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  • 151. Sebba, Mark
    et al.
    Mahootian, Shahrzad
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language Mixing and Code-switching in Writing: Approaches to Mixed-Language Written Discourse2012Book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Sellgren, Mariana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Den dubbla uppgiften: Tvåspråkiga elever i skolans mellanår arbetar med förklarande genre i SO2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna licentiatuppsats undersöks det klassrumsarbete som sker i en flerspråkig elevgrupp i år 6 där SO-undervisningen är genrebaserad. Studien har fokus på elevernas deltagande i muntlig interaktion och skrivande av text när klassen arbetar med förklarande genre i geografi. I studien synliggörs mer av det som lärare i pågående arbete inte kan få del av d v s det som är bortom, eller mellan, lärarledda helklassamtal och färdigproducerade texter. Teoretiska utgångspunkter är sociokulturellt perspektiv, forskning om andraspråkinlärning och systemisk-funktionell lingvistik. En övergripande fråga är vilka språkliga resurser eleverna framförallt använder sig av i tal och skrift för att förklara. Data utgörs av lärobokstext, muntlig interaktion och klassrumsproducerade texter. Muntlig interaktion äger rum vid gemensam läsning och dekonstruktion av lärobokstext och gemensamt skrivande i helklass respektive smågrupp. Klassrumstexterna är av tre kategorier: skrivna i helklass under lärarledning, skrivna i smågrupp och individuellt. Materialet analyseras utifrån genre, realisering av kausalitet och semantiska ledfamiljer. Genreanalysen har fokus på struktur, analysen av kausala samband utgår från uppdelningen kongruenta och icke-kongruenta uttryckssätt och i analysen av semantiska fält studeras rörelser på olika abstraktionsnivå inom samma ledfamilj.

    Resultaten visar att eleverna i interaktivt smågruppsarbete har stort fokus på att förklara ämnesinnehåll som förutsättning för att appropriera språkliga resurser och för att skriva egen text. I gruppens muntliga interaktion rör sig eleverna mer i ett vardagligt/konkret språkligt register när de förklarar och diskuterar förlopp och skeenden för att sedan i den skrivna texten använda sig mer av ett mer abstrakt/tekniskt skolspråk. Det finns exempel på att eleverna ändrar språklig nivå på varandras yttranden genom att omformulera dem till ett mer abstrakt/tekniskt språkbruk. Det finns exempel på att en elevs yttrande upplevs för abstrakt/tekniskt och att kamraterna då efterfrågar en uppackning av ett alltför nominaliserat språkbruk, med följd att det förklaras konkret steg för steg. Samtliga skrivna texter i materialet är faktoriella förklaringar.

