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  • 1301.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The auditory and the visual percept evoked by the same audiovisual stimuli2007In: Proceedings of the international conference AVSP 2007: International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In analyses and models of audiovisual speech perception, it has been common to consider three percepts: (1) the auditory percept evoked by acoustic stimuli, (2) the visual percept evoked by optic stimuli and (3) a common percept evoked by synchronous optic and acoustic stimuli. Here, it is shown that a vocal percept that is heard and influenced by vision has to be distinguished from a gestural percept that is seen and influenced by audition. In the two experiments reported, syllables distinguished solely by their vowels [i], [y] or [e] were presented to phonetically sophisticated subjects auditorily, visually and in incongruently cross-dubbed audiovisual form. In the first, the subjects rated roundedness, lip spreading, openness and backness of the vowels they heard - in the second of those they saw. The results confirmed that roundedness is mainly heard by eye while openness is heard by ear. Heard backness (retraction) varied with the acoustic and optic presence of roundedness. Seen openness was substantially influenced by acoustic cues, while there was no such influence on seen roundedness. The results are discussed in the context of theories and models.

  • 1302.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The effect of incongruent visual cues on the heard quality of front vowels2007In: ICPhS XVI: 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 2007, p. 721-724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables distinguished solely by their vowels [i], [y] or [e], were presented to phonetically sophisticated subjects auditorily, visually and in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with

    incongruent cues to openness, roundedness or both. Acoustic [y] dubbed onto optic [i] or [e] was heard as a retracted [i], while acoustic [i] or [e] dubbed onto optic [y] were perceived as rounded and slightly fronted. This confirms the higher weight of the more reliable information and that intermodal integration occurs at the level of phonetically informative properties prior to any categorization.

  • 1303.
    Uddén, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, the Netherlands; Radboud University, the Netherlands.
    Hultén, Annika
    Bendtz, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology.
    Mineroff, Zachary
    Kucera, Katerina S.
    Vino, Arianna
    Fedorenko, Evelina
    Hagoort, Peter
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Toward Robust Functional Neuroimaging Genetics of Cognition2019In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 39, no 44, p. 8778-8787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly held assumption in cognitive neuroscience is that, because measures of human brain function are closer to underlying biology than distal indices of behavior/cognition, they hold more promise for uncovering genetic pathways. Supporting this view is an influential fMRI-based study of sentence reading/listening by Pinel et al. (2012), who reported that common DNA variants in specific candidate genes were associated with altered neural activation in language-related regions of healthy individuals that carried them. In particular, different single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FOXP2 correlated with variation in task-based activation in left inferior frontal and precentral gyri, whereas a SNP at the KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 locus was associated with variable functional asymmetry of the superior temporal sulcus. Here, we directly test each claim using a closely matched neuroimaging genetics approach in independent cohorts comprising 427 participants, four times larger than the original study of 94 participants. Despite demonstrating power to detect associations with substantially smaller effect sizes than those of the original report, we do not replicate any of the reported associations. Moreover, formal Bayesian analyses reveal substantial to strong evidence in support of the null hypothesis (no effect). We highlight key aspects of the original investigation, common to functional neuroimaging genetics studies, which could have yielded elevated false-positive rates. Genetic accounts of individual differences in cognitive functional neuroimaging are likely to be as complex as behavioral/ cognitive tests, involving many common genetic variants, each of tiny effect. Reliable identification of true biological signals requires large sample sizes, power calculations, and validation in independent cohorts with equivalent paradigms.

  • 1304.
    Uddén, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Männel, Claudia
    Artifical Grammar Learning and its Neurobiology in Relation to Language Processing and Development2018In: The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics / [ed] Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, M. Gareth Gaskell, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 2, p. 755-783Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm enables systematic investigation of the acquisition of linguistically relevant structures. It is a paradigm of interest for language processing research, interfacing with theoretical linguistics, and for comparative research on language acquisition and evolution. This chapter presents a key for understanding major variants of the paradigm. An unbiased summary of neuroimaging findings of AGL is presented, using meta-analytic methods, pointing to the crucial involvement of the bilateral frontal operculum and regions in the right lateral hemisphere. Against a background of robust posterior temporal cortex involvement in processing complex syntax, the evidence for involvement of the posterior temporal cortex in AGL is reviewed. Infant AGL studies testing for neural substrates are reviewed, covering the acquisition of adjacent and non-adjacent dependencies as well as algebraic rules. The language acquisition data suggest that comparisons of learnability of complex grammars performed with adults may now also be possible with children.

