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  • 151.
    Chibeya, Doubt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How do African ElephantsUtilize the Landscape DuringWet Season?: A Habitat Connectivity Analysis for Sioma Ngwezi Landscape in Zambia2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How environmental factors influence distribution and persistence of African elephants(Loxodonta africana) is pertinent to policy makers and managers to formulate balanced plansfor different landuse types (i.e. wildlife management, forestry). The study focuses on movementof elephants and how they utilize foraging areas in Sioma Ngwezi landscape in Zambia. Theanalysis was based on telemetry data (global position system radio collars) acquired from 8elephants (5 matriarchs and 3 bulls) between February and July in 2018. The followingenvironmental variables were analysed; land cover, topographic wetness index, normalizeddifference vegetation index, proximity to roads and proximity to settlements. MaximumEntropy (MaxEnt) and linkage mapper were the novel tools used to predict habitat suitability,movement corridors and barriers in the landscape during the wet season. Landscapepermeability and habitat suitability were explored by using resistance raster. The studyidentified elevation, land cover and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as themost important environmental predictors that modifies the dispersal of elephants in thelandscape during the wet season. Additionally, a total of 36 potential wet season corridors wereidentified connecting 15 core areas mainly used for foraging and protection from poachers inthe landscape. Of these, 24 corridors were highly utilized and are suggested as priority corridorsfor elephant movement in the landscape. The identified wet season habitats and functionalcorridors may help to combat elephant poaching by patrolling areas with high relativeprobability of elephant presence. The findings may also help abate human elephant conflictsuch as crop raiding by managing identified corridors that run into agriculture zones in the gamemanagement area. Finally, management of these corridors has massive potential to increasemovement of elephants in the region especially since Sioma landscape is strategically locatedin the Kavango-Zambezi Trans-frontier Conservation Area (KAZA TFCA) connecting thesource (Hwange, Chobe and Bwabwata national parks) and the sink (the Greater Kafue andLuangwa ecosystems) linking elephants from Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Namibia and Botswana.

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  • 152.
    Christiansson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Diatom distribution in the lower Save river, Mozambique: Taxonomy, salinity gradient and taphonomy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study diatom distribution within the lower Save River, Mozambique, has been identified from surface sediments, surface water, mangrove cortex and buried sediments. Sandy units, bracketing a geographically extensive clay layer, have been dated with optical stimulated luminescence (OSL). Diatom analysis has been used to interpret the spatial salinity gradient and to discuss taphonomic processes within the delta. Previously, one study has been performed in the investigated area and it is of great importance to continue to identify diatom distributions since siliceous microfossils are widely used for paleoenvironmental research. Two diatom taxa, which were not possible to classify to species level have been identified; Cyclotella sp. and Diploneis sp. It is suggested that these represent species not earlier described; however they are assigned a brackish water affinity. Diatom analysis from surface water, surface sediments and mangrove cortex indicate a transition from ocean water to a dominance of freshwater taxa c. 10 km upstream the delta front. Further, ratios between marine/brackish taxa for samples from surface water and surface sediments do not correspond. It is therefore suggested that diatoms in surface sediments underestimate prevailing salinity conditions in water. In the investigated area extensive taphonomic processes seem to have large impact on diatom frustules in sediments and may bias interpretations. Therefore it is recommended to carefully investigate geology, geomorphology and vegetation before diatom analysis is applied in studies of delta paleoenvironments. 

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  • 153.
    Clason, Caroline C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Coch, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Brugger, K.
    Jansson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Rosqvist, Gunhild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dye tracing to determine flow properties of hydrocarbon-polluted Rabots glaciar, Kebnekaise, Sweden2015In: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2701-2715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over 11 000 L of kerosene was deposited on the surface of Rabots glaciar on the Kebnekaise Massif, northern Sweden, following the crash of a Royal Norwegian Air Force aircraft in March 2012. An environmental monitoring programme was subsequently commissioned, including a series of dye tracing experiments during the 2013 melt season, conducted to investigate the transport of pollutants through the glacier hydrological system. This experimental set-up provided a basis from which we could gain new insight into the internal hydrological system of Rabots glaciar. Results of dye tracing experiments reveal a degree of homogeneity in the topology of the drainage system throughout July and August, with an increase in efficiency as the season progresses, as reflected by decreasing temporary storage and dispersivity. Early onset of melting likely led to formation of an efficient, discrete drainage system early in the melt season, subject to decreasing sinuosity and braiding as the season progressed. Four distinct meltwater flow regimes are identified to summarize the temporal and spatial evolution of the system. Analysis of turbidity-discharge hysteresis further supports the formation of discrete, efficient drainage, with clockwise diurnal hysteresis suggesting easy mobilization of readily available sediments in channels. Dye injection immediately downstream of the pollution source zone reveals prolonged storage of dye followed by fast, efficient release. Twinned with a low dye recovery, and supported by sporadic detection of hydrocarbons in the proglacial river, we suggest that meltwater, and thus pollutants in solution, may be released periodically through an efficient, and likely pressurized, hydrological system within the upper reaches of the glacier.

  • 154.
    Clason, Caroline C.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Plymouth University, UK.
    Greenwood, Sarah L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Selmes, Nick
    Lea, James M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Liverpool, UK.
    Jamieson, Stewart S. R.
    Nick, Faezeh M.
    Holmlund, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Controls on the early Holocene collapse of the Bothnian Sea Ice Stream2016In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, ISSN 2169-9003, E-ISSN 2169-9011, Vol. 121, no 12, p. 2494-2513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New high-resolution multibeam data in the Gulf of Bothnia reveal for the first time the subglacial environment of a Bothnian Sea Ice Stream. The geomorphological record suggests that increased meltwater production may have been important in driving rapid retreat of Bothnian Sea Ice during deglaciation. Here we apply a well-established, one-dimensional flow line model to simulate ice flow through the Gulf of Bothnia and investigate controls on retreat of the ice stream during the post-Younger Dryas deglaciation of the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet. The relative influence of atmospheric and marine forcings are investigated, with the modeled ice stream exhibiting much greater sensitivity to surface melting, implemented through surface mass balance and hydrofracture-induced calving, than to submarine melting or relative sea level change. Such sensitivity is supported by the presence of extensive meltwater features in the geomorphological record. The modeled ice stream does not demonstrate significant sensitivity to changes in prescribed ice stream width or overall bed slope, but local variations in basal topography and ice stream width result in nonlinear retreat of the grounding line, notably demonstrating points of short-lived retreat slowdown on reverse bed slopes. Retreat of the ice stream was most likely governed by increased ice surface meltwater production, with the modeled retreat rate less sensitive to marine forcings despite the marine setting.

  • 155.
    Classon, Agnes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Comparing C, N and P concentrations in soils in agricultural verus natural land, and across climates2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How do concentrations of C, N and P vary between agricultural and natural land?How do C, N and P concentrations vary between climate zones? Soil organic carbon (SOC),total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) as well as microbial C, N and P (MBC, MBN andMBP respectively) concentrations in soils were collected through a literature review, andstudied to analyze the differences between agricultural land-use and natural land, and betweendifferent climate zones. The minimum concentrations of SOC, TN, MBC, MBN and MBP werefound in the agricultural soils and the maximum concentrations in natural soils. The minimumTP concentration was the same for the two land types but the maximum concentration wasfound in agricultural soils. The mean concentrations of MBC, MBN, MBP, SOC and TN weresignificantly lower in the agricultural land than in the natural land.The highest concentrations of soil and microbial C, N and P were found in the tropical wetclimate, in the highlands, in the midlatitude climate with high temperature variations, and in themarine west coast climate. The results show that: 1. rainfall and mild to warm temperaturescould increase nutrient concentrations; 2. northern latitudes and highlands have high stocks ofnutrients, and 3: Humid subtropical climates are probably more exploited to humans due toagricultural productivity which decreases nutrient concentrations.The results clearly show the loss of nutrients following cultivation, and the importance ofresearch of nutrient status in soils; for global soil and water quality issues, for a sustainableagricultural production and for ecosystems.

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  • 156.
    Clifford, Joseph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frontiers of Fracking: Underground Political Ecology and Unconventional Energy in the Contested Landscapes of North West England2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gas obtained from previously unexploited shale rock strata has emerged as an economically viable way of sourcing additional fossil fuel energy resources after the so-called ‘shale gas revolution’ in the United States. In the United Kingdom, the incumbent government has committed to the development of its own shale gas resources. A highly polarised public debate has erupted on the risks and rewards of extracting the shale gas deposits that presently lie underneath large swathes of the country using the controversial method of hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’. This thesis examines how different groups in North West England – the major frontier of fracking in the UK – are contesting, resisting and negotiating the current government’s decision to sanction and push ahead towards the development a domestic shale gas industry. Employing a theoretical framework drawn from political ecology as its core mode of examination, this thesis utilises qualitative methods including in-depth interviews and participant observation techniques. It documents a range of social groupings that are contesting shale gas in the UK in a number of ways, and argues that landscapes and risk are fundamental hinges in this ongoing environmental conflict.

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  • 157. Clymans, W.
    et al.
    Barao, L.
    Van der Putten, N.
    Wastegård, Sefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Gisladottir, G.
    Björck, S.
    Moine, B.
    Struyf, E.
    Conley, D. J.
    The contribution of tephra constituents during biogenic silica determination: implications for soil and palaeoecological studies2015In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 3789-3804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogenic silica (BSi) is used as a proxy by soil scientists to identify biological effects on the Si cycle and by palaeoecologists to study environmental changes. Alkaline extractions are typically used to measure BSi in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. The dissolution properties of volcanic glass in tephra deposits and their nanocrystalline weathering products are hypothesized to overlap those of BSi; however, data to support this behaviour are lacking. The potential that Si-bearing fractions dissolve in alkaline media (Si-Alk) that do not necessarily correspond to BSi brings the applicability of BSi as a proxy into question. Here, analysis of 15 samples reported as tephra-containing allows us to reject the hypothesis that tephra constituents produce an identical dissolution signal to that of BSi during alkaline extraction. We found that dissolution of volcanic glass shards is incomplete during alkaline dissolution. Simultaneous measurement of Al and Si used here during alkaline dissolution provides an important parameter to enable us to separate glass shard dissolution from dissolution of BSi and other Si-bearing fractions. The contribution from volcanic glass shards (between 0.2 and 4 wt % SiO2), the main constituent of distal tephra, during alkaline dissolution can be substantial depending on the total Si-Alk. Hence, soils and lake sediments with low BSi concentrations are highly sensitive to the additional dissolution from tephra constituents and its weathering products. We advise evaluation of the potential for volcanic or other non-biogenic contributions for all types of studies using BSi as an environmental proxy.