  • 153.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    A postliberal critique of language rights: Toward a politics of language for a linguistics of contact2009In: International perspectives on bilingual education: Policy, practice and controversy / [ed] Petrovic, J., London: Information Age Publishing , 2009, p. 191-218Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    African modernity, transnationalism, and language vitality: portuguese in multilingual Mozambique2008In: Globalization and language vitality: perspectives from black Africa / [ed] Cécile Vigouroux, Salikoko S. Mufwene, London: Continuum, 2008, p. 70-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    African mother-tongue programmes and the politics of language: Linguistic cityzenship versus linguistic human rights2001In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 339-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 156.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Afterword2014In: Global Portuguese: Linguistic Ideologies in Late Modernity / [ed] Moita-Lopes, Luiz Paulo, London: Routledge, 2014, 1, p. 222-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bilingualism: colonialism, postcolonialism and high modernity2007In: Bilingualism:: a social approach, Palgrave Macmillan, New York , 2007, p. 25-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Postmodernist perspectives on local languages: African mother-tongue education in times of globalisation2003In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 17-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 159.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Princípios de emboderamento através da Educação Multilingue2012In: Educação Bilingue em Moçambique: Reflectindo Criticamente sobre Políticas e Práticas / [ed] Chimbutane, F. & Stroud, C., Maputo, Moçambique: Texto Editores , 2012, p. 221-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rescaling Mozambique: Implications for the differentiation and distribution of popular practices of Portuguese2008In: Veredas: Revista da Associação internacional de Lusitanistas, Vol. 9, p. 137-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 161.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Response to Blommaert: Language, asylum and the national order2009In: Current Anthropology, ISSN 0011-3204, E-ISSN 1537-5382, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 434-435Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 162.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Rinkeby Swedish and semilingualism in language ideological debates: A Bourdieuan perspectiv2004In: Journal of Sociolinguistics, ISSN 1360-6441, E-ISSN 1467-9841, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 196-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 163.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The development of metropolitan languages in post-colonial contexts: Language contact and language change and the case of Portuguese in Maputo1996In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 19, p. 183-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 164.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The hegemony of Portuguese: Bourdieu and postcolonial Mozambique2002In: Multilingua, ISSN 0167-8507, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 339-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The performativity of codeswitching2004In: The International Journal of Bilingualism, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 145-166Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 166.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The problem of intention and meaning in code-switching1992In: Text - an interdisciplinary journal for the study of discourse, ISSN 0165-4888, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 127-155Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 167.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Towards a postliberal theory of citizenship2009In: International perspectives on bilingual education: Policy, practice and controversy / [ed] Petrovic, John, New York: Information Age Publishing , 2009, p. 191-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Jegels, Dimitri
    University of the Western Cape.
    Semiotic landscapes and mobile narrations of place: Performing the local2014In: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, ISSN 0165-2516, E-ISSN 1613-3668, Vol. 228, p. 179-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we explore some of the practices and mechanisms behind the multiple constructions of place and its meanings, focusing specifically on the diverse ways in which signage is read and incorporated into personal narratives of place. We employ a methodology of narrated walking that allows insights into how our informants actively construct the significance of local place as they navigate and move through space, and that also illustrates how signage discourses are enacted, performed, disputed and elaborated in local performativities of place. The article concludes by drawing out some implications for research on semiotic landscapes generally, and offers some suggestions on what such an approach to semiotic landscapes might contribute to a politics of local civility by taking into consideration how signage mediates local interpersonal relationships, the situated social dynamics of multivocality and, ultimately, the contesting lives of multiple publics.

  • 169.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mpendukana, Sibonele
    University of Western Cape.
    Multilingual signage: A multimodal approach to discourses of consumption in a South African township2010In: Social Semiotics, ISSN 1035-0330, E-ISSN 1470-1219, Vol. 5, p. 469-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper explores how global commercial discourses and the politics of aspiration in post-apartheid South Africa may be seen as contributing to the restructuring of spaces of multilingualism and the refiguring of indexical values of English and South African languages. The analysis takes its point of departure in how late-modern lifestyles, identities, aspirations and imaginations are represented across local and transnational commercial signage in the Western Cape township of Khayelitsha, focusing in particular on how different languages are multimodally constituted and differentially represented in two different sub-genres of commercial billboards. We suggest that new late-modern multimodal representations of identity, and the way multilingual resources are configured into new repertoires and genres of subjectivity, may be one important factor in how social transformation is mediated in changing perceptions and practices of language, while simultaneously and paradoxically reinforcing traditional conceptions of cultural authenticity and self-representation.

  • 170.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mpendukana, Sibonile
    Linguistics, University of Western Cape.
    Towards a material ethnography of linguistic landscape: Multilingualism, mobility and space in a South African township2009In: Journal of Sociolinguistics, ISSN 1360-6441, E-ISSN 1467-9841, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 363-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mpendukana, Sibunile
    University of the Western Cape.
    Material ethnographies of multilingualism: Linguistic landscapes in the township of Khayelitsha2012In: Multilingualism, Discourse and Ethnography / [ed] S. Gardner & M. Martin-Jones, New York: Routledge, 2012, 1, p. 149-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Wee, Lionel
    Consuming identities.: Language planning and policy in Singaporean late modernity2007In: Language Policy, Vol. 6, p. 253-279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Wee, Lionel
    Identity, second language literacy and remedial crossing:: Exploring liminalities in social positioning in the classroom2007In: TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 33-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Wee, Lionel
    Introduction: Political Economies of Literacy in Multilingual South-east Asia2008In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 129-133Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Stroud, Christopher
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Wee, Lionel
    National University of Singapore.
    Language planning and policy in Singaporean late modernity2010In: English in Singapore: Modernity and management / [ed] Lim, L., Pakir, A. & Wee, L., Hong Kong: Honk Kong University Press , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Stölten, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The Effects of Age of Onset on VOT in L2 Aquisition and L1 Attrition: A Study of the Speech Production and Perception of Advanced Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the role of age in second language (L2) acquisition and first language (L1) attrition. The focus is on Voice Onset Time (VOT) in the production and categorical perception of word-initial L1 and L2 stops in highly advanced L1 Spanish learners of L2 Swedish. Using as the point of departure a maturational constraints perspective and the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH), Study I examines the impact of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the production of L2 Swedish voiceless stops. The results show that there are AO effects even in the speech of highly advanced L2 learners and that the incidence of nativelike L2 learners is considerably lower than earlier assumed. However, conclusions like these are only possible when speaking rate is accounted for, thereby highlighting the importance of speaking rate effects on VOT as a measure of nativelikeness. Like Study I, Study II reveals age effects on the same L2 learners’ categorical perceptions of L2 Swedish stops. Moreover, after combining the results with the data from Study I, the incidence of nativelike behavior drops remarkably with no late L2 learner performing within the range of native-speaker production and perception. The results suggest that L2 acquisition of phonetic/phonological aspects is especially sensitive to AO effects. It is concluded that theories on maturational constraints, including the CPH, cannot be refuted on the basis of the present data. Study III concerns the same participants’ production and perception of L1 Spanish stops. Age of reduced contact (ARC) is identified as an important predictor for L1 attrition and retention of voiceless stop production, although not of stop perception. This discrepancy is related to different activation thresholds as proposed by the Activation Threshold Hypothesis (ATH). It is further suggested that early bilinguals are more dependent on high-frequency L1 use than late bilinguals when compensating for age effects, but only in production.

