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  • 1351.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variationsmängder i barnriktat tal2013In: XIII Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet - 2013 Stockholms universitet, Sverige, 8-9 november 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnriktat tal har en rad unika egenskaper som alla tycks härröra från föräldrarnas (omedvetna) önskan att som mycket som möjligt underlätta språkinlärningen för barnet. En av dessa egenskaper hos barnriktat tal är dess repetitivitet, till exempel i successiva yttranden som följande:

    Var kan Kucka vara då?

    Var är Kucka?

    Var är kaninen som heter Kucka?

    I det här papperet studerar vi den lokala repetitiviteten i barnriktat tal, som i litteraturen brukar kallas variationsmängder. Dessa är intressanta genom att de visar de ord och konstruktioner som föräldrarna vid varje tillfälle tycks koncentrera sig på att lära sina barn.

    Ett teoretiskt ramverk med bäring på detta är konstruktionsgrammatik, som antar att konstruktioner är inlärningsbara eftersom a) de utgör konventionaliserade form–betydelsepar som b) lärs in gradvis, alltifrån holofraser över schematiska uttryck ("item-based constructions", Tomasello 2003) till vuxenspråkets fullt abstraherbara konstruktioner. Genom att vi har longitudinella data så kan vi fånga i vad mån de successiva konstruktionerna anpassas enligt detta mönster allteftersom barnet blir äldre.

    Flera försök till formalisering av begreppet variationsmängd har föreslagits, till exempel Küntay och Slobin (1996), Brodsky et al. (2007) och Onnis et al. (2008). Vanliga krav på en variationsmängd är att den a) utgör successiva yttranden med upp till två mellanliggande yttranden; b) att minst två av de ingående orden upprepas; och c) att yttrandenas intention är konstant. Vi experimenterar med olika värden på a) och använder stället för b) en strängmatchningsmetod som även tar hänsyn till yttrandelängden.

    I papperet redovisar vi utfallet av konstruktionstyper baserat på data från en longitudinell korpus med barnriktat tal för tretton barn i åldrar mellan 3 och 33 månader, fördelade på 58 sessioner.

  • 1352.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  • 1353.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 355-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 1354.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    'As long as’, 'until' and 'before' clauses: Zooming in on linguistic diversity2019In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 9, p. 141-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses in the Baltic languages in their wider areal and genealogical context in a sample of 72 modern and ancient doculects of European and Indo-European languages. In a bottom-up construction of the semantic map of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' connectors from parallel text data, a fourth cluster intermediate between 'before' and 'until' with negative main clauses is identified. The typology resulting from the different overlaps of clusters locates Baltic languages in an intermediate zone between Western, Eastern, and Northern European languages. This goes hand-in-hand with a high diversity of Baltic languages in their typology of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses. The temporal connectors found in Baltic varieties can be classified according to whether they originate from strategies expressing temporal identity (simultaneity) or non-identity (non-simultaneity). Many connectors in Baltic derive from correlative constructions and originally express identity, but can then shift from simultaneity towards posteriority as they gradually lose their association with correlative constructions. Since temporal clauses are never atemporal and are hence incompatible with permanent states and since negation often expresses permanent states, negation—a marker of non-identity—is prone to develop non-polarity functions in 'before' and 'until' clauses. The Baltic and Slavic languages are rich in various kinds of expanded negation (translation equivalents in other languages lack negation) and expletive negation (negation does not have the function of expressing negative polarity) in 'before' and 'until' clauses. However, indefinite negative pronouns often retain their negative semantic value when standard negation in temporal clauses is expanded and semantically bleached.

  • 1355.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Co-compounds2015In: Word-formation: an international handbook of the languages of Europe / [ed] Müller, Peter O., Ohnheiser, Ingeborg, Olsen, Susan, Rainer, Franz, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 707-727Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1356.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 233-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1357.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 69-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1358.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ištiktukai "eventives": the Baltic precursors of ideophones and why they remain unknown in typology2015In: Contemporary approaches to Baltic linguistics / [ed] Peter Arkadiev, Axel Holvoet, Björn Wiemer, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 491-521Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1359.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Logophoricity in Eastern Vidzeme: The Literary Latvian idiolect of Andrievs Niedra and Leivu Estonian2015In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 6, p. 141-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eastern Vidzeme is an important, hitherto neglected, area for the study of logophoricity in the Circum-Baltic languages. This paper shows, on the one hand, that logophoricity in Latvian is not restricted to Latgalian dialects, but is almost fully consistent in the writings of the novelist Andrievs Niedra (1871–1942) originating from Tirza, and on the other hand, that Leivu Estonian, a moribund South Estonian language island in Northeastern Vidzeme between Gulbene and Alūksne, is the only Estonian variety having developed a logophoric pronoun.

