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  • 151.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Improved synthesis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via iodonium salt coupling2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Brominated flameretardants II (Environment and fate), 2007, p. 2724-2727Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Synthesis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via symmetrical tetra- and hexabrominated diphenyliodonium salts2009In: Chemosphere, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 421-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) which have become widespread environmental pollutants due to their persistence and bioaccumulativeness. Pure authentic PBDE congeners are required for chemical analysis, assessments of their chemical/physical properties and toxicological studies. We here report an improved method for synthesis of authentic PBDE congeners applying bromophenols and symmetrical brominated diphenyliodonium salts as building blocks. Altogether, 13 PBDEs were synthesized of which seven are new. The improved coupling reaction between the bromophenol and the brominated diphenyliodonium salts resulted in enhanced yields for PBDEs substituted with more than six bromine atoms. Also, improvements in iodonium salt synthesis made it possible to synthesize symmetrical hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts for the first time, i.e. 2,2',3,3',4,4'-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'- and 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexabromodiphenyliodonium salts and they made it possible to prepare octabrominated PBDEs via the actual coupling method. All synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectra and by their melting points. Also, all products except for the diphenyliodonium salts were characterized by mass spectra in electron ionization mode.

  • 153. Teuten, Emma L.
    et al.
    Johnson, Carl G.
    Mandalakis, Manolis
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Unger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Reddy, Christopher M.
    Spectral characterization of two bioaccumulated methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were isolated from a True’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus) and identified by NMR (1H, 1H–1H and 1H–13C) and high resolution mass spectrometry as 2-(2′,4′-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole (6-MeO-BDE47) and 2-(2′,4′-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromoanisole (2′-MeO-BDE68). Previously the structures of these bioaccumulated compounds have been determined by comparison of their mass spectra and gas chromatographic (GC) retention times with those of authentic standards. While this method is accepted and generally successful, NMR of the isolated compounds allows us to definitively identify the congeners. Our characterizations are consistent with those made for MeO-PBDEs in other organisms, identified by chromatographic methods.

  • 154.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants: With emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, which are used to slow down or inhibit the development of fires. BFRs are incorporated into a wide range of consumer products that are considered as potential fire hazards, such as TV-sets, household appliances, computers, and textiles. The production and use of BFRs is extensive and consists of mainly tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecan (HBCD). BFRs in general, but in particular the PBDEs, have led to both scientific and public concern since they have been found to bioaccumulate in humans and wildlife. The general population is targeted by the PBDEs due to their applications and via the food web. Occupational exposure occurs not only during direct handling of BFRs, but also during handling, repair and dismantling of flame retarded goods.

    This thesis is aimed to assess occupational exposure to BFRs. It is mainly focused PBDEs and especially the PBDEs with high bromine content, such as decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). The work has been accomplished by analysis of BFRs in indoor air at industries handling BFRs or flame retarded goods, and by analysis of blood drawn from workers with potential exposure to BFRs. A referent group, abattoir workers with no occupational exposure to PBDEs, was also investigated. Data from these cross-sectional investigations and from serum sampling during vacation in PBDE-exposed workers have been used for calculation of apparent halflives of hepta- to decaBDE in serum.

    The results clearly show that the workers were exposed to PBDEs when handling PBDE containing products or goods. The serum PBDE levels in computer technicians were found to correlate to the estimated cumulative work hours with computers. Exceptionally high concentrations of BDE-209, almost up to 300 pmol/g lipid weight (l.w.) were observed in serum from rubber workers manufacturing or handling rubber compound that was flame retarded with a technical mixture of decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE). Elevated concentrations of PBDEs with eight or nine bromine substituents were also observed. In an electronics dismantling plant, where elevated levels of PBDEs previously had been observed, reduced serum levels of some, but not all PBDE congeners were observed after industrial hygiene improvements. Notably, it was observed that the BDE-209 concentrations in referents with no occupational exposure were similar to the concentrations of 2,2’,4,4’- tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), often referred to as the most abundant PBDE congener in humans and wildlife. Additionally, PBDEs with high bromine content were found to have a fast rate of elimination or transformation in humans, based on serum analysis. BDE-209 had an apparent half-life in serum of only 15 days.