  • 177.
    Stölten, Katrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The L1 production and perception of VOT in Spanish-Swedish bilinguals: The role of age and L1 useManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of age of reduced contact (ARC) and L1 use on L1 stop production and perception in Spanish-Swedish bilinguals. Results revealed that ARC had an impact on voice onset time (VOT) in the production of Spanish /p t k/, but not on the categorical perception of Spanish /p–b/, /t–d/, /k–ɡ/. While mat­uration may explain the ARC effects, it alone does not provide a satisfying expla­nation for the discrepancy between production and perception. It is proposed that perception may be less prone to change than production due to differences in acti­vation levels, as predicted by the Activation Threshold Hypothesis (ATH). Furthermore, results showed that L1 use influenced stop production, but not per­ception, especially in early bilinguals. It is concluded that early bilinguals depend on advantageous factors such as high-frequency L1 use in order to compensate for ARC effects, but only in production.

  • 178. Thutloa, Alfred
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Does active participation in health enhance health outcomes and health care delivery systems?2012In: Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics PLUS, ISSN 2224-3380, Vol. 41, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2000 a Committee of the United Nations Economic and Social Council recognised health as essential for exercising all other rights (Djité 2008). The World Health Organization (1998) also sees health as a vital resource for enabling citizens to lead individually, socially and economically productive lives. However health is one space where the opportunities to participate and exercise voice is directed by the provision of health resources and material. Now in late modernity health has become a goal for citizens to work towards or they risk suffering from chronic illness and premature death (Cockerham 2005). The procurement of health has also shifted from the state as the provider of equitable health care to all citizens to a commodity that can be purchased in an expanding health market place (Kickbusch 2004). If health has become the responsibility of the citizen, issues of health literacy, multimodal access to information and multilingualism need to be considered. This research report focuses on work produced as part of the first author’s doctoral project, exploring the phenomenon of consumption of health resources for health citizenship in the private health insurance industry. Based on data collected from 75 participants through an electronic questionnaire, as well as different genres of information utilised for health promotion, the project investigated how the construction of information and the multimodal tools used by two leading South African health insurers influenced the consumers’ health subjectivity. Data collected showed the importance of multilingual information, health literacy and multimodal tools for enabling participation and voice among consumers. In addition, the consumers proposed more accessible information and better designed newsletters and web sites to help them with information seeking for health knowledge and health citizenship.

  • 179.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    A Sociological Perspective on Expertise in Conference Interpreting: A case study on Swedish Conference Interpreters2010In: Translation Effects: Selected Papers of the CETRA Research Seminar inTranslation Studies 2009 / [ed] Omid Azadibougar, Leuven: CETRA , 2010, p. 1-24Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how conference interpreters with Swedish as A-language working in international institutions understand the concept of expertise. Ten interpreters with Swedish mother tongue and working in the Swedish booth at the European institutions were interviewed in two focus groups (n=5) about their opinion of professional identity. The result was then compared to the findings of a survey of the official discourse of conference interpreting at the European institutions and the International Association of Conference Interpreter (AIIC). Some possible norm-related activities were identified. This paper investigates how conference interpreters with Swedish as A-language1 working in international institutions understand the concept of expertise. Ten interpreters with Swedish mother tongue and working in the Swedish booth at the European institutions were interviewed in two focus groups (n=5) about their opinion of professional identity. The result was then compared to the findings of a survey of the official discourse of conference interpreting at the European institutions and the International Association of Conference Interpreter (AIIC). Some possible norm-related activities were identified.

