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  • 151.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Klimatet, döden och makten: 1690-talets klimatkris2008In: Leva vid Östersjöns kust: en antologi om naturförutsättningar och resursutnyttjande på båda sidor av Östersjön ca 800-1800 : rapport 2 / från projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer, naturresurser, klimat, och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 23-79Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver och analyserar den stora klimatkris som drabbade norra Sverige, Finland och Baltikum på 1690-talet. Den studerar de demografiska och ekonomiska aspekterna av krisen, med särskild hänsyn till mortalitet, skördeutfall och och klimat- och vädersituationen. Artikeln diskutera även kronans sätt att reagera på krissignalerna från agrarsamhället.

  • 152.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Människan anpassaren - människan överskridaren: natur, bebyggelse och resursutnyttjande från sen järnålder till 1700-tal med särskild hänsyn till östra Mellansverige och Södermanlands kust : rapport från projektet: Förmoderna kustmiljöer. Naturresurser, klimat och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt.2006Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Förmoderna kustmiljöer" handlar om samspelet mellan kustmiljöernas förändring och människors liv huvudsakligen under de senaste 1500 åren. Projektet ställer naturprocesser mot samhälleliga förändringar i ett försök att förstå samspelet mellan människa och miljö. Kustens resurser bildar en fond mot vilken vi försöker förstå människornas verksamheter, strategier och tänkande. Naturens utmaning möter människors kamp och anpassning, och i den processen skapas landskap och miljöer. Förändringarna är ofta smygande, nästan omärkligt gradvisa, men ibland också kortsiktiga, tillfälliga och dramatiska. Projektet strävar efter att belysa utvecklingen ur båda dessa tidsperspektiv, i ett försök att se historiens riktning, upptäcka brytpunkter och eventuella "systemskiften".

  • 153.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Pre-modern coastal environments - project description2008In: Leva vid Östersjöns kust: en antologi om naturförutsättningar och resursutnyttjande på båda sidor av Östersjön ca 800-1800 : rapport 2 / från projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer, naturresurser, klimat, och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 319-329Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project Pre-Modern Coastal Environments has as its objective the studyof local resource use in selected coastal regions along the Baltic Sea. Thestudy’s main purpose is to determine the correlation between the effects ofhuman activities on the environment and the effects of naturally occurringenvironmental change. This will be achieved by using case studies focussingon the elasticity and survival capacity of specific coastal societies in easternSweden and western Estonia. The project will study settlement patterns,trade and industry, in relation to changes in the physical environment in thecontext of offshore displacement, climate changes, and changes in marinebiota. The project is a multidisciplinary cooperative effort of six researcherswho represent the disciplines of history, archaeology, human geography andphysical geography.

  • 154.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Skärgården och stormaktstidens Stockholm - impulser från en växande stad2009In: Skärgård och örlog.: Nedslag i Stockholms skärgårds tidiga historia. / [ed] Katarina Schoerner, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. , 2009, första, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln handlar om Stockholms inflytande på skärgården under stadens tillväxtperiod på 1600-talet. Den analyserar relationen mellan staden och skärgården ur tre parspektiv: stadens tryck mot skärgården, möjlilgheterna som skapades genom staden och stadens allmänna relationer till skärgården.

  • 155.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Teoretisk epilog2006In: Människan anpassaren - människan överskridaren: natur, bebyggelse och resursutnyttjande från sen järnålder till 1700-tal med särskild hänsyn till östra Mellansverige och Södermanlands kust : rapport från projektet: Förmoderna kustmiljöer. Naturresurser, klimat och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2006, p. 197-220Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 156.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Teoretisk epilog2008In: Leva vid Östersjöns kust: en antologi om naturförutsättningar och resursutnyttjande på båda sidor av Östersjön ca 800-1800 : rapport 2 / från projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer, naturresurser, klimat, och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 265-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arftikeln är en teoretiskt orienterad sammanfatande analys av publikationens bidrag. Den anknyter till projektets övergriande målsättningar, och strävar efter att sätta antologins hvuudresultat i det större projektsammanhanget.

  • 157.
    Liljewall, Britt
    et al.
    Göteborgs stadsmuseum.
    Flygare, Iréne A.Lange, UlrichInstitutionen för kulturvård vid Göteborgs universitet.Ljunggren, LarsSöderberg, JohanStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Agrarhistoria på många sätt: 28 studier om människan och jorden. Festskrift till Janken Myrdal på hans 60-årsdag2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den överväldigande majoriteten av alla människor har varit verksamma i arbetet med jord och skog. Än idag är detta helt nödvändigt för vår överlevnad. Idag ställs även krav på landskapets biologiska och estetiska värden. Allt talar för att vi är i stort behov av agrarhistorisk kunskap. Boken ökar vår kunskap om dess kärna - om jorden, djuren och redskapen - men även de sociala, kulturella och politiska förhållandena som påverkat jordbruket. Bokens alla författare, både svenska och utländska, gör oss medvetna om mängden av agrarhistoriska källor och metoder. denna stora antologi är tillägnad Janken Myrdal, agrarhistoriens främste representant i Sverige, som låtit de mest skiftande och överraskande källmaterial och metoder komma till användning i sitt arbete.

