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  • 1401.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to automatic lexical access: Evidence from early ERP components2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptual correlates of Turkish word stress and their contribution to lexical access were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials (ERPs). The MMN was expected to indicate if segmentally identical Turkish words were distinguished on the sole basis of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (f0), spectral emphasis (SE) and duration. The salience of these features in lexical access was expected to be reflected in the amplitude of MMN responses. In a multi-deviant oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in f0, SE, and duration individually, as well as to all three features combined, were recorded for words and pseudowords presented to 14 native speakers of Turkish. The word and pseudoword contrast was used to differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects on the neural responses. First and in line with previous findings, the overall MMN was maximal over frontal and central scalp locations. Second, changes in prosodic features elicited neural responses both in words and pseudowords, confirming the brain’s automatic response to any change in auditory input. However, there were processing differences between the prosodic features, most significantly in f0: While f0 manipulation elicited a slightly right-lateralized frontally-maximal MMN in words, it elicited a frontal P3a in pseudowords. Considering that P3a is associated with involuntary allocation of attention to salient changes, the manipulations of f0 in the absence of lexical processing lead to an intentional evaluation of pitch change. f0 is therefore claimed to be lexically specified in Turkish. Rather than combined features, individual prosodic features differentiate language-related effects from acoustic-change effects. The present study confirms that segmentally identical words can be distinguished on the basis of prosodic information alone, and establishes the salience of f0 in lexical access.

  • 1402.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Magnusson, Anna
    Rudner, Mary
    MMN signatures of symbolic and affective prosody2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 1403.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Magnusson, Anna
    Rudner, Mary
    The effect of visual deprivation on prosodic processing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1404.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lexical Specification of Prosodic Information in Swedish: Evidence from Mismatch Negativity2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Like that of many other Germanic languages, the stress system of Swedish has mainly undergone phonological analysis. Recently, however, researchers have begun to recognize the central role of morphology in these systems. Similar to the lexical specification of tonal accent, the Swedish stress system is claimed to be morphologically determined and morphemes are thus categorized as prosodically specified and prosodically unspecified. Prosodically specified morphemes bear stress information as part of their lexical representations and are classified as tonic (i.e., lexically stressed), pretonic and posttonic, whereas prosodically unspecified morphemes receive stress through a phonological rule that is right-edge oriented, but is sensitive to prosodic specification at that edge. The presence of prosodic specification is inferred from vowel quality and vowel quantity; if stress moves elsewhere, vowel quality and quantity change radically in phonologically stressed morphemes, whereas traces of stress remain in lexically stressed morphemes. The present study is the first to investigate whether stress is a lexical property of Swedish morphemes by comparing mismatch negativity (MMN) responses to vowel quality and quantity changes in phonologically stressed and lexically stressed words. In a passive oddball paradigm, 15 native speakers of Swedish were presented with standards and deviants, which differed from the standards in formant frequency and duration. Given that vowel quality and quantity changes are associated with morphological derivations only in phonologically stressed words, MMN responses are expected to be greater in phonologically stressed words than in lexically stressed words that lack such an association. The results indicated that the processing differences between phonologically and lexically stressed words were reflected in the amplitude and topography of MMN responses. Confirming the expectation, MMN amplitude was greater for the phonologically stressed word than for the lexically stressed word and showed a more widespread topographic distribution. The brain did not only detect vowel quality and quantity changes but also used them to activate memory traces associated with derivations. The present study therefore implies that morphology is directly involved in the Swedish stress system and that changes in phonological shape due to stress shift cue upcoming stress and potential addition of a morpheme.

