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  • 151. Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Busby, Nicole
    Warnby, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Preparing students for academic reading in English: A comparative study of Swedish and Norwegian university-preparatory curricula2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to compare upper secondary school curricula for English studies in Norway and Sweden for the purposes of identifying similarities and differences in the description of the purpose and learning outcomes for using English as an academic reading language in higher education. In Scandinavian countries, most students are expected to read academic texts in English at university. Studies from both countries (Pecorari et al., 2011; Hellekjær, 2009) have found that upper secondary school does not necessarily prepare students for the English they encounter at university. Therefore, it is important to examine the focus and priorities of the national curricula in order to identify how these programs are designed to help students prepare for tertiary studies, and how this might differ between countries which are often considered to share many relevant characteristics. Both countries have undergone changes to the English curriculum in 2021, and this paper will also look at these changes and discuss them in relation to relevant research. This study takes a comparative approach to curricular research both between countries and over time. Preliminary findings suggest that a focus on academic English is potentially underspecified in both countries in the current as well as in the preceding curricula. The curriculum change in Norway has added information about the importance of academic English whereas, in Sweden, the focus on academic texts and scientific content has been reduced. With respect to academic English reading proficiency as an indispensable preparation for university, the findings suggest that these seemingly similar countries have some interesting differences in their English curricula which could have implications for the teaching practices in the English classrooms.

  • 152.
    Ezzeddine, Fatima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Elever i rollspel om hållbarhetsfrågor: En didaktisk modellering i syfte att utveckla handlingskompetens2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbildning för hållbar utveckling (UHU) är ett koncept som trätt fram i syfte till att öka unga människors handlingskompetens. Den tidigare forskningen lyfter fram fyra komponenter som är väsentliga för att elever ska utveckla en handlingskompetens. Dessa är holism, autenticitet, pluralism och deliberation. Däremot påvisar tidigare att det är problematiskt att undervisa om hållbar utveckling med avseende på UHU då det anses vara för komplext. Den bakomliggande orsaken förhåller sig till att hållbarhetsfrågor berör olika värderingar, intressekonflikter och perspektiv men även att tillvägagångsätt över hur man kan införa ett undervisningskoncept med avseende på UHU, inte gjorts i den mån som det behövs. Ett sätt att undervisa utifrån dessa fyra komponenterna för att elever ska utveckla handlingskompetens, är genom rollspel där eleverna får en möjlighet att belysa olika perspektiv och synvinklar i en viss situationen. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur ett rollspel kan medföra att elever utvecklar handlingskompetens och därmed bidra till ett tillvägagångsätt för att undervisa enligt UHU:s principer. För att göra det inkorporerades de fyra komponenterna i de didaktiska frågorna och därmed konstruerades en modell som användes för planering av ett lektionsupplägg. Lektionsupplägget prövades och omprövades med hjälp av didaktisk modellering och med hjälp av praktisk epistemologi analys har jag kunnat extrahera den data jag behöver för vidareutveckling av modellen. Utifrån studiens analys och resultat är förutsättningar för att elever ska utveckla handlingskompetens beroende på elevernas förståelse av det holistiska perspektivet och hur eleverna i rollspelet deliberativt bemöter varandra i ett pluralistiskt förhållningsätt, det vill säga hur eleverna belyser komplexitet, intressekonflikter och de olika perspektiv. 

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  • 153.
    Falk, Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    The L2/L3 initial state, initial stages and judgement tasks: The role of intercomprehension when judging unknown languages2024In: Second language research, ISSN 0267-6583, E-ISSN 1477-0326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study problematizes the second language (L2) / third language (L3) initial state, questioning who the real initial state-learners are and whether it is the initial state that has been explored in some previous L3 studies that claim to do so. We will discuss the notion of initial stages in relation to the initial state. We argue that, depending on prior language knowledge, learners can – thanks to intercomprehension – advance rapidly from the initial state into the initial stages of interlanguage. We base these suggestions on data from a small-scale study in which 20 native speakers of Swedish assessed whether some Dutch, Finnish and Norwegian sentences were grammatical or not. The results from this study led us to a discussion of whether the leap from the initial state to the initial stages can be overcome more quickly, due to the clues from typological similarity on the lexical level that the learners are given .