  • 1305.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Hörselkliniken, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Cecilgård, Margareta
    Hägg, Åsa
    Tvåspråkighet - en jämförande studie2007In: Audio-Nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1306.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Hägg, Åsa
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Tvåspråkighet avseende tidig parallell tal- och teckenspråksutveckling hos barn med hörselskada eller dövhet.2005In: Logopednytt, no 6, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1307. Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Using a multi-feature paradigm to measure mismatch responses to minimal sound contrasts in children with cochlear implants and hearing aids2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 409-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to explore whether a multi-feature paradigm (Optimum-1) for eliciting mismatch negativity (MMN) would objectively capture difficulties in perceiving small sound contrasts in children with hearing impairment (HI) listening through their hearing aids (HAs) and/or cochlear implants (CIs). Children aged 5-7 years with HAs, CIs and children with normal hearing (NH) were tested in a free-field setting using a multi-feature paradigm with deviations in pitch, intensity, gap, duration, and location. There were significant mismatch responses across all subjects that were positive (p-MMR) for the gap and pitch deviants (F(1,43) = 5.17, p = 0.028 and F(1,43) = 6.56, p = 0.014, respectively) and negative (MMN) for the duration deviant (F(1,43) = 4.74, p = 0.035). Only the intensity deviant showed a significant group interaction with MMN in the HA group and p-MMR in the CI group (F(2,43) = 3.40, p = 0.043). The p-MMR correlated negatively with age, with the strongest correlation in the NH subjects. In the CI group, the late discriminative negativity (LDN) was replaced by a late positivity with a significant group interaction for the location deviant. Children with severe HI can be assessed through their hearing device with a fast multi-feature paradigm. For further studies a multi-feature paradigm including more complex speech sounds may better capture variation in auditory processing in these children.

  • 1308.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mattson, Louise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eye tracking for establishing hearing thresholds in infants - evaluation of a new methodology2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing test in small children is a challenge during the first 1-2 years and in children with other disabilities even longer. With neonatal hearing screening hearing aids can be fitted as early as two months of age. Programming of the hearing aid then has to be based on ABR thresholds until the child is old enough to give a distinct behavioral response, typically at 4-6 months. However, ABR is not frequency specific and it requires a quite or sleeping child. Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA). is based upon the head-turn paradigm and involves that the infant builds up an association between the presence of a sound stimulus and a reward display. This behavioral observation test suffers from poor reliability, lengthy test times across several sessions, heavy experimenter bias, and interpretative ambiguity of the broad variety of possible infant responses.

    This presentation describes a new method to objectively, automatically and adaptively determine reactions to sound stimuli. With an eye tracker and a computer based set-up the infants response, in anticipation towards a reward at the noted presence of an auditory stimulus (similar to VRA), can be registered, using eye movements instead of head turns. High test reliability and experimenter independence are achieved by the program´s automatic detection of infant response and adaptation of the next stimulus level. Result objectivity is improved by increasing the number of test trials for each frequency and hearing level, as well as by providing a significance level for each tested frequency depending on the number of trials.

  • 1309.
    Umberto, Ansaldo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    A typology of comparatives in Sinitic: grammaticalization, patterns and language contact1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation offers a window on the grammatical diversity of Chinese languages, hereafter referred to as Sinitic. It focuses in particular on comparative constructions of southern varieties such as Cantonese, Minnan and Hakka and compares these to northern Mandarin as well as some non- Sinitic languages of Southeast Asia. A typology of comparative constructions in Sinitic is established and their grammatical properties are described. The evolution of these constructions is discussed with particular attention for the role of language contact and their areal typology.

    Three dominant types of comparatives are found in Sinitic, which divide China in three zones: south, north and southeast. The southern type is cognate to non-Sinitic varieties such as Hmong, Vietnamese and Lao as can be seen in the parallel process of grammaticalization the construction undergoes in these languages. This is yet another structural feature that defines Southeast Asia, including southern China, as a linguistic area per se. The northern type found in Mandarin is, on the other hand, quite unique both in terms of grammaticalization and word-order typology with the closest possible type found in Korean. Interference from Altaic languages is suggested on typological and historical grounds to account for this and possibly other ‘oddities’ in the grammar of Mandarin when compared to other Sinitic varieties. The southeastern type can be seen as a hybrid of the first two types described above, a fact that could define the area where it is found as a merging point of southern and northern varieties.

