypothesis” in multisensory perception: The perception of a feature is dominated by the modality that provides the more reliable information. A mostly male minority relied less on vision. The between-gender difference was significant. Presence of lip rounding (a visibly marked feature) was noticed more easily than its absence. The influence of optic information was not fully explicable on the basis of the subjects’ success rates in lipreading compared with auditory perception. It was highest in stimuli produced by a speaker who smiled.

  • 1270.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The auditory and the visual percept evoked by the same audiovisual stimuli2007In: Proceedings of the international conference AVSP 2007: International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In analyses and models of audiovisual speech perception, it has been common to consider three percepts: (1) the auditory percept evoked by acoustic stimuli, (2) the visual percept evoked by optic stimuli and (3) a common percept evoked by synchronous optic and acoustic stimuli. Here, it is shown that a vocal percept that is heard and influenced by vision has to be distinguished from a gestural percept that is seen and influenced by audition. In the two experiments reported, syllables distinguished solely by their vowels [i], [y] or [e] were presented to phonetically sophisticated subjects auditorily, visually and in incongruently cross-dubbed audiovisual form. In the first, the subjects rated roundedness, lip spreading, openness and backness of the vowels they heard - in the second of those they saw. The results confirmed that roundedness is mainly heard by eye while openness is heard by ear. Heard backness (retraction) varied with the acoustic and optic presence of roundedness. Seen openness was substantially influenced by acoustic cues, while there was no such influence on seen roundedness. The results are discussed in the context of theories and models.

  • 1271.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The effect of incongruent visual cues on the heard quality of front vowels2007In: ICPhS XVI: 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 2007, p. 721-724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables distinguished solely by their vowels [i], [y] or [e], were presented to phonetically sophisticated subjects auditorily, visually and in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with

    incongruent cues to openness, roundedness or both. Acoustic [y] dubbed onto optic [i] or [e] was heard as a retracted [i], while acoustic [i] or [e] dubbed onto optic [y] were perceived as rounded and slightly fronted. This confirms the higher weight of the more reliable information and that intermodal integration occurs at the level of phonetically informative properties prior to any categorization.

  • 1272.
    Uddén, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Männel, Claudia
    Artifical Grammar Learning and its Neurobiology in Relation to Language Processing and Development2018In: The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics / [ed] Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, M. Gareth Gaskell, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 2, p. 755-783Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm enables systematic investigation of the acquisition of linguistically relevant structures. It is a paradigm of interest for language processing research, interfacing with theoretical linguistics, and for comparative research on language acquisition and evolution. This chapter presents a key for understanding major variants of the paradigm. An unbiased summary of neuroimaging findings of AGL is presented, using meta-analytic methods, pointing to the crucial involvement of the bilateral frontal operculum and regions in the right lateral hemisphere. Against a background of robust posterior temporal cortex involvement in processing complex syntax, the evidence for involvement of the posterior temporal cortex in AGL is reviewed. Infant AGL studies testing for neural substrates are reviewed, covering the acquisition of adjacent and non-adjacent dependencies as well as algebraic rules. The language acquisition data suggest that comparisons of learnability of complex grammars performed with adults may now also be possible with children.

  • 1273.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Hörselkliniken, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Cecilgård, Margareta
    Hägg, Åsa
    Tvåspråkighet - en jämförande studie2007In: Audio-Nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1274.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Hägg, Åsa
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Tvåspråkighet avseende tidig parallell tal- och teckenspråksutveckling hos barn med hörselskada eller dövhet.2005In: Logopednytt, no 6, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1275. Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Using a multi-feature paradigm to measure mismatch responses to minimal sound contrasts in children with cochlear implants and hearing aids2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5.17, p = 0.028 and F(1,43) = 6.56, p = 0.014, respectively) and negative (MMN) for the duration deviant (F(1,43) = 4.74, p = 0.035). Only the intensity deviant showed a significant group interaction with MMN in the HA group and p-MMR in the CI group (F(2,43) = 3.40, p = 0.043). The p-MMR correlated negatively with age, with the strongest correlation in the NH subjects. In the CI group, the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was replaced by a late positivity with a significant group interaction for the location deviant. Children with severe HI can be assessed through their hearing device with a fast multi-feature paradigm. For further studies a multi-feature paradigm including more complex speech sounds may better capture variation in auditory processing in these children.