  • 154.
    Farran-Lee, Nelly
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    ”Om det väcker intresse så spelar det ingen roll vad man läser egentligen”: En studie av lärares syn på skönlitteratur i sfi-klassrummet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersöker sfi-lärares syn på användning av skönlitteratur som pedagogiskt verktyg i undervisningen av vuxna invandrare. Studien ämnar besvara tre frågeställningar, som dels berör vilka skäl lärarna ger för sin användning av skönlitteratur som en del av sin undervisningspraktik, dels vilka skönlitterära texter de väljer och varför. Studien tar avstamp i sociokulturell teori samt vetenskapliga teorier kring litteracitet och språklärarkognition. Den valda datainsamlingsmetoden har varit semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex sfi-lärare i en svensk storstadskommun, där samtliga har besvarat frågor rörande sin undervisningspraktik som kopplat till skönlitterärt läsande. Svaren har sedan analyserats tematiskt och organiserats efter fyra övergripande kategorier: didaktiska resonemang, affektiva resonemang,organisatoriska resonemang och urvalsrelaterade resonemang. Resultaten indikerar att informantern använder skönlitteratur av språkpedagogiska skäl, med en huvudsaklig strävan att utveckla elevernas litteracitetsförmågor. Utöver det finns det även affektiva dimensioner som spelar in – att skönlitteraturen kan inspirera eller ingjuta självförtroende – samt att det kan vara gynnsamt att arbeta med texterna rent organisatoriskt. Avslutningsvis styrs informanternas textval av flera olika faktorer, men de mest avgörande är elevernas språkliga nivå, upplevd nivå på texten i sig samt tillgänglighet.

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  • 155. Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Thor Thorgersen, Ketil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning. Stockholms musikpedagogiska institut, Sverige.
    Att möjliggöra estetiska erfarenheter i lärarutbildning2022In: I rörelse: Estetiska erfarenheter ipedagogiska sammanhang / [ed] Anders Burman; Petra Lundberg Bouquelon, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2022, p. 35-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Texten tar utgångspunkt i och diskuterar estetisk kommunikationsom ett didaktiskt förhållningssätt till estetiska erfarenheter inomutbildning generellt, och lärarutbildning specifikt. Genom atterbjuda estetisk kommunikation som ett didaktiskt tankeverktygför att förstå och planera för, genomföra och värdera utbildningavser vi att öppna för en diskussion om vilken plats estetiskaerfarenheter har och kan ha i lärarutbildningar. Estetisk kommunikation kan således förstås som ett erbjudande till lärare inomlärarutbildningar om ett förhållningssätt till estetik och lärandesom kan fungera som ett tankeverktyg för att analysera och utfor-ma utbildningar där estetiska erfarenheter står i centrum. Textenpresenterar och definierar begreppet med grund i filosofiska tanke-traditioner, relaterar det till specifika lärandesituationer, didak-tiska handlingar och kompetenser, pedagogiska relationer, samttill utbildningsstrukturer och politiska värderingar.

  • 156.
    Forsman, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Att röra sig mellan vardagsspråk och ämnesspecifikt språk i gemensamt läsande: - ett aktionsforskningsprojekt i gymnasieskolan2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project has been implemented as teacher driven action research, where subject-specific reading was studied in classroom practitioners and analyzed by using Legitimation Code Theory (LCT). The purpose was, partly to research which linguistic domains the teachers used in the part detailed reading in Reading to Learn (R2L) and how the discursive movement looked, and partly if progression could be seen during a school year and in that case, how it affected the educators’ teaching. 

     

    Participating in the study were four teachers working in a Swedish gymnasium: a chemistry teacher and a teacher of social studies, who were working in academic preparatory programs and a teacher in Swedish as a second language and a teacher in history in one of the introductory programs. The leader of the project and author of this study is also a teacher and colleague to the participants. Totally, twelve observations of detailed reading were implemented: three observations each teacher during one academic year. 

     

    The most prominent characteristic of the project was how the teachers, by becoming aware of the linguistic domains, changed their way of using detailed reading and by using the discursive movement, they were able to make semantic waves. The experience of the teachers was that through the action research they received new tools to develop their subject-specific reading and therefore the students’ language and knowledge increased which contributed to a higher object achievement. Notable was that all students seemed to benefit from detailed reading, even the high performing and/or the students with Swedish as their native language. 

     

    The result of this study may be relevant to studies on how to augment classroom practices to better implement the subject-specific reading which may lead to change for both teachers and students, regardless of students’ language and knowledge level, stage, or subject.  