    This work hopes to contribute to the field of typological studies of Chinese varieties, a group of languages too often ignored in terms of syntactic diversity. In deconstructing the myth of a uniform ‘Chinese’ grammar we unveil a world of considerable linguistic diversity which in its turn is only an aspect of the cultural and ethnic diversity China has to offer.

  • 1310. Utka, A.
    et al.
    Grigonyté, GintaréStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Kapočiūtė-Dzikienė, J.Vaičenonienė, J.
    Human Language Technologies – The Baltic Perspective: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference Baltic HLT 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book contains papers from the Fourth International Conference on Human Language Technologies - the Baltic Perspective (Baltic HLT 2010), held in Riga in October 2010. This conference is the latest in a series which provides a forum for sharing recent advances in human language processing, and promotes cooperation between the computer science and linguistics communities of the Baltic countries and the rest of the world. Bringing together scientists, developers, providers and users, the conference is an opportunity to exchange information, discuss problems, find new synergies and promote initiatives for international cooperation.

    The 32 papers collected have been submitted by 77 authors from 11 countries, after review by an international program committee. They cover a wide range of research topics in corpus linguistics, machine translation, speech technologies, semantics and other areas of HLT research. This proceedings reflects the current state of HLT in the Baltic countries and the work towards creating a Baltic linguistic infrastructure. Human Language Technologies – The Baltic Perspective is a useful and comprehensive repository of information and will facilitate further research and development of HLT in the Baltic region, and the creation of a pan-European research infrastructure of the language resources and technology.

  • 1311.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Breaking paradigms: A typological study of nominal and adjectival suppletion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Suppletion is a term used to describe the occurrence of unpredictable and irregular patterns. Although typological research has been devoted to verb suppletion, not as much attention has been given to suppletion in nominal and adjectival paradigms. The thesis presents the cross-linguistic distribution of nominal and adjectival suppletion. The lexical distribution as well as the features involved are presented. The results of nominal suppletion show that nouns referring to humans are most often suppletive, that number is the most common grammatical feature involved in nominal suppletion and that „child‟ is by far the most common noun to be suppletive cross-linguistically. The results on adjectival suppletion show that adjectival suppletion is well spread though not very common cross-linguistically. A study of 8 Semitic languages shows that „woman‟ versus „women‟ are stable suppletive forms in this language family.

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  • 1312.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Progressive constructions in Iranian languages2012In: Proceedings of the Doctoral Festival 2012, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2012, p. 1-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1313.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Progressives in use and contact: A descriptive, areal and typological study with special focus on selected Iranian languages2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressives are grammatical patterns primarily used to refer to events that are ongoing at a specific time. This thesis investigates uses of such patterns in a number of languages as well as the interaction of a number of progressives in contact. The dissertation includes a typological study of the uses of 89 progressive patterns in two parallel corpora, an investigation of the uses and origin of the Persian dāštan progressive and an areal linguistic investigation of 50 Iranian varieties spoken around the Caspian Sea.

    The dissertation presents features that increase the likelihood that a progressive is used. Such features are 1) a focalized (punctual) reference point, 2) the engagement or ‘busyness’ of the agentive subject on the event, 3) an emotive component and 4) the desire to turn the attention of the addressee towards an ongoing event. The significance of these features is expected to weaken as progressives grammaticalize.

    There is a cross-linguistic tendency for progressives to occur more often with present time reference than with past time reference. In some cases, they are even restricted to the former. Among the varieties of the Iranian language Taleshi, on the other hand, we find asymmetric temporal paradigms as a consequence of former progressive patterns having expanded and lost their progressive character in the present but not in the past.

    The study also shows that progressives are used differently in the present and the past: while events with present time reference often have the features mentioned above in 1-4, events with past time reference are often, although not exclusively, background contexts to other events pushing the narration forward.

    The thesis also discusses various peripheral uses of progressives, such as uses in habitual and performative-like contexts, proximative, iterative and futurate uses, uses with stative verbs and temporary and subjective uses. Some of these tend to be found in patterns with higher frequencies and can be regarded as expansions towards the imperfective. Other uses are linked to the type of event to which the progressive applies: the proximative reading is shown to arise with achievements and the iterative use with repeated punctual events.  

    The data from the varieties of the Iranian languages Mazandarani, Gilaki, Taleshi and Tati, as well as from varieties under the influence of Persian, suggests that the progressive in these varieties is highly borrowable. Among the varieties discussed in Chapter 5, an areal cline is noted where constructional schemas used for ongoing events shift towards the imperfective. In the borrowing process, on occasion, a shift from progressive to proximative is also noted. As expected, the data from Caspian varieties shows that there are more progressive patterns than imperfective patterns.