  • 158.
    Coch, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Pathways and Transit Time of Meltwater in the Englacial Drainage System of Rabots Glacier, Kebnekaise, Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Following the crash of a Norwegian Hercules aircraft on Rabots glaciär in the Kebnekaise mountain range in 2012, a field campaign was initiated in order to assess the fate of the hydrocarbon pollution in the system. It is hypothesized that soluble components of the aircraft fuel will be transported within the glacial meltwater. This thesis focuses on constraining the likely transit time and dispersion of the meltwater as a proxy for potential pollution pathways. Therefore, the hydrologic configuration of Rabots glaciär was studied during the ablation season 2013 by means of dye tracing experiments and discharge monitoring in the proglacial stream.

    The analyses of the dye return curves and stream monitoring suggest that Rabots glaciär exhibits a widely efficient drainage system towards the end of the ablation season, but with analyses revealing heterogeneity in the drainage system form. The seasonal evolution of efficiency was also assessed, showing an increase over time, although was hampered by early onset of melting before the field season began. There are different hydrological configurations on the north and south side of the glacier, possibly influenced by shading. The system on the north side is routing meltwater along the glacier bed over a long distance as indicated by the turbid outlet stream. Water routing on the southern side likely occurs through englacial channels. This configuration may be influenced by the thermal regime and distribution of cold surface layers.

    It has further been revealed that both systems are likely to be disconnected from each other. Pollution that is transported with the meltwater down from the crash site on the southern side does not reach the drainage system on the northern side. Besides revealing potential pathways for soluble hydrocarbon pollutants, this case study contributes to the previously very limited knowledge of Rabots glacial hydrology, and our general understanding of polythermal glacier hydrology. 

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  • 159. Colleoni, Florence
    et al.
    Kirchner, Nina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Niessen, Frank
    Quiquet, Aurelien
    Liakka, Johan
    An East Siberian ice shelf during the Late Pleistocene glaciations: Numerical reconstructions2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 147, no SI, p. 148-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent data campaign in the East Siberian Sea has revealed evidence of grounded and floating ice dynamics in regions of up to 1000 m water depth, and which are attributed to glaciations older than the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The main hypothesis based on this evidence is that a small ice cap developed over Beringia and expanded over the East Siberian continental margin during some of the Late Pleistocene glaciations. Other similar evidence of ice dynamics that have been previously collected on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean have been attributed to the penultimate glaciation, i.e. Marine Isotopes Stage 6 (approximate to 140 kyrs BP). We use an ice sheet model, forced by two previously simulated MIS 6 glacial maximum climates, to carry out a series of sensitivity experiments testing the impact of dynamics and mass-balance related parameters on the geometry of the East Siberian ice cap and ice shelf. Results show that the ice cap developing over Beringia connects to the Eurasian ice sheet in all simulations and that its volume ranges between 6 and 14 m SLE, depending on the climate forcing. This ice cap generates an ice shelf of dimensions comparable with or larger than the present-day Ross ice shelf in West Antarctica. Although the ice shelf extent strongly depends on the ice flux through the grounding line, it is particularly sensitive to the choice of the calving and basal melting parameters. Finally, inhibiting a merging of the Beringia ice cap with the Eurasian ice sheet affects the expansion of the ice shelf only in the simulations where the ice cap fluxes are not large enough to compensate for the fluxes coming from the Eurasian ice sheet.

  • 160. Comas-Bru, Laia
    et al.
    Harrison, Sandy P.
    Werner, Martin
    Rehfeld, Kira
    Scroxton, Nick
    Veiga-Pires, Cristina
    Ahmad, Syed Masood
    Brahim, Yassine Ait
    Mozhdehi, Sahar Amirnezhad
    Arienzo, Monica
    Atsawawaranunt, Kamolphat
    Baker, Andy
    Braun, Kerstin
    Breitenbach, Sebastian
    Burstyn, Yuval
    Chawchai, Sakonvan
    Columbu, Andrea
    Deininger, Michael
    Demeny, Attila
    Dixon, Bronwyn
    Hatvani, Istvan Gabor
    Hu, Jun
    Kaushal, Nikita
    Kern, Zoltan
    Labuhn, Inga
    Lachniet, Matthew S.
    Lechleitner, Franziska A.
    Lorrey, Andrew
    Markowska, Monika
    Nehme, Carole
    Novello, Valdir F.
    Oster, Jessica
    Perez-Mejias, Carlos
    Pickering, Robyn
    Sekhon, Natasha
    Wang, Xianfeng
    Warken, Sophie
    Atkinson, Tim
    Ayalon, Avner
    Baldini, James
    Bar-Matthews, Miryam
    Bernal, Juan Pablo
    Boch, Ronny
    Borsato, Andrea
    Boyd, Meighan
    Brierley, Chris
    Cai, Yanjun
    Carolin, Stacy
    Cheng, Hai
    Constantin, Silviu
    Couchoud, Isabelle
    Cruz, Francisco
    Denniston, Rhawn
    Dragusin, Virgil
    Duan, Wuhui
    Ersek, Vasile
    Finne, Martin
    Fleitmann, Dominik
    Fohlmeister, Jens
    Frappier, Amy
    Genty, Dominique
    Holzkämper, Steffen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hopley, Philip
    Johnston, Vanessa
    Kathayat, Gayatri
    Keenan-Jones, Duncan
    Koltai, Gabriella
    Li, Ting-Yong
    Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad
    Luetscher, Marc
    Mattey, Dave
    Moreno, Ana
    Moseley, Gina
    Psomiadis, David
    Ruan, Jiaoyang
    Scholz, Denis
    Sha, Lijuan
    Smith, Andrew Christopher
    Strikis, Nicolas
    Treble, Pauline
    Unal-Imer, Ezgi
    Vaks, Anton
    Vansteenberge, Stef
    Voarintsoa, Ny Riavo G.
    Wong, Corinne
    Wortham, Barbara
    Wurtzel, Jennifer
    Zhang, Haiwei
    Evaluating model outputs using integrated global speleothem records of climate change since the last glacial2019In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 1557-1579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although quantitative isotope data from speleothems has been used to evaluate isotope-enabled model simulations, currently no consensus exists regarding the most appropriate methodology through which to achieve this. A number of modelling groups will be running isotope-enabled palaeoclimate simulations in the framework of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6, so it is timely to evaluate different approaches to using the speleothem data for data-model comparisons. Here, we illustrate this using 456 globally distributed speleothem delta O-18 records from an updated version of the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis (SISAL) database and palaeoclimate simulations generated using the ECHAM5-wiso isotope-enabled atmospheric circulation model. We show that the SISAL records reproduce the first-order spatial patterns of isotopic variability in the modern day, strongly supporting the application of this dataset for evaluating model-derived isotope variability into the past. However, the discontinuous nature of many speleothem records complicates the process of procuring large numbers of records if data-model comparisons are made using the traditional approach of comparing anomalies between a control period and a given palaeoclimate experiment. To circumvent this issue, we illustrate techniques through which the absolute isotope values during any time period could be used for model evaluation. Specifically, we show that speleothem isotope records allow an assessment of a model's ability to simulate spatial isotopic trends. Our analyses provide a protocol for using speleothem isotope data for model evaluation, including screening the observations to take into account the impact of speleothem mineralogy on delta O-18 values, the optimum period for the modern observational baseline and the selection of an appropriate time window for creating means of the isotope data for palaeo-time-slices.

  • 161. Cook, Edward R.
    et al.
    Seager, Richard
    Kushnir, Yochanan
    Briffa, Keith R.
    Buntgen, Ulf
    Frank, David
    Krusic, Paul J.
    Tegel, Willy
    van der Schrier, Gerard
    Andreu-Hayles, Laia
    Baillie, Mike
    Baittinger, Claudia
    Bleicher, Niels
    Bonde, Niels
    Brown, David
    Carrer, Marco
    Cooper, Richard
    Cufar, Katarina
    Dittmar, Christoph
    Esper, Jan
    Griggs, Carol
    Gunnarson, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Guenther, Bjorn
    Gutierrez, Emilia
    Haneca, Kristof
    Helama, Samuli
    Herzig, Franz
    Heussner, Karl-Uwe
    Hofmann, Jutta
    Janda, Pavel
    Kontic, Raymond
    Kose, Nesibe
    Kyncl, Tomas
    Levanic, Tom
    Linderholm, Hans
    Manning, Sturt
    Melvin, Thomas M.
    Miles, Daniel
    Neuwirth, Burkhard
    Nicolussi, Kurt
    Nola, Paola
    Panayotov, Momchil
    Popa, Ionel
    Rothe, Andreas
    Seftigen, Kristina
    Seim, Andrea
    Svarva, Helene
    Svoboda, Miroslav
    Thun, Terje
    Timonen, Mauri
    Touchan, Ramzi
    Trotsiuk, Volodymyr
    Trouet, Valerie
    Walder, Felix
    Wazny, Tomasz
    Wilson, Rob
    Zang, Christian
    Old World megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era2015In: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 1, no 10, article id e1500561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate model projections suggest widespread drying in the Mediterranean Basin and wetting in Fennoscandia in the coming decades largely as a consequence of greenhouse gas forcing of climate. To place these and other Old World climate projections into historical perspective based on more complete estimates of natural hydroclimatic variability, we have developed the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA), a set of year-to-year maps of tree-ring reconstructed summer wetness and dryness over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin during the Common Era. The OWDA matches historical accounts of severe drought and wetness with a spatial completeness not previously available. In addition, megadroughts reconstructed over north-central Europe in the 11th and mid-15th centuries reinforce other evidence from North America and Asia that droughts were more severe, extensive, and prolonged over Northern Hemisphere land areas before the 20th century, with an inadequate understanding of their causes. The OWDA provides new data to determine the causes of Old World drought and wetness and attribute past climate variability to forced and/or internal variability.