  • 158. Lu, Yu-Heng
    et al.
    Yagi, Nobuyuki
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Factors contributing to effective management in the Sakuraebi (Sergia lucens) fishery of Donggang, Taiwan2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 86, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth assessment was conducted on the functioning of a Taiwanese Sakuraebi (Sergia lucens) fishery management institution to understand the role of leadership in the context of long-term incentive creation. Interviews with relevant stakeholders and statistical analysis of fisheries data indicated that the daily vessel quota system and fishers' collective efforts to influence the market resulted in increased sales value, while simultaneously allowing for the equitable distribution of benefits from the Sakuraebi fishery in Donggang, Taiwan. Local fishers expressed a high level of satisfaction with the corresponding activities initiated by the fisher's organization. Interview respondents felt that promotional marketing activities led by the organization to enhance domestic consumption were particularly effective, and statistical analysis suggests that these activities helped to reduce the dependency of Taiwanese Sakuraebi fishers on export markets. A notable characteristic of this fishery is that it combines a large-scale sales organization, which enables the exertion of market influence, with a small-sized subsidiary organization for fisheries management. An annually rotating leadership system for managing fishery operations also provides members with the opportunity to share a sense of participation and responsibility, while keeping long-term policy goals. This study reinforces previous findings that leadership, social cohesion, and the nature of the resource are key factors determining the effectiveness and success of fisheries management.

  • 159. Lynch, A. Jasmyn J.
    et al.
    Kalumanga, Elikana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Ospina, Guillermo A.
    Socio-ecological aspects of sustaining Ramsar wetlands in three biodiverse developing countries2016In: Marine and Freshwater Research, ISSN 1323-1650, E-ISSN 1448-6059, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 850-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating conservation and ecologically sustainable development of wetlands is a major challenge, especially in developing countries. While many developing countries harbour significant biodiversity and socio-cultural resources, they have substantial development pressures. We explore the similarities in issues around wetland conservation and sustainability in three developing countries using case studies of internationally significant wetlands in Tanzania, Colombia and Papua New Guinea. We examine key aspects of their socio-ecological values, stakeholder and governance issues, conservation and management issues, and management responses. Key challenges across these regions include inadequate knowledge and data, population and development impacts, poor regulatory and planning processes, socio-economic inequities and conflict. All three areas lack adequate inventory, survey and monitoring, and there are significant risks to some wetland values. Mechanisms such as the Ramsar Convention provide a framework to assist in addressing global wetland loss, but implementation at these sites needs to be supported by effective, integrative approaches involving natural resource regulation, conservation and the development needs of local communities. Increased commitment and resourcing, along with comprehensive stakeholder engagement, are needed to develop and implement locally tailored plans to effectively manage these sites and their values, while also addressing the range of stakeholder needs and perspectives.

  • 160. Maharani, Cynthia D.
    et al.
    Moeliono, Moira
    Wong, Grace Y.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Brockhaus, Maria
    Carmenta, Rachel
    Kallio, Maarit
    Development and equity: A gendered inquiry in a swidden landscape2019In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 101, p. 120-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market-driven development is transforming swidden landscapes and having different impacts along intersections of gender, age and class. In Kapuas Hulu, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Dayak communities practicing swidden agriculture are making choices on maintaining traditional land use systems, and engaging in rubber, oil palm and conservation (REDD + ) in their livelihood strategies. Although REDD + has been heralded as an alternative to oil palm as a sustainable development option, it is still far from full implementation. Meanwhile, oil palm has become a reality, with large scale plantations that offer job opportunities and produce new sources of prestige, but create contestations around traditional land use systems. We employ the gender asset agriculture project (GAAP) framework and apply an intersectional lens to highlight power relations underlying gendered differences in land, labor and social capital in this process of transformation. Our findings suggest that market interventions produce major changes for men and women, young and old, land cultivators and wage earners. This has created new opportunities for some and new risks for others, with those having power to access diverse types of knowledge, ranging from inheritance rights to market information and job opportunities, best able to exploit such opportunities.

  • 161.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Integrating plant hydraulics and gas exchange along the drought-response trait spectrum2014In: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 34, no 10, p. 1031-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moyano, F.
    Kätterer, T.
    Schimel, J.
    Modeling coupled enzymatic and solute transport controls on decomposition in drying soils2016In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 95, p. 275-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic descriptions of microbial processes are difficult to embed in ecosystem models because they require complex mathematical formulations. The interactions between microbes, soil carbon (C), and water availability are particularly complex, as they involve coupled physical (advection and diffusion in unsaturated media) and biochemical processes (enzymatic reactions, C uptake by microbes). Here we propose an approximated equation based on a quasi-equilibrium assumption that describes microbial uptake of soil C as a function of soil moisture and organic matter content during soil drying. The equation predicts that uptake depends on two terms, one dependent on soil organic C concentration and enzyme availability (analogous to a Michaelis-Menten equation) and one dependent on soil moisture via its effects on enzyme and solute mass transfer, and microbial uptake kinetics. Assuming that uptake is proportional to microbial respiration, model results are compared to measured respiration water potential curves. Using independently estimated parameter values (except for the calibrated microbial uptake efficiency), the theoretical model captures well the respiration decline during drying and provides an explanation of respiration pulses at rewetting. Thus, this simple formulation could be employed in ecosystem models as an alternative to empirical respiration-moisture response functions.

  • 163.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Schaeffer, S. M.
    Katul, G.
    Porporato, A.
    Schimel, J. P.
    A theoretical analysis of microbial eco-physiological and diffusion limitations to carbon cycling in drying soils2014In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 73, p. 69-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil microbes face highly variable moisture conditions that force them to develop adaptations to tolerate or avoid drought. Drought conditions also limit the supply of vital substrates by inhibiting diffusion in dry conditions. How these biological and physical factors affect carbon (C) cycling in soils is addressed here by means of a novel process-based model. The model accounts for different microbial response strategies, including different modes of osmoregulation, drought avoidance through dormancy, and extra-cellular enzyme production. Diffusion limitations induced by low moisture levels for both extracellular enzymes and solutes are also described and coupled to the biological responses. Alternative microbial life-history strategies, each encoded in a set of model parameters, are considered and their effects on C cycling assessed both in the long term (steady state ahalysis) and in the short term (transient analysis during soil drying and rewetting). Drought resistance achieved by active osmoregulation requiring large C investment is not useful in soils where growth in dry conditions is limited by C supply. In contrast, dormancy followed by rapid reactivation upon rewetting seems to be a better strategy in such conditions. Synthesizing more enzymes may also be advantageous because it causes larger accumulation of depolymerized products during dry periods that can be used upon rewetting. Based on key model parameters, a spectrum of life-history strategies thus emerges, providing a possible classification of microbial responses to drought.