  • 1276.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mattson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eye tracking for establishing hearing thresholds in infants - evaluation of a new methodology2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing test in small children is a challenge during the first 1-2 years and in children with other disabilities even longer. With neonatal hearing screening hearing aids can be fitted as early as two months of age. Programming of the hearing aid then has to be based on ABR thresholds until the child is old enough to give a distinct behavioral response, typically at 4-6 months. However, ABR is not frequency specific and it requires a quite or sleeping child. Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA). is based upon the head-turn paradigm and involves that the infant builds up an association between the presence of a sound stimulus and a reward display. This behavioral observation test suffers from poor reliability, lengthy test times across several sessions, heavy experimenter bias, and interpretative ambiguity of the broad variety of possible infant responses.

    This presentation describes a new method to objectively, automatically and adaptively determine reactions to sound stimuli. With an eye tracker and a computer based set-up the infants response, in anticipation towards a reward at the noted presence of an auditory stimulus (similar to VRA), can be registered, using eye movements instead of head turns. High test reliability and experimenter independence are achieved by the program´s automatic detection of infant response and adaptation of the next stimulus level. Result objectivity is improved by increasing the number of test trials for each frequency and hearing level, as well as by providing a significance level for each tested frequency depending on the number of trials.

  • 1277.
    Umberto, Ansaldo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    A typology of comparatives in Sinitic: grammaticalization, patterns and language contact1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation offers a window on the grammatical diversity of Chinese languages, hereafter referred to as Sinitic. It focuses in particular on comparative constructions of southern varieties such as Cantonese, Minnan and Hakka and compares these to northern Mandarin as well as some non- Sinitic languages of Southeast Asia. A typology of comparative constructions in Sinitic is established and their grammatical properties are described. The evolution of these constructions is discussed with particular attention for the role of language contact and their areal typology.

    Three dominant types of comparatives are found in Sinitic, which divide China in three zones: south, north and southeast. The southern type is cognate to non-Sinitic varieties such as Hmong, Vietnamese and Lao as can be seen in the parallel process of grammaticalization the construction undergoes in these languages. This is yet another structural feature that defines Southeast Asia, including southern China, as a linguistic area per se. The northern type found in Mandarin is, on the other hand, quite unique both in terms of grammaticalization and word-order typology with the closest possible type found in Korean. Interference from Altaic languages is suggested on typological and historical grounds to account for this and possibly other ‘oddities’ in the grammar of Mandarin when compared to other Sinitic varieties. The southeastern type can be seen as a hybrid of the first two types described above, a fact that could define the area where it is found as a merging point of southern and northern varieties.

    This work hopes to contribute to the field of typological studies of Chinese varieties, a group of languages too often ignored in terms of syntactic diversity. In deconstructing the myth of a uniform ‘Chinese’ grammar we unveil a world of considerable linguistic diversity which in its turn is only an aspect of the cultural and ethnic diversity China has to offer.

  • 1278. Utka, A.
    et al.
    Grigonyté, GintaréStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Kapočiūtė-Dzikienė, J.Vaičenonienė, J.
    Human Language Technologies – The Baltic Perspective: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Baltic HLT 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains papers from the Fourth International Conference on Human Language Technologies - the Baltic Perspective (Baltic HLT 2010), held in Riga in October 2010. This conference is the latest in a series which provides a forum for sharing recent advances in human language processing, and promotes cooperation between the computer science and linguistics communities of the Baltic countries and the rest of the world. Bringing together scientists, developers, providers and users, the conference is an opportunity to exchange information, discuss problems, find new synergies and promote initiatives for international cooperation.

    The 32 papers collected have been submitted by 77 authors from 11 countries, after review by an international program committee. They cover a wide range of research topics in corpus linguistics, machine translation, speech technologies, semantics and other areas of HLT research. This proceedings reflects the current state of HLT in the Baltic countries and the work towards creating a Baltic linguistic infrastructure. Human Language Technologies – The Baltic Perspective is a useful and comprehensive repository of information and will facilitate further research and development of HLT in the Baltic region, and the creation of a pan-European research infrastructure of the language resources and technology.

  • 1279.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Breaking paradigms: A typological study of nominal and adjectival suppletion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suppletion is a term used to describe the occurrence of unpredictable and irregular patterns. Although typological research has been devoted to verb suppletion, not as much attention has been given to suppletion in nominal and adjectival paradigms. The thesis presents the cross-linguistic distribution of nominal and adjectival suppletion. The lexical distribution as well as the features involved are presented. The results of nominal suppletion show that nouns referring to humans are most often suppletive, that number is the most common grammatical feature involved in nominal suppletion and that „child‟ is by far the most common noun to be suppletive cross-linguistically. The results on adjectival suppletion show that adjectival suppletion is well spread though not very common cross-linguistically. A study of 8 Semitic languages shows that „woman‟ versus „women‟ are stable suppletive forms in this language family.