    Given the high diversity of logophoricity in Latvian, it is important to study idiolects with large corpora, and written language deserves more study. Like Finnish dialects and Leivu Estonian, Niedra’s idiolect uses logophoric pronouns even for marking the report addressee in questions. Unlike in the Latgalian tales discussed by Nau (2006), logophoricity can be extended beyond the domain of report to thought. A distinction between allophoric (frame and report speaker are different) and autophoric reports (frame and report speaker are the same) is introduced. It is argued that logophoric pronouns are a non-deictic and non-coreference-based strategy to mark reports, that their function is not primarily reference tracking, and that logophoric pronouns in Latvian are constructionalized rather than grammaticalized.

  • 1360.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

            To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

            Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

            The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

            The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 1361.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, p. 53-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

  • 1362.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1363.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The extension of person name markers to noun class markers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a diverse convenience sample with languages from all continents, this paper explores how noun class markers can develop from person name markers or from personal pronouns via person name markers.

    Person name markers can grammaticalize from nouns or from personal pronouns. They can have or lack sex distinctions. In some languages they cumulate with case or topic. Noun classes fall into gender and classifiers, which typologists find increasingly difficult to distinguish. Gender tends to be more grammaticalized, which is largely due to cumulation with another grammatical category, notably number, case and/or person. Instances of recent origin of gender, such as animacy in Slavic, where gender has developed from different object marking and has travelled down the animacy hierarchy from pronouns to proper names and further to appellative humans and animals, as can be observed in Old Russian and Russian, demonstrate that the tight interaction of gender with case, number or person can date back to the origin of the gender category, and need not be a secondary development from classifiers.

    A first step in the extension of person name markers is older kinship terms, notably ‘father’ and ‘mother’ and human interrogatives ‘who?’. Person name markers can then further develop to uniqueness markers. There are several instances where non-canonical noun class systems can be shown to have originated from person name markers, notably Nalca (Mek, Trans-New Guinea phylum), Owa (Oceanic, Austronesian) and Mopan Maya.

    In a wide range of languages from different places in the world, noun class markers are so-called pronominal articles, which means that noun class markers have the same form as third person pronouns and have developed from third person pronouns. Interestingly, many languages with pronominal articles use pronominal articles with proper names. This suggests that pronominal articles can grammaticalize via person name markers.

  • 1364.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The incomplete story of feminine gender loss in Northwestern Latvian dialects2017In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 8, p. 143-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show that Northwestern Latvian dialects (also called Tamian) are insufficiently characterized by placing them on a simple linear hierarchy of feminine gender loss, which is how they are traditionally approached in Latvian dialectology. While Lithuanian and Central and High Latvian dialects all have very similar and fairly canonical gender systems, various Northwestern Latvian dialects display a wealth of underexplored non-canonical gender properties, such as the reactivated topic marker gender relic, honorific feminine gender, pronominal adjectives behaving differently from attributive adjectives, the noun ‘boy’ turning into a hybrid feminine noun, and a third controller gender restricted to some diminutives. Feminine gender loss is traditionally explained by Livonian (Finnic) substrate. It is shown in this paper that the developments in NW Latvian have multiple causes, one of them being apocope (loss of short vowels infinal syllables), a common feature of NW Latvian dialects which prompted many developments making NW Latvian different from Central Latvian dialects and which is also ultimately due to language contact. Apocope and other developments made the system more complex. The non-canonical gender properties described in this paper are the effect of subsequent developments reducing system complexity again.