  • 164. Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Towards a socio-ecological spatial morphology: integrating elements of urban morphology and landscape ecology2019In: Urban morphology, ISSN 1027-4278, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent shift towards greater emphasis on biodiversity and urban ecosystems has increased the need for greater understanding of the green areas in cities as ecological environments. However, landscape ecology and urban morphology have yet to be integrated into a joint field. In this paper steps are taken towards developing an integrated socio-ecological urban morphology based on developments in each field. Such a morphology can inform professional practice in urban design. Comparisons of the different objects of description in the two fields are made and their different means of description - notably the patches, corridors and the matrix in landscape ecology, and the streets, plots and buildings in urban morphology. This provides a basis for a joint description in which these elements together form a configuration of patches.

  • 165.
    Marteinsdottir, Bryndis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. University of Iceland.
    Thorhallsdottir, Thora Ellen
    Svavarsdottir, Kristin
    An experimental test of the relationship between small scale topography and seedling establishment in primary succession2013In: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 214, no 8, p. 1007-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In infertile environments, the spatial scale and distribution of favourable microsites may be an important determinant of vegetation patterns. Such patterns may be persistent although the association and causality may only be detectable during initial establishment. In this study we investigated experimentally how spatial variation on two different scales and species-specific traits affected seedling survival at an early successional site on SkeiA degrees ararsandur, a 1,000 km(2) homogeneous glacial outwash plain in SE-Iceland. Seedlings of eight native species were transplanted into six different micro-topographical combinations: three types of microsites (lee side of small stones and cushion plants, and control), located within two topographical features (shallow depressions and surrounding flats). Seedling survival was then recorded. Only 11 % of transplanted seedlings survived through the second winter, however seedlings that survived past the second growing season were likely to persist. Survival rates varied by species and were positively linked to seed size. Seedling survival was only weakly associated with spatial variation. The strongest association found was that survival was sometimes higher on flats compared to depressions. Sand accumulation in depressions might lower seedling survival there. We conclude that early plant establishment at the site, and the emergent vegetation mosaic, is most likely produced by the interaction of stochastic factors, such as the sand storms that intermittently rage across the plain and species-specific properties like seed size. However, in better-vegetated areas of SkeiA degrees ararsandur depressions often have higher moss and vascular plant cover than nearby flats, suggesting that moss may control vegetation patterns seen later in succession.

  • 166. Martinsen, V.
    et al.
    Alling, V.
    Nurida, N. L.
    Mulder, J.
    Hale, S. E.
    Ritz, C.
    Rutherford, D. W.
    Heikens, A.
    Breedveld, G. D.
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Norway; Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), Norway.
    pH effects of the addition of three biochars to acidic Indonesian mineral soils2015In: Soil science and plant nutrition (Tokyo), ISSN 0038-0768, E-ISSN 1747-0765, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 821-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil acidity may severely reduce crop production. Biochar (BC) may increase soil pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) but reported effects differ substantially. In a systematic approach, using a standardized protocol on a uniquely large number set of 31 acidic soils, we quantified the effect of increasing amounts (0-30%; weight:weight) of three types of field-produced BCs (from cacao (Theobroma cacao. L.) shell, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis. Jacq.) shell and rice (Oryza sativa. L.) husk) on soil pH and CEC. Soils were sampled from croplands at Java, Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. All BCs caused a significant increase in mean soil pH with a stronger response and a greater maximum increase for the cacao shell BC addition, due to a greater acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and larger amounts of extractable base cations. At 1% BC addition, corresponding to about 30tonsha(-1), the estimated increase in soil pH from the initial mean pH of 4.7 was about 0.5 units for the cacao shell BC, whereas this was only 0.05 and 0.04 units for the oil palm shell and rice husk BC, respectively. Besides depending on BC type, the increase in soil pH upon the addition of each of the three BCs was mainly dependent on soil CEC (low CEC resulting in stronger pH increase), and to a lesser extent on initial soil pH (higher initial pH resulting in stronger pH increase). Addition of BC also increased the amount of exchangeable base cations (cacao shell >> oil palm and rice husk) and CEC. Through this systematic screening of the effect of BC on pH and CEC of acidic soils, we show that a small addition of BC, in particular if made of cacao shell, to acidic agricultural soils increases soil pH and CEC. However, the response is highly dependent on the type, quality and amount of the added BC as well as on intrinsic soil properties, mainly CEC.

  • 167. Martínez-Padilla, Jesús
    et al.
    López-Idiáquez, David
    López-Perea, Jhon J.
    Mateo, Rafael
    Paz, Alfonso
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Grupo de Rehabilitación de la Fauna Autóctona y su Hábitat (GREFA), Spain.
    Viñuela, Javier
    A negative association between bromadiolone exposure and nestling body condition in common kestrels: management implications for vole outbreaks2017In: Pest Management Science, ISSN 1526-498X, E-ISSN 1526-4998, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 364-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Vole outbreaks have been extensively described, along with their impacts on humans, particularly in agricultural areas. The use of rodenticides is a common legal practice to minimise crop damage induced by high vole density for biocidal use. However, rodenticides can have negative direct and indirect impacts on non-target species that feed on voles. We studied whether the use of a second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide (SGAR), bromadiolone, can be detected in the blood of fledglings of wild common kestrels Falco tinnunculus in two areas of central Spain, exploring its possible indirect effects.

    RESULTS

    We found that 16.9% of fledglings had a detectable concentration of bromadiolone in their blood, with an average concentration of 0.248 +/- 0.023 ng mL(-1). Fledglings with bromadiolone in their blood, regardless of the concentration, had 6.7% lower body mass than those without detectable bromadiolone.