  • 162.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Auffret, Alistair G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindgren, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tränk, Louise
    Regional-scale land-cover change during the 20th century and its consequences for biodiversity2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S17-S27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive changes in land cover during the 20th century are known to have had detrimental effects on biodiversity in rural landscapes, but the magnitude of change and their ecological effects are not well known on regional scales. We digitized historical maps from the beginning of the 20th century over a 1652 km(2) study area in southeastern Sweden, comparing it to modern-day land cover with a focus on valuable habitat types. Semi-natural grassland cover decreased by over 96 % in the study area, being largely lost to afforestation and silviculture. Grasslands on finer soils were more likely to be converted into modern grassland or arable fields. However, in addition to remaining semi-natural grassland, today's valuable deciduous forest and wetland habitats were mostly grazed grassland in 1900. An analysis of the landscape-level biodiversity revealed that plant species richness was generally more related to the modern landscape, with grazing management being a positive influence on species richness.

  • 163. Couvreur, Valentin
    et al.
    Ledder, Glenn
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Way, Danielle A.
    Muller, Erik B.
    Russo, Sabrina E.
    Water transport through tall trees: A vertically explicit, analytical model of xylem hydraulic conductance in stems2018In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1821-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trees grow by vertically extending their stems, so accurate stem hydraulic models are fundamental to understanding the hydraulic challenges faced by tall trees. Using a literature survey, we showed that many tree species exhibit continuous vertical variation in hydraulic traits. To examine the effects of this variation on hydraulic function, we developed a spatially explicit, analytical water transport model for stems. Our model allows Huber ratio, stem-saturated conductivity, pressure at 50% loss of conductivity, leaf area, and transpiration rate to vary continuously along the hydraulic path. Predictions from our model differ from a matric flux potential model parameterized with uniform traits. Analyses show that cavitation is a whole-stem emergent property resulting from non-linear pressure-conductivity feedbacks that, with gravity, cause impaired water transport to accumulate along the path. Because of the compounding effects of vertical trait variation on hydraulic function, growing proportionally more sapwood and building tapered xylem with height, as well as reducing xylem vulnerability only at branch tips while maintaining transport capacity at the stem base, can compensate for these effects. We therefore conclude that the adaptive significance of vertical variation in stem hydraulic traits is to allow trees to grow tall and tolerate operating near their hydraulic limits.

  • 164.
    Cresso, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The Impact of Climate Changes On Hydrology and Water Resources In the Andean Páramos-Colombia2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Páramo ecosystems are unique alpine grasslands found at high altitudes (2000-5000 m a.s.l.) in the Andean mountain range. While they provide a wide range of important ecosystem services, such as organic carbon sinks, protect endemic species, provide agriculture services, act as recreation sites etc., their perhaps most important service is found in their ability to regulate water flows. The unique volcanic soil properties and endemic plant life that resides in these areas have an exceptional ability to capture, regulate and store water. Colombia has the world’s largest stretch of páramo areas, which supply almost the entire country with clean tap water without active filtration initiatives. Currently there are around seven million people living in Bogotá, the main capital. Northeast of the capital, in the Eastern Range of the Colombian Andes, the Chingaza National Park (CNP) is located. In this park, there are approximately 645 km² of páramo ecosystems, which supplies around 80 % of all the tap water used in Bogotá. However, with an expanding population growth and urbanisation, the demand for water is increasing rapidly. The long-lasting conflict within the country has prevented the exploitation of the economical goods belonging to the páramo ecosystems. Recent peace agreements have opened up for international trade, tourism and an expanding industry. However, the lack of regulations, which protect the páramo ecosystems, have now resulted in an increasing pressure of these systems. As such, sustainable adaptation plans are required across multiple stakeholder levels in order to prevent further deterioration of the páramos. Moreover, the anthropogenic climate changes are posing a threat to these fragile environments. An increasing temperature and changing rainfall patterns are expected to affect the hydroclimatic conditions, especially on high altitudes where these ecosystems are located. Nevertheless, the internal and external processes governing these ecosystems are highly complex and the knowledge gaps are many. One reason for this is that the remote and inaccessible locations results in generally scarcely distributed networks of monitoring stations. In this study, CNP was chosen due to the relatively well-monitored network of stations. Long-term temperature, precipitation and runoff data was analysed to identify the hydroclimatic conditions in the park. Regional downscaled precipitation, minimum and maximum temperature simulations under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, covering the period 2041-2065 were obtained from the WorldClim 1.4 database. Interpolated historical observations for the same parameters but during the period 1960-1990, covering CNP, were derived from the same database. These interpolated historical parameters were used for establishing upper and lower precipitation and temperature boundaries for where a páramo ecosystem can thrive during future RCP-scenarios. Historically, the hydroclimatic conditions in CNP has been characterised by a high input of water from precipitation, low evapotranspiration due to low temperatures and clouds presence, and a stable and abundant runoff. However, the results from this study suggest increasing temperature and precipitation boundaries during both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 compared to historical interpolated data. Furthermore, there is a tendency towards prolonged and amplified seasons, with wetter wet season and drier dry seasons. When mapping suitable páramo environments under future RCP-scenarios, there is a tendency towards decreasing suitable páramo areas, especially during dry season. However, the findings in this report are merely based on temperature and precipitation parameters. Other forcing factors (ENSO, cloud cover, fog, occult precipitation, land use etc.) that also influence these environments and the ability to adapt to new hydroclimatic conditions, were not investigated. In order to prevent further loss of these environments and their associated ecosystem services, it is recommended to apply modern techniques, such as remote sensing in combination with traditional fieldwork, point samples and hydrological models in future studies.

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  • 165.
    Dahl, Celina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Odlingarna blir större men alla odlar samma sak för samma företag: En studie kring jordbrukares upplevelse av kontraktsodling och hur det kan påverka strukturen inom jordbruket på Söderslätt i Skåne.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Contract farming is an agreement between a farmer and a firm regarding the agricultural production. Studies have shown that contract farming can influence farmers in different ways. Positive aspects of contract farming is said to be that farmers get access to a bigger market, a secure source of income and valuable assistance from the companies that they have entered into a contract with. Negative aspects are foremost said to be that farmers may loose control over the production and feel that they do not have their independence left. Researchers also argue that contract farming can affect the structure within agriculture, which in many countries is dominated by family farm systems. Some therefore believe that contract farming could play a part in family farm systems changing or disappearing.

    This study applied a Marxist perspective and aimed to examine farmers and their experience of contract farming and how it might affect the structure within agriculture. An agricultural area in the southern parts of Sweden called Söderslätt was studied. The result showed that contract farming affected the farmers in various ways and that it in some terms can be a cause for changes within the structure of agriculture.

    Keywords: Söderslätt, contract farming, structural changes, family farm systems. 

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  • 166.
    Dahl, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Migrationserfarenheter: Före detta asylsökandes flyttningsmönster i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the individual meanings behind the patterns of residential mobility of former asylum seekers in Sweden. While there are numerous studies of residential segregation and migration patterns amongst natives and immigrants alike, fewer have asked the actual patternmakers what driving forces lie behind their decisions to resettle. This study aims to put light on former asylum seekers’ specific experiences of their resettlements and whether the asylum process in itself affect later migration patterns during the life-course. Through in-depth interviews seven respondents told their life stories with focus on how and why they resettled during their time inSweden. The study showed how the structural factors that initiated their general migration patterns of frequent resettlements gave way over time to less frequent moves where life-course events were the main factors. The results indicate that the asylum process may indeed affect subsequent resettlements in so far that the first own accommodation type of area seem to be important to future residential area choices throughout the life-course. The findings should be of interest for further studies on a greater scale and to policy makers trying to counteract segregation in the metropolitan areas of Sweden in a time of increased refugee flows.

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  • 167.
    Dahlberg, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Categories are all around us: Towards more porous, flexible, and negotiable boundaries in conservation-production landscapes2015In: Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-1951, E-ISSN 1502-5292, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 207-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to communicate and act in the world we divide it into categories, with boundaries that define belonging and exclusion. Categories take shape through processes influenced by, for example, history, discourses, ecologies, and power relations. Although we intellectually know that categories are social constructs we tend to treat them as if they have an intrinsic reality of their own when we describe and act in any given landscape. This understanding is explored within a political ecology framework through a case study of protected areas in relation to other land uses in Sweden. The study relies primarily on interviews with actors affected by conservation efforts, and highlights that categories are not neutral phenomenon, but have ecological, material and social effects in the landscape. It discusses how the simplification of a complex and dynamic whole into static categories can result in paradoxes with unexpected and sometimes negative effects on rural development and land care arrangements. The study advocates a more flexible understanding and handling of categories - and thus of landscapes - to enhance the potential for multiple landscape values to exist in overlapping, dynamic and paradoxical ways.

  • 168. Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Williamson, Andrew G.
    Georgakakos, Christine
    Leung, Selene
    Sharma, Asha N.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Walter, M. Todd
    Using concurrent DNA tracer injections to infer glacial flow pathways2015In: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, Vol. 29, no 25, p. 5257-5274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catchment hydrology has become replete with flow pathway characterizations obtained via combinations of physical hydrologic measurements (e.g. streamflow hydrographs) and natural tracer signals (e.g. stable water isotopes and geochemistry). In this study, we explored how our understanding of hydrologic flow pathways can be improved and expanded in both space and time by the simultaneous application of engineered synthetic DNA tracers. In this study, we compared the advective-dispersive transport properties and mass recovery rates of two types of synthetic DNA tracers, one consisting of synthetic DNA strands encapsulated into biodegradable microspheres and another consisting of `free' DNA, i.e. not encapsulated. The DNA tracers were also compared with a conservative fluorescent dye. All tracers were injected into a small (3.2-km(2)) valley glacier, Storglaciaren, in northern Sweden. Seven of the nine DNA tracers showed clear recovery during the sampling period and similar peak arrival times and dispersion coefficients as the conservative fluorescent dye. However, recovered DNA tracer mass ranged only from 1% to 66%, while recovered fluorescent dye mass was 99%. Resulting from the cold and opaque subglacial environment provided by the glacier, mass loss associated with microbial activity and photochemical degradation of the DNA is likely negligible, leaving sorption of DNA tracers onto suspended particles and loss of microtracer particles to sediment storage as probable explanations. Despite the difference in mass recovery, the advection and dispersion information derived from the DNA tracer breakthrough curves provided spatially explicit information that allowed inferring a theoretical model of the flow pathways that water takes through the glacier.