    The possibility of quantifying BFRs, such as PBDEs, in human serum at low levels of detection has been achieved by reducing the contamination of the samples and procedural blanks. Major efforts have been done to develop routines and clean up methodology to enable an almost contamination-free environment at the laboratory. The use of a clean room has decreased PBDE levels in the blanks to acceptable limits. The modifications of the original analytical method have made it possible to quantify almost all PBDE congeners of interest in one GC/MS run.

    Occupational and general background exposure of BFRs to humans will continue as long as these chemicals are a part of our daily life and present as environmental contaminants. The present scientific knowledge of the potential health risks of these BFRs still needs to be further developed. It should be stressed that health effects to PBDEs have not been assessed in this work. It is the author's wish that this thesis should add another piece of knowledge to the puzzle of BFRs and BFR exposure to humans and that these data will be used in future risk assessments of PBDEs in particular.

  • 155.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rothenbacher, Klaus
    Herrmann, Thomas
    Sjölin, Sverker
    Hagmar, Lars
    Päpke, Olaf
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure to electronics recycling workers: A follow up study2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1855-1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers at an electronics recycling plant have previously been shown to have elevated serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) compared to referents without occupational PBDE exposure. Subsequent structural changes and industrial hygiene measures at the plant were applied to improve the work environment. The present study aims to assess the impact of these work environment changes on the occupational exposure to PBDEs.

    Blood were drawn from the workers and analyzed at two different laboratories, and serum concentrations of several PBDE congeners were determined by GC/MS or GC/HRMS. Cross-sectional studies were performed prior to (in 1997; N = 19) and after (in 2000; N = 27) workplace improvements. Longitudinal studies were performed on twelve of the workers that were sampled at both occasions.

    Even though the amount of processed goods had doubled in 2000 as compared to 1997, there was a significant decrease in the serum levels of BDE-183 and BDE-209. For BDE-209 the levels observed in year 2000 were even lower than in referents with no occupational exposure. In contrast to the decrease of higher brominated diphenyl ethers, the concentrations of BDE-47 did not significantly change. For BDE-153, the cross-sectional study indicated no change, whereas the longitudinal follow up indicated a significant increase.

    This study shows that the industrial hygiene improvements clearly reduced the occupational exposure to BDE-183 and BDE-209 at the plant. Still, the levels of hexa- to nonaBDEs but not BDE-209 were elevated, compared to referents with no occupational exposure.

  • 156.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Diab-Kronholm, Kerstin
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Occupational exposure to commercial decabromodiphenyl ether in workers manufacturing or handling flame retarded rubber2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1980-1986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is commonly used as a flame retardant in different electrical and textile applications. It is also used in the production of flame-retarded rubber compound. DecaBDE is the major technical polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in use today and consists mainly of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). PBDEs, including BDE-209, are well-known environmental pollutants, ubiquitous both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the exposure to PBDEs in workers manufacturing or handling rubber which was flame retarded with DecaBDE. A referent group, abattoir workers (slaughterhouse workers), with no occupational exposure to PBDEs, was also investigated. Moreover, the methodology for analysis of PBDEs in serum was refined, with special emphasis on congeners with a high number of bromine substituents, i.e., octa- to decaBDEs. The highest BDE-209 concentration observed among the rubber workers was 280 pmol/g lipid weight (l.w.) (270 ng/g l.w.). The median concentration of BDE-209 among rubber workers was 37 pmol/g l.w. (35 ng/g l.w.). Among referents, the median was 2.5 (range 0.92−9.7) pmol/g l.w. (median 2.4 ng/g l.w.). In rubber workers the BDE-209 concentrations were up to 32% (median 4%) of the 2,2‘,4,4‘,5,5‘-chlorobiphenyl (CB-153) concentra tions, on a molar basis, whereas the referents had BDE-209 concentrations which were similar to that of 2,2‘,4,4‘-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), below 1.4% (median 0.3%) of the CB-153 concentration. Concentrations of all nonabromodiphenyl ethers (nonaBDEs) and several octabrmodiphenyl ethers (octaBDEs) congeners, including BDE-203, were also elevated among the rubber workers, with 2.5- to 11-fold higher median concentrations, compared to the referents. The results confirm a significant uptake of BDE-209 in the workers exposed to DecaBDE and indicate a potential for in vivo formation of lower BDEs in these persons.