  • 180.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Exploring different methods for studying expertise2008In: Proceedings of the 49th Annual Conference of the American Translators Association. / [ed] Hartmann, Nicholas, Alexandria: ATA , 2008, p. 119-148Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a study aiming at testing the practicability of two methods and their possible applicability for investigating expertise in simultaneous interpretation. The two methods being Ivanova’s (ref. 1) method for investigating processing problems and their corresponding strategies as well as monitoring, and Carroll’s (ref. 2) method for measuring the quality in machine translation as compared with human translation. The methods were adapted to the context of the study.

  • 181.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Revisiting Carroll's Scales2009In: Testing and Assessment in Translation and Interpreting Studies / [ed] Claudia V. Angelelli, Holly E. Jacobson, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2009, p. 95-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study describes the assessment of interpreting with an application of the scales originally devised by Carroll (1966) for machine translation. Study participants (interpreters, n=6; non-interpreters, n=6) use Carroll’s scales to grade interpreted renditions (n=9) in simultaneous mode by conference interpreters with three different levels of experience. Grading was conducted using transcripts of the interpreted renditions. Although the numbers of graders and graded renditions were small, the data indicates that interpreters and laypeople agree on the grading of intelligibility and informativeness in interpreted renditions.

  • 182.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    The development of expertise – or not: Three simultaneous interpreters' development over timeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the performance of three simultaneous interpreters is studied. Excerpts of their performance at interpreting training and today are studied. Furthermore, their present day performance is compared with other experienced interpreters. It is assumed that the three interpreters may be possible experts according to the expertise theory (Ericsson, Charness & Hoffman 2007). However, the results in this study indicate that their development over time may not support the assumption that they are experts in the strictest sense of the theory.

  • 183.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    "This led me to start thinging about how this happened, and what the process behind it would be": An interview with professor Birgitta Englund Dimitrova2011In: Methods and Strategies of Process Research: Integrative approaches in Translation Studies / [ed] Alvstad, Cecilia; Hild, Adelina; Tiselius, Elisabet, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 345-360Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Alvstad, CeciliaUniversity of Oslo.Hild, AdelinaState University of New York.
    Methods and Strategies of Process Research: Integrative approaches in Translation Studies.2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume includes contributions on the cognitive processes underlying translation and interpreting, which represent innovative research with a methodological and empirical orientation. The methodological section offers an assessment/validation of different time lag measures; discusses the challenges of interpreting keystroke and eye-tracking data in translation, and triangulating disfluency analysis and eye-tracking data in sight translation research. The remainder of the volume features empirical studies on such topics as: metaphor comprehension; audience perception in subtitling research; translation and meta-linguistic awareness; and effect of language-pair specific factors on interpreting quality. A special section is dedicated to expertise studies which look at the link between problem analysis and meta-knowledge in experienced translators; the effects of linguistic complexity on expert interpreting; and strategic processing and tacit knowledge in professional interpreting. The volume celebrates the work of Birgitta Englund Dimitrova and her contribution to the development of process-oriented research.