  • 169. Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    Isaac, Nick J. B.
    Powney, Gary D.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Pöyry, Juha
    Benton, Tim G.
    Gabriel, Doreen
    Hodgson, Jenny A.
    Kunin, William E.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sait, Steven M.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Landscape simplification weakens the association between terrestrial producer and consumer diversity in Europe2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3040-3051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change is one of the primary drivers of species loss, yet little is known about its effect on other components of biodiversity that may be at risk. Here, we ask whether, and to what extent, landscape simplification, measured as the percentage of arable land in the landscape, disrupts the functional and phylogenetic association between primary producers and consumers. Across seven European regions, we inferred the potential associations (functional and phylogenetic) between host plants and butterflies in 561 seminatural grasslands. Local plant diversity showed a strong bottom-up effect on butterfly diversity in the most complex landscapes, but this effect disappeared in simple landscapes. The functional associations between plant and butterflies are, therefore, the results of processes that act not only locally but are also dependent on the surrounding landscape context. Similarly, landscape simplification reduced the phylogenetic congruence among host plants and butterflies indicating that closely related butterflies become more generalist in the resources used. These processes occurred without any detectable change in species richness of plants or butterflies along the gradient of arable land. The structural properties of ecosystems are experiencing substantial erosion, with potentially pervasive effects on ecosystem functions and future evolutionary trajectories. Loss of interacting species might trigger cascading extinction events and reduce the stability of trophic interactions, as well as influence the longer term resilience of ecosystem functions. This underscores a growing realization that species richness is a crude and insensitive metric and that both functional and phylogenetic associations, measured across multiple trophic levels, are likely to provide additional and deeper insights into the resilience of ecosystems and the functions they provide.

  • 170. Danaei, Goodarz
    et al.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Rashidian, Arash
    Rouhani, Omid M.
    Ahmadnia, Shirin
    Ahmadvand, Alireza
    Arabi, Mandana
    Ardalan, Ali
    Arhami, Mohammad
    Azizi, Mohammad Hossein
    Bahadori, Moslem
    Baumgartner, Jill
    Beheshtian, Arash
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Doshmangir, Leila
    Haghdoost, Ali Akbar
    Haghshenas, Rosa
    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza
    Islami, Farhad
    Kamangar, Farin
    Khalili, Davood
    Madani, Kaveh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Imperial College London, UK.
    Masoumi-Asl, Hossein
    Mazyaki, Ali
    Mirchi, Ali
    Moradi, Ehsan
    Nayernouri, Touraj
    Niemeier, Debbie
    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
    Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani
    Rezaei, Nazila
    Shahraz, Saeid
    Takian, Amirhossein
    Tootee, Ali
    Ezzati, Majid
    Jamshidi, Hamid Reza
    Larijani, Bagher
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Iran in transition2019In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 393, no 10184, p. 1984-2005Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physicians with great contributions to the advancement of science, environmental and ecological changes in addition to large-scale natural disasters, epidemics of multiple communicable diseases, and the shift towards non-communicable diseases in recent decades. Given the lessons learnt from political instabilities in the past centuries and the approaches undertaken to overcome health challenges at the time, Iran has emerged as it is today. Iran is now a country with a population exceeding 80 million, mainly inhabiting urban regions, and has an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, malignancies, mental disorders, substance abuse, and road injuries.

  • 171.
    Danielsson, Emelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Crossing borders, creating boundaries: Identity making of the Angolan diaspora residing in the border town of Rundu, northern Namibia2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Bachelor’s thesis explores the relationship between borders, boundaries and migration, and their effect on identity making from a diasporic perspective. The study focuses on notions of national, regional, cultural, tribal and ethnic identity, and set in relation to the influence borders and boundarieshave on these processes. It investigates this topical realm within the specific conditions of the Angolan-Namibian border, following the developments from the era of colonization, independence struggle and decolonization and the transformation of Angola and Namibia into self-asserting and sovereign states, in which it focuses on the identity making of the Angolan diaspora residing in the border town of Rundu, northern Namibia. In doing so, it sets out to investigate the connection between macro variables and processes such as colonialism, the Cold War in Africa, and independence movements, to micro processes focusing on the living conditions and experiences of border residents. The study aims at a holistic approach drawing from theoretical developments within border and boundary studies stemming from disciplines such as political geography and anthropology, along with migration studies and social psychology. The results suggest that differing dominant conditions of the Angolan and Namibian states in terms of historical and political development, living conditions and the manifestation of the border and political assertion of the nation-states, has indeed helped to inform and construct different social categories and identities. In terms of the Angolan diaspora, the results indicate that migrants acquiring Namibian citizenships and thereby rights, did redefine their national identity to a greater extent than those denied documentation as their agency has become curtailed, leaving this group in an identity-limbo. The main contribution of this study is an investigation of what the border-migration-identity nexus means in terms of the Angolan diaspora and the Kavango region.

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  • 172. Davtalab, Rahman
    et al.
    Mirchi, Ali
    Khatami, Sina
    Gyawali, Rabi
    Massah, Alireza
    Farajzadeh, Manuchehr
    Madani, Kaveh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Imperial College London, U.K..
    Improving Continuous Hydrologic Modeling of Data-Poor River Basins Using Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrologic Modeling System: Case Study of Karkheh River Basin2017In: Journal of hydrologic engineering, ISSN 1084-0699, E-ISSN 1943-5584, Vol. 22, no 8, article id 05017011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies HEC-HMS to the Karkheh River basin (KRB), Iran, and facilitates the calibration of a continuous hydrologic model (CHM) with soil moisture accounting (SMA) and snowmelt degree-day parameters. Manual calibration was performed to ensure the physical relevance of HEC-HMS parameter values. Because manual calibration entails changing each parameter value in a user-defined setting, it is often a time-consuming procedure complicated by multitude of interacting parameters. To address this setback, an event-based calibration technique (EBCT) was implemented in KRB and its interior sub-basins whereby the governing parameters of specific fall, spring, and winter events were initially estimated in a precalibration step and used as inputs to facilitate calibration of the CHM. Model performance analyzed based on goodness-of-fit criteria with respect to peak flows, low flows, and hydrograph shape reflects uncertainties associated with streamflow naturalization and use of average annual parameter values for the snowmelt component. Sensitivity analysis provided insights into the basin's snowfall and melt characteristics, distinguishing antecedent temperature index (ATI) cold rate coefficient and baseflow recession coefficient as key parameters affecting hydrograph shape and magnitude of the peak flow, respectively. Results based on goodness of fit metrics suggest that event-based parameter estimation using seasonal characteristics improved the efficiency and accuracy of the continuous HEC-HMS model (CORRL and NSE 0.78-0.87 and 0.5-0.7, respectively) while facilitating application to a large, data-poor river basin with heterogeneous climatic conditions.

  • 173.
    Dawson, Lucas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Unravelling Sustainability: The complex dynamics of emergent environmental governance and management systems at multiple scales2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis adopts a complex systems approach to investigate the dynamic emergence of sustainable environmental governance and management systems in multiple contexts in Europe. Accelerating rates of environmental degradation across the world have called the legitimacy of previous environmental governance and management arrangements into question. Top-down, linear optimisation approaches have failed to account for the inherent complexity of social-ecological systems, upon which human society is entirely reliant for long-term survival. Systemic interdependence between ecological and human systems underscores the “wicked” nature of environmental problems, which are characterised by multi-dimensional values and competing interests among stakeholders and actors at multiple levels and across divergent spatial and temporal scales. Sustainability objectives therefore mandate the evolution of new environmental governance and management systems that are capable of engaging with complexity and dynamism. Employing a methodology based on comprehensive literature assessment, case studies and qualitative systems modelling methods, this thesis clearly identifies the structurally complex systems within which studied environmental governance and management arrangements took place. However, the degree to which these systems indicated the emergence of integrated and/or adaptive approaches, proposed by recent sustainability theories, was more uneven across governance levels and contexts. Key constraints related to the continued dominance of top-down institutional and regulatory frameworks, the availability of adequate inputs (primarily financial) for new approaches and initiatives, socio-cultural influences, and to the complexity and concomitant uncertainty of social-ecological system dynamics. Identified opportunities from across cases related to supra-national institutions, a shift of value preferences amongst stakeholders, and the perverse opportunities arising from chronic environmental degradation and/or acute social/ecological crises. Strategies enabling emergent governance and management approaches included strengthening the legitimacy of new actors, actively managing and integrating the perceptions of stakeholders, learning by doing and sharing, and recruiting and enabling active, hybridised leadership. Importantly, key constraints and opportunities remain largely out of reach for actors and stakeholders at lower levels. Feedback mechanisms by which bottom-up initiatives can influence higher level institutional development are lacking, poorly understood, or are dominated by long delays. These dynamics impede sustainability transitions.

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  • 174.
    Dawson, Lucas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Angelstam, Per
    Gordon, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Governance and management dynamics of landscape restoration at multiple scales: Learning from successful environmental managers in Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 197, p. 24-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to a long history of intensive land and water use, habitat networks for biodiversity conservation are generally degraded in Sweden. Landscape restoration (LR) is an important strategy for achieving representative and functional green infrastructures. However, outcomes of LR efforts are poorly studied, particularly the dynamics of LR governance and management. We apply systems thinking methods to a series of LR case studies to analyse the causal structures underlying LR governance and management in Sweden. We show that these structures appear to comprise of an interlinked system of at least three sets of drivers and four core processes. This system exhibits many characteristics of a transformative change towards an integrated, adaptive approach to governance and management. Key challenges for Swedish LR projects relate to institutional and regulatory flexibility, the timely availability of sufficient funds, and the management of learning and knowledge production processes. In response, successful project leaders develop several key strategies to manage complexity and risk, and enhance perceptions of the attractiveness of LR projects.