  • 157.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Höglund, Peter
    Bergman, Åke
    Hagmar, Lars
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Apparent half-lives of hepta- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers in humans as determined in occupationally exposed workersManuscript (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Estimated acrylamide intakes and haemoglobin acrylamide adducts: Experience from human studies: ECNIS, WP1 Workshop Report 62008In: WP1 workshop on progressing from transitional to large-scale molecular epidemiology studies:: Cavtat, Croatia, 21 September, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 159.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Forskning kring kemiska ämnens toxiska effekter har blivit nedprioriterad2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 160.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Wer hat noch Angst vor Acrylamid2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 161.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Vickström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Granath, Fredrik
    Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk estimation on the basis of toxicological data2007In: Division of Agricultural and Food Chemistry: the CORNUCOPIA, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Vikström, Anna C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Granath, Fredrik
    Approach for cancer risk estimation of acrylamide in food on the basis of animal cancer tests and in vivo dosimetry2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 15, p. 6004-6012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The question about the contribution from acrylamide (AA) in food to the cancer risk in the general population has not yet had a satisfactory answer. One point of discussion is whether AA constitutes a cancer risk through its genotoxic metabolite, glycidamide (GA), or whether other mechanism(s) could be operating. Using a relative cancer risk model, an improvement of the cancer risk estimate for dietary AA can be obtained by estimation of the genotoxic contribution to the risk. One cornerstone in this model is the in vivo dose of the causative genotoxic agent. This paper presents an evaluation, according to this model, of published AA cancer tests on the basis of in vivo doses of GA in rats exposed in the cancer tests. The present status regarding data with importance for an improved estimation of the contribution from GA to the cancer risk of AA, such as in vivo doses measured in humans, is discussed.

  • 163. Ueno, Daisuke
    et al.
    Darling, Colin
    Alaee, Mehran
    Pacepavicius, Grazina
    Teixeira, Camilla
    Campbell, Linda
    Letcher, Robert James
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Muir, Derek
    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in the abiotic environment: surface water and precipitation from Ontario, Canada.2008In: Environ Sci Technol, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1657-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of PBDEs, and also as compounds of natural origin in the marine environment; however, there has only been very limited study of their presence in the abiotic environment. In the present study, OH-PBDEs were determined in samples of surface water and precipitation (rain and snow) collected from sites in Ontario, Canada. OH-PBDEs were detected in all the samples analyzed, although half of the observed peaks did not correspond to any of the 18 authentic standards available. Fluxes of sigmaOH-PBDEs ranged from 3.5 to 190 pg/m2 in snow and from 15 to 170 pg/m2/day in rain, and those were higher at three of the southern Ontario locations relative to a single northern remote site. Concentrations of sigmaOH-PBDEs ranged from 2.2 to 70 pg/L in water and from < 1 to 420 pg/g in particulate organic carbon (POC), and higher values were found near sewage treatment plant (STP) outfalls in Lake Ontario. Partition coefficients (log K(oc)) for OH-PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 5.1. The results in this study suggest that OH-PBDEs are ubiquitous in the abiotic environment and most likely are produced through reaction of PBDEs with atmospheric OH radicals. As well, they may be present in surface waters near STPs due to oxidation of PBDEs and inflows from metabolism by humans and animals.