  • 185.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Alvstad, Cecilia
    University of Oslo.
    Hild, Adelina
    State University of New York.
    Methods and strategies of process research: Integrative approaches in Translation Studies (Introduction chapter)2011In: Methods and strategies of process research: Integrative approaches in Translation Studies / [ed] Alvstad, Cecilia; Hild, Adelina; Tiselius, Elisabet, Amsterdam and New York: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 1-9Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 186.
    Tiselius, Elisabet
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Jenset, Gard B.
    Bergen University College.
    Process and product in simultaneous interpreting: What they tell us about experience and expertise2011In: Methods and Strategies of Process Reserach: Integrative approaches in Trnaslation Studies / [ed] Alvstad, Cecilia; Hild, Adelina; Tiselius, Elisabet, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 269-300Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expertise approach (Ericsson 2008) has been used to explore the competence of translators and interpreters since the mid-1990s, and is now a well established sub-field in translation and interpreting process research (Jääskeläinen 2010). In the area of interpreting, Ivanova (1999), Liu (2001) and others have explored the expertise approach. The studies reported in this article follow up on this work, but go one step further and investigate both process and product. The aim of the two studies was to explore the differences in performance between interpreters with shorter and longer experience (possible experts). Participants (n = 9) with no, short or long experience interpreted the same speech and performed retrospection immediately after. The first study, dedicated to process, used Ivanova’s (1999) method for investigating the process. The second study, on product, let two groups, non-interpreters (n = 6) and interpreters (n = 6), rate the interpreting performances using Carroll’s (1966) scales for intelligibility and informativeness. It was found that the degree of experience influences the processing strategies used by interpreters and the types of problems they report. Experience also has an impact on how the product of experienced interpreters and that of less experienced interpreters is rated, both when rated by interpreters and by non-interpreters.

  • 187.
    Tuomela, Veli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Tvåspråkig utveckling i skolåldern: en jämförelse av sverigefinska elever i tre undervisningsmodeller2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Waltin, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    När döva och hörande kollegor möts genom tolk: En etnografisk studie om tvåspråkighet på en arbetsplats2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deaf people in Sweden and worldwide live with few exceptions in a hearing society, and thereby in one way or another they have connections with hearing people in their private and professional lives. Most Deaf people in working life have no or few Deaf co-workers at hearing workplaces and hence a Sign Language interpreter is often hired to facilitate the communication between deaf and hearing co-workers. This thesis is an ethnographic study of the interpreting situation at a workplace where one Deaf and about 20 hearing co-workers work together. With field notes, interviews and video recording an illustration of the situation has been generated. The results show a tendency that the Deaf participant to a great extent suffers from information loss in several areas. In addition, the hearing co-workers seem to have a gap in knowledge about Sign Language and the conditions of Deaf people. Also, the Deaf participant seems to participate in her own subordination through the surrounding majority society. In the complexity of the interpreting situation, the interpreter seems to serve as a gatekeeper. She also has a challenging and not always easily definable role in translating and coordinating turns between Deaf and hearing participants, thus moving the conversation forwards in a mutual direction. Nevertheless, the Deaf participant and her hearing co-workers often seem to have different views of the responsibilities of the interpreter, something that might make the interpreter’s job even more challenging. This, in turn, can influence the relationship between hearing and Deaf co-workers. The results of the thesis have been discussed from a poststructural perspective to show a connection between the intimate workplace situation and language ideology, language policy, power relations and the theory of Deafhood.

     

  • 189.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Literacy Practices in and out of School in Karagwe: the Case of Primary School Literacy in Rural Tanzania2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated the question of relation between literacy practices in and out of school in rural Tanzania. By using the perspective of linguistic anthropology, literacy practices in five villages in Karagwe district in the northwest of Tanzania have been analysed. The outcome may be used as a basis for educational planning and literacy programs.

    The analysis has revealed an intimate relation between language, literacy and power. In Karagwe, traditional élites have drawn on literacy to construct and reconstruct their authority, while new élites, such as individual women and some young people have been able to use literacy as one tool to get access to power. The study has also revealed a high level of bilingualism and a high emphasis on education in the area, which prove a potential for future education in the area. At the same time discontinuity in language use, mainly caused by stigmatisation of what is perceived as local and traditional, such as the mother-tongue of the majority of the children, and the high status accrued to all that is perceived as Western, has turned out to constitute a great obstacle for pupils’ learning.

    The use of ethnographic perspectives has enabled comparisons between interactional patterns in schools and outside school. This has revealed communicative patterns in school that hinder pupils’ learning, while the same patterns in other discourses reinforce learning. By using ethnography, relations between explicit and implicit language ideologies and their impact in educational contexts may be revealed. This knowledge may then be used to make educational plans and literacy programmes more relevant and efficient, not only in poor post-colonial settings such as Tanzania, but also elsewhere, such as in Western settings.