  • 175.
    Dawson, Lucas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Schellens, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Shkaruba, Anton
    Angelstam, Per
    Bogs, Birds and Berries in Belarus: the multi-scale dynamics of wetlands sustainability initiatives in a top-down contextManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetlands are complex social-ecological systems, which provide both important habitat for species, and multiple ecosystem services for people. This diversity of perspectives places new demands on multi-level and multi-sector participation in governance and management arrangements for conservation, sustainable use and restoration. How can sustainable wetlands be achieved and managed in strong top-down governance contexts, such as in former Soviet republics? Using three case studies relating to wetland restoration (bogs), conservation (birds) and wild food production (berries) in Belarus, this study employs a complex systems approach to analyse core governance and management processes underpinning wetlands sustainability initiatives in Belarus. We identified five processes, viz. adequacy of plans and planning processes, garnering stakeholder support, the adequacy of several types of key inputs, management of activity rates, and the integration of adaptive learning and knowledge cycles. Although path dependent societal dynamics of the (post-)Soviet era continue to influence wetland systems, windows of opportunity precipitated the emergence of active participation among non-governmental actors. Major opportunities were identification of confluences of interest amongst stakeholders, as well as continued mutual integration of Belarus with the international community. Key constraints concerned institutional hierarchies, onerous regulations, “negativism”, and financing difficulties. Key strategies relating to perception management, risk mitigation, and learning are identified for reinforcing positive feedback loops relating to core processes.

  • 176.
    Dawson, Lucas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Persson, Klas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Balfors, Berit
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Impacts of the water framework directive on learning and knowledge practices in a Swedish catchment2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 223, p. 731-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Catchments are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple, and often competing, interests. Water governance and management regimes are increasingly embracing pluralistic, participatory, and holistic norms as a means to engage with issues of complexity, uncertainty, and value-conflicts. Integrated, participatory approaches are theoretically linked to improved learning amongst stakeholders across sectors and decision-making that is grounded in shared knowledge, experiences and scientific evidence. However, few studies have empirically examined the impacts of an integrated approach to learning and knowledge practices related to water resources. Here, a Swedish sub-catchment that has adopted such an approach in association with implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is examined. Interview-based analyses show that WFD implementation has both helped and hindered learning and knowledge practices surrounding both water planning and spatial planning. Whilst communities of practice have developed in the study area, a number of important challenges remain. These include the rigid goal-orientation of the WFD, the fragmentation of knowledge caused by an over-reliance on external consultants, as well as a lack of resources to synthesise information from multiple sources. Present results raise questions regarding the efficacy of the WFD to sufficiently enable the development of learning and knowledge practices capable of handling the complexity, uncertainties and value-conflicts facing catchments in Sweden and elsewhere.

  • 177.
    de Boer, Agatha M.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pascual-Ahuir, Estanislao Gavilan
    Stevens, David P.
    Chafik, Léon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Hutchinson, David K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sime, Louise C.
    Willmott, Andrew J.
    Interconnectivity Between Volume Transports Through Arctic Straits2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 123, no 12, p. 8714-8729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic heat and freshwater budgets are highly sensitive to volume transports through the Arctic-Subarctic straits. Here we study the interconnectivity of volume transports through Arctic straits in three models; two coupled global climate models, one with a third-degree horizontal ocean resolution (High Resolution Global Environmental Model version 1.1 [HiGEM1.1]) and one with a twelfth-degree horizontal ocean resolution (Hadley Centre Global Environment Model 3 [HadGEM3]), and one ocean-only model with an idealized polar basin (tenth-degree horizontal resolution). The two global climate models indicate that there is a strong anticorrelation between the Bering Strait throughflow and the transport through the Nordic Seas, a second strong anticorrelation between the transport through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the Nordic Seas transport, and a third strong anticorrelation is found between the Fram Strait and the Barents Sea throughflows. We find that part of the strait correlations is due to the strait transports being coincidentally driven by large-scale atmospheric forcing patterns. However, there is also a role for fast wave adjustments of some straits flows to perturbations in other straits since atmospheric forcing of individual strait flows alone cannot lead to near mass balance fortuitously every year. Idealized experiments with an ocean model (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean version 3.6) that investigate such causal strait relations suggest that perturbations in the Bering Strait are compensated preferentially in the Fram Strait due to the narrowness of the western Arctic shelf and the deeper depth of the Fram Strait. Plain Language Summary The Arctic is one of the most fragile places on the Earth, facing double the rate of warming as the rest of the globe. This warming is partly due to melting of sea ice because open water reflects less sunlight than ice. One of the major controls on Arctic sea ice concentration is the heat flowing into the Arctic through its straits. However, due to the harsh conditions in the Arctic, there are limited long-term observations of the currents flowing through these straits. Here we turn to climate models to investigate these Arctic straits flows and in particular focus on how flows into and out of the Arctic balance each other. We find that in some instances specific pairs of strait flows are simultaneously affected by large-scale atmospheric. In other instances, the inflow through one strait flows out through another distant strait because of the way the ocean floor guides the currents. Traditionally, the flows through Arctic straits are studied in relation to local forces such as wind and sea level. Our work suggests value in a more holistic approach; one that also accounts for flow changes in a strait as a response to flow changes in other straits.

  • 178. De Frenne, P.
    et al.
    Blondeel, H.
    Brunet, J.
    Caron, M. M.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Cougnon, M.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm Univ, Biogeog & Geomat, Dept Phys Geog, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Decocq, G.
    Diekmann, M.
    Graae, B. J.
    Hanley, M. E.
    Heinken, T.
    Hermy, M.
    Kolb, A.
    Lenoir, J.
    Liira, J.
    Orczewska, A.
    Shevtsova, A.
    Vanneste, T.
    Verheyen, K.
    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition on petals enhances seed quality of the forest herb Anemone nemorosa2018In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 619-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated atmospheric input of nitrogen (N) is currently affecting plant biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The growth and survival of numerous plant species is known to respond strongly to N fertilisation. Yet, few studies have assessed the effects of N deposition on seed quality and reproductive performance, which is an important life-history stage of plants. Here we address this knowledge gap by assessing the effects of atmospheric N deposition on seed quality of the ancient forest herb Anemone nemorosa using two complementary approaches. By taking advantage of the wide spatiotemporal variation in N deposition rates in pan-European temperate and boreal forests over 2years, we detected positive effects of N deposition on the N concentration (percentage N per unit seed mass, increased from 2.8% to 4.1%) and N content (total N mass per seed more than doubled) of A.nemorosa seeds. In a complementary experiment, we applied ammonium nitrate to aboveground plant tissues and the soil surface to determine whether dissolved N sources in precipitation could be incorporated into seeds. Although the addition of N to leaves and the soil surface had no effect, a concentrated N solution applied to petals during anthesis resulted in increased seed mass, seed N concentration and N content. Our results demonstrate that N deposition on the petals enhances bioaccumulation of N in the seeds of A.nemorosa. Enhanced atmospheric inputs of N can thus not only affect growth and population dynamics via root or canopy uptake, but can also influence seed quality and reproduction via intake through the inflorescences.

  • 179. De Frenne, Pieter
    et al.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Cougnon, Mathias
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Graae, Bente J.
    Hagenblad, Jenny
    Hermy, Martin
    Kolb, Annette
    Lemke, Isgard H.
    Ma, Shiyu
    Orczewska, Anna
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Vranckx, Guy
    Wulf, Monika
    Verheyen, Kris
    Biological Flora of the British Isles: Milium effusum2017In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 839-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. This account presents information on all aspects of the biology of Milium effusum L. (Wood Millet) that are relevant to understanding its ecological characteristics and behaviour. The main topics are presented within the standard framework of the Biological Flora of the British Isles: distribution, habitat, communities, responses to biotic factors, responses to environment, structure and physiology, phenology, floral and seed characters, herbivores and disease, history, and conservation.

    2. The grass Milium effusum is a common species of mature woodland in central and southern England, but is less common in the wetter parts of northern England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. Worldwide, the species is native to many temperate, boreal, subarctic and subalpine parts of the northern hemisphere: from eastern North America across most of Europe (excluding Mediterranean climates) to the Ural Mountains and Black Sea, extending eastwards to the Himalaya, Korea and Japan.

    3. Wood Millet is a shade-tolerant, relatively tall grass (up to 1.8 m) producing up to 700 caryopses per individual. It is characteristic of temperate deciduous woodland, but can also occur in other woodland and forest types and even in scrub, alpine meadows, along railways and roads, and on rocks. In woods, it is one of the most conspicuous plants of the herb layer in the early summer after the disappearance of spring flowering species. While the species is generally considered an ancient woodland indicator in England and western Europe, it is also known to colonize secondary, post-agricultural forests relatively rapidly in other areas such as Denmark, southern Sweden and Poland.

    4. The species has a wide amplitude in terms of soil acidity and nutrient availability, but predominantly grows on soils of intermediate soil fertility and soil pH and with high organic matter concentration. However, M. effusum can tolerate large quantities of tree-leaf litter on the forest floor and is able to grow on very acidic soils.

    5. Changes in land use, climate, densities of large herbivores and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen are having effects on populations of Wood Millet. Significant responses of the life-history traits and population characteristics have been detected in response to environmental variation and to experimental treatments of temperature, nutrients, light and acidity. In many of its habitats across its range, M. effusum is currently becoming more frequent. During the last century, its mean elevation of occurrence in upland areas of Europe has also increased by several hundreds of metres. Typically, management actions are directed towards the conservation of its main habitat type (e.g. ancient woodlands of the Milio-Fagetum association) rather than to the species specifically.