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  • 1314.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Finite Independency: A study of the relevance of the notion of finiteness in Hdi.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that there is a finiteness distinction in Hdi and that the notion is of value for a description of the language. The definition of finiteness suitable for the language has been suggested to be the one given by Anderson (2007) combined with Bisang (2007). The finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically independent ones while the non-finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically dependent. However, no morphological reductions were found in the non-finite clauses relative to the finite ones. What is more, negation in Hdi shows a nontypical behaviour regarding finiteness properties as there are aspectual distinctions made for dependent clauses that are not made for independent. Verbless clauses and imperatives may be viewed as finite and non-finite depending on their capacity to licence independent predication or, alternatively, they may be viewed as not displaying finiteness properties at all. The latter is argued to be preferred in order to avoid a redundant definition of finiteness.

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  • 1315.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology of nominal and adjectival suppletion2013In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 112-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a sample-based typological account of suppletion in nouns and adjectives. The distribution of the grammatical categories involved in the suppletive forms is presented along with the lexical meanings most commonly found to be suppletive. It is demonstrated that nominal suppletion is not a rare phenomenon and most commonly involves the feature number followed by possession. The noun ‘child’ is the most common suppletive noun. In general, nouns referring to humans are more likely to be suppletive than others. The investigation shows that adjectival suppletion is less common than nominal suppletion and affects frequent adjectives with general meanings of the types value and size.

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  • 1316.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Negation of existential predications in Swedish: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this corpus study is to provide an adequate description of negation strategies in existential predications in Swedish. In Swedish, existential predications may be negated by a standard negative marker. Another possibility to negate existence is by using a negative indefinite pronoun. In negation of existential predications in Swedish, the choice between standard negation and indefinite pronouns, whether negative or not, has not been previously described in any descriptive or theoretical work. It is therefore the purpose of the current study to describe what factors determine the choice of negative marker in existential predications. The results of this study show that there is a strong preference to negate existential predications with a negative indefinite pronoun. Further, it is shown that the negative indefinite pronoun is frequently used as a modifier to the pivot, and thus states an unconditional absence. 

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    Negation of existential predications in Swedish
  • 1317.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Privativa adjektiv och deras motsatsord: En studie i hur frånvaro och närvaro av en egenskap uttrycks i svenska2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Privativa adjektiv och deras motsatsord
  • 1318. van der Auwera, Johan
    et al.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dočekal, Mojmír
    Typologie negace2017In: Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny online / [ed] Petr Karlík, Marek Nekula, Jana Pleskalová, Prague: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1319.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anpassningsstrategier i lajvspråk2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Anpassningsstrategier i lajvspråk
  • 1320.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cross-linguistic Lexical Change: Why, How and How Fast?2010In: Proceedings of WIGL 2010, University of Wisconsin, Madison , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1321.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lexical change often begins and ends in semantic peripheries Evidence from color linguistics2018In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 50-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article discusses semantic change and lexical replacement processes in the color domain, based on color naming studies in seven Germanic languages (where diachronic intra-linguistic development is inferred from cross-linguistic synchronic studies) and from different generations of speakers in a single language (Swedish). Change in the color domain often begins and ends in conceptual peripheries, and I argue that this perspective is suitable for other semantic domains as well.

  • 1322.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skarp, vass och sharp – semantiska relationer hos tre perceptionsadjektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Skarp, vass och sharp – semantiska relationer hos tre perceptionsadjektiv
  • 1323.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    To Database Meaning: Building the Typological Database of Temperature Terms2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1324.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tolklangs in the "€œReal" World2005In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on J.R.R. Tolkien's Invented Languages, Stockholm., 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1325.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholms universitet.
    Triangulating Perspectives on Lexical Replacement: From Predictive Statistical Models to Descriptive Color Linguistics2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate lexical replacement processes from several complementary perspectives. It does so through three studies, each with a different scope and time depth.

    The first study (chapter 3) takes a high time depth perspective and investigates factors that affect the rate (likelihood) of lexical replacement in the core vocabulary of 98 Indo-European language varieties through a multiple linear regression model. The chapter shows that the following factors predict part of the rate of lexical replacement for non-grammatical concepts: frequency, the number of synonyms and senses, and how imageable the concept is in the mind.