     

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  • 157.
    Fred, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Brink, Carina
    Lechner, Fiippa
    Rundquist, Jennie
    Åström, Mikael
    Älmeby, Eva
    Vad kan ett algebraiskt "wicked problem" vara?2022In: Book of abstracts: Lärarnas forskningskonferens 2022, 2022, p. 29-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom forskningsfältet early algebra framhålls betydelsen av att elever redan i årskurs F-3 utmanas till ett algebraiska tänkande, då goda kunskaper i algebra bland annat anses möjliggöra för elever att utvecklas även inom andra områden inom matematiken (e.g. Cai & Knuth, 2011; Kieran, 2018). Ur ett bredare perspektiv, än bara algebra, har intresset för de sociopolitiska dimensionerna av matematikundervisning vuxit bland forskare och praktiker under de senaste decennierna (Gutiérrez, 2013; Planas & Valero, 2016). Ur ett sociopolitiskt perspektiv handlar matematikundervisningen inte bara om att lära matematik utan också om vad matematikundervisningen tillför eleverna i förhållande till att bli aktiva medborgare. Det finns således en utmaning för undervisningen i algebra i relation till att försöka kombinera främjandet av framtida demokratiska medborgare och elevers utveckling av algebraiskt tänkande. Ett sätt att försöka hantera denna utmaning kan vara att arbeta med ”wicked problems” (se t.ex. Rittel & Webbers, 1973). ”Wicked problems" är komplexa problem som kan stödja idén om elevnära kontexter, stärka elevers kritiska reflektion och demokratiska deltagande i utvidgade gemenskaper samt skapa en annan typ av behov av algebraiskt tänkande.

    Syftet med vår presentation är att diskutera ”wicked problems” (för elever i årskurs 1-3) som såväl utmanar elevers algebraiska tänkandet som deras förmåga att bli aktiva medborgare. Frågeställningen är: Hur samspelar/samspelar inte socio-politiska, algebraiska och didaktiska aspekter i ett algebraiskt ”wicked problem”?

    Presentationen bygger på data från ett kollaborativt arbete där lärare, lärarstudenter, lärarutbildare och forskare tillsammans i en iterativ process har utforskat idén om algebraiska ”wicked problems”. I den iterativa processen har Skovsmose och Borbas (2004) modell använts. Den erbjuder metodologiska verktyg för att tänka, göra och prata om kritiska element som kan dyka upp i utforskandeprocessen när man vill utmana en existerande och/eller dominerande praktik. I detta fall handlar det om att försöka placera algebraiskt tänkande i ett större sammanhang och där även idén om främjandet av aktiva medborgare finns med.

    Våra tentativa resultat ger en indikation på att ”wicked problem” kan stödja idén om vad en elevnära kontext kan vara samt hur man kan skapa en annan typ av behov av algebraiskt tänkande. Resultaten visar också att det finns en uppenbar risk att elever antingen bortser från algebraiska aspekter eller från sociopolitiska aspekter samt att de i vissa fall bortser från båda. I vår presentation kommer vi att med utgångspunkt i våra designade algebraiska ”wicked problem” diskutera möjliga orsaker till vad som gör att socio-politiska, algebraiska och didaktiska aspekter samspelar, inte samspelar eller helt bortses från.

  • 158.
    Fred, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Valero, Paola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Algebraic wicked problems: Bridging the gap between early school algebra and socially relevant issues?2023In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME13) / [ed] Paul Drijvers; Csaba Csapodi; Hanna Palmér; Katalin Gosztonyi; Eszter Herendiné-Kónya, Budapest: Alfréd Rényi Institute of Mathematics , 2023, p. 536-543Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to discuss an advance in the direction of bridging the gap between early school algebra and socially relevant issues using the idea of wicked problems. We do so by focusing on the possibilities and challenges of working with the idea of algebraic wicked in the context of planning, teaching, and reflecting on algebra lessons for young children of 7-9 years old. This endeavor is a collaboration between the researcher/teacher educator, teacher students and in-service teachers following the critical research methodology of imagining and trying to create something that does not yet exist. This paper represents partly how far we have come to formulate an algebraic wicked problem that can invite students to engage into a cultural and sociological algebraic activity and as such reports on what we have learned from trying to design and enact algebraic wicked problems.

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  • 159.
    Fred, Jenny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Valero, Paola