  • 1405.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Ylinen, Sari
    Prosodically controlled derivations in the mental lexicon2019In: Journal of Neurolinguistics, ISSN 0911-6044, E-ISSN 1873-8052, Vol. 52, article id 100856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish morphemes are classified as prosodically specified or prosodically unspecified, depending on lexical or phonological stress, respectively. Here, we investigate the allomorphy of the suffix -(i)sk, which indicates the distinction between lexical and phonological stress; if attached to a lexically stressed morpheme, it takes a non-syllabic form (-sk), whereas if attached to a phonologically stressed morpheme, an epenthetic vowel is inserted (-isk). Using mismatch negativity (MMN), we explored the neural processing of this allomorphy across lexically stressed and phonologically stressed morphemes. In an oddball paradigm, participants were occasionally presented with congruent and incongruent derivations, created by the suffix -(i)sk, within the repetitive presentation of their monomorphemic stems. The results indicated that the congruent derivation of the lexically stressed stem elicited a larger MMN than the incongruent sequences of the same stem and the derivational suffix, whereas after the phonologically stressed stem a non-significant tendency towards an opposite pattern was observed. We argue that the significant MMN response to the congruent derivation in the lexical stress condition is in line with lexical MMN, indicating a holistic processing of the sequence of lexically stressed stem and derivational suffix. The enhanced MMN response to the incongruent derivation in the phonological stress condition, on the other hand, is suggested to reflect combinatorial processing of the sequence of phonologically stressed stem and derivational suffix. These findings bring a new aspect to the dual-system approach to neural processing of morphologically complex words, namely the specification of word stress.

  • 1406.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Ylinen, Sari
    Prosodically controlled suffix alternation in the mental lexicon2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1407.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Rudner, Mary
    Magnusson, Anna
    The role of affective and linguistic prosody in the cognitive emotional appraisal of language2019In: Abstract book: Fifth International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication, 2019, p. 174-174, article id 60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prosody offers a unified expression domain for affective and linguistic communication. Affective prosody (e.g., anger vocalization) reflects pre-cognitive processes, whereas linguistic prosody (e.g., lexical tone) is an acquired cognitive skill. In the present study, we explored the interplay between subcortical affective prosody and cortical linguistic cues during emotional appraisal of speech using stereotyped electroencephalography (EEG) responses. We hypothesized that concurrent affective and linguistic prosody with the same valence will evoke a late positive frontal response, reflecting emotional appraisal supported by complex cognitive processing in frontal cortical areas. Using an auditory oddball paradigm, neural responses to a spoken pair of Swedish words that differed in emotional content due to linguistic prosody were investigated as pronounced with an angry and a neutral voice. The results indicate that when co-occurring, affective and linguistic prosody with the same valence elicit a unique late positive response in the frontal region that is distinct from the neural responses of affective and linguistic prosody alone. This study provides experimental evidence that both affective and linguistic prosody contribute synergistically to the cognitive emotional appraisal of language, and highlights the significance of pre-cognitive affective prosody in language processing, having important implications for both language learning and learning through language.

  • 1408.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Neural correlates of lexical stress: mismatch negativity reflects fundamental frequency and intensity2015In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 26, no 13, p. 791-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural correlates of lexical stress were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials. The MMN responses were expected to reveal the encoding of stress information into long-term memory and the contributions of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity toward lexical access. In a passive oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in F0, intensity, and in both features together were recorded for words and pseudowords. The findings showed significant differences not only between words and pseudowords but also between prosodic features. Early processing of prosodic information in words was indexed by an intensity-related MMN and an F0-related P200. These effects were stable at right-anterior and mid-anterior regions. At a later latency, MMN responses were recorded for both words and pseudowords at the mid-anterior and posterior regions. The P200 effect observed for F0 at the early latency for words developed into an MMN response. Intensity elicited smaller MMN for pseudowords than for words. Moreover, a larger brain area was recruited for the processing of words than for the processing of pseudowords. These findings suggest earlier and higher sensitivity to prosodic changes in words than in pseudowords, reflecting a language-related process. The present study, therefore, not only establishes neural correlates of lexical stress but also confirms the presence of long-term memory traces for prosodic information in the brain.

  • 1409.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A preliminary study of audiovisual integration of roundedness in front vowels: limitation due to discrepancy in jaw depression2010In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2010, 2010, p. 125-128Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Audiovisual integration of vowel roundedness was investigated, as the discrepancy in jaw depression increased. The results show that the relative visual impact on perceived roundedness decreases at larger discrepancies. The results may suggest that this tendency would be stronger among acoustically presented [i] than [y]. To verify this, more research with talking heads may be required. The results confirm earlier findings that audiovisual integration doesn’t require unconsciousness among subjects about the dubbing procedure.