    CONCLUSION

    The use of bromadiolone was detectable in the blood of alive non-target species. Detected bromadiolone in blood may reduce the body condition of nestlings, potentially reducing their fitness. The source of bromadiolone found in nestlings needs to be determined in future studies to derive accurate management advice. However, we urge the discontinuation of official SGAR distribution to farmers and their use in agrarian lands to minimise damage of voles on crops, particularly where common kestrels breed, and encourage the use of alternative effective practices.

  • 168.
    Mazziotta, Adriano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Jyväskylä, Finland; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Podkopaev, D.
    Trivino, M.
    Miettinen, K.
    Pohjanmies, T.
    Monkkonen, M.
    Quantifying and resolving conservation conflicts in forest landscapes via multiobjective optimization2017In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 51, no 1, article id 1778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental planning for of the maintenance of different conservation objectives should take into account multiple contrasting criteria based on alternative uses of the landscape. We develop new concepts and approaches to describe and measure conflicts among conservation objectives and for resolving them via multiobjective optimization. To measure conflicts we introduce a compatibility index that quantifies how much targeting a certain conservation objective affects the capacity of the landscape for providing another objective. To resolve such conflicts we find compromise solutions defined in terms of minimax regret, i.e. minimizing the maximum percentage of deterioration among conservation objectives. Finally, we apply our approach for a case study of management for biodiversity conservation and development in a forest landscape. We study conflicts between six different forest species, and we identify management solutions for simultaneously maintaining multiple species' habitat while obtaining timber harvest revenues. We employ the method for resolving conflicts at a large landscape level across a long 50-years forest planning horizon. Our multiobjective approach can be an instrument for guiding hard choices in the conservation-development nexus with a perspective of developing decision support tools for land use planning. In our case study multiple use management and careful landscape level planning using our approach can reduce conflicts among biodiversity objectives and offer room for synergies in forest ecosystems.

  • 169.
    McGivney, Eric
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    Belyazid, Salim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zetterberg, Therese
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Assessing the impact of acid rain and forest harvest intensity with the HD-MINTEQ model - soil chemistry of three Swedish conifer sites from 1880 to 20802019In: soil, ISSN 2199-3971, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 63-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest soils are susceptible to anthropogenic acidification. In the past, acid rain was a major contributor to soil acidification, but, now that atmospheric levels of S have dramatically declined, concern has shifted towards biomass-induced acidification, i.e. decreasing soil solution pH due to tree growth and harvesting events that permanently remove base cations (BCs) from forest stands. We use a novel dynamic model, HD-MINTEQ (Husby Dynamic MINTEQ), to investigate possible long-term impacts of two theoretical future harvesting scenarios in the year 2020, a conventional harvest (CH, which removes stems only), and a whole-tree harvest (WTH, which removes 100 % of the above-ground biomass except for stumps) on soil chemistry and weathering rates at three different Swedish forest sites (Aneboda, Gardsjon, and Kindla). Furthermore, acidification following the harvesting events is compared to the historical acidification that took place during the 20th century due to acid rain. Our results show that historical acidification due to acid rain had a larger impact on pore water chemistry and mineral weathering than tree growth and harvesting, at least if nitrification remained at a low level. However, compared to a no-harvest baseline, WTH and CH significantly impacted soil chemistry. Directly after a harvesting event (CH or WTH), the soil solution pH sharply increased for 5 to 10 years before slowly declining over the remainder of the simulation (until year 2080). WTH acidified soils slightly more than CH, but in certain soil horizons there was practically no difference by the year 2080. Even though the pH in the WTH and CH scenario decreased with time as compared to the no-harvest scenario (NH), they did not drop to the levels observed around the peak of historic acidification (1980-1990), indicating that the pH decrease due to tree growth and harvesting would be less impactful than that of historic atmospheric acidification. Weathering rates differed across locations and horizons in response to historic acidification. In general, the predicted changes in weathering rates were very small, which can be explained by the net effect of decreased pH and increased Al3+, which affected the weathering rate in opposite ways Similarly, weathering rates after the harvesting scenarios in 2020 remained largely unchanged according to the model.

  • 170.
    Metian, Marc
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Pouil, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boustany, André
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Farming of Bluefin Tuna-Reconsidering Global Estimates and Sustainability Concerns2014In: Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture, ISSN 2330-8249, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased global demand for bluefin tuna has triggered unsustainable fishing and many wild stocks have seen dramatic declines. Improved fisheries governance is now slowly stabilizing many stocks and recently bluefin aquaculture has emerged as an economic alternative route for supplying the market. Most of captured bluefin tuna directly enters the global seafood market, but an increasing part of catches are destined to aquaculture (17-37%) as bluefin aquaculture almost exclusively depends on wild specimens for stocking. Farming is mainly being performed in the Mediterranean region, Mexico, Australia, and Japan. Few studies have focused on the global importance and future role of bluefin aquaculture and there are confounding uncertainties related to production volumes and trends. This study provides an overview of global bluefin tuna aquaculture and identifies its direct and indirect interactions with wild fish stocks, outlines some of the challenges for future expansion as well as pointing out significant mismatch of production statistics.