  • 1280.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Progressive constructions in Iranian languages2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1281.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Progressives in use and contact: A descriptive, areal and typological study with special focus on selected Iranian languages2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressives are grammatical patterns primarily used to refer to events that are ongoing at a specific time. This thesis investigates uses of such patterns in a number of languages as well as the interaction of a number of progressives in contact. The dissertation includes a typological study of the uses of 89 progressive patterns in two parallel corpora, an investigation of the uses and origin of the Persian dāštan progressive and an areal linguistic investigation of 50 Iranian varieties spoken around the Caspian Sea.

    The dissertation presents features that increase the likelihood that a progressive is used. Such features are 1) a focalized (punctual) reference point, 2) the engagement or ‘busyness’ of the agentive subject on the event, 3) an emotive component and 4) the desire to turn the attention of the addressee towards an ongoing event. The significance of these features is expected to weaken as progressives grammaticalize.

    There is a cross-linguistic tendency for progressives to occur more often with present time reference than with past time reference. In some cases, they are even restricted to the former. Among the varieties of the Iranian language Taleshi, on the other hand, we find asymmetric temporal paradigms as a consequence of former progressive patterns having expanded and lost their progressive character in the present but not in the past.

    The study also shows that progressives are used differently in the present and the past: while events with present time reference often have the features mentioned above in 1-4, events with past time reference are often, although not exclusively, background contexts to other events pushing the narration forward.

    The thesis also discusses various peripheral uses of progressives, such as uses in habitual and performative-like contexts, proximative, iterative and futurate uses, uses with stative verbs and temporary and subjective uses. Some of these tend to be found in patterns with higher frequencies and can be regarded as expansions towards the imperfective. Other uses are linked to the type of event to which the progressive applies: the proximative reading is shown to arise with achievements and the iterative use with repeated punctual events.  

    The data from the varieties of the Iranian languages Mazandarani, Gilaki, Taleshi and Tati, as well as from varieties under the influence of Persian, suggests that the progressive in these varieties is highly borrowable. Among the varieties discussed in Chapter 5, an areal cline is noted where constructional schemas used for ongoing events shift towards the imperfective. In the borrowing process, on occasion, a shift from progressive to proximative is also noted. As expected, the data from Caspian varieties shows that there are more progressive patterns than imperfective patterns.

  • 1282.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Finite Independency: A study of the relevance of the notion of finiteness in Hdi.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that there is a finiteness distinction in Hdi and that the notion is of value for a description of the language. The definition of finiteness suitable for the language has been suggested to be the one given by Anderson (2007) combined with Bisang (2007). The finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically independent ones while the non-finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically dependent. However, no morphological reductions were found in the non-finite clauses relative to the finite ones. What is more, negation in Hdi shows a nontypical behaviour regarding finiteness properties as there are aspectual distinctions made for dependent clauses that are not made for independent. Verbless clauses and imperatives may be viewed as finite and non-finite depending on their capacity to licence independent predication or, alternatively, they may be viewed as not displaying finiteness properties at all. The latter is argued to be preferred in order to avoid a redundant definition of finiteness.

  • 1283.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology of nominal and adjectival suppletion2013In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 112-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a sample-based typological account of suppletion in nouns and adjectives. The distribution of the grammatical categories involved in the suppletive forms is presented along with the lexical meanings most commonly found to be suppletive. It is demonstrated that nominal suppletion is not a rare phenomenon and most commonly involves the feature number followed by possession. The noun ‘child’ is the most common suppletive noun. In general, nouns referring to humans are more likely to be suppletive than others. The investigation shows that adjectival suppletion is less common than nominal suppletion and affects frequent adjectives with general meanings of the types value and size.