     

  • 1410.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Arppe, Heidi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eklund, Linnéa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eriksson, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marcus, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mathiassen, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pettersson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual integration in binaural, monaural and dichotic listening2011In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2011, 2011, p. 29-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Audiovisual speech perception was investigated in three different conditions: (i) binaurally, where the same sound was presented in both ears, (ii) monaurally, where the sound was presented in one ear randomly, and (iii) dichotically, where the subjects were asked to focus on what was heard in the right ear. The results showed visual influence to be lowered in random monaural presentation as well as in dichotic presentation. Low visual influence to dichotic presentation, as compared with binaural presentation, supports the notion of an attentional component in audiovisual speech processing. Low visual influence in the random monaural presentation may be due to increased attention to the auditory modality because of uncertainty.

  • 1411.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bulukin Wilén, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eklöf, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Visual discrimination between Swedish and Finnish among L2-learners of Swedish2009In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2009, 2009, p. 150-153Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of speech reading experiments were carried out to examine the ability to discriminate between Swedish and Finnish among L2 learners of Swedish and Spanish as their mother tongue. This group was compared with native speakers of Swedish and a group with no knowledge in Swedish or Finnish. The results showed tendencies, that familiarity with Swedish increased the discrimination ability between Swedish and Finnish.

  • 1412.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Acoustical prerequisites for visual hearing2006In: Working Papers 52, FONETIK 2006, 2006, p. 149-152Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The McGurk effect shows in an obvious manner that visual information from a speaker’s articulatory movements influences the auditory perception. The present study concerns the robustness of such speech specific audiovisual integration. What are the acoustical prerequisites for audiovisual integration to occur in speech perception? Auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables (phonated and whispered) were presented to 23 perceivers. In some of the stimuli, the auditory signal was exchanged for a schwa syllable, a dynamic source signal and a constant source signal. The results show that dynamic spectral information from a source signal suffice as auditory input for speech specific audiovisual integration to occur. The results also confirm that type (and absence) of lip rounding are strong visual cues.

  • 1413.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual perception of Swedish vowels with and without conflicting cues2004In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2004, 2004, p. 40-43Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory, visual and audiovisual syllables with and without conflicting vowel cues (/i y e ø /) presented to men and women showed (1) most to perceive roundedness by eye rather than by ear, (2) a mostly male minority to be less relying on vision, (3) presence of lip rounding to be noticed more easily than absence, and (4) all to perceive openness by ear rather than by eye.

  • 1414.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Bayesian model for joint word alignment and part-of-speech transfer2016In: Proceedings of COLING 2016, the 26th International Conference on Computational Linguistics: Technical Papers, Osaka, Japan: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 620-629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current methods for word alignment require considerable amounts of parallel text to deliver accurate results, a requirement which is met only for a small minority of the world’s approximately 7,000 languages. We show that by jointly performing word alignment and annotation transfer in a novel Bayesian model, alignment accuracy can be improved for language pairs where annotations are available for only one of the languages—a finding which could facilitate the study and processing of a vast number of low-resource languages. We also present an evaluation where our method is used to perform single-source and multi-source part-of-speech transfer with 22 translations of the same text in four different languages. This allows us to quantify the considerable variation in accuracy depending on the specific source text(s) used, even with different translations into the same language.

  • 1415.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    A Construction Grammar Method for Disambiguating Swedish Compounds2010In: SLTC 2010 Workshop on Compounds and Multiword Expressions, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study discusses the structure of Swedish compounds within the framework of Construction Grammar, and applies the result to Word Sense Disambiguation of compound components. A construction-based approach is shown to achieve significantly better results than a set of baselines.

  • 1416.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Bayesian Models for Multilingual Word Alignment2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore Bayesian models for word alignment, how they can be improved through joint annotation transfer, and how they can be extended to parallel texts in more than two languages. In addition to these general methodological developments, I apply the algorithms to problems from sign language research and linguistic typology.

    In the first part of the thesis, I show how Bayesian alignment models estimated with Gibbs sampling are more accurate than previous methods for a range of different languages, particularly for languages with few digital resources available—which is unfortunately the state of the vast majority of languages today. Furthermore, I explore how different variations to the models and learning algorithms affect alignment accuracy.