    What looks like a straightforward lexical replacement at a high time depth perspective is better understood as several intertwined gradual processes of lexical change at lower time depths. The second study (chapter 5) narrows the focus to seven closely-related Germanic language varieties (English, German, Bernese, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, and Icelandic) and a single semantic domain, namely color.  The chapter charts several lexical replacement and change processes in the pink and purple area of color space through experiments with 146 speakers.

    The third study (chapter 6) narrows the focus even more, to two generations of speakers of a single language, Swedish. It combines experimental data on how the two age groups partition and label the color space in general, and pink and purple in particular, with more detailed data on lexical replacement and change from interviews, color descriptions in historical and contemporary dictionaries, as well as botanical lexicons, and historical fiction corpora.

    This thesis makes a descriptive, methodological and theoretical contribution to the study of lexical replacement. Taken together, the different perspectives highlight the usefulness of method triangulation in approaching the complex phenomenon of lexical replacement.

     

     

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    Errata Triangulating Perspectives on Lexical Replacement
  • 1326.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0147924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only.

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    Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of LexicalReplacement of Content Words
  • 1327.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Levisen, Carsten
    van Scherpenberg, Cornelia
    Beck, Thorhalla Gudmundsdottir
    Naess, Ashild
    Zimmermann, Martina
    Stockall, Linnaea
    Whelpton, Matthew
    Two kinds of pink: development and difference in Germanic colour semantics2015In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 49, p. 19-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article traces the birth of two different pink categories in western Europe and the lexicalization strategies used for these categories in English, German, Bernese, Danish, Swedish, Norwegian and Icelandic with the cognate sets pink, rosa, bleikur, lyserod, ceris. In the 18th century, a particular shade of light red established itself in the cultural life of people in Western Europe, earning its own independent colour term. In the middle of the 20th century, a second pink category began to spread in a subset of the languages. Contemporary experimental data from the Evolution of Semantic Systems colour project (Majid et al., 2011) is analysed in light of the extant historical data on the development of these colour terms. We find that the current pink situation arose through contact-induced lexical and conceptual change. Despite the different lexicalization strategies, the terms' denotation is remarkably similar for the oldest pink category and we investigate the impact of the advent of the younger and more restricted secondary pink category on the colour categorization and colour denotations of the languages.

  • 1328.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Vandewinkel, Sigi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Extended uses of body-related temperature expressions2016In: The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Katarina Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 249-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter presents the results of a cross-linguistic study where we examined body-related temperature expressions (brtes), like “warm heart” and “cold eyes”, in English, Ibibio, Japanese, Kannada, Mandarin Chinese, Ojibwe, and Swedish. We found that all the studied languages have brtes, even metaphor-poor Ojibwe, and that certain body related expressions recur in the brtes, mostly ‘heart’, ‘head’, ‘voice’, ‘smile’ and ‘eyes’. We found support for two conceptual metaphors: control is cold/lack of control is hot and caring is warm/uncaring is cold. The temperature scales were found to be translated to scalar target domains, mostly emotions. However, we found little support for the hypothesis that local cultural/climate factors, such as the temperature related humoral theory or the mean temperature of a region, would affect the brtes.

  • 1329. Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ek, Carl-Henrik
    Comparing Distributions of Color Words: Pitfalls and Metric Choices2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. e89184-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic x-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method.

  • 1330.
    Venetz, Jacqueline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lexico-Semantic Areality in the Greater Hindu Kush: An Areal-Typological Study on Numerals and Kinship Terms2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Hindu Kush designates a mountainous area extending from Afghanistan over Pakistan, Tajikistan and India to the westernmost parts of China. It is home to over 50 lan- guages from six different phyla; Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Turkic, Tibeto-Burman and the language isolate Burushaski. Due to its unique geographical setting, it is characterised by language contact and isolation, which lays the perfect ground for research on linguistic diversity, language convergence and genealogical relations.

    The present study relies on data from the entire region and attempts to identify structural similarities based on lexical items from core vocabulary, numerals and kinship terms. The study reexamines the genealogical affiliation through lexical similarity and investigates areal patterns of vergence, i.e. the branching out or mergence of these patterns. Results reconfirm the established classification of the languages and indicate a certain level of structural simi- larity across language families for some features such as numeral bases, numeral composition and the terms for ‘parents’ and ‘parents-in-law’, yet it also shows great diversity for other features such as ‘grandchildren’ and one’s siblings’ partner.