  • 171. Metian, Marc
    et al.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Christensen, Villy
    Steenbeek, Jeroen
    Pouil, Simon
    Mapping diversity of species in global aquaculture2019In: Reviews in Aquaculture, ISSN 1753-5123, E-ISSN 1753-5131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the world's most diverse farming practice in terms of number of species, farming methods and environments used. While various organizations and institutions have promoted species diversification, overall species diversity within the aquaculture industry is likely not promoted nor sufficiently well quantified. Using the most extensive dataset available (FAO-statistics) and an approach based on the Shannon Diversity index, this paper provides a method for quantifying and mapping global aquaculture species diversity. Although preliminary analyses showed that a large part of the species forming production is still qualified as undetermined species (i.e. 'not elsewhere included'); results indicate that usually high species diversity for a country is associated with a higher production but there are considerable differences between countries. Nine of the top 10 countries ranked highest by Shannon Diversity index in 2017 are from Asia with China producing the most diverse collection of species. Since species diversity is not the only level of diversity in production, other types of diversity are also briefly discussed. Diversifying aquatic farmed species can be of importance for long-term performance and viability of the sector with respect to sustaining food production under (sometimes abrupt) changing conditions. This can be true both at the global and regional level. In contrast, selection and focus on only a limited number of species can lead to rapid improvements in terms of production (towards sustainability or not) and profitability. Therefore, benefits and shortcomings of diversity are discussed from both economical and social-ecological perspectives that concurrently are shaping the expanding aquaculture industry.

  • 172. Miller, Jessica S.
    et al.
    Bose, Aneesh P. H.
    Fitzpatrick, John L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Balshine, Sigal
    Sperm maturation and male tactic-specific differences in ejaculates in the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus2019In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 434-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus, a species with alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), we investigated how sperm maturation shapes sperm competitive abilities. We compared sperm performance and morphology before and after final sperm maturation by sampling sperm from the testes and stripped ejaculates of guarders and sneakers. In accordance with sperm competition risk theory, ejaculates from sneaker males had three times as much sperm as ejaculates from guarder males and sneaker males produced faster swimming sperm than guarder males, but this was only the case after final sperm maturation had occurred. Additionally, fully mature sperm found in ejaculates had larger heads and midpieces than sperm found in the testes. These results emphasize the important role played by non-sperm components of an ejaculate in mediating sperm performance and potentially also morphology.

  • 173. Moksnes, Per-Olav
    et al.
    Oersted Mirera, David
    Björkvik, Emma
    Hamad, Muumin Iddi
    Mahudi, Humphrey Matalu
    Nyqvist, Daniel
    Jiddawi, Narriman
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden.
    Stepwise function of natural growth for Scylla serrata in East Africa: a valuable tool for assessing growth of mud crabs in aquaculture2015In: Aquaculture Research, ISSN 1355-557X, E-ISSN 1365-2109, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 2938-2953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predicting growth is critical in aquaculture, but models of growth are largely missing for mud crab species. Here, we present the first model of natural growth in juvenile and adult mud crabs Scylla serrata from East Africa using a stepwise growth function based on data on intermoult periods and growth at moult from field mark-recapture, pond and laboratory studies. The results showed a sigmoid growth pattern in carapace width and suggest that S.serrata in East Africa will reach 300g and sexual maturity similar to 9.9months after settlement, and a commercial size of 500g after 12.4months. Analyses of the literature identified several issues with the common praxis to compare standard growth measures between aquaculture studies with different initial size or growing periods. Using the new growth function to estimate the proportional difference between modelled and obtained growth as an alternative method, we show that growth rates of S.serrata cultured in cage systems, which are dominant in East Africa, was <40% of the estimated natural growth and growth obtained in pond systems. The analysis also indicated that growth rates of S.serrata in Southeast Asia was over 50% higher compared with similar culture systems in East Africa, and that different species of mud crabs had large differences in growth rates. This study shows that growth in the present mud crab aquaculture systems in East Africa is below their expected potential. Further work is needed to identify the factors behind this observation.

  • 174.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Agriculture in industrial society: 1870-19452011In: The agrarian history of Sweden: from 4000 BC to AD 2000 / [ed] Janken Myrdal, Mats Morell, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2011, p. 165-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Böndernas jord: äga eller arrendera, ärva eller köpa2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: studier av de areella näringarnas geografi och histoira / [ed] Hans Antonsson, Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungliga Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien , 2011, p. 53-69-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Husdjur och animalisk produktion2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivining / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedts , 2011, p. 86-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 177.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Jordbrukets ekonomi och politik2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedt , 2011, p. 40-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Produktionen på åker och i trädgård2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedt , 2011, p. 70-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Teknikutvecklingen i jordbruket2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedts , 2011, p. 45-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Morell, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Gadd, Carl-Johan
    Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Myrdal, Janken
    Institutionen för Ekonomi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Statistical appendix2011In: The agrarian history of Sweden: from 4000 BC to AD 2000 / [ed] Janken Myrdal och Mats Morell, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2011, p. 257-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Mtwana Nordlund, Lina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Unsworth, Richard K. F.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Cullen-Unsworth, Leanne C.
    Global significance of seagrass fishery activity2018In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 399-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass meadows support fisheries through provision of nursery areas and trophic subsidies to adjacent habitats. As shallow coastal habitats, they also provide key fishing grounds; however, the nature and extent of such exploitation are poorly understood. These productive meadows are being degraded globally at rapid rates. For degradation to cease, there needs to be better appreciation for the value of these habitats in supporting global fisheries. Here, we provide the first global scale study demonstrating the extent, importance and nature of fisheries exploitation of seagrass meadows. Due to a paucity of available data, the study used a global expert survey to demonstrate the widespread significance of seagrass-based fishing activity. Our study finds that seagrass-based fisheries are globally important and present virtually wherever seagrass exists, supporting subsistence, commercial and recreational activity. A wide range of fishing methods and gear is used reflecting the spatial distribution patterns of seagrass meadows, and their depth ranges from intertidal (accessible by foot) to relatively deep water (where commercial trawls can operate). Seagrass meadows are multispecies fishing grounds targeted by fishers for any fish or invertebrate species that can be eaten, sold or used as bait. In the coastal communities of developing countries, the importance of the nearshore seagrass fishery for livelihoods and well-being is irrefutable. In developed countries, the seagrass fishery is often recreational and/or more target species specific. Regardless of location, this study is the first to highlight collectively the indiscriminate nature and global scale of seagrass fisheries and the diversity of exploitative methods employed to extract seagrass-associated resources. Evidence presented emphasizes the need for targeted management to support continued viability of seagrass meadows as a global ecosystem service provider.