    Then, I show how part-of-speech annotation transfer can be performed jointly with word alignment to improve word alignment accuracy. I apply these models to help annotate the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with part-of-speech tags, and to investigate patterns of polysemy across the languages of the world.

    Finally, I present a model for multilingual word alignment which learns an intermediate representation of the text. This model is then used with a massively parallel corpus containing translations of the New Testament, to explore word order features in 1001 languages.

  • 1417.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bayesian Word Alignment for Massively Parallel Texts2014In: Proceedings of the 14th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, volume 2: Short Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2014, p. 123-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a great amount of work done in the field of bitext alignment, but the problem of aligning words in massively parallel texts with hundreds or thousands of languages is largely unexplored. While the basic task is similar, there are also important differences in purpose, method and evaluation between the problems. In this work, I present a non-parametric Bayesian model that can be used for simultaneous word alignment in massively parallel corpora. This method is evaluated on a corpus containing 1144 translations of the New Testament.

  • 1418.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Part of Speech Tagging: Shallow or Deep Learning?2018In: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks have advanced the state of the art in numerous fields, but they generally suffer from low computational efficiency and the level of improvement compared to more efficient machine learning models is not always significant. We perform a thorough PoS tagging evaluation on the Universal Dependencies treebanks, pitting a state-of-the-art neural network approach against UDPipe and our sparse structured perceptron-based tagger, efselab. In terms of computational efficiency, efselab is three orders of magnitude faster than the neural network model, while being more accurate than either of the other systems on 47 of 65 treebanks.

  • 1419.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Stagger: A modern POS tagger for Swedish2012In: / [ed] Pierre Nugues, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1420.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Stagger: an Open-Source Part of Speech Tagger for Swedish2013In: Northern European Journal of Language Technology (NEJLT), ISSN 2000-1533, Vol. 3, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents Stagger, a new open-source part of speech tagger for Swedish based on the Averaged Perceptron. By using the SALDO morphological lexicon and semi-supervised learning in the form of Collobert and Weston embeddings, it reaches an accuracy of 96.4% on the standard Stockholm-Umeå Corpus dataset, making it the best single part of speech tagging system reported for Swedish. Accuracy increases to 96.6% on the latest version of the corpus, where the annotation has been revised to increase consistency. Stagger is also evaluated on a new corpus of Swedish blog posts, investigating its out-of-domain performance.

  • 1421.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Studying colexification through massively parallell corpora2016In: The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2016, p. 157-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-sample studies in lexical typology are limited by whatever lexical information is available or can be obtained for all the languages in the study. Various types of word lists, from simple Swadesh lists to large dictionaries, can be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, these resources often present only a very fragmentary view of a given language’s vocabulary. As a complement, we propose an additional source of lexical information: parallel texts. Books such as the New Testament have been translated into thousands of languages, and it is possible to automatically extract word lists from their vocabulary, which can then be applied to lexical typological studies. In particular, we focus on studying colexification using a sample of 1 001 different languages, based on 1 142 translations of the New Testament. We find that although the automatically extracted word lists contain errors, their quality can be sufficiently good to find real areal patterns, such as the ‘tree’/’fire’ colexification that is widespread in the Sahul area.

  • 1422.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Svenska dialektkartor på sekunden2015In: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, Vol. 3, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1423.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Word order typology through multilingual word alignment2015In: The 53rd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and the 7th International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing of the Asian Federation of Natural Language Processing: Proceedings of the Conference, Volume 2: Short Papers, 2015, p. 205-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With massively parallel corpora of hundreds or thousands of translations of the same text, it is possible to automatically perform typological studies of language structure using very large language samples. We investigate the domain of wordorder using multilingual word alignment and high-precision annotation transfer in a corpus with 1144 translations in 986 languages of the New Testament. Results are encouraging, with 86% to 96% agreementbetween our method and the manually created WALS database for a range of different word order features. Beyond reproducing the categorical data in WALS and extending it to hundreds of other languages, we also provide quantitative data for therelative frequencies of different word orders, and show the usefulness of this for language comparison. Our method has applications for basic research in linguistic typology, as well as for NLP tasks like transfer learning for dependency parsing, which has been shown to benefit from word order information.