  • 1365.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The morphologization of negation constructions in Nalca (Mek, Tanah Papua), or, how nothing easily moves to the middle of a word2018In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 1413-1461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mek language Nalca has undergone a rapid synthetization of verbal negation by way of two successive stages of asymmetric negation, the first one involving referential zeroing with a verbal noun, the second one reintroducing person marking with an auxiliary in analogy to non-verbal predicates. This development can be traced in texts in the more conservative closely related Mek language Eipo. Referential zeroing originally had the connotation of absolute negation (more than the denial of one specific event). As Nalca negation was integrated into inflectional morphology, it developed some of the hallmarks of autonomous morphology - morphomes and empty morphs. Nalca negation illustrates how grammaticalization and analogy can go hand-in-hand. The fusion of verbal negation is a case of the morphologization of a construction which does not occur in isolation but in concert with other similar processes, together entailing a fragmentation of negation marking. Finally, the Nalca development shows that cases of fusion of verbal negation must be taken into account when dealing with the interplay of existential negation and verbal negation in terms of cyclic processes.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-04 18:53
  • 1366.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The rise of gender in Nalca (Mek, Tanah Papua): The drift towards the canonical gender attractor2018In: Non-canonical gender systems / [ed] Sebastian Fedden, Jenny Audring, Greville G. Corbett, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 68-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1367.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cysouw, Michael
    Lexical typology through similarity semantics: Toward a semantic map of motion verbs2012In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 671-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a multidimensional probabilistic semantic map of lexical motion verb stems based on data collected from parallel texts (viz. translations of the Gospel according to Mark) for 100 languages from all continents. The crosslinguistic diversity of lexical semantics in motion verbs is illustrated in detail for the domain of 'go', 'come', and 'arrive' type contexts. It is argued that the theoretical bases underlying probabilistic semantic maps from exemplar data are the isomorphism hypothesis (given any two meanings and their corresponding forms in any particular language, more similar meanings are more likely to be expressed by the same form in any language), similarity semantics (similarity is more basic than identity), and exemplar semantics (exemplar meaning is more fundamental than abstract concepts).

  • 1368.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ender, Andrea
    Wörter2013In: Sprachwissenschaft: Grammatik – Interaktion – Kognition / [ed] Peter Auer, Stuttgart: Verlag J. B. Metzler, 2013, p. 91-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1369.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Exploring the cross-linguistic relationship between resultative constructions and participles2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1370.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    Introduction: The text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Szmrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1371.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sölling, Arnd
    The encoding of motion events: Building typology bottom-up from text data in many languages2013In: Variation and Change in the Encoding of Motion Events / [ed] Juliana Goschler & Anatol Stefanowitsch, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 77-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates eleven fundamental questions of motion event encoding from a massively cross-linguistic (i.e. typological) perspective in a bottom-up approach in parallel and original texts making use of quantitative and qualitative methods and various visualization methods. It is found that motion events can be encoded by lexical and grammatical means, by words and morphemes and tend to be expressed by constructions rather than simple markers (distributional spatial semantics). It is argued that local decomposition is more appropriate to address the semantics of motion events than global decomposition and that motion event typology consists of continuous rather than discrete variables. In motion event typology there are many features with only weak correlations (high heterogeneity). Both universal and culture-dependent aspects of motion event encoding are identified and areal trends in motion event typology are addressed (notably the deviant behavior of the North American continent).

  • 1372.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    von Waldenfels, Ruprecht
    University of Bern.
    Measuring morphosemantic language distance in parallel texts2013In: Approaches to Measuring Linguistic Differences / [ed] Lars Borin & Anju Saxena, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 475-506Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1373.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Capturing respiratory sounds with throat microphones2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Jardar Eggesbö Abrahamsen, Jacques Koreman, Wim van Dommelen, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 181-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study using throat microphones for recording respiratory sounds. We demonstrate that inhalation noises are louder before longer stretches of speech than before shorter utterances (< 1 s) and in silent breathing. We thus replicate the results from our earlier study which used close-talking head-mounted microphones, without the associated data loss due to cross-talk. We also show that inhalations are louder within than before a speaking turn. Hence, the study provides another piece of evidence in favour of communicative functions of respiratory noises serving as potential turn-taking (for instance, turn-holding) cues. 