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  • 1331.
    Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the grammar and lexicon of Matal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes basic grammatical features and lexicon of Matal, a Chadic language spoken by around 18 000 people in northern Cameroon. A translation of the New Testament is used as a parallel text for the purposes of this study. The identified language structures are compared with other Chadic languages. The results show that Matal is overall typical for the language family, except for the pronominal system, which lacks a clusivity distinction. Nouns and adjectives have a limited morphology, only expressing number as a grammatical category, whereas verbs have many categories that are expressed morphologically, by prefixation and suffixation. For finite verb forms, subject prefixes are obligatory. Tense is expressed either by altered tone in the stem vowel or morphologically. Several verbal suffixes with number and person variants have been identified, although their functions have not been entirely clarified. A system of complex adpositions that make extensive use of grammaticalized body concepts has also been inquired, within which the phenomenon of preposition agreement has been identified. Basic syntactic features, such as word order, negation and topicalization are also addressed. The analysis of the lexicon demonstrates that the basic vocabulary is mainly inherited from earlier stages of the language, but a large number of lexical loans in various semantic domains have also entered Matal.

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    Selected topics in the grammar and lexicon of Matal
  • 1332.
    Verdizade, Allahverdi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the phonology and morphosyntaxof Laboya: A field study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates selected topics in the phonology and morpho-syntax of Laboya, a largely undescribed Austronesian language of Sumba island in eastern Indonesia. The study was carried out during nine weeks of field work. The language data is comprised by collected questionnaires and free narratives. The results of the study show that Laboya is a head-marking language, in which grammatical relations are encoded by clitics hosted by the verb. There are two sets of pronominal clitics indexing the subject and object arguments of verbs, as well as the possessors of noun phrases. Definiteness is important for the choice of clitics indexing the verb arguments. In addition, there are several highly frequent clitical elements with various functions. The patterns of their co-occurrence and interaction are accounted for. Negation demonstrates different patterns for main, subordinate and imperative clauses.Relative clauses are post-nominal and introduced by two distinct proclitics for subjective and objective relative clauses respectively. Noun phrases of all argument types are accessible for relativization.The phonology of Laboya is rather typical for Sumbanese languages, having a five vowel system and a contrastive vowel length. There are around twenty consonants, three of which are implosives. The phonology of Laboya differs somewhat from neighbouring languages by the de-prenasalization of formerly pre-nasalized voiced plosives, and by the frequent deletion of word-final vowels /i/ and /u/.

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  • 1333.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Applying the Negative Existential Cycle on the Uralic Language Family2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1334.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cross-linguistic distribution of numeral derivatives2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was inspired by the work of Bauer (2000) where this author presents an overview of the semantic categories commonly expressed by derivational morphology and ranks them as regards their cross-linguistic frequency. In a similar fashion, the current paper explores the domain of derived numerals, that is ordinal, multiplicative, distributive, collective and other words which are derived from a numeral base, typically from a cardinal numeral, as for instance in Modern Greek trís ’three’ vs. trí-tos ’third’, trí-plos ’triples’, tri-áδa ’a group of three’, trí trí ’three by three’ (Joseph and Philipaki-Warburton 1987: 206-9). The purpose of this project is to outline the crosslinguistic distribution of such derivations as well as to give a general description of the strategies used for the expression of derived numeral senses such as ordinal ’Nth in a sequence’, multiplicative ’N number of times’, etc. The sample used for the pilot study is rather small: currently, it consists of 33 languages, each representing a different language family; it can be seen as geographically balanced in that all six geographical areas, outlined in Dryer (1992) are represented by at least five languages (see next page for the language list). The materials used are grammars or equivalent language descriptions.

    The data allow for several generalizations as regards numeral derivatives that have so far (to my knowledge) passed without notice cf. (Hurford 1987, Gvozdanovic 1999). Specifically, some numeral derivatives are very common in that they are observed in a large amount of the investigated languages while others appear to be rare since they are observed in very few languages, typically, only one. In eight languages of the current sample there are no numeral derivatives of any kind.

    The most common numeral derivatives are ordinal numerals as in shown by Modern Greek trí-tos ’third’ above, (22 languages), followed by multiplicatives (19 languages) as in Bagirmi mwot-dokkene ’ten times’, cf. dokkene ’ten’ (Stevenson 1969: 155-7), and finally distributives (14 languages) as in Lezgian q’we-q’we(d) ’two each’, cf. q’we ’two’ (Haspelmath 1993: 235) . For the most part, ordinals as well as multiplicatives are derived by affixation, while the derivational strategies for distributives vary more: the predominant means appears to be suffixation, followed by reduplication as well as semi-bound constructions where postposed clitics or repetition are used.