  • 1424.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    SU-RUG at the CoNLL-SIGMORPHON 2017 shared task: Morphological inflection with attentional sequence-to-sequence models2017In: Proceedings of the CoNLL SIGMORPHON 2017 Shared Task: Universal Morphological Reinflection / [ed] Mans Hulden, Vancouver, Canada: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, p. 110-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Stockholm University/University of Groningen (SU-RUG) system for the SIGMORPHON 2017 shared task on morphological inflection. Our system is based on an attentional sequence-to-sequence neural network model using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) cells, with joint training of morphological inflection and the inverse transformation, i.e. lemmatization and morphological analysis. Our system outperforms the baseline with a large margin, and our submission ranks as the 4th best team for the track we participate in (task 1, high resource).

  • 1425.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Courtaux, Servane
    Visual Iconicity Across Sign Languages: Large-Scale Automated Video Analysis of Iconic Articulators and Locations2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use automatic processing of 120,000 sign videos in 31 different sign languages to show a cross-linguistic pattern for two types of iconic form–meaning relationships in the visual modality. First, we demonstrate that the degree of inherent plurality of concepts, based on individual ratings by non-signers, strongly correlates with the number of hands used in the sign forms encoding the same concepts across sign languages. Second, we show that certain concepts are iconically articulated around specific parts of the body, as predicted by the associational intuitions by non-signers. The implications of our results are both theoretical and methodological. With regard to theoretical implications, we corroborate previous research by demonstrating and quantifying, using a much larger material than previously available, the iconic nature of languages in the visual modality. As for the methodological implications, we show how automatic methods are, in fact, useful for performing large-scale analysis of sign language data, to a high level of accuracy, as indicated by our manual error analysis.

  • 1426.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Universal Dependencies for Swedish Sign Language2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 303-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first effort to annotate a signed language with syntactic dependency structure: the Swedish Sign Language portion of the Universal Dependencies treebanks. The visual modality presents some unique challenges in analysis and annotation, such as the possibility of both hands articulating separate signs simultaneously, which has implications for the concept of projectivity in dependency grammars. Our data is sourced from the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, and if used in conjunction these resources contain very richly annotated data: dependency structure and parts of speech, video recordings, signer metadata, and since the whole material is also translated into Swedish the corpus is also a parallel text.

  • 1427.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Enriching the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with Part of Speech Tags Using Joint Bayesian Word Alignment and Annotation Transfer2015In: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015, May 11-13, 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 263-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a novel Bayesian model of joint word alignment and part of speech (PoS) annotation transfer to enrich the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with PoS tags. The annotations were then hand-corrected in order to both improve annotation quality for the corpus, and allow the empirical evaluation presented herein.

  • 1428.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Transparent text quality assessment with convolutional neural networks2017In: The Twelfth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications: Proceedings of the Workshop, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, p. 282-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a very simple model for text quality assessment based on a deep convolutional neural network, where the only supervision required is one corpus of user-generated text of varying quality, and one contrasting text corpus of consistently high quality. Our model is able to provide local quality assessments in different parts of a text, which allows visual feedback about where potentially problematic parts of the text are located, as well as a way to evaluate which textual features are captured by our model. We evaluate our method on two corpora: a large corpus of manually graded student essays and a longitudinal corpus of language learner written production, and find that the text quality metric learned by our model is a fairly strong predictor of both essay grade and learner proficiency level.

  • 1429.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Scherrer, Yves
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Tang, Gongbo
    Nieminen, Tommi
    The Helsinki Neural Machine Translation System2017In: Proceedings of the Conference on Machine Translation (WMT): Shared Task Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 338-347Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Helsinki Neural Machine Translation system (HNMT) and how it is applied in the news translation task at WMT 2017, where it ranked first in both the human and automatic evaluations for English–Finnish. We discuss the successof English–Finnish translations and the overall advantage of NMT over a strong SMT baseline. We also discuss our sub-missions for English–Latvian, English–Chinese and Chinese–English.