  • 1374.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Exhalatory turn-taking cues2018In: Proceedings 9th International Conference on Speech Prosody 2018 / [ed] Katarzyna Klessa, Jolanta Bachan, Agnieszka Wagner, Maciej Karpiński, Daniel Śledziński, Poznań, Poland: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 334-338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper is a study of kinematic features of the exhalation which signal that the speaker is done speaking and wants to yield the turn. We demonstrate that the single most prominent feature is the presence of inhalation directly following the exhalation. However, several features of the exhalation itself are also found to significantly distinguish between turn holds and yields, such as slower exhalation rate and higher lung level at exhalation onset. The results complement existing body evidence on respiratory turn-taking cues which has so far involved mainly inhalatory features. We also show that respiration allows discovering pause interruptions thus allowing access to unrealised turn-taking intentions.

  • 1375.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory belts and whistles: A preliminary study of breathing acoustics for turn-taking2016In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2016 / [ed] Nelson Morgan, International Speech Communication Association, 2016, p. 510-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents first results on using acoustic intensity of inhalations as a cue to speech initiation in spontaneous multiparty conversations. We demonstrate that inhalation intensity significantly differentiates between cycles coinciding with no speech activity, shorter (< 1 s) and longer stretches of speech. While the model fit is relatively weak, it is comparable to the fit of a model using kinematic features collected with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. We also show that incorpo- rating both kinematic and acoustic features further improves the model. Given the ease of capturing breath acoustics, we consider the results to be a promising first step towards studying communicative functions of respiratory sounds. We discuss possible extensions to the data collection procedure with a view to improving predictive power of the model. 

  • 1376.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Properties of Backchannels in Spontaneous Multiparty Conversation2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Maria Wolters, Judy Livingstone, Bernie Beattie, Rachel Smith, Mike MacMahon, Jane Stuart-Smith, Jim Scobbie, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on first results of a newly started project focussing on interactional functions of breathing in spontaneous multiparty conversation. Specifically, we investigate respiratory patterns associated with backchannels (short feedback expressions), and compare them with breathing cycles observed during longer stretches of speech or while listening to interlocutor’s speech. Overall, inhalations preceding backchannels were found to resemble those in quiet breathing to a large degree. The results are discussed in terms of temporal organisation and respiratory planning in these utterances. 

  • 1377.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory turn-taking cues2016In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2016 / [ed] Nelson Morgan, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2016, p. 1275-1279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent breathing can be used as a cue to turn-taking behaviour. The paper improves on existing accounts by considering all possible transitions between speaker states (silent, speaking, backchanneling) and by not relying on global speaker models. Instead, all features (including breathing range and resting expiratory level) are estimated in an incremental fashion using the left-hand context. We identify several inhalatory features relevant to turn-management, and assess the fit of models with these features as predictors of turn-taking behaviour.

  • 1378.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    Breathing in Conversation: An Unwritten History2015In: Proceedings of the 2nd European and the 5th Nordic Symposium on Multimodal Communication / [ed] Kristiina Jokinen, Martin Vels, Linköping, 2015, p. 107-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to draw attention of the multimodal communication research community to what we consider a long overdue topic, namely respiratory activity in conversation. We submit that a turn towards spontaneous interaction is a natural extension of the recent interest in speech breathing, and is likely to offer valuable insights into mechanisms underlying organisation of interaction and collaborative human action in general, as well as to make advancement in existing speech technology applications. Particular focus is placed on the role of breathing as a perceptually and interactionally salient turn-taking cue. We also present the recording setup developed in the Phonetics Laboratory at Stockholm University with the aim of studying communicative functions of physiological and audio-visual breathing correlates in spontaneous multiparty interactions

  • 1379.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    Communicative needs and respiratory constraints2015In: 16th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2015): Speech Beyond Speech Towards a Better Understanding of the Most Important Biosignal, 2015, p. 3051-3055Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates timing of communicative behaviour with respect to speaker’s respiratory cycle. The data is drawn from a corpus of multiparty conversations in Swedish. We find that while longer utterances (> 1 s) are tied, predictably, primarily to exhalation onset, shorter vocalisations are spread more uni- formly across the respiratory cycle. In addition, nods, which are free from any respiratory constraints, are most frequently found around exhalation offsets, where respiratory requirements for even a short utterance are not satisfied. We interpret the results to reflect the economy principle in speech production, whereby respiratory effort, associated primarily with starting a new respiratory cycle, is minimised within the scope of speaker’s communicative goals. 