    Collective numerals, which express the sense ’a group of N’, as in Cahuilla kwansúple-kwal ’a group of six’, cf. kwansúple ’six’ (Seiler 1977: 333), are commonly derived by means of suffixes, and are observed in 10 languages. Expressions for the sense ’almost N’, with a numeral as a head, as in Brahui bīst-as ’twenty or so’ (Bray 1986: 73), are reported in the grammars of 15 languages. However, expressions for the sense ’almost N’ are derived by bound morphological means in 8 of them; in the remaining 7 languages this sense is expressed by various kinds of periphrastic constructions, including juxtapposition of two numerals.

    Numeral derivatives which appear as rare in the current data are those expressing age as in Modern Greek, sarandapend-áris ’forty-five-years old’ cf. sarandapende ’forty-five’ or numeral expressions for the sense ’all of N’, labeled as inclusive numerals as in Lezgian pud-ni ‘three-two’ =’all three’ (Haspelmath 1993: 234).

    The current sample allows for some broad hints as regards the cross-linguistic distribution of numeral derivatives. What appears from the current data is that some ordinals, multiplicatives and distributives are the most common numeral derivations; furthermore, it might be possible to set up an implicational scale for their occurrence in a language but this is contingent on collecting more data. Some areal patterns can be noted, though, again more data are necessary in order to make stronger conclusions in this regard.

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  • 1335.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Digitiziting legacy data for linguistic GIS-applications. Presentation at the Language Mapping2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1336.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lexicalization of Negative Senses: A Crosslinguistic Study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 1337.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in non-verbal and existential predications: a holistic typology2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 1338.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negative existentials: a cross linguistic study2013In: Rivista di Linguistica = Italian Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1120-2726, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 107-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to provide a cross-linguistic outline of the negation strategies in existential predications like ‘There are no mice in the basement’. It is found that there is a strong cross-linguistic tendency to use a special negation strategy in these predications. Furthermore, the special negators, labelled here ‘negative existentials’, show a number of similarities in terms of their semantics, morphosyntax, use and diachronic origin. In light of this, it is suggested that they represent a linguistic construction of its own, and in fact, a separate conceptual domain.

  • 1339.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-verbal and existential negators: a cross-linguistic and a historical-comparative study2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1340.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Not-yet expressions in the languages of the world: a special negator or a separate gram type?2015In: ALT 2015, 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology: Abstract Booklet, 2015, p. 136-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many languages there is a special negation strategy to indicate that an action has not been accomplished or that a state has not been attained. For instance, in Indonesian, verbal predications are negated by the particle tiada (or tidak), cf (1a). Nominal predications, are negated by the particle bukan, cf. (1c). When the speaker intends to communicate that an action has not been carried out yet, cf. (1b), or a particular state has not been reached yet, cf. (1d), the word belum ‘not yet’ is used in verbal and in nominal predications. The perfect marker sudahcannot be combined with belum or tidak, cf. Sneddon (1996: 202). Expressions like belum are typically dubbed in grammars as special negators that differ from the standard negator (SN). They are sporadically mentioned in the comparative literature on negation cf. (Payne 1985, Miestamo 2005).Van der Auwera (1998) analyzes ‘not yet’ expressions in the languages of Europe as continuative negatives and suggests the label nondum for them; it is adopted here too. However, a systematic cross-linguistic study of their distribution does not yet exist. My goals with this work are to obtain a better understanding about their cross-linguistic frequency as well as about their functions and status in the grammar and lexicon of their respective languages. In my sample of 100 unrelated languages, nondum expressions occur in most areas of the world, but are notably absent in Europe in the form of single, bound or semi-bound, grammaticalized negative temporal markers. My sources are grammars and parallel texts. The available data allow for the following generalizations: (i) Nondum expressions can be encoded as affixes cf. (2) and (3) or as particles, cf (1b, 1d); (ii) they can be either univerbations between SN and another word or completely unsegmentable morphemes. (iii) They typically indicate the non-occurrence of an expected action or state but also an anticipation about its imminent realization. Thus they appear to belong to both the temporal and the negative domain; however, as Contini-Morava (1989: 138), notes the negation they indicate is of limited duration. Their cross-linguistic frequency together with their functional similarities in a number of unrelated languages are evidence that nondum expressions should be considered a separate gram. Furthermore, gaining a better knowledge about them also contributes to a deeper understanding of the semantic-pragmatic asymmetry between the tense-aspect systems of the affirmative and the negative domain.