  • 182.
    Mwandya, Augustine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Öhman, Marcus C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mgaya, Yunus D.
    Ian, Bryceson
    Spatial and seasonal variation of fish assemblages in mangrove creek systems in Zanzibar (Tanzania)2010In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial and seasonal variations of fish assemblage composition were studied in three non-estuarine mangrove creeks of Zanzibar (Tanzania). Fish were collected monthly for one year at three sites (lower, intermediate and upper reaches) in each creek using a seine net (each haul covering 170 m(2)). Density, species number and diversity of fish were all higher at sites with dense cover of macrophytes (seagrass and macroalgae) than over unvegetated sandy sites. In general, fish assemblages mainly comprised juveniles of a few abundant taxa, e.g. Mugil cephalus, Mugilidae spp. and Leiognathus equulus at sites with mud substratum and Germs oyena, Lethrinus harak and Sillago sihama at sites dominated by macrophytes. Multivariate analyses revealed significant separations in fish assemblage composition within the two creeks where the bottom substratum differed among sites. Overall, season seemed to have little effect on density, species number, diversity index (H') and assemblage structure of fish. Water condition variables were also relatively stable across the season, although a short-term fluctuation primarily induced by decreased salinity, occurred during the heavy rains in April and May. Fish assemblage structure was not significantly affected by any of the abiotic factors tested. However, significant regressions were found between the other fish variables and environmental variables, but since these associations were mostly species-specific and generally inconsistent, we suggest that the overall distribution patterns of fish were mainly an effect of particular substrate preferences of fish species rather than contemporary water conditions.

  • 183.
    Mwandya, Augustine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Influence of mangrove deforestation on trophic organization of fish assemblages in creek systemsManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mangrove biotopes in Tanzania are under increasing pressure from domestic uses and changes in land-use for aquaculture and solar salt farms. To investigate the impacts of man-made activities on trophic structure of mangrove-associated fish species, sampling of fish from various trophic groups was performed in mangrove creeks. Trophic organization and stable isotope signatures (δ 13C and δ 15N) of fish in undisturbed areas of mangrove creeks were compared with clear-cut areas of mangrove as well as with reservoirs for saltworks or fish farms constructed after mangrove clearing. Results showed significantly higher densities, species numbers, diversity (H’) and numbers of trophic groups in undisturbed sites compared to both types of disturbed sites. Overall, omnivorous fish comprised the most abundant feeding guild, with the highest number of individuals found in the cleared sites followed in order by the uncleared sites and the reservoirs. The feeding guild zoobenthivores/piscivores was the most diverse group, with the highest species richness in the undisturbed areas. Multivariate analysis showed that assemblage structure of omnivores in the reservoirs was separated from those in the uncleared and cleared sites, while zoobenthivores/piscivores differed between uncleared sites and the disturbed areas (cleared sites and reservoirs). Stable isotope ratios of δ13C and δ15N values in fish tissue muscles indicate significant diet shifts between undisturbed and disturbed mangrove creek systems, although the effects are species-specific. Our findings suggest that mangrove deforestation combined with land-use changes, such as salt- or fish farm constructions, has a greater impact on the trophic structure of fish in mangrove creeks than mangrove deforestation only. Hence, the extent and severity of disturbance seem to be important in predicting fish assemblage composition.

  • 184.
    Mwandya, Augustine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Öhman, Marcus C
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Andersson, Mathias H
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mgaya, Yunus
    Fisheries and Aquaculture.
    Fish assemblages in Tanzanian mangrove creek systems influenced by solar salt farm constructions2009In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Mwandya, Augustine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Mgaya, Yunus
    Fisheries and Aquculture.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Ian, Bryceson
    International Environment and Development Studies.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Distribution patterns of the striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) in mangrove creeks of Zanzibar, TanzaniaManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial and seasonal variations in density of the striped mullet Mugil cephalus were investigated in four mangrove creeks in Zanzibar (Tanzania) during a one-year cycle. Fish were collected monthly in the lower, intermediate and upper reaches of each creek using a beach seine net (each haul covering 170 m2). All individuals collected were juveniles with a mean size of 2 to 16 cm (standard length). The density of juvenile mullets inhabiting mangrove creeks differed significantly among the different creeks, but the patterns within creeks were consistent, with higher densities upstream in three of the creeks. In general, small-sized juvenile mullets (2-10 cm) were more abundant in the upper reaches compared to the lower and intermediate sites in most creeks. Seasonal patterns were fairly weak, although high mullet densities were observed during the period of heavy rains (from March to May). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that a muddy bottom with microphytobenthos was likely important to explain high mullet densities, although site-specific variables like low water depth and water clarity may also be important. Our findings suggest that the densities of juvenile striped mullet vary among sites and creeks in response to refuge availability from turbid shallow waters and the accessibility of food resources from benthic microalgae.

  • 186.
    Nguyen, Thanh Tam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Nong Lam University, Vietnam.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Nguyen, Hang Thi Thuy
    Van Nguyen, Cong
    Effects of chlorpyrifos ethyl on acetylcholinesterase activity in climbing perch cultured in rice fields in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2015In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 117, p. 34-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climbing perch is commonly harvested in rice fields and associated wetlands in the Mekong Delta. Despite its importance in providing food and income to local households, there is little information how this fish species is affected by the high use of pesticides in rice farming. Organophosphate insecticides, such as chlorpyrifos ethyl, which are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, are commonly used in the Mekong Delta. This study shows that the brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in climbing perch fingerlings cultured in rice fields, was significantly inhibited by a single application of chlorpyrifos ethyl, at doses commonly applied by rice farmers (032-0.64 kg/ha). The water concentration of chlorpyrifos ethyl decreased below the detection level within 3 days, but the inhibition of brain AChE activity remained for more than 12 days. In addition, the chlorpyrifos ethyl treatments had a significant impact on the survival and growth rates of climbing perch fingerlings, which were proportional to the exposure levels. The results indicate that the high use of pesticides among rice farmers in the Mekong Delta could have a negative impact on aquatic organisms and fish yields, with implications for the aquatic biodiversity, local people's livelihoods and the aquaculture industry in the Mekong Delta.