  • 180.
    de Haan, Vincent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The Effects of Erosion-control Structures and Gully Erosion on Groundwater Dynamics Along the Kromrivier, Eastern Cape, South Africa2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Palmiet wetlands located along the Kromrivier in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa have experienced severe degradation through gully erosion during the past decennia which has been threatening the water quality and water security of large towns in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan hub. Water scarcity is a growing problem in this region as a result of land degradation and growing erratic rainfall patterns. The main causes of wetland degradation are argued to be land use and land cover change. With the aim of protecting the wetlands along the Kromrivier a total of eleven large gabion and concrete erosion-control structures were constructed between the 2002 and 2013 by the government initiate Working for Wetlands.

    This study aims to map the groundwater table in order to derive how erosion-control structures and gully erosion affect groundwater dynamics along the Kromrivier. This was achieved by several steps. Firstly, water table elevations were measured along several transects by installing a series of piezometers which allowed do investigate how the structures affected the water table. This also allowed for a comparison in groundwater dynamics between eroded and non-eroded reaches so that effects of gully erosion could be identified and potential causes discussed. Secondly, the analysis of aerial images allowed for the development of the aerial extent of the Palmiet wetland and gullies to be seen over a ten year period and longitudinal profiles provided specific characteristics of the wetland and gullies. Lastly, particle size distribution and organic matter content were analyzed as groundwater flow and gully erosion can vary greatly depending on soil characteristics.

    The hydraulic gradient was highest in proximity to the structures as a result of the created potential induced by the drop in surface water elevation. The radius of influence to where the structures were affected the water table was estimated to be approximately 40 m from the channel. Further away from the channel, the gradual slope of the water table indicated that the porous gabion side walls of the structures did not affect the water table. The groundwater flow is determined by Darcy's Law and the relatively flat water table along the non-eroded reaches of site A displayed local drainage points, thereby indicating variations in the local flow direction. In May the water table along the non-eroded reaches was sloping away from the channel resulting in an area of groundwater discharge with respect to the channel. Not only was the water table generally higher during August, the regime had also changed, indicating a potentially large seasonal variability. Along the eroded reaches downstream from the structures the water table was above the gully bottom during both months resulting in an area of groundwater recharge with respect to the channel. Also here the regime had changed from an approximately constant hydraulic gradient sloping towards the channel during May to a water table with a divide in flow direction.

    Since their implementation in 2003, the structures have been effective with respect to preventing the headcut in the main channel from migrating further upstream. However, the gullies downstream of the structures had significantly increased in width between 2003 and 2013 and the Palmiet wetland had also slightly decreased in size during the same period. However, it was unclear whether this decrease was part of the longer term ongoing trend or part of a shorter term cycle and/or seasonal fluctuation. For a gully bank to collapse, the shear strength of the slip surface needs to be exceeded and this often occurs because of an increase in pore water pressurewhich causes a reduction in shear strength. A large gully height of up to 4 m with nearly vertical slopes, a water table above the gully bottom and an increase in moisture content between May and August indicated that it is not unlikely that a high pore water pressure. played a significant role in the slumping of the gully walls.

    The two structures together were responsible for an surface water elevation difference of 7.76 m. Through damming this resulted in an elevated water table in the upstream Palmiet wetland, thereby increasing the saturation and promoting diffuse flow across the wetland. However, the structures also trap most of the sediment in upstream direction which appears to have resulted in the de-stabilization of the downstream streambed at site A as these eroded reaches now receive a significantly lower sediment load. By increasing the retention volume in the wetland, the structures also facilitated in ensuring flood retention as the wetland could now hold more water during high flows, thereby cutting off the peak flow. As gully erosion is known to occur during periods of high flow it is not unreasonable to argue that slumping of the gully walls would have been more severe without the structures in place. In this sense the structures increase the water quality and decrease the flux of sediment where the latter leads to a decrease in the sedimentation rate of the downstream Churchill Dam. Consequently, this contributes to securing the fresh water supply to towns in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan hub.

    The discovery of Palmiet rests up to 2.6 m below the surface indicated that cycles of gully erosion followed by the re-establishment of Palmiet have been occurring in this valley for thousands of years. However, it seemed that land use and land cover changes had accelerated gully erosion during the past decades resulting in a loss of Palmiet wetland at a rate which was beyond 'natural'. Even though the structures could be seen as disruptions of long term natural cycles, they are in favor of the well-being of mankind as they protect the wetlands to a certain extent. The main results of this study provided a basic understanding of how the water table behaves in response to the structures and along eroded and non-eroded reaches of the Kromrivier. Furthermore, this study discussed the larger scale affects of the structures and showed how the gullies and the aerial extent of the Palmiet wetland have evolved since the implementation of the structures in 2003. In order to manage these Palmiet wetlands more effectively in the future, it is highly important that groundwater dynamics, gully erosion and the size and health of the wetland are annually monitored in order to get a more accurate idea of how effective these structures are. This new obtained knowledge could also assist in managing other peat lands in South Africa more effectively. 

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  • 181.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Inclusive Management Through Gender Consideration in Small-Scale Fisheries: The Why and the How2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 156Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world in which ocean degradation is widespread and aggravated by the effects of climate change, there is a need to contribute with new management approaches to ameliorate the situation. Here, inclusive management is proposed as such an alternative. This contribution argues that including all genders in the management process is needed and the inclusion itself can generate new ways to solve problems. An assessment of findings from literature of the positive aspects when considering gender in environmental governance is presented and related to the specific situation of small-scale fisheries (SSF). These positive findings are explained in terms of (1) Participation, (2) Space, actors and activities, (3) Economic power, and (4) Equity and environmental stewardship. Further, a practical approach is taken and a model for gender inclusion in coastal/ocean management for SSF is presented and illustrated with a case of seagrass SSF in East Africa. The central argument is that in view of ongoing coastal/ocean degradation and the moderate governance and management success, it is worth trying management approaches that consciously and explicitly consider gender and diversity of actors. This will bring central actors (e.g., women not previously considered) into the management process and will provide the base for better governance and policy reform.

  • 182.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fröcklin, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Börjesson, Sanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Okupnik, Janine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    Gender analysis for better coastal management - Increasing our understanding of social-ecological seascapes2017In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 83, p. 62-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although highly recognized as needed, studies linking gender and coastal/marine management are scarce. This research illustrates the importance of gender analysis in natural resource management by linking gender and coastal management i.e. Marine Spatial Planning. The research was conducted in various Zanzibar seascapes (Unguja Island, Tanzania). Using a typology comprising gender structure, symbolism and identity; the results show a clear gendered division of labor, highly associated with a gender symbolism in which traditional roles of women as responsible for reproduction activities played a major role. Men used the whole seascape for their activities, while women remained in coastal forests and shallow areas collecting wood, invertebrates and farming seaweed. These activities allowed women to combine productive and reproductive work. Ecosystem importance for subsistence decreased with distance from land for both genders, while the importance for income increased with distance for men. Both genders acknowledged seagrasses as very important for income. Income closely followed the universal pattern of men earning more. Identities were defined by traditional ideas like women are housewives, while men identities were strongly associated with fisheries with reinforced masculinity. Livelihood diversity was higher for women also showing a tendency of slow change into other roles. Management was found to be strongly androcentric, revealing a deep gender inequality. The research exemplifies how a gender analysis can be conducted for management enhancement. It also invites replication around the world. If management is found to be androcentric in coastal locations elsewhere, a serious gender inequality can be at hand at global level.

  • 183. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Berg, Matty P.
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Brunet, Jorg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Diekmann, Martin
    Giffard, Brice
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Hermy, Martin
    Bonte, Dries
    Verheyen, Kris
    Desiccation resistance determines distribution of woodlice along forest edge-to-interior gradients2018In: European journal of soil biology, ISSN 1164-5563, E-ISSN 1778-3615, Vol. 85, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest edges show strong abiotic and biotic gradients potentially altering community composition and ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. While abiotic gradients are well studied, short-scale biotic gradients, like detritivore species composition and their associated trait distribution remains a poorly explored research-field. We sampled woodlice in 160 forest patches across Europe at varying distances from the forest edge and discovered that species desiccation resistance determines distribution along forest edge-to-interior gradients. Forest edges are warmer and dryer compared to interiors and favour drought-tolerant species, while abundance and activity of drought-sensitive species is reduced at the edge. Key ecological factors for litter-dwelling detritivores (i.e. humidity) act as environmental filter, because of species-specific differences in desiccation resistance. Future research should focus on quantifying the consequences of a changing detritivore community and their associated functional traits for nutrient cycling.

  • 184. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Brunet, Jorg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Deconchat, Marc
    Diekman, Martin
    Giffard, Brice
    Kalda, Oliver
    Liira, Jaan
    Paal, Taavi
    Wulf, Monika
    Hermy, Martin
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest edges reduce slug (but not snail) activity-density across Western Europe2019In: Pedobiologia, ISSN 0031-4056, E-ISSN 1873-1511, Vol. 75, p. 34-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmentation strongly shapes the distribution of organisms within forest patches through contrasting environmental conditions between the edge and interior habitat. Edge-to-interior distribution patterns are, however, poorly studied for litter- and soil-dwelling fauna, such as terrestrial gastropods, despite their high densities and significant impact on ecosystem processes, as both herbivores and detritivores. Therefore, we investigated edge-to-interior abundance patterns of terrestrial gastropods in 224 fragmented forest patches across Western Europe. Catching over 15,000 gastropods, we found that slug abundance is reduced in forest edges, while snail abundance shows no response on the edge effect. We hypothesize that these patterns could be explained by higher drought tolerance of snails, since forest edges have reduced air and soil humidity and elevated temperatures compared to forest interiors. Reduced slug abundance in forest edges potentially has ecological consequences for herbivory in and outside forest patches and nutrient cycling.