  • 1341.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    'Not-yet'-expressions in the languages of the world: special negative adverbs or a separate gram type?2015In: ALT 2015: 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology: Abstract Booklet, 2015, p. 136-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many languages there is a special negation strategy to indicate that an action has not been accomplished or that a state has not been attained. For instance, in Indonesian, verbal predications are negated by the particle tiada (or tidak), cf (1a). Nominal predications, are negated by the particle bukan, cf. (1c). When the speaker intends to communicate that an action has not been carried out yet, cf. (1b), or a particular state has not been reached yet, cf. (1d), the word belum ‘not yet’ is used in verbal and in nominal predications. The perfect marker sudahcannot be combined with belum or tidak, cf. Sneddon (1996: 202). Expressions like belum are typically dubbed in grammars as special negators that differ from the standard negator (SN). They are sporadically mentioned in the comparative literature on negation cf. (Payne 1985, Miestamo 2005).Van der Auwera (1998) analyzes ‘not yet’ expressions in the languages of Europe as continuative negatives and suggests the label nondum for them; it is adopted here too. However, a systematic cross-linguistic study of their distribution does not yet exist. My goals with this work are to obtain a better understanding about their cross-linguistic frequency as well as about their functions and status in the grammar and lexicon of their respective languages. In my sample of 100 unrelated languages, nondum expressions occur in most areas of the world, but are notably absent in Europe in the form of single, bound or semi-bound, grammaticalized negative temporal markers. My sources are grammars and parallel texts. The available data allow for the following generalizations: (i) Nondum expressions can be encoded as affixes cf. (2) and (3) or as particles, cf (1b, 1d); (ii) they can be either univerbations between SN and another word or completely unsegmentable morphemes. (iii) They typically indicate the non-occurrence of an expected action or state but also an anticipation about its imminent realization. Thus they appear to belong to both the temporal and the negative domain; however, as Contini-Morava (1989: 138), notes the negation they indicate is of limited duration. Their cross-linguistic frequency together with their functional similarities in a number of unrelated languages are evidence that nondum expressions should be considered a separate gram. Furthermore, gaining a better knowledge about them also contributes to a deeper understanding of the semantic-pragmatic asymmetry between the tense-aspect systems of the affirmative and the negative domain.

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  • 1342.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    'Not-yet'-expressions in the languages of the world: special negators or a separate cross-linguistic category2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1343.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Random SamplesIn: WSK Dictionary on Theories and Methods in Linguistics.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 1344.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sampling ProceduresIn: WSK Dictionary on Theories and Methods in LinguisticsArticle, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 1345.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Standard and Special Negators in the Slavonic Languages: Synchrony and Diachrony2010In: Diachronic Syntax of the Slavonic Languages / [ed] Hansen, Björn and Jasmina Grkovic-Major, Vienna: Wiener Slawistischen Almanach , 2010, p. 197-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1346.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Standard and Special Negators in the Uralic Languages2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1347.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Standard and Special Negators: their evolution and interaction2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1348.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suppletion2013In: Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1349.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Allmän språkvetenskap.
    Suppletion in verb paradigms2007In: New Challenges in typology: Broadening the horizons and redefining the foundations, 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The sixteen chapters in this volume are written by typologists and typologically oriented field linguists who have completed their Ph.D. theses in the first four years of this millennium. The authors address selected theoretical questions of general linguistic relevance drawing from a wealth of data hitherto unfamiliar to the general linguistic audience. The general aim is to broaden the horizons of typology by revisiting existing typologies with larger language samples, exploring domains not considered in typology before, taking linguistic diversity more seriously, strengthening the connection between typology and areal linguistics, and bridging the gap to other fields, such as historical linguistics and sociolinguistics.

    The papers cover grammatical phenomena from phonology, morphology up to the syntax of complex sentences. The linguistic phenomena scrutinized include the following: foot and stress, tone, infixation, inflection vs. derivation, word formation, polysynthesis, suppletion, person marking, reflexives, alignment, transitivity, tense-aspect-mood systems, negation, interrogation, converb systems, and complex sentences. More general methodological and theoretical issues, such as reconstruction, markedness, semantic maps, templates, and use of parallel corpora, are also addressed.

    The contributions in this volume draw from many traditional fields of linguistics simultaneously, and show that it is becoming harder and maybe also less desirable to keep them separate, especially when taking a broadly cross-linguistic approach to language. The book is of interest to typologists and field linguists, as well as to any linguists interested in theoretical issues in different subfields of linguistics.

  • 1350.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suppletion in Verb Paradigms2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
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