  • 164. van Boxtel, Antonius L
    et al.
    Kamstra, Jorke H
    Cenijn, Peter H
    Pieterse, Bart
    Wagner, J Marijke
    Antink, Maartje
    Krab, Klaas
    van der Burg, Bart
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Brouwer, Abraham
    Legler, Juliette
    Microarray analysis reveals a mechanism of phenolic polybrominated diphenylether toxicity in zebrafish.2008In: Environ Sci Technol, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1773-9Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the environment, with the lower brominated congener 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE47) among the most prevalent. The phenolic PBDE, 6-hydroxy-BDE47 (6-OH-BDE47) is both an important metabolite formed by in vivo metabolism of BDE47 and a natural product produced by marine organisms such as algae. Although this compound has been detected in humans and wildlife, including fish, virtually nothing is known of its in vivo toxicity. Here we report that 6-OH-BDE47 is acutely toxic in developing and adult zebrafish at concentrations in the nanomolar (nM) range. To identify possible mechanisms of toxicity, we used microarray analysis as a diagnostic tool. Zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (PAC2) cells were exposed to 6-OH-BDE47, BDE47, and the methoxylated metabolite 6-MeO-BDE47. These experiments revealed that 6-OH-BDE47 alters the expression of genes involved in proton transport and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings, combined with the acute toxicity, suggested that 6-OH-BDE47 causes disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS).Therefore, we further investigated the effect of 6-OH-BDE47 on OXPHOS in zebrafish mitochondria. Results show unequivocally that this compound is a potent uncoupler of OXPHOS and is an inhibitor of complex II of the electron transport chain. This study provides the first evidence of the in vivo toxicity and an important potential mechanism of toxicity of an environmentally relevant phenolic PBDE of both anthropogenic and natural origin. The results of this study emphasize the need for further investigation on the presence and toxicity of this class of polybrominated compounds.

  • 165. Vetter, Walter
    et al.
    Turek, Claudia
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Gaus, Caroline
    Identification and quantification of new polybrominated dimethoxybiphenyls (PBDMBs) in marine mammals from Australia.2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 580-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine mammals from Queensland, Australia, are bioaccumulating elevated concentrations of a range of polybrominated natural products. In this study, we detected three new polybrominated dimethoxybiphenyls (PBDMBs) in the blubber of selected marine mammal samples which were identified as 2,6'-dimethoxy-3,3',5-tribromobiphenyl (2,6'-diMeO-BB 36), 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dibromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB 36), and 6,6'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dibromobiphenyl (6,6'-diMeO-BB 11). These three PBDMBs are structurally related to the known natural product 2,2'-dimethoxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB 80). In the first part of this study, 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 was photochemically debrominated under UV irradiation. This resulted in seven of eight possible mono- to triBDMBs as debromination products. In the second part of this study, the structure of all PBDMBs debromination products was investigated. This was supported by synthesis of two diBDMB and one triBDMB via bromination and subsequent methylation of 2,2'-biphenyldiol. Structures of the remaining PBDMBs were tentatively assigned by considering the retention times, mass spectra and amounts formed during UV irradiation of 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 . In the third part of this study, blubber of marine mammals from Australia was analysed for PBDMBs using gas chromatography in combination with electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode. In these samples, 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80 was found at concentrations of 200-1800ngg(-1) lipid weight (lw). The latter represents the highest concentration reported for this compound in environmental samples. 6,6'-diMeO BB 11, 2,2'-diMeO BB 36, and 2,6'-diMeO BB 36 were present at approximately 7ngg(-1) lipids, or 0.43-1.5% of diMeO-BB 80. No further PBDMBs were detected in the samples. The di- and triBDMBs identified in marine mammal blubber have not been reported as natural products. They may represent either new natural products or transformation products of 2,2'-diMeO-BB 80.