  • 1380.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Improving Prediction of Speech Activity Using Multi-Participant Respiratory State2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1666-1670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One consequence of situated face-to-face conversation is the co- observability of participants’ respiratory movements and sounds. We explore whether this information can be exploited in pre- dicting incipient speech activity. Using a methodology called stochastic turn-taking modeling, we compare the performance of a model trained on speech activity alone to one additionally trained on static and dynamic lung volume features. The method- ology permits automatic discovery of temporal dependencies across participants and feature types. Our experiments show that respiratory information substantially lowers cross-entropy rates, and that this generalizes to unseen data. 

  • 1381.
    Young, Nathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suburban Swedish maturing: Examining variation and perceptions among adult speakers of Swedish contemporary urban vernacular2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, adolescent speakers have been the primary focus when researching contemporary variation in the language of Sweden’s urban areas. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the topic by examining and reporting on adult speakers of what is here referred to as förortssvenska (English: Suburban Swedish). This study focuses specifically on formal speech registers of eight young working-class men from Stockholm along with the perception and reception of their speech by two independent native-listener groups.

    The paper is the first to present quantifiable data on what has been previously referred to as a “staccato” rhythm in Suburban Swedish. Strong correlations are shown between prosodic rhythm as measured by the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) and speech speed to mean listener attitudes (R2=0.9). A strong correlation is also shown for nPVI’s influence on mean listener-projected ethnicity (R2=0.8). Alongside variation in rhythm, we also see phonemic variation that trends toward specific indexes of social identity as revealed by speaker interviews and native-listener assessments. Alongside linguistic variation among speakers, there is also significant variation within speaker peer groups.

    In addition to identifying specific linguistic features, the study examines social mechanisms revealed in interviews with and qualitative observations of speaker and listener participants. In exploratory fashion, ideas on variation, register ranges, meta-pragmatic stereotyping, and ethnic boundary-making are presented to make a case for treating contemporary urban variation in Swedish as a habitual semiotic extension of speaker identity. Indicators that contemporary urban variation in Swedish may be heading in the direction of sociolectal entrenchment are also discussed.

  • 1382.
    Zora, Hatice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mapping prosody onto the lexicon: Memory traces for lexically specified prosodic information in the brain2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lexical access, the matching of auditory information onto lexical representations in the brain, is a crucial component of online language processing. To understand the nature of lexical access, it is important to identify the kind of acoustic information that is stored in the long-term memory and to study how the brain uses such information. This dissertation investigates the contribution of prosodic information to lexical access and examines language-specific processing mechanisms by studying three typologically distinct languages: English, Turkish, and Swedish. The main research objective is to demonstrate the activation of long-term memory traces for words on the sole basis of prosodic information and to test the accuracy of typological phonological descriptions suggested in the literature by studying electrophysiological measurements of brain activation. A secondary research objective is to evaluate three distinct electrophysiological recording systems. The dissertation is based on three papers, each examining neural responses to prosodic changes in one of the three languages with a different recording system. The first two papers deal directly with the interplay between prosody and the lexicon, and investigate whether prosodic changes activate memory traces associated with segmentally identical but prosodically different words; the third paper introduces morphology to this process and investigates whether prosodic changes activate memory traces associated with potential lexical derivations. Neural responses demonstrate that prosodic information indeed activates memory traces associated with words and their potential derivations without any given context. Strongly connected neural networks are argued to guarantee neural activation and implementation of long-term memory traces. Regardless of differences in prosodic typology, all languages exploit prosodic information for lexical processing, although to different extents. The amount of neural activation elicited by a particular piece of prosodic information is positively correlated with the strength of its lexical representation in the brain, which is called lexical specification. This dissertation could serve as a first step towards building an electrophysiological-perceptual taxonomy of prosodic processing based on lexical specification.