  • 185. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Proesmans, Willem
    Berg, Matty P.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Deconchat, Marc
    Diekmann, Martin
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Giffard, Brice
    Liira, Jaan
    Martin, Ludmilla
    Ooms, Astra
    Valdés, Alicia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Jules Verne University of Picardie, France.
    Wulf, Monika
    Hermy, Martin
    Bonte, Dries
    Verheyen, Kris
    Linking macrodetritivore distribution to desiccation resistance in small forest fragments embedded in agricultural landscapes in Europe2018In: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 407-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the agricultural landscape in Europe, and elsewhere, consists of mosaics with scattered fragments of semi-natural habitat like small forest fragments. Mutual interactions between forest fragments and agricultural areas influence ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling, a process strongly mediated by the macrodetritivore community, which is however, poorly studied. We investigated macrodetritivore distribution patterns at local and landscape-level and used a key functional trait (desiccation resistance) to gain mechanistic insights of the putative drivers.

  • 186. De Smedt, Pallieter
    et al.
    Baeten, Lander
    Proesmans, Willem
    Van de Poel, Sam
    Van Keer, Johan
    Giffard, Brice
    Martin, Ludmilla
    Vanhulle, Rieneke
    Brunet, Jörg
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    Deconchat, Marc
    Diekmann, Martin
    Gallet-Moron, Emilie
    Le Roux, Vincent
    Liira, Jaan
    Valdés, Alicia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wulf, Monika
    Andrieu, Emilie
    Hermy, Martin
    Bonte, Dries
    Verheyen, Kris
    Strength of forest edge effects on litter-dwelling macro-arthropods across Europe is influenced by forest age and edge properties2019In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 963-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    Forests are highly fragmented across Western Europe, making forest edges important features in many agricultural landscapes. Forest edges are subject to strong abiotic gradients altering the forest environment and resulting in strong biotic gradients. This has the potential to change the forest's capacity to provide multiple ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration and natural pest control. Soil organisms play a key role in this perspective; however, these taxa are rarely considered in forest edge research.

    Location

    A latitudinal gradient of 2,000 km across Western Europe.

    Methods

    We sampled six dominant taxa of litter-dwelling macro-arthropods (carabid beetles, spiders, harvestmen, centipedes, millipedes and woodlice) in forest edges and interiors of 192 forest fragments in 12 agricultural landscapes. We related their abundance and community composition to distance from the edge and the interaction with forest age, edge orientation and edge contrast (contrast between land use types at either side of the edge).

    Results

    Three out of six macro-arthropod taxa have higher activity-density in forest edges compared to forest interiors. The abundance patterns along forest edge-to-interior gradients interacted with forest age. Forest age and edge orientation also influenced within-fragment compositional variation along the forest edge-to-interior gradient. Edge contrast influenced abundance gradients of generalist predators. In general, older forest fragments, south-oriented edges and edges along structurally more continuous land use (lower contrast between forest and adjacent land use) resulted in stronger edge-to-interior gradients while recent forests, north-oriented edges and sharp land use edges induced similarity between forest edge and interior along the forest edge-to-interior gradients in terms of species activity-density and composition.

    Main conclusions

    Edge effects on litter-dwelling macro-arthropods are anticipated to feedback on important ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration and natural pest control from small forest fragments.

  • 187.
    Deleu, Romain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Université de Namur, Département de Géologie.
    Hydrology of the karstic basin of Sprimont, Belgium: On the use of spectrofluorimetry and pharmaceutical substances as a supporting tool for hydrochemistry analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The strong variation in carbonate content of the geological formations in the basin of Sprimont, Belgium, implies different groundwater behaviours in the substratum. The existence of carbonated materials such as limestone is responsible for the existence of a well-developed karstic system restricted to the Carboniferous materials which has a strong impact on the local hydrology and hydrogeology. Surface streams lose through local sinkholes to resurface at the spring of Trou Bleu, the only outlet of the basin and the drainage point of local aquifers. The study focuses on the assessment of existing links between surface losing streams and the spring, and on the tracing of any anthropogenic contamination, by using hydrochemical parameters (major ions, nitrogen forms, organic carbon…), isotopic compositions (δ15N-NO3, δ18O-NO3 and δ11B), pharmaceutical substances (caffeine, paracetamol…) and natural fluorescence as tools. Results strongly support each other regarding evidences of sewage contamination and agriculture and livestock farming waste occurrence in the basin, while reflecting the strong heterogeneity of landuse as observed on-site. Previous knowledge on hydrological dynamics is supported by collected data and reinforced by stream-by-stream discussions and estimate of the relative contribution of each surface streams to the spring water composition.

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  • 188. Delmonte, Barbara
    et al.
    Winton, Holly
    Baroni, Melanie
    Baccolo, Giovanni
    Hansson, Margareta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Per
    Baroni, Carlo
    Salvatore, Maria Cristina
    Lanci, Luca
    Maggi, Valter
    Holocene dust in East Antarctica: Provenance and variability in time and space2020In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 546-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the state-of-knowledge of dust flux and variability in time and space in different sectors of East Antarctica during the Holocene. By integrating the literature data with new evidences, we discuss the dust flux and grain-size variability during the current interglacial and its provenance in the innermost part of the East Antarctic plateau as well as in peripheral regions located close to the Transantarctic Mountains. The local importance of aeolian mineral dust aerosol deflated from low-elevation areas of peripheral East Antarctica is also discussed in the light of new data from several coastal, low-elevation sites.

  • 189.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Numerical modeling of groundwater and air flow between compacted bentonite and fractured crystalline rock2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The geological repository for final storage of spent nuclear fuel, envisioned by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Management Company (SKB), relies on several barriers: copper canisters deposited in holes in the floor of underground tunnels in deep bedrock, embedded in a buffer of compacted bentonite. The initially unsaturated buffer would take up water from the surrounding rock mass and swell to seal any potential gap. This initial two-phase (gas and liquid) regime with two components (air and water) may impact the final density, swelling pressure and biogeochemical conditions in the buffer. A main objective of this work is to identify factors and mechanisms that govern deposition hole inflow and bentonite wetting under the prevailing two-phase flow conditions in sparsely fractured bedrock. For this purpose, we use the numerical code TOUGH2 to perform two-phase flow simulations, conditioned by a companion field experiment (the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment or BRIE) performed in a 417 m deep tunnel of the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in southeastern Sweden. The models predict a significant de-saturation of the rock wall, which was confirmed by field data. To predict the early buffer wetting rates and patterns, the position of local flowing fractures and estimates of local rock matrix permeability appear more important than the total open hole groundwater inflow. A global sensitivity analysis showed that the buffer wetting time and the persistence of unsaturated conditions over extended periods of time in the rock depend primarily on the local fracture positions, rock matrix permeability, ventilation conditions in the tunnel and pressure far in the rock. Dismantling photographs from BRIE were used to reconstruct a fine-scale snapshot of saturation at the bentonite/rock interface, showing tremendous spatial variability. The high level of heterogeneity in the rock generates complex two-phase flow phenomena (air trapping, dissolution), which need to be accounted for in buffer design and rock suitability criteria. In particular, results suggest that uncertainties regarding two-phase flow behavior are relatively high close to residual air saturation, which may also have important implications for other applications involving two-phase flows, such as geological storage of carbon dioxide.

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    Numerical modeling of groundwater and
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  • 190.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frampton, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fransson, A.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Modeling early in situ wetting of a compacted bentonite buffer installed in low permeable crystalline bedrock2016In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 6207-6221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The repository concept for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and Finland is planned to be constructed in sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock and with an engineered bentonite buffer to embed the waste canisters. An important stage in such a deep repository is the postclosure phase following the deposition and the backfilling operations when the initially unsaturated buffer material gets hydrated by the groundwater delivered by the natural bedrock. We use numerical simulations to interpret observations on buffer wetting gathered during an in situ campaign, the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment, in which unsaturated bentonite columns were introduced into deposition holes in the floor of a 417 m deep tunnel at the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. Our objectives are to assess the performance of state-of-the-art flow models in reproducing the buffer wetting process and to investigate to which extent dependable predictions of buffer wetting times and saturation patterns can be made based on information collected prior to buffer insertion. This would be important for preventing insertion into unsuitable bedrock environments. Field data and modeling results indicate the development of a de-saturated zone in the rock and show that in most cases, the presence or absence of fractures and flow heterogeneity are more important factors for correct wetting predictions than the total inflow. For instance, for an equal open-hole inflow value, homogeneous inflow yields much more rapid buffer wetting than cases where fractures are represented explicitly thus creating heterogeneous inflow distributions.

  • 191.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frampton, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    A global sensitivity analysis of two-phase flow between fractured crystalline rock and bentonite with application to spent nuclear fuel disposal2015In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 182, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep crystalline rock is investigated as a possible long term solution in Sweden and Finland. The fuel rods would be cased in copper canisters and deposited in vertical holes in the floor of deep underground tunnels, embedded within an engineered bentonite buffer. Recent experiments at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (Sweden) showed that the high suction of unsaturated bentonite causes a de-saturation of the adjacent rock at the time of installation, which was also independently predicted in model experiments. Remaining air can affect the flow patterns and alter bio-geochemical conditions, influencing for instance the transport of radionuclides in the case of canister failure. However, thus far, observations and model realizations are limited in number and do not capture the conceivable range and combination of parameter values and boundary conditions that are relevant for the thousands of deposition holes envisioned in an operational final repository.

    In order to decrease this knowledge gap, we introduce here a formalized, systematic and fully integrated approach to study the combined impact of multiple factors on air saturation and dissolution predictions, investigating the impact of variability in parameter values, geometry and boundary conditions on bentonite buffer saturation times and on occurrences of rock de-saturation. Results showed that four parameters consistently appear in the top six influential factors for all considered output (target) variables: the position of the fracture intersecting the deposition hole, the background rock permeability, the suction representing the relative humidity in the open tunnel and the far field pressure value. The combined influence of these compared to the other parameters increases as one targets a larger fraction of the buffer reaching near-saturation. Strong interaction effects were found, which means that some parameter combinations yielded results (e.g., time to saturation) far outside the range of results obtained by the rest of the scenarios. This study also addresses potential air trapping by dissolution of part of the initial air content of the bentonite, showing that neglecting gas flow effects and trapping could lead to significant underestimation of the remaining air content and the duration of the initial aerobic phase of the repository.