  • 166. Vetter, Walter
    et al.
    Turek, Claudia
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Gaus, Caroline
    Identification and quantification of new polybrominated dimethoxybiphenyls (PBDMBS) in marine mammals from Australia2008In: Organohalogen compounds: Chiral xenobiotics and natural halogenated compounds, 2008, p. 658-661Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Vikström, Anna C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Sune
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Internal doses of acrylamide and glycidamide in mice fed diets with low acrylamide contents2008In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 974-980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of acrylamide during heating of certain foodstuffs constitutes a potential health hazard. The health risk assessment should be based on knowledge about the relation between dietary exposure to acrylamide and internal doses of acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide. The primary aim of this study in mice was to measure these relationships at low levels of acrylamide intake through the diet. A secondary aim was to clarify which extraction method should be used when analyzing acrylamide in food in order to obtain a correct measure of the acrylamide that is available for absorption. In the analysis procedure, alkaline extraction has earlier shown much higher measured acrylamide levels in certain foods compared to water extraction. In this subcronic study the administered diets were composed to give five levels of acrylamide intakes between 3 and 50 mug/kg body weight per day (calculated on figures obtained after water extraction). Internal doses of acrylamide and glycidamide were measured through hemoglobin (Hb)-adducts. The results showed linear relationships between the exposure of acrylamide and Hb-adduct levels from both acrylamide and glycidamide at these low exposure levels. The study also showed that the &quot;extra&quot; acrylamide measured with alkaline extraction does not correspond to bioavailable acrylamide.

  • 168. Vikström, Anna
    et al.
    Eriksson, Sune
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Comparison of bioavailability from different foods – A study in miceIn: XenobioticaArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    von Stedingk, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Rydberg, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Mose, Tina
    Pedersen, Marie
    Knudsen, Lisbeth
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Biomarkers of exposure- analysis of Haemoglobin adducts formed from acrylamide, glycidamide and ethylene oxide in pregnent mothers and cord blood2008In: European Environmental Mutagen Society: 38th annual meeting, 2008, p. 284-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Weiss, J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Päpke, O.
    Bignert, A.
    Jensen, S.
    Greyerz, E.
    Agostoni, C.
    Besana, R.
    Riva, E.
    Giovanni, M.
    Zetterström, R.
    Concentrations of dioxins and other organochlorines (PCBs, DDTs, HCHs) in human milk from Seveso, Milan and a Lombardian rural area in Italy: a study performed 25 years after the heavy dioxin exposure in Seveso2003In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 467-472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Weiss, Jana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants: Illustrated by four case studies in Europe2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An extensive use of chemicals in countless consumer products has resulted in human exposure to several persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Sufficient knowledge about their chemical composition properties and environmental faith is required, to be able to proper risk assess and regulate the substances. Significant data gaps exist regarding knowledge of actual exposure to humans and toxicological effect data.

    The objective of this thesis was to add human exposure data of a few POPs from four case studies. The analytes discussed in this thesis are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD).

    Three European populations were studied. Milk was analysed from a group of women, who were accidentally exposed to high levels of 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD (TCDD) in Seveso, 1976. Still today, twice as high TCDD levels were recorded in the milk, compared to background concentrations. Serum was analysed from mothers and their infants from The Netherlands. Cord serum contained equal amounts of POPs as in mother’s blood, indicating non-hindered placenta transfer. Serum analysed from Swedish men and women with a high fish intake had elevated PCB and PCB metabolite (OH-PCB) levels. Additionally, butter was collected worldwide and shown to be a suitable matrix for dairy product survey of POPs.

    The exposure levels in the four papers were compared to recently reported exposure levels in Europe. It is indicated in the thesis that the PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs toxic equivalency (TEQ) levels are of concern, i.e. the ratio between threshold levels for adverse health effects and TEQ exposure levels is lower than requested margin of safety. Average levels of PBDE/HBCDD in the European population are estimated to be of no concern today, but for individuals with intakes at the 95th percentile are the current margins of safety small.