  • 1284.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Negation of existential predications in Swedish: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this corpus study is to provide an adequate description of negation strategies in existential predications in Swedish. In Swedish, existential predications may be negated by a standard negative marker. Another possibility to negate existence is by using a negative indefinite pronoun. In negation of existential predications in Swedish, the choice between standard negation and indefinite pronouns, whether negative or not, has not been previously described in any descriptive or theoretical work. It is therefore the purpose of the current study to describe what factors determine the choice of negative marker in existential predications. The results of this study show that there is a strong preference to negate existential predications with a negative indefinite pronoun. Further, it is shown that the negative indefinite pronoun is frequently used as a modifier to the pivot, and thus states an unconditional absence. 

  • 1285.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Privativa adjektiv och deras motsatsord: En studie i hur frånvaro och närvaro av en egenskap uttrycks i svenska2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1286. van der Auwera, Johan
    et al.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dočekal, Mojmír
    Typologie negace2017In: Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny online / [ed] Petr Karlík, Marek Nekula, Jana Pleskalová, Prague: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1287.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anpassningsstrategier i lajvspråk2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1288.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cross-linguistic Lexical Change: Why, How and How Fast?2010In: Proceedings of WIGL 2010, University of Wisconsin, Madison , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1289.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lexical change often begins and ends in semantic peripheries Evidence from color linguistics2018In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 50-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses semantic change and lexical replacement processes in the color domain, based on color naming studies in seven Germanic languages (where diachronic intra-linguistic development is inferred from cross-linguistic synchronic studies) and from different generations of speakers in a single language (Swedish). Change in the color domain often begins and ends in conceptual peripheries, and I argue that this perspective is suitable for other semantic domains as well.

  • 1290.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skarp, vass och sharp – semantiska relationer hos tre perceptionsadjektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1291.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    To Database Meaning: Building the Typological Database of Temperature Terms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1292.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tolklangs in the "€œReal" World2005In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on J.R.R. Tolkien's Invented Languages, Stockholm., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1293.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholms universitet.
    Triangulating Perspectives on Lexical Replacement: From Predictive Statistical Models to Descriptive Color Linguistics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate lexical replacement processes from several complementary perspectives. It does so through three studies, each with a different scope and time depth.

    The first study (chapter 3) takes a high time depth perspective and investigates factors that affect the rate (likelihood) of lexical replacement in the core vocabulary of 98 Indo-European language varieties through a multiple linear regression model. The chapter shows that the following factors predict part of the rate of lexical replacement for non-grammatical concepts: frequency, the number of synonyms and senses, and how imageable the concept is in the mind.

    What looks like a straightforward lexical replacement at a high time depth perspective is better understood as several intertwined gradual processes of lexical change at lower time depths. The second study (chapter 5) narrows the focus to seven closely-related Germanic language varieties (English, German, Bernese, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic) and a single semantic domain, namely color.  The chapter charts several lexical replacement and change processes in the pink and purple area of color space through experiments with 146 speakers.

    The third study (chapter 6) narrows the focus even more, to two generations of speakers of a single language, Swedish. It combines experimental data on how the two age groups partition and label the color space in general, and pink and purple in particular, with more detailed data on lexical replacement and change from interviews, color descriptions in historical and contemporary dictionaries, as well as botanical lexicons, and historical fiction corpora.

    This thesis makes a descriptive, methodological and theoretical contribution to the study of lexical replacement. Taken together, the different perspectives highlight the usefulness of method triangulation in approaching the complex phenomenon of lexical replacement.

     

     

  • 1294.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0147924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only.

  • 1295.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Levisen, Carsten
    van Scherpenberg, Cornelia
    Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir
    Naess, Ashild
    Zimmermann, Martina
    Stockall, Linnaea
    Whelpton, Matthew
    Two kinds of pink: development and difference in Germanic colour semantics2015In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 49, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article traces the birth of two different pink categories in western Europe and the lexicalization strategies used for these categories in English, German, Bernese, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic with the cognate sets pink, rosa, bleikur, lyserod, ceris. In the 18th century, a particular shade of light red established itself in the cultural life of people in Western Europe, earning its own independent colour term. In the middle of the 20th century, a second pink category began to spread in a subset of the languages. Contemporary experimental data from the Evolution of Semantic Systems colour project (Majid et al., 2011) is analysed in light of the extant historical data on the development of these colour terms. We find that the current pink situation arose through contact-induced lexical and conceptual change. Despite the different lexicalization strategies, the terms' denotation is remarkably similar for the oldest pink category and we investigate the impact of the advent of the younger and more restricted secondary pink category on the colour categorization and colour denotations of the languages.