  • 1383.
    Zora, Hatice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Neural correlates of symbolic and affective prosody2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1384.
    Zora, Hatice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Suprasegmental features in spoken language processing2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1385.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to automatic lexical access: Evidence from early ERP components2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to lexical access were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials (ERPs). The MMN was expected to indicate if segmentally identical Turkish words were distinguished on the sole basis of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (f0), spectral emphasis (SE) and duration. The salience of these features in lexical access was expected to be reflected in the amplitude of MMN responses. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in f0, SE, and duration individually, as well as to all three features combined, were recorded for words and pseudowords presented to 14 native speakers of Turkish. The word and pseudoword contrast was used to differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects on the neural responses. First and in line with previous findings, the overall MMN was maximal over frontal and central scalp locations. Second, changes in prosodic features elicited neural responses both in words and pseudowords, confirming the brain’s automatic response to any change in auditory input. However, there were processing differences between the prosodic features, most significantly in f0: While f0 manipulation elicited a slightly right-lateralized frontally-maximal MMN in words, it elicited a frontal P3a in pseudowords. Considering that P3a is associated with involuntary allocation of attention to salient changes, the manipulations of f0 in the absence of lexical processing lead to an intentional evaluation of pitch change. f0 is therefore claimed to be lexically specified in Turkish. Rather than combined features, individual prosodic features differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects. The present study confirms that segmentally identical words can be distinguished on the basis of prosodic information alone, and establishes the salience of f0 in lexical access.

  • 1386.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Magnusson, Anna
    Rudner, Mary
    MMN signatures of symbolic and affective prosody2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1387.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Magnusson, Anna
    Rudner, Mary
    The effect of visual deprivation on prosodic processing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1388.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lexical Specification of Prosodic Information in Swedish: Evidence from Mismatch Negativity2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like that of many other Germanic languages, the stress system of Swedish has mainly undergone phonological analysis. Recently, however, researchers have begun to recognize the central role of morphology in these systems. Similar to the lexical specification of tonal accent, the Swedish stress system is claimed to be morphologically determined and morphemes are thus categorized as prosodically specified and prosodically unspecified. Prosodically specified morphemes bear stress information as part of their lexical representations and are classified as tonic (i.e., lexically stressed), pretonic and posttonic, whereas prosodically unspecified morphemes receive stress through a phonological rule that is right-edge oriented, but is sensitive to prosodic specification at that edge. The presence of prosodic specification is inferred from vowel quality and vowel quantity; if stress moves elsewhere, vowel quality and quantity change radically in phonologically stressed morphemes, whereas traces of stress remain in lexically stressed morphemes. The present study is the first to investigate whether stress is a lexical property of Swedish morphemes by comparing mismatch negativity (MMN) responses to vowel quality and quantity changes in phonologically stressed and lexically stressed words. In a passive oddball paradigm, 15 native speakers of Swedish were presented with standards and deviants, which differed from the standards in formant frequency and duration. Given that vowel quality and quantity changes are associated with morphological derivations only in phonologically stressed words, MMN responses are expected to be greater in phonologically stressed words than in lexically stressed words that lack such an association. The results indicated that the processing differences between phonologically and lexically stressed words were reflected in the amplitude and topography of MMN responses. Confirming the expectation, MMN amplitude was greater for the phonologically stressed word than for the lexically stressed word and showed a more widespread topographic distribution. The brain did not only detect vowel quality and quantity changes but also used them to activate memory traces associated with derivations. The present study therefore implies that morphology is directly involved in the Swedish stress system and that changes in phonological shape due to stress shift cue upcoming stress and potential addition of a morpheme.