  • 190.
    Werndin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Identitetsförhandlingar i det flerspråkiga klassrummet: om ungdomsspråk, makt och diskurs2010In: Flerspråkighet, identitet och lärande / [ed] Musk, Nigel & Wedin, Åsa, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 191.
    Williams, Quentin
    et al.
    University of Western Cape.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Performing rap ciphas in late modern Cape Town: Extreme locality and multilingual citizenship2010In: Africa Focus, ISSN 0772084X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of hip-hop in Cape Town, and indeed South Africa, has traditionally focused on the narratives and poetics of resistance, race and counter-hegemonic agency in the context of apartheid and the early days of post-apartheid. Despite this attention, hip-hop cipha performances remain relatively under-researched. The aim of this paper is to suggest that cipha performances display linguistic and discursive features that not only are of particular interest to rap music and hip-hop on the Cape Flats of Cape Town specifically, but that also engage core issues around multilingualism, agency and voice more generally. It demonstrates how in the process of entextualization a sense of locality, extreme locality, emerges in cipha performances by means of verbal cueing, representing place, expressing disrespect (dissing), and the (deictic) reference to local coordinates that is achieved by transposing or recontextualizing transidiomatic phrases, and by incorporating local proxemics and audience reactions through commentary and response. It concludes by suggestingthat competition around acceptable linguistic forms and framings (metalinguistic disputes) of extreme locality comprise the very micro-processes behind the formation of new registers. At the same time, these registers create the semiotic space for the exercise of agency and voice through multilingual practices, that is, multilingual citizenship.

  • 192.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model1998In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 295-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 193.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 28-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Wingstedt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language Ideologies and Minority Language Policies in Sweden: historical and contemporary perspectives1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the nature and functioning of language ideologies in Sweden, principally as regards beliefs and attitudes of the majority group towards minority language issues. This includes a study of the history of Sweden's minority language policies towards the Saami and the Finnish-speaking Tornedalians. The historical changes in such policies and language ideologies - evolving from a state of pragmatism and 'indifferent tolerance', via a nationalistically motivated assimilationist ideology, to a contemporary state of official 'pluralism' as well as conflicting perspectives and policies - provide a background to studies of contemporary issues, especially the media debates on mother tongue instruction ('home language teaching') for minority children. Furthermore, the controversial question of language requirements for naturalization (citizenship acquisition) is approached, where the rationale behind such requirements as well as the problems of assessing language competence in this context are discussed. Such aspects were further studied in a large-scale questionnaire survey investigation among a randomly selected sample of the Swedish population. The primary purpose of the survey was to explore and correlate language attitudes (or ideological components) in order to investigate the structure of different language ideologies. For this reason, variables concerning both 'internal variation' (of the Swedish language) and 'external variation' (e.g. the status and allocation of minority languages) were included. In this context, the question of 'paradoxes' or inconsistencies in ideological systems is raised, which includes a discussion of possible contradictory components in majority-based, 'monolingualist' ideologies of language.

  • 195.
    Yukawa, Emiko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    L1 Japanese Attrition and Regaining: Three Case Studies of Two Early Bilingual Children1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports three cases of LI Japanese loss and regaining (Shoko 3; 10, HI 5;5 and H2 7;0 at the time the subjects left Japan for non-Japanese environments) by two siblings (one of them was studied twice at two different times) who grew up as Japanese-English bilinguals from birth. It describes the lexical and syntactic changes of the language in details, discerns the nature of the loss, and investigates the relationship between attrition and age and pre-attrition proficiency.

    Oral production data were analyzed using various analytical instuments (TTR, use of non-Japanese words, MLU, complement structures and ellipsis of casemarkers, complex sentences, errors and fluency measurement). Elicited imitation and comprehension data as well as field notes were also analyzed. The study documented two cases (Shoko and HI) of quick Japanese attrition and another case (H2) of its maintenance. The two younger subjects (Shoko and HI) showed mild shrinkage of their vocabularies and drastic loss in their syntactic repertoires in as short a time as three months, while H2 did not. Despite a small portion of evidence which showed restructuring of their Japanese, the major reason for the younger subjects’ non-speaking was considered to be processing failure of the Japanese knowledge they still had mostly intact (the processing failure hypothesis), paricularly in accessing case-markers (case-marker inaccessibility). The three subjects had clearly different pre-attrition proficiencies in Japanese, especially in the stability of their use of complex syntactic structures. Thus it was hypothesized that H2’s Japanese was probably beyond the possible threshold proficiency level for its maintenance {the threshold level for language maintenance). It was speculated that there might be a certain age (biological development) which serves as a pre-requisite for such a threshold level to be attained.

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