  • 1296.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Vandewinkel, Sigi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Extended uses of body-related temperature expressions2016In: The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Katarina Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 249-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter presents the results of a cross-linguistic study where we examined body-related temperature expressions (brtes), like “warm heart” and “cold eyes”, in English, Ibibio, Japanese, Kannada, Mandarin Chinese, Ojibwe, and Swedish. We found that all the studied languages have brtes, even metaphor-poor Ojibwe, and that certain body related expressions recur in the brtes, mostly ‘heart’, ‘head’, ‘voice’, ‘smile’ and ‘eyes’. We found support for two conceptual metaphors: control is cold/lack of control is hot and caring is warm/uncaring is cold. The temperature scales were found to be translated to scalar target domains, mostly emotions. However, we found little support for the hypothesis that local cultural/climate factors, such as the temperature related humoral theory or the mean temperature of a region, would affect the brtes.

  • 1297. Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ek, Carl-Henrik
    Comparing Distributions of Color Words: Pitfalls and Metric Choices2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. e89184-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic x-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method.

  • 1298.
    Venetz, Jacqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lexico-Semantic Areality in the Greater Hindu Kush: An Areal-Typological Study on Numerals and Kinship Terms2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Hindu Kush designates a mountainous area extending from Afghanistan over Pakistan, Tajikistan and India to the westernmost parts of China. It is home to over 50 lan- guages from six different phyla; Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Turkic, Tibeto-Burman and the language isolate Burushaski. Due to its unique geographical setting, it is characterised by language contact and isolation, which lays the perfect ground for research on linguistic diversity, language convergence and genealogical relations.

    The present study relies on data from the entire region and attempts to identify structural similarities based on lexical items from core vocabulary, numerals and kinship terms. The study reexamines the genealogical affiliation through lexical similarity and investigates areal patterns of vergence, i.e. the branching out or mergence of these patterns. Results reconfirm the established classification of the languages and indicate a certain level of structural simi- larity across language families for some features such as numeral bases, numeral composition and the terms for ‘parents’ and ‘parents-in-law’, yet it also shows great diversity for other features such as ‘grandchildren’ and one’s siblings’ partner.

  • 1299.
    Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the grammar and lexicon of Matal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes basic grammatical features and lexicon of Matal, a Chadic language spoken by around 18 000 people in northern Cameroon. A translation of the New Testament is used as a parallel text for the purposes of this study. The identified language structures are compared with other Chadic languages. The results show that Matal is overall typical for the language family, except for the pronominal system, which lacks a clusivity distinction. Nouns and adjectives have a limited morphology, only expressing number as a grammatical category, whereas verbs have many categories that are expressed morphologically, by prefixation and suffixation. For finite verb forms, subject prefixes are obligatory. Tense is expressed either by altered tone in the stem vowel or morphologically. Several verbal suffixes with number and person variants have been identified, although their functions have not been entirely clarified. A system of complex adpositions that make extensive use of grammaticalized body concepts has also been inquired, within which the phenomenon of preposition agreement has been identified. Basic syntactic features, such as word order, negation and topicalization are also addressed. The analysis of the lexicon demonstrates that the basic vocabulary is mainly inherited from earlier stages of the language, but a large number of lexical loans in various semantic domains have also entered Matal.

  • 1300.
    Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the phonology and morphosyntaxof Laboya: A field study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates selected topics in the phonology and morpho-syntax of Laboya, a largely undescribed Austronesian language of Sumba island in eastern Indonesia. The study was carried out during nine weeks of field work. The language data is comprised by collected questionnaires and free narratives. The results of the study show that Laboya is a head-marking language, in which grammatical relations are encoded by clitics hosted by the verb. There are two sets of pronominal clitics indexing the subject and object arguments of verbs, as well as the possessors of noun phrases. Definiteness is important for the choice of clitics indexing the verb arguments. In addition, there are several highly frequent clitical elements with various functions. The patterns of their co-occurrence and interaction are accounted for. Negation demonstrates different patterns for main, subordinate and imperative clauses.Relative clauses are post-nominal and introduced by two distinct proclitics for subjective and objective relative clauses respectively. Noun phrases of all argument types are accessible for relativization.The phonology of Laboya is rather typical for Sumbanese languages, having a five vowel system and a contrastive vowel length. There are around twenty consonants, three of which are implosives. The phonology of Laboya differs somewhat from neighbouring languages by the de-prenasalization of formerly pre-nasalized voiced plosives, and by the frequent deletion of word-final vowels /i/ and /u/.

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