  • 1389.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Ylinen, Sari
    Prosodically controlled derivations in the mental lexicon2019In: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 52, article id 100856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish morphemes are classified as prosodically specified or prosodically unspecified, depending on lexical or phonological stress, respectively. Here, we investigate the allomorphy of the suffix -(i)sk, which indicates the distinction between lexical and phonological stress; if attached to a lexically stressed morpheme, it takes a non-syllabic form (-sk), whereas if attached to a phonologically stressed morpheme, an epenthetic vowel is inserted (-isk). Using mismatch negativity (MMN), we explored the neural processing of this allomorphy across lexically stressed and phonologically stressed morphemes. In an oddball paradigm, participants were occasionally presented with congruent and incongruent derivations, created by the suffix -(i)sk, within the repetitive presentation of their monomorphemic stems. The results indicated that the congruent derivation of the lexically stressed stem elicited a larger MMN than the incongruent sequences of the same stem and the derivational suffix, whereas after the phonologically stressed stem a non-significant tendency towards an opposite pattern was observed. We argue that the significant MMN response to the congruent derivation in the lexical stress condition is in line with lexical MMN, indicating a holistic processing of the sequence of lexically stressed stem and derivational suffix. The enhanced MMN response to the incongruent derivation in the phonological stress condition, on the other hand, is suggested to reflect combinatorial processing of the sequence of phonologically stressed stem and derivational suffix. These findings bring a new aspect to the dual-system approach to neural processing of morphologically complex words, namely the specification of word stress.

  • 1390.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Ylinen, Sari
    Prosodically controlled suffix alternation in the mental lexicon2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1391.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Rudner, Mary
    Magnusson, Anna
    The role of affective and linguistic prosody in the cognitive emotional appraisal of language2019In: Abstract book: Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2019, p. 174-174, article id 60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody offers a unified expression domain for affective and linguistic communication. Affective prosody (e.g., anger vocalization) reflects pre-cognitive processes, whereas linguistic prosody (e.g., lexical tone) is an acquired cognitive skill. In the present study, we explored the interplay between subcortical affective prosody and cortical linguistic cues during emotional appraisal of speech using stereotyped electroencephalography (EEG) responses. We hypothesized that concurrent affective and linguistic prosody with the same valence will evoke a late positive frontal response, reflecting emotional appraisal supported by complex cognitive processing in frontal cortical areas. Using an auditory oddball paradigm, neural responses to a spoken pair of Swedish words that differed in emotional content due to linguistic prosody were investigated as pronounced with an angry and a neutral voice. The results indicate that when co-occurring, affective and linguistic prosody with the same valence elicit a unique late positive response in the frontal region that is distinct from the neural responses of affective and linguistic prosody alone. This study provides experimental evidence that both affective and linguistic prosody contribute synergistically to the cognitive emotional appraisal of language, and highlights the significance of pre-cognitive affective prosody in language processing, having important implications for both language learning and learning through language.

  • 1392.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Neural correlates of lexical stress: mismatch negativity reflects fundamental frequency and intensity2015In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 26, no 13, p. 791-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural correlates of lexical stress were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials. The MMN responses were expected to reveal the encoding of stress information into long-term memory and the contributions of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity toward lexical access. In a passive oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in F0, intensity, and in both features together were recorded for words and pseudowords. The findings showed significant differences not only between words and pseudowords but also between prosodic features. Early processing of prosodic information in words was indexed by an intensity-related MMN and an F0-related P200. These effects were stable at right-anterior and mid-anterior regions. At a later latency, MMN responses were recorded for both words and pseudowords at the mid-anterior and posterior regions. The P200 effect observed for F0 at the early latency for words developed into an MMN response. Intensity elicited smaller MMN for pseudowords than for words. Moreover, a larger brain area was recruited for the processing of words than for the processing of pseudowords. These findings suggest earlier and higher sensitivity to prosodic changes in words than in pseudowords, reflecting a language-related process. The present study, therefore, not only establishes neural correlates of lexical stress but also confirms the presence of long-term memory traces for prosodic information in the brain.

  • 1393.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A preliminary study of audiovisual integration of roundedness in front vowels: limitation due to discrepancy in jaw depression2010In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2010, 2010, p. 125-128Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Audiovisual integration of vowel roundedness was investigated, as the discrepancy in jaw depression increased. The results show that the relative visual impact on perceived roundedness decreases at larger discrepancies. The results may suggest that this tendency would be stronger among acoustically presented [i] than [y]. To verify this, more research with talking heads may be required. The results confirm earlier findings that audiovisual integration doesn’t require unconsciousness among subjects about the dubbing procedure.