  • 187.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Heurich, Marco
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Brun, Anders
    Automatic mapping of standing dead trees after an insect outbreak using the Window Independent Context Segmentation method2014In: Journal of forestry, ISSN 0022-1201, E-ISSN 1938-3746, Vol. 112, no 6, p. 564-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, there has been an increase in the spruce bark beetle population in the Bavarian Forest National Park in southeastern Germany. There is a need for accurate and time-effective methods for monitoring the outbreak, because manual interpretation of image data is time-consuming and expensive. In this article, the window independent context segmentation method is used to map deadwood areas. The aim is to evaluate the method’s ability to monitor deadwood areas on a yearly basis. Two-color infrared scenes with a spatial resolution of 40 × 40 cm from 2001 and 2008 were used for the study. The method was found to be effective with an overall accuracy of 88% for the 2001 scene and 90% for the 2008 scene.

  • 188. Nielsen, Rasmus J.
    et al.
    Thunberg, Eric
    Holland, Daniel S.
    Schmidt, Jorn O.
    Fulton, Elizabeth A.
    Bastardie, Francois
    Punt, Andre E.
    Allen, Icarus
    Bartelings, Heleen
    Bertignac, Michel
    Bethke, Eckhard
    Bossier, Sieme
    Buckworth, Rick
    Carpenter, Griffin
    Christensen, Asbjorn
    Christensen, Villy
    Da-Rocha, José M.
    Deng, Roy
    Dichmont, Catherine
    Doering, Ralf
    Esteban, Aniol
    Fernandes, Jose A.
    Frost, Hans
    Garcia, Dorleta
    Gasche, Loic
    Gascuel, Didier
    Gourguet, Sophie
    Groeneveld, Rolf A.
    Guillén, Jordi
    Guyader, Olivier
    Hamon, Katell G.
    Hoff, Ayoe
    Horbowy, Jan
    Hutton, Trevor
    Lehuta, Sigrid
    Little, Richard L.
    Lleonart, Jordi
    Macher, Claire
    Mackinson, Steven
    Mahevas, Stephanie
    Marchal, Paul
    Mato-Amboage, Rosa
    Mapstone, Bruce
    Maynou, Francesc
    Merzéréaud, Mathieu
    Palacz, Artur
    Pascoe, Sean
    Paulrud, Anton
    Plaganyi, Eva
    Prellezo, Raul
    van Putten, Elizabeth I.
    Quaas, Martin
    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars
    Sanchez, Sonia
    Simons, Sarah
    Thébaud, Olivier
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Ulrich, Clara
    van Dijk, Diana
    Vermard, Youen
    Voss, Rudi
    Waldo, Staffan
    Integrated ecological–economic fisheries models—Evaluation, review and challenges for implementation2018In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-29Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine ecosystems evolve under many interconnected and area-specific pressures. To fulfil society's intensifying and diversifying needs while ensuring ecologically sustainable development, more effective marine spatial planning and broader-scope management of marine resources is necessary. Integrated ecological–economic fisheries models (IEEFMs) of marine systems are needed to evaluate impacts and sustainability of potential management actions and understand, and anticipate ecological, economic and social dynamics at a range of scales from local to national and regional. To make these models most effective, it is important to determine how model characteristics and methods of communicating results influence the model implementation, the nature of the advice that can be provided and the impact on decisions taken by managers. This article presents a global review and comparative evaluation of 35 IEEFMs applied to marine fisheries and marine ecosystem resources to identify the characteristics that determine their usefulness, effectiveness and implementation. The focus is on fully integrated models that allow for feedbacks between ecological and human processes although not all the models reviewed achieve that. Modellers must invest more time to make models user friendly and to participate in management fora where models and model results can be explained and discussed. Such involvement is beneficial to all parties, leading to improvement of models and more effective implementation of advice, but demands substantial resources which must be built into the governance process. It takes time to develop effective processes for using IEEFMs requiring a long-term commitment to integrating multidisciplinary modelling advice into management decision-making.

  • 189.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Granholm, Ann-Helen
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Nordqvist, Karin
    SLU, Umeå.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Computer classification of General Habitat Categories by combining LiDAR and SPOT data2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    General Habitat Categories (GHC) is a classification scheme developed in BioHab1, 2 and a central concept in EBONE3. A characteristic of GHC is plant height, which can be derived using Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data. Computer classification of GHCs might be improved by combining spectral information in optical satellite data with LiDAR. The aim of this pilot study was to investi­gate to which degree airborne LiDAR improves SPOT data based classification of a selection of GHCs in a for­est area in southern Sweden. Lat. 58° 30’ N Long 13° 40’ E. Managed forest with Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea Abies) and birch (Betula spp). A SPOT 5 HRG XS scene. Airborne LiDAR data with an average point density of 26 returns/m2. Photo interpretation of GHCs, 585 sample plots, in aerial DMC images. Combining LiDAR and SPOT data shows promise, considering the restrictions to this study. In a similar study, using the same dataset for classifying CORINE land cover types, overall accuracy increased from 67.1% to 77.6% when add­ing LiDAR data4. This means that there is potential, though the methods need improvement and further tests should include a larger test area providing adequate amounts of sample plots per GHC.