  • 1430.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Smolentzov, André
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tyrefors Hinnerich, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Höglin, Erik
    Automated Essay Scoring for Swedish2013In: Proceedings of the Eighth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2013, p. 42-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first system developed for automated grading of high school essays written in Swedish. The system uses standard text quality indicators and is able to compare vocabulary and grammar to large reference corpora of blog posts and newspaper articles. The system is evaluated on a corpus of 1 702 essays, each graded independently by the student’s own teacher and also in a blind re-grading process by another teacher. We show that our system’s performance is fair, given the low agreementbetween the two human graders, and furthermore show how it could improve efficiency in a practical setting where one seeks to identify incorrectly graded essays.

  • 1431.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tiedemann, Jörg
    Continuous multilinguality with language vectors2017In: Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Short Papers / [ed] Mirella Lapata, Phil Blunsom, Alexander Koller, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 644-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most existing models for multilingual natural language processing (NLP) treat language as a discrete category, and make predictions for either one language or the other. In contrast, we propose using continuous vector representations of language. We show that these can be learned efficiently with a character-based neural language model, and used to improve inference about language varieties not seen during training. In experiments with 1303 Bible translations into 990 different languages, we empirically explore the capacity of multilingual language models, and also show that the language vectors capture genetic relationships between languages.

  • 1432.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Compounding in a Swedish Blog Corpus2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Álvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, p. 45-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1433. Ćwiek, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wagner, Petra
    Acoustics and discourse function of two types of breathing signals2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Jardar Eggesbö Abrahamsen, Jacques Koreman, Wim van Dommelen, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 83-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breathing is fundamental for living and speech, and it has been a subject of linguistic research for years. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in tackling the question of possible communicative functions of breathing (e.g. Rochet-Capellan & Fuchs, 2014; Aare, Włodarczak & Heldner, 2014; Włodarczak & Heldner, 2015; Włodarczak, Heldner, & Edlund, 2015). The present study set out to determine acoustic markedness and communicative functions of pauses accompanied and non-accompanied by breathing. We hypothesised that an articulatory reset occurring in breathing pauses and an articulatory freeze in non-breathing pauses differentiates between the two types. A production experiment was conducted and some evidence in favour of such a phenomenon was found. Namely, in case of non-breathing pauses, we observed more coarticulation evidenced by a more frequent omission of plosive releases. Our findings thus give some evidence in favour of the communicative function of breathing.

  • 1434. Šimko, Juraj
    et al.
    Aalto, Daniel
    Lippus, Pärtel
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vainio, Martti
    Pith, perceived duration and auditory biases: Comparison among languages2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Maria Wolters, Judy Livingstone, Bernie Beattie, Rachel Smith, Mike MacMahon, Jane Stuart-Smith, Jim Scobbie, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to fundamental frequency height, its movement is also generally assumed to lengthen the perceived duration of syllable-like sounds. The lengthening effect has been observed for some languages (US English, French, SwissGerman, Japanese) but reported to be absent for another (Thai, Latin American Spanish, German). In this work, native speakers of Estonian, Finnish, Mandarin and Swedish performed a two-alternative forced choice duration discrimination experiment with pairs of complex tones varying in several acoustic dimensions. According to a logistic regression analysis, the duration judgements are affected by intensity, f0 level, and f0 movement for all languages, but the strength of these influences varies across languages and a pattern revealed by the relative strengths correlates with phonological properties of the languages. The findings are discussed in the light of current hypotheses of the origin of pitch modulation of perceived duration.

  • 1435. Šimko, Juraj
    et al.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Suni, Antti
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vainio, Martti
    Coordination between f0, intensity and breathing signals2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Jardar Eggesbö Abrahamsen, Jacques Koreman, Wim van Dommelen, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 147-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents preliminary results on temporal coordination of breathing, intensity and fundamental frequency signals using continuous wavelet transform. We have found tendencies towards phase-locking at time scales corresponding to several prosodic units such as vowel-to-vowel intervals and prosodic words. The proposed method should be applicable to a wide range of problems in which the goal is finding a stable phase relationship in a pair of hierarchically organised signals.

26272829 1401 - 1435 of 1435
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