     

  • 1394.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Arppe, Heidi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eklund, Linnéa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eriksson, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marcus, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mathiassen, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pettersson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual integration in binaural, monaural and dichotic listening2011In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2011, 2011, p. 29-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Audiovisual speech perception was investigated in three different conditions: (i) binaurally, where the same sound was presented in both ears, (ii) monaurally, where the sound was presented in one ear randomly, and (iii) dichotically, where the subjects were asked to focus on what was heard in the right ear. The results showed visual influence to be lowered in random monaural presentation as well as in dichotic presentation. Low visual influence to dichotic presentation, as compared with binaural presentation, supports the notion of an attentional component in audiovisual speech processing. Low visual influence in the random monaural presentation may be due to increased attention to the auditory modality because of uncertainty.

  • 1395.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bulukin Wilén, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eklöf, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Visual discrimination between Swedish and Finnish among L2-learners of Swedish2009In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2009, 2009, p. 150-153Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of speech reading experiments were carried out to examine the ability to discriminate between Swedish and Finnish among L2 learners of Swedish and Spanish as their mother tongue. This group was compared with native speakers of Swedish and a group with no knowledge in Swedish or Finnish. The results showed tendencies, that familiarity with Swedish increased the discrimination ability between Swedish and Finnish.

  • 1396.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Acoustical prerequisites for visual hearing2006In: Working Papers 52, FONETIK 2006, 2006, p. 149-152Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The McGurk effect shows in an obvious manner that visual information from a speaker’s articulatory movements influences the auditory perception. The present study concerns the robustness of such speech specific audiovisual integration. What are the acoustical prerequisites for audiovisual integration to occur in speech perception? Auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables (phonated and whispered) were presented to 23 perceivers. In some of the stimuli, the auditory signal was exchanged for a schwa syllable, a dynamic source signal and a constant source signal. The results show that dynamic spectral information from a source signal suffice as auditory input for speech specific audiovisual integration to occur. The results also confirm that type (and absence) of lip rounding are strong visual cues.

  • 1397.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual perception of Swedish vowels with and without conflicting cues2004In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, 2004, p. 40-43Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables with and without conflicting vowel cues (/i y e ø /) presented to men and women showed (1) most to perceive roundedness by eye rather than by ear, (2) a mostly male minority to be less relying on vision, (3) presence of lip rounding to be noticed more easily than absence, and (4) all to perceive openness by ear rather than by eye.

  • 1398.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Bayesian model for joint word alignment and part-of-speech transfer2016In: Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers, Osaka, Japan: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 620-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current methods for word alignment require considerable amounts of parallel text to deliver accurate results, a requirement which is met only for a small minority of the world’s approximately 7,000 languages. We show that by jointly performing word alignment and annotation transfer in a novel Bayesian model, alignment accuracy can be improved for language pairs where annotations are available for only one of the languages—a finding which could facilitate the study and processing of a vast number of low-resource languages. We also present an evaluation where our method is used to perform single-source and multi-source part-of-speech transfer with 22 translations of the same text in four different languages. This allows us to quantify the considerable variation in accuracy depending on the specific source text(s) used, even with different translations into the same language.

  • 1399.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    A Construction Grammar Method for Disambiguating Swedish Compounds2010In: SLTC 2010 Workshop on Compounds and Multiword Expressions, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the structure of Swedish compounds within the framework of Construction Grammar, and applies the result to Word Sense Disambiguation of compound components. A construction-based approach is shown to achieve significantly better results than a set of baselines.

  • 1400.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Bayesian Models for Multilingual Word Alignment2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore Bayesian models for word alignment, how they can be improved through joint annotation transfer, and how they can be extended to parallel texts in more than two languages. In addition to these general methodological developments, I apply the algorithms to problems from sign language research and linguistic typology.

    In the first part of the thesis, I show how Bayesian alignment models estimated with Gibbs sampling are more accurate than previous methods for a range of different languages, particularly for languages with few digital resources available—which is unfortunately the state of the vast majority of languages today. Furthermore, I explore how different variations to the models and learning algorithms affect alignment accuracy.

    Then, I show how part-of-speech annotation transfer can be performed jointly with word alignment to improve word alignment accuracy. I apply these models to help annotate the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with part-of-speech tags, and to investigate patterns of polysemy across the languages of the world.

    Finally, I present a model for multilingual word alignment which learns an intermediate representation of the text. This model is then used with a massively parallel corpus containing translations of the New Testament, to explore word order features in 1001 languages.

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