  • 190.
    Nilsson, Mats
    et al.
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Holm, Sören
    Fjärranalys, SLU Umeå.
    Allard, Anna
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Integration of earth observation data and in situ data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS)2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of in situ data and earth observation (EO) data for estimating the occurrence of different habitat or classes can be achieved using different approaches. In this study, the approach used is to post-stratify in situ data using existing land cover maps derived from satellite data. Photo-interpreted landscape elements and biotopes from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden (NILS; http://nils.slu.se/) were used as in situ data. The mapped landscape elements and biotopes were classified into General Habitat Categories (GHCs). Five of the GHCs were selected to exemplify how the precision of their area estimates was affected by using post-stratification, as compared to area estimates of the GHCs based on the photo-interpreted data alone. The stratification was made using the Swedish version of Corine land cover (SMD) which includes more classes and has a higher spatial resolution (1-25 ha minimum mapping unit depending on the class) than the European version of Corine land cover (CLC). The results show that the standard error was reduced substantially for all tested GHCs using post-stratification in comparison to the errors obtained without post-stratification. This shows the potential to derive improved area statistics of habitat categories by integrating in situ data with existing land cover maps.

  • 191.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Den trädgårdshistoriska forskningens metodologi: utmaningar och möjligheter2008In: Konsthistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0023-3609, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 136-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Drottningholms slottspark från Gustav IV Adolf till Gustaf V2010In: Drottningholms slott (band II): Från Gustav III till Carl XVI Gustaf / [ed] Göran Alm, Rebecka Millhagen, Karlstad: Votum , 2010, 1, p. 296-313Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    En svensk lustgårdskonst.: Lars Israel Wahlman som trädgårdsarkitekt2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lars Israel Wahlman var en av de stora förnyarna av den svenska trädgårdskonsten i början av 1900-talet, manifesterat i villaträdgårdar och parker, begravningsplatser och en rad parker. Denna verksamhet, som länge stått i skuggan av välkända byggnadsverk som Tjolöholms slott i Halland och Engelbrektskyrkan i Stockholm, liksom villorna Trefnan och Trotzgården i Hedemora, presenteras nu för första gången. Med sina mångskiftande och konsekvent genomförda arbeten framstår Wahlman som en av de viktigaste förmedlarna av en trädgårdsstil i Arts and Crafts-rörelsens anda till Sverige. Ingen annan svensk arkitekt ritade så många trädgårdar under denna period. Wahlman ville att det yttre av hans byggnader och deras interiörer tillsammans med omgivningarna skulle fungera som väl sammanlänkade helheter. Att även skapa trädgårdar var en självklar del i denna helhetstanke.

  • 194.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Koloniträdgårdsrörelsen i Stockholm – dess förutsättningar och uppkomst vid 1900-talets början2003In: Stadens odlare / [ed] Christina Westergren, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 2003, p. 9-39Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 195.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Lulu Salto Stephensen: Garden Design in Denmark. G. N. Brandt and the early decades of the twentieth century2008In: Bulletin för Forum för trädgårdshistorisk forskning, ISSN 1652–2362, no 21, p. 62–63-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 196.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Parks in Gothenburg and Jönköping. Secluded idylls for Swedish townsfolk2004In: Garden History, ISSN 0307-1243, Vol. 32, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Stockholm's urban parks: meeting places and social contexts in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries2006In: The European City and Green Space: London, Stockholm, Helsinki and St Petersburg, 1850–2000 / [ed] Peter Clark, Aldershot: Ashgate , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Till stadsbornas nytta och förlustande2005Report (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Art History.
    Till stadsbornas nytta och förlustande: Den offentliga parken i Sverige under 1800-talet1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to study the public parks in Sweden during the nineteenth century. It focuses on three general factors – decision process, design, and function – and is to a great extent based on previously unstudied material including town councils' minutes, drawings, and other contemporary sources. The dissertation considers a selection of the approximately one hundred public parks laid out in Sweden during the period.

    From the beginning of the century the middle classes endeavoured to create meeting places and social customs of their own, and public parks had a role to play in their efforts. There, families could spend their leisure time together, meeting acquaintances and amusing themselves. The park was also an aesthetic element in the townscape. The study shows that the first public parks appeared in the 1820s, and that they were established several decades earlier than is generally acknowledged. During the decades following 1860, a large number of new parks were made. From now on, moral considerations began being put forward as grounds for creating public parks. They were promoted as more suitable social settings than the streets, squares, and pubs – for the middle classes as well as for the workers. In the 1890s, new parks were made whose design and function differed distinctly from their predecessors. They were planned for active use to a much greater extent, with features such as games and sport, and all surfaces open to the public. The study also shows that town councils from the beginning of the century were involved in creating the parks, and generally assumed full economic responsibility.

    Concerning the design, the parks changed during the century. From the initial decades, the essential design assumption was that parks would be perceived as art rather than nature. It should be obvious that the trees, bushes, and flowers did not grow natural on the spot, an impression emphasised by their varied colours, shapes, and ways of growing. Exotic plants were used extensively. From around 1870 the attempt to imitate nature as closely as possible, often using an existing natural area as a starting point and employing indigenous plants, gradually became common.

    Previous studies have often pointed to the public parks' role in improving the hygiene in the towns, locating them within an overall town planning perspective. However, the study shows that the belief that they might also improve the moral and general living conditions of urban dwellers has been an even more important factor. The park was envisaged as a place of education and general cultivation, but also as a place for amusement, which was reflected in the bandstands, monuments, and playgrounds, etc. Though the parks were often smaller than their counterparts abroad, Sweden was in step with the rest of Europe.

  • 200.
    Nolin, Catharina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of the History of Art.
    Trädgård och park vid Skånelaholm2008In: Skånelaholm: ett gods i Uppland, Vitterhetsakademien, Stockholm , 2008, p. 96-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
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