  • 192.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Frampton, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Impact of near-wall rock characteristics on bentonite buffer wetting: In situ study of nuclear fuel deposition holes in deep bedrockManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Åkesson, Mattias
    Lanyon, Bill
    Frampton, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Reconstruction of the water content at an interface between compacted bentonite blocks and fractured crystalline bedrock2017In: Applied Clay Science, ISSN 0169-1317, E-ISSN 1872-9053, Vol. 142, p. 145-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-density sodium bentonite combines a low permeability with a swelling behavior, which constitute two important qualities for engineered barriers in geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. For example, the KBS-3V method developed in Sweden and Finland is planned to include compacted bentonite as the buffer material to embed canisters containing the spent nuclear fuel packages in deposition holes in deep crystalline bedrock. The partially saturated bentonite buffer will then swell as it takes up groundwater from the surrounding rock. It is important to quantify the water content evolution of the installed buffer to correctly predict the development of the swelling pressure and the prevailing conditions (thermal, mechanical, chemical and biological). This study aimed at quantifying the water content profile at the surface of a cylindrical bentonite parcel retrieved after in situ wetting in fractured crystalline bedrock. We demonstrate the possibility of using regression-kriging to quantitatively include spatial information from high-resolution photographs of the retrieved bentonite parcel, where more water saturated areas appear as relatively dark shades, along with bentonite samples, where detailed measurements of water content were performed. The resulting reconstruction is both exact regarding local sample measurements and successful to reproduce features such as intersecting rock fracture traces, visible in the photographs. This level of detail is a key step to gain a deeper understanding of the hydraulic behavior of compacted bentonite barriers in sparsely fractured rock. An improved scanning procedure could further increase the accuracy by reducing errors introduced by the geometrical transformations needed to unfold and stitch the different photographs into a single gray scale map of the bentonite surface. The application of this technique could provide more insights to ongoing and planned experiments with unsaturated bentonite buffers.

  • 194.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Aral Sea Basin2016In: Handbook of Applied Hydrology / [ed] Vijay P. Singh, McGraw-Hill, 2016, 2. ed., p. 121.1-121.5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Augustsson, Anna
    Balfors, Berit
    Bring, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Johansson, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Sweden.
    Juston, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Levi, Lea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; University of Split, Croatia.
    Olofsson, Bo
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Quin, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Åström, Mats
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    Needs and means to advance science, policy and management understanding of the freshwater system – A synthesis report2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fragmented and inconsistent understanding of the freshwater system limits our ability to achieve water security and sustainability under the human-driven changes occurring in the Anthropocene. To advance system-level understanding of freshwater, gaps and inconsistencies in knowledge, data, representations and links of processes and subsystems need to be identified and bridged under consideration of the freshwater system as a continuous whole. 

    Based on such identification, a freshwater system conceptualization is developed in this report, which emphasizes four essential, yet often neglected system aspects:

    i) Distinction of coastal divergent catchments.

    ii) Four main zones (surface, subsurface, coastal, observation) of different types of freshwater change.

    iii) Water pathways as system-coupling agents that link and partition water change among the four change zones.

    iv) Direct interactions with the anthroposphere as integral system pathways across the change zones.

    We explain and exemplify some key implications of these aspects, identifying in the process also distinct patterns of human-driven changes in large-scale water fluxes and nutrient loads.

    The present conceptualization provides a basis for common inter- and trans-disciplinary understanding and systematic characterization of the freshwater system function and its changes, and of approaches to their modeling and monitoring. This can be viewed and used as a unifying checklist that can advance science, policy and management of freshwater and related environmental changes across various scales and world regions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    KLIV-Synthesis-WaterSystem
  • 196.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Fischer, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Water quality and ecosystem management: Data-driven reality check of effects in streams and lakes2017In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 6395-6406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates nutrient-related water quality conditions and change trends in the first management periods of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD; since 2009) and Baltic Sea Action Plan (BASP; since 2007). With mitigation of nutrients in inland waters and their discharges to the Baltic Sea being a common WFD and BSAP target, we use Sweden as a case study of observable effects, by compiling and analyzing all openly available water and nutrient monitoring data across Sweden since 2003. The data compilation reveals that nutrient monitoring covers only around 1% (down to 0.2% for nutrient loads) of the total number of WFD-classified stream and lake water bodies in Sweden. The data analysis further shows that the hydro-climatically driven water discharge dominates the determination of waterborne loads of both total phosphorus and total nitrogen across Sweden. Both water discharge and the related nutrient loads are in turn well correlated with the ecosystem status classification of Swedish water bodies. Nutrient concentrations do not exhibit such correlation and their changes over the study period are on average small, but concentration increases are found for moderate-to-bad status waters, for which both the WFD and the BSAP have instead targeted concentration decreases. In general, these results indicate insufficient distinction and mitigation of human-driven nutrient components in inland waters and their discharges to the sea by the internationally harmonized applications of the WFD and the BSAP. The results call for further comparative investigations of observable large-scale effects of such regulatory/management frameworks in different parts of the world.

  • 197.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Zones of untreatable water pollution call for better appreciation of mitigation limits and opportunities2018In: Wine Economics and Policy, ISSN 1934-5070, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 5, no 6, article id e1312Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This opinion piece addresses subsurface legacy sources and their role in mitigation of large-scale water pollution and eutrophication. We provide a mechanistic theoretical basis and concrete data-based exemplification of dominant contributions from such sources to total recipient loads. We specifically develop a diagnostic test to detect such contributions, recognizing that they are inaccessible and associated with long transport times that tend to evade detection when homogeneous catchment models are calibrated to typically heterogeneous catchments. Dominant legacy-source contributions are also in practice untreatable within the commonly short time frames given for compliance with environmental regulation. We therefore argue that, for considerable water quality improvements to be achieved within such short time frames, mitigation measures need to be spatially differentiated and directed to (sub)catchments without major legacy sources. The presented diagnostic test identifies dominant prevalence of such sources where there is linear temporal correlation between the nutrient/pollutant loads and the water discharges from a (sub)catchment. Confidence in this identification may be strengthened by independent quantification of long transport times and records of temporally extended presence of nutrient/pollutant sources in the same (sub)catchment.

  • 198.
    Destouni, Georgia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Robust Assessment of Uncertain Freshwater Changes: The Case of Greece with Large Irrigation-and Climate-Driven Runoff Decrease2018In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a data-driven approach to robustly assess freshwater changes due to climate change and/or human irrigation developments by use of the overarching constraints of catchment water balance. This is applied to and tested in the high-uncertainty case of Greece for five nested catchments of different scales across the country and for freshwater changes from an early period (1930-1949) with small human influences on climate and irrigation to a recent period (1990-2009) with expected greater such influences. The results show more or less equal contributions from climatic decrease in precipitation and from human irrigation development to a considerable total decrease in runoff (R) over Greece. This is on average -75 +/- 10 mm/year and is greatest for the Ionian catchment in the west (-119 +/- 18 mm/year) and the Peloponnese catchment in the south (-91 +/- 16 mm/year). For evapotranspiration (ET), a climate-driven decrease component and an irrigation-driven increase component have led to a net total increase of ET over Greece. This is on average 26 +/- 7 mm/year and is greatest for the Mainland catchment (29 +/- 7 mm/year) and the Aegean catchment in the east (28 +/- 6 mm/year). Overall, the resulting uncertainties in the water-balance constrained estimates of R and ET changes are smaller than the input data uncertainties.

  • 199. Di Baldassarre, Giuliano
    et al.
    Martinez, Fabian
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Viglione, Alberto
    Drought and flood in the Anthropocene: feedback mechanisms in reservoir operation2017In: Earth System Dynamics, ISSN 2190-4979, E-ISSN 2190-4987, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last few decades, numerous studies have investigated human impacts on drought and flood events, while conversely other studies have explored human responses to hydrological extremes. Yet, there is still little understanding about the dynamics resulting from their interplay, i.e. both impacts and responses. Current quantitative methods therefore can fail to assess future risk dynamics and, as a result, while risk reduction strategies built on these methods often work in the short term, they tend to lead to unintended consequences in the long term. In this paper, we review the puzzles and dynamics resulting from the interplay of society and hydrological extremes, and describe an initial effort to model hydrological extremes in the Anthropocene. In particular, we first discuss the need for a novel approach to explicitly account for human interactions with both drought and flood events, and then present a stylized model simulating the reciprocal effects between hydrological extremes and changing reservoir operation rules. Lastly, we highlight the unprecedented opportunity offered by the current proliferation of big data to unravel the coevolution of hydrological extremes and society across scales and along gradients of social and hydrological conditions.

  • 200. Ding, Jinzhi
    et al.
    Chen, Leiyi
    Ji, Chengjun
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stanford University, USA.
    Li, Yingnian
    Liu, Li
    Qin, Shuqi
    Zhang, Beibei
    Yang, Guibiao
    Li, Fei
    Fang, Kai
    Chen, Yongliang
    Peng, Yunfeng
    Zhao, Xia
    He, Honglin
    Smith, Pete
    Fang, Jingyun
    Yang, Yuanhe
    Decadal soil carbon accumulation across Tibetan permafrost regions2017In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 420-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Permafrost soils store large amounts of carbon. Warming can result in carbon release from thawing permafrost, but it can also lead to enhanced primary production, which can increase soil carbon stocks. The balance of these fluxes determines the nature of the permafrost feedback to warming. Here we assessed decadal changes in soil organic carbon stocks in the active layer-the uppermost 30 cm-of permafrost soils across Tibetan alpine regions, based on repeated soil carbon measurements in the early 2000s and 2010s at the same sites. We observed an overall accumulation of soil organic carbon irrespective of vegetation type, with a mean rate of 28.0 g Cm-2 yr(-1) across Tibetan permafrost regions. This soil organic carbon accrual occurred only in the subsurface soil, between depths of 10 and 30 cm, mainly induced by an increase of soil organic carbon concentrations. We conclude that the upper active layer of Tibetan alpine permafrost currently represents a substantial regional soil carbon sink in a warming climate, implying that carbon losses of deeper and older permafrost carbon might be offset by increases in upper-active-layer soil organic carbon stocks, which probably results from enhanced vegetation growth.

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