  • 172.
    Weiss, Jana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Päpke, Olaf
    Bergman, Åke
    A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 589-597Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Weiss, Jana
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Wallin, Ewa
    Axmon, Anna
    Jönsson, Bo A.G.
    Åkesson, Helene
    Janak, Karel
    Hagmar, Lars
    Bergman, Åke
    Hydroxy-PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDDs in serum from an elderly population of Swedish fishermen’s wives and associations to bone densityManuscript (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Westberg, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hedebrant, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Fred, Charlotta
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Karaktärisering av PAH-addukter till histidin och lysin i humant serum albumin (HSA) med LC-MS/MS2007In: Svensk-norsk miljökjemisk vintermöte: Dr. Holms Hotell, Geilo, Norge, 2007, p. 40-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 175. Wilson, Kathryn M.
    et al.
    Bälter, Katarina
    Adami, Hans-Olov
    Grönberg, Henrik
    Vikström, Anna C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Paulsson, Birgit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Mucci, Lorelei A.
    Acrylamide exposure measured by food frequency questionnaire and hemoglobin adduct levels and prostate cancer risk in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden Study2009In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 124, no 10, p. 2384-2390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during the cooking of many commonly consumed foods. Data are scant on whether dietary acrylamide represents an important cancer risk in humans. We studied the association between acrylamide and prostate cancer risk using 2 measures of acrylamide exposure: intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin. We also studied the correlation between these 2 exposure measures. We used data from the population-based case-control study Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS). Dietary data was available for 1,499 cases and 1,118 controls. Hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide were measured in blood samples from a subset of 170 cases and 161 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of prostate cancer in high versus low quantiles of acrylamide exposure using logistic regression. The correlation between FFQ acrylamide intake and acrylamide adducts in non-smokers was 0.25 (95% confidence interval: 0.14-0.35), adjusted for age, region, energy intake, and laboratory batch. Among controls the correlation was 0.35 (95% CI: 0.21-0.48); among cases it was 0.15 (95% CI: 0.00-0.30). The OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quartile of acrylamide adducts was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.47-1.85, p-value for trend = 0.98). For FFQ acrylamide, the OR of prostate cancer for the highest versus lowest quintile was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75-1.27, p trend = 0.67). No significant associations were found between acrylamide exposure and risk of prostate cancer by stage, grade, or PSA level. Acrylamide adducts to hemoglobin and FFQ-measured acrylamide intake were moderately correlated. Neither measure of acrylamide exposure-hemoglobin adducts or FFQ-was associated with risk of prostate cancer.

  • 176. Wilson, Kathryn M.
    et al.
    Vesper, Hubert W.
    Tocco, Paula
    Sampson, Laura
    Rosén, Johan
    Hellenäs, Karl-Erik
    Törnqvist, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Willett, Walter C.
    Validation of a food frequency questionnaire measurement of dietary acrylamide intake using hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide2009In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-heat cooking of many common foods. The validity of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measures of acrylamide intake has not been established. We assessed the validity of acrylamide intake calculated from an FFQ using a biomarker of acrylamide exposure. METHODS: We calculated acrylamide intake from an FFQ in the Nurses' Health Study II. We measured hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and its metabolite, glycidamide, in a random sample of 342 women. Correlation and regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between acrylamide intakes and adducts. RESULTS: The correlation between acrylamide intake and the sum of acrylamide and glycidamide adducts was 0.31 (95% CI: 0.20-0.41), adjusted for laboratory batch, energy intake, and age. Further adjustment for BMI, alcohol intake, and correction for random within-person measurement error in adducts gave a correlation of 0.34 (CI: 0.23-0.45). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the sum of adducts was 0.77 in blood samples collected 1-3 years apart in a subset of 45 women. Intake of several foods significantly predicted adducts in multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: Acrylamide intake and hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide were moderately correlated. Within-person consistency in adducts was high over time.

  • 177. Wirfält, E
    et al.
    Paulsson, B
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Törnqvist, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Axmon, A
    Hagmar, L
    Associations between estimated acrylamide intakes, and hemoglobin AA adducts in a sample from the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort2008In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 62, p. 314-323Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 178. Zamir, R
    et al.
    Athanasiadou, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Nahar, N
    Mamun, M I R
    Mosihuzzaman, M
    Bergman, Å
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/ summation operatorDDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the summation operatorDDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30ngg(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

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