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  • 1351. Volodina, Elena
    et al.
    Megyesi, Beata
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Granstedt, Lena
    Prentice, Julia
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Sundberg, Gunlög
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    A Friend in Need? Research agenda for electronic Second Language infrastructure2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we describe the research and societal needs as well as ongoing efforts to shape Swedish as a Second Language (L2) infrastructure. Our aim is to develop an electronic research infrastructure that would stimulate empiric research into learners' language development by preparing data and developing language technology methods and algorithms that can successfully deal with deviations in the learner language.

  • 1352. Volodina, Elena
    et al.
    Pilán, IldikóBorin, LarsGintare, GrigonyteStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Nilsson Björkenstam, KristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Proceedings of the Joint 6th Workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and 2nd Workshop on NLP for Research on Language Acquisition2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the second year in a row we brought two related themes of NLP for Computer-Assisted Language Learning and NLP for Language Acquisition together. The goal of organizing joint workshops is to provide a meeting place for researchers working on language learning issues including both empirical and experimental studies and NLP-based applications. The resulting volume covers a variety of topics from the two fields and - hopefully - showcases the challenges and achievements in the field.

    The seven papers in this volume cover native language identification in learner writings, using syntactic complexity development in language learner language to identify reading comprehension texts of appropriate level, exploring the potential of parallel corpora to predict mother-language specific problem areas for learners of another language, tools for learning languages - both well-resourced ones such as English as well as endangered or under-resourced ones such as Yakut and Võro, as well as exploring the potential of automatically identifying and correcting word-level errors in Swedish learner writing.

  • 1353. Von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Uhlén, Inger
    Segmental and suprasegmental properties in nonword repetition - An explorative study of the associations with nonword decoding in children with normal hearing and children with bilateral cochlear implants2015In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 216-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored nonword repetition (NWR) and nonword decoding in normal-hearing (NH) children and in children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI). Participants were 11 children, with CI, 5:0-7:11 years (M = 6.5 years), and 11 NH children, individually age-matched to the children with CI. This study fills an important gap in research, since it thoroughly describes detailed aspects of NWR and nonword decoding and their possible associations. All children were assessed after having practiced with a computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach during four weeks. Results showed that NH children outperformed children with CI on the majority of aspects of NWR. The analysis of syllable number in NWR revealed that children with CI made more syllable omissions than did the NH children, and predominantly in prestressed positions. In addition, the consonant cluster analysis in NWR showed significantly more consonant omissions and substitutions in children with CI suggesting that reaching fine-grained levels of phonological processing was particularly difficult for these children. No significant difference was found for nonword-decoding accuracy between the groups, as measured by whole words correct and phonemes correct, but differences were observed regarding error patterns. In children with CI phoneme, deletions occurred significantly more often than in children with NH. The correlation analysis revealed that the ability to repeat consonant clusters in NWR had the strongest associations to nonword decoding in both groups. The absence of as frequent significant associations between NWR and nonword decoding in children with CI compared to children with NH suggest that these children partly use other decoding strategies to compensate for less precise phonological knowledge, for example, lexicalizations in nonword decoding, specifically, making a real word of a nonword.

  • 1354. von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

  • 1355.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Englund Dimitrova, BirgittaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.Nilsson, Anna-LenaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The Critical Link 4. Professionalisation of interpreting in the community.: Selected papers from the 4th International Conference on Interpreting in Legal, Health and Social Service Settings, Stockholm, Sweden, 20-23 May 20042007Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 1356.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelning för teckenspråk.
    Polysyntetiska tecken i svenska teckenspråket1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1357.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Polysynthetic signs in Swedish Sign Language1996Book (Other academic)
  • 1358.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Two kinds of productive signs in Swedish Sign Language: Polysynthetic signs and size and shape specifying signs2000In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 237-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1359.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lule, Dorothy
    Kyambogo University, Kampala.
    Transmission of Sign Languages in Africa2010In: Sign Languages - Cambridge Language Surveys / [ed] Diane Brentari, Cambridge University Press , 2010, p. 113-130Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1360.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Lule, Dorothy
    Kyambogo University.
    Lutalo, Sam
    Kyambogo University.
    Busingye, Bonny
    Kyambogo University.
    Uganda Sign Language Dictionary2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1361.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 1362.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2015Report (Other academic)
  • 1363.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter: Version 7 (januari 2018)2018Report (Other academic)
  • 1364.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Swedish sign language corpus2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1365.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2009Other (Other academic)
  • 1366.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transcription guide lines for Swedish Sign Language discourse. (Version 1)2010Other (Other academic)
  • 1367.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 2).2010Other (Other academic)
  • 1368.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 3).2011Other (Other academic)
  • 1369.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 4).2012Other (Other academic)
  • 1370.
    Welin, Carl Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Studies in computational text comprehension1979Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1371.
    Werner, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mina ögon kan glittra, min mun kan le, men sorgen i mitt hjärta kan ingen se: - Metaforer för sorg i svenskan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines metaphors used in Swedish for the emotion grief. The definition of metaphor applied is the one of the conceptual metaphor, as presented by Lakoff & Johnson (1980), where metaphors are considered to be linguistic evidence of cognitive mappings and consist of a target and source domain. The aim of the study is to describe and map the different source domains, as well as to relate them to three basic level metaphors, that earlier research has shown to be of importance to emotional language; THE BODY AS MIND METAPHOR (Sweetser 1990), THE EVENT STRUCTURE METAPHOR (Lakoff & Johnson 1999 and Kövecses 2000) and THE FORCE METAPHOR (Kövecses 2000). Previous studies by Kövecses (2000) have treated the latter one as a dominating metaphor for more specific level emotion metaphors. The adopted methods consist of a text analysis and a corpus study, where metaphors are extracted from grief themed books and webpages and analyzed manually to later be sought up in corpora. The results show diversity in source domain and a total of 21 superordinate metaphors and 14 subordinate ones are observed. All three basic level metaphors feature. THE FORCE METAPHOR does however not qualify as a dominating metaphor which can function as a superordinate metaphor for all others. This is believed to be due to the fact that most earlier research has focused on English, as well as that the definition of grief used throughout the study does not constitute a prototypical emotion.

  • 1372. Whalen, Doug
    et al.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Biological Basis of Speech2006In: Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, Vol. 12, no 27, p. 61-67Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The biological basis of speech has three main components: the physiology of the vocal tract, the physiology of the perceptual system (primarily the ear but also the eye and, occasionally, other systems), and the neural resources that allow their use for communication. The genetic underpinnings of these functions are beyond the scope of this article, so the functional aspects will be discussed.

    Speech, like language, is a biological system. Because it is the part of language with a physical realization, the immediacy of the biology is more apparent than it is for syntax and semantics, but it forms a part of that complete biological system. Language is generally considered the defining characteristic of humans, and it will develop in every neurologically normal child with virtually any exposure to linguistic material. The large investment that is made in being able to acquire and use language is justified by the immense rewards for using it, and the severe penalties for being unable to.

  • 1373. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Contact-induced grammatical change: Diverse phenomena, diverse perspectives2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 3-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1374. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Hansen, Björn
    Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume presents new insights into two basic theoretical issues hotly debated in recent work on grammaticalization and language contact: grammatical replication and grammatical borrowability. The key issues are: How can grammatical replication be distinguished from other, superficially similar processes of contact-induced linguistic change, and under what conditions does it take place? Are there grammatical morphemes or constructions that are more easily borrowed than others, and how can language contact account for areal biases in borrowing (vs. calquing) of grammatical formatives? The book is a major contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion concerning the relationship between grammaticalization and language contact on a broad empirical basis.

  • 1375.
    Wikse Barrow, Carla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Strömbergsson, Sofia
    Subjective ratings of age-of-acquisition: exploring issues of validity and rater reliability2019In: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate concerns of validity and reliability in subjective ratings of age-of-acquisition (AoA), through exploring characteristics of the individual rater. An additional aim was to validate the obtained AoA ratings against two corpora – one of child speech and one of adult speech – specifically exploring whether words over-represented in the child-speech corpus are rated with lower AoA than words characteristic of the adult-speech corpus. The results show that less than one-third of participating informants’ ratings are valid and reliable. However, individuals with high familiarity with preschool-aged children provide more valid and reliable ratings, compared to individuals who do not work with or have children of their own. The results further show a significant, age-adjacent difference in rated AoA for words from the two different corpora, thus strengthening their validity. The study provides AoA data, of high specificity, for 100 child-specific and 100 adult-specific Swedish words.

  • 1376.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    L1 and L2 influence in L3 production: Evidence from language switches1997Report (Other academic)
  • 1377.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 28-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1378.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model1998In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 295-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1379.
    Willing, Josephine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Användning av perspektiv i svenskt teckenspråk hos hörande andraspråksinlärare2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I investigate how hearing adult second language (L2) learners use and develop perspective in the three different categories – character, observerand mixed perspective– in Swedish Sign Language over the course of one year. The results of the target group are compared to those of a control group consisting of deaf first language (L1) users. The results show that the target group, between the second and fourth recording session, has developed multiple perspectives in all categories. Furthermore, linguistic similarities and differences between target and control groups are investigated, one similarity being that all informants express imitating gestures in the same way. The results show that several informants in the target group use double referents in signing space. This may be a consequence of their preference for observer perspective, since they have difficulties with mixed perspectives. Conversely, the control group has a considerably higher percentage of mixed perspectives than the target group.

  • 1380.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Language and Computers, Markus Dickinson, Chris Brew, Detmar Meurers, Wiley-Blackwell, 20132013In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 777-780Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1381.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Review of "Web Corpus Construction" by Schäfer & Bildhauer2014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 457-463Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1382.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Matsson, Arild
    Rosén, Dan
    Volodina, Elena
    SVALA: Annotation of Second-Language Learner Text Based on Mostly Automatic Alignment of Parallel Corpora2019In: Selected papers from the CLARIN Annual Conference 2018, Pisa, 8-10 October 2018 / [ed] Inguna Skadina, Maria Eskevich, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019, p. 222-234, article id 023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annotation of second-language learner text is a cumbersome manual task which in turn requires interpretation to postulate the intended meaning of the learner’s language. This paper describes SVALA, a tool which separates the logical steps in this process while providing rich visual support for each of them. The first step is to pseudonymize the learner text to fulfil the legal and ethical requirements for a distributable learner corpus. The second step is to correct the text, which is carried out in the simplest possible way by text editing. During the editing, SVALA automatically maintains a parallel corpus with alignments between words in the learner source text and corrected text, while the annotator may repair inconsistent word alignments. Finally, the actual labelling of the corrections (the postulated errors) is performed. We describe the objectives, design and workflow of SVALA, and our plans for further development.

  • 1383.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    N. Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the Informativeness of Non-Verbal Cues in Parent–Child Interaction2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 2203-2207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-verbal cues from speakers, such as eye gaze and hand positions, play an important role in word learning. This is consistent with the notion that for meaning to be reconstructed, acoustic patterns need to be linked to time-synchronous patterns from at least one other modality. In previous studies of a multimodally annotated corpus of parent–child interaction, we have shown that parents interacting with infants at the early word-learning stage (7–9 months) display a large amount of time-synchronous patterns, but that this behaviour tails off with increasing age of the children. Furthermore, we have attempted to quantify the informativeness of the different nonverbal cues, that is, to what extent they actually help to discriminate between different possible referents, and how critical the timing of the cues is. The purpose of this paper is to generalise our earlier model by quantifying informativeness resulting from non-verbal cues occurring both before and after their associated verbal references.

  • 1384.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonytė, Gintarė
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Longitudinal Studies of Variation Sets in Child-directed Speech2016In: The 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 44-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the characteristics of child-directed speech is its high degree of repetitiousness. Sequences of repetitious utterances with a constant intention, variation sets, have been shown to be correlated with children’s language acquisition. To obtain a baseline for the occurrences of variation sets in Swedish, we annotate 18 parent–child dyads using a generalised definition according to which the varying form may pertain not just to the wording but also to prosody and/or non-verbal cues. To facilitate further empirical investigation, we introduce a surface algorithm for automatic extraction of variation sets which is easily replicable and language-independent. We evaluate the algorithm on the Swedish gold standard, and use it for extracting variation sets in Croatian, English and Russian. We show that the proportion of variation sets in child-directed speech decreases consistently as a function of children's age across Swedish, Croatian, English and Russian.

  • 1385.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variationsmängder i barnriktat tal2013In: XIII Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet - 2013 Stockholms universitet, Sverige, 8-9 november 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnriktat tal har en rad unika egenskaper som alla tycks härröra från föräldrarnas (omedvetna) önskan att som mycket som möjligt underlätta språkinlärningen för barnet. En av dessa egenskaper hos barnriktat tal är dess repetitivitet, till exempel i successiva yttranden som följande:

    Var kan Kucka vara då?

    Var är Kucka?

    Var är kaninen som heter Kucka?

    I det här papperet studerar vi den lokala repetitiviteten i barnriktat tal, som i litteraturen brukar kallas variationsmängder. Dessa är intressanta genom att de visar de ord och konstruktioner som föräldrarna vid varje tillfälle tycks koncentrera sig på att lära sina barn.

    Ett teoretiskt ramverk med bäring på detta är konstruktionsgrammatik, som antar att konstruktioner är inlärningsbara eftersom a) de utgör konventionaliserade form–betydelsepar som b) lärs in gradvis, alltifrån holofraser över schematiska uttryck ("item-based constructions", Tomasello 2003) till vuxenspråkets fullt abstraherbara konstruktioner. Genom att vi har longitudinella data så kan vi fånga i vad mån de successiva konstruktionerna anpassas enligt detta mönster allteftersom barnet blir äldre.

    Flera försök till formalisering av begreppet variationsmängd har föreslagits, till exempel Küntay och Slobin (1996), Brodsky et al. (2007) och Onnis et al. (2008). Vanliga krav på en variationsmängd är att den a) utgör successiva yttranden med upp till två mellanliggande yttranden; b) att minst två av de ingående orden upprepas; och c) att yttrandenas intention är konstant. Vi experimenterar med olika värden på a) och använder stället för b) en strängmatchningsmetod som även tar hänsyn till yttrandelängden.

    I papperet redovisar vi utfallet av konstruktionstyper baserat på data från en longitudinell korpus med barnriktat tal för tretton barn i åldrar mellan 3 och 33 månader, fördelade på 58 sessioner.

  • 1386.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    RespInPeace: Toolkit for processing respiratory belt data2019In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2019, 2019, p. 115-118Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RespInPeace is a Python toolkit for processing respiratory data collected using Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography (RIP). It provides methods for signal normalisation, calibration, parametrisation as well as for detection of respiratory events, such as inhalations, exhalations and breath holds. The paper gives a short overview of the most important functions of the program.

  • 1387.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  • 1388.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Šimko, Juraj
    University of Helsinki.
    Suni, Antti
    University of Helsinki.
    Vainio, Martti
    University of Helsinki.
    Classification of Swedish dialects using a hierarchical prosodic analysis2018In: Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2018, 2018, p. 304-308Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1389.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 355-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 1390.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    'As long as’, 'until' and 'before' clauses: Zooming in on linguistic diversity2019In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 9, p. 141-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses in the Baltic languages in their wider areal and genealogical context in a sample of 72 modern and ancient doculects of European and Indo-European languages. In a bottom-up construction of the semantic map of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' connectors from parallel text data, a fourth cluster intermediate between 'before' and 'until' with negative main clauses is identified. The typology resulting from the different overlaps of clusters locates Baltic languages in an intermediate zone between Western, Eastern, and Northern European languages. This goes hand-in-hand with a high diversity of Baltic languages in their typology of 'before', 'until' and 'as long as' clauses. The temporal connectors found in Baltic varieties can be classified according to whether they originate from strategies expressing temporal identity (simultaneity) or non-identity (non-simultaneity). Many connectors in Baltic derive from correlative constructions and originally express identity, but can then shift from simultaneity towards posteriority as they gradually lose their association with correlative constructions. Since temporal clauses are never atemporal and are hence incompatible with permanent states and since negation often expresses permanent states, negation—a marker of non-identity—is prone to develop non-polarity functions in 'before' and 'until' clauses. The Baltic and Slavic languages are rich in various kinds of expanded negation (translation equivalents in other languages lack negation) and expletive negation (negation does not have the function of expressing negative polarity) in 'before' and 'until' clauses. However, indefinite negative pronouns often retain their negative semantic value when standard negation in temporal clauses is expanded and semantically bleached.

  • 1391.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Co-compounds2015In: Word-formation: an international handbook of the languages of Europe / [ed] Müller, Peter O., Ohnheiser, Ingeborg, Olsen, Susan, Rainer, Franz, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 707-727Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1392.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 233-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1393.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 69-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1394.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ištiktukai "eventives": the Baltic precursors of ideophones and why they remain unknown in typology2015In: Contemporary approaches to Baltic linguistics / [ed] Peter Arkadiev, Axel Holvoet, Björn Wiemer, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 491-521Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1395.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Logophoricity in Eastern Vidzeme: The Literary Latvian idiolect of Andrievs Niedra and Leivu Estonian2015In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 6, p. 141-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eastern Vidzeme is an important, hitherto neglected, area for the study of logophoricity in the Circum-Baltic languages. This paper shows, on the one hand, that logophoricity in Latvian is not restricted to Latgalian dialects, but is almost fully consistent in the writings of the novelist Andrievs Niedra (1871–1942) originating from Tirza, and on the other hand, that Leivu Estonian, a moribund South Estonian language island in Northeastern Vidzeme between Gulbene and Alūksne, is the only Estonian variety having developed a logophoric pronoun.

    Given the high diversity of logophoricity in Latvian, it is important to study idiolects with large corpora, and written language deserves more study. Like Finnish dialects and Leivu Estonian, Niedra’s idiolect uses logophoric pronouns even for marking the report addressee in questions. Unlike in the Latgalian tales discussed by Nau (2006), logophoricity can be extended beyond the domain of report to thought. A distinction between allophoric (frame and report speaker are different) and autophoric reports (frame and report speaker are the same) is introduced. It is argued that logophoric pronouns are a non-deictic and non-coreference-based strategy to mark reports, that their function is not primarily reference tracking, and that logophoric pronouns in Latvian are constructionalized rather than grammaticalized.

  • 1396.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

    To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

    Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

    The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

    The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 1397.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, p. 53-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

  • 1398.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1399.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The extension of person name markers to noun class markers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a diverse convenience sample with languages from all continents, this paper explores how noun class markers can develop from person name markers or from personal pronouns via person name markers.

    Person name markers can grammaticalize from nouns or from personal pronouns. They can have or lack sex distinctions. In some languages they cumulate with case or topic. Noun classes fall into gender and classifiers, which typologists find increasingly difficult to distinguish. Gender tends to be more grammaticalized, which is largely due to cumulation with another grammatical category, notably number, case and/or person. Instances of recent origin of gender, such as animacy in Slavic, where gender has developed from different object marking and has travelled down the animacy hierarchy from pronouns to proper names and further to appellative humans and animals, as can be observed in Old Russian and Russian, demonstrate that the tight interaction of gender with case, number or person can date back to the origin of the gender category, and need not be a secondary development from classifiers.

    A first step in the extension of person name markers is older kinship terms, notably ‘father’ and ‘mother’ and human interrogatives ‘who?’. Person name markers can then further develop to uniqueness markers. There are several instances where non-canonical noun class systems can be shown to have originated from person name markers, notably Nalca (Mek, Trans-New Guinea phylum), Owa (Oceanic, Austronesian) and Mopan Maya.

    In a wide range of languages from different places in the world, noun class markers are so-called pronominal articles, which means that noun class markers have the same form as third person pronouns and have developed from third person pronouns. Interestingly, many languages with pronominal articles use pronominal articles with proper names. This suggests that pronominal articles can grammaticalize via person name markers.

  • 1400.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The feminine anaphoric gender gram, incipient gender marking, maturity, and extracting anaphoric gender markers from parallel texts2019In: Grammatical gender and linguistic complexity: Volume II: World-wide comparative studies / [ed] Francesca Di Garbo, Bruno Olsson, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Language Science Press, 2019, p. 61-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to carry out a typological study of feminine anaphoric gender grams (such as English she/her) in a large world-wide convenience sample of 816 languages based on a strictly procedural definition. The investigation pursues a radically functional approach where the functional equivalence of the forms under study is assured by exploring an identical search space in parallel texts (translations of the New Testament) in all languages of the sample. This is the first large scale typological study of grammatical gender based on parallel texts, and a large part of the paper is devoted to methodological aspects. The study shows that gender has a functional core like any other grammatical category, and that it can at least partly be studied without resort to the notions of noun class, agreement and system. The results show that a large number of languages possess simple forms of gender, often representing incipient gender from a grammaticalization perspective. The paper discusses how simple gender differs from more mature and genealogically more stable forms of anaphoric gender. Finally the feminine anaphoric gram type is considered in its wider context, reconciling it to the traditional global approach focusing on the notions of system, noun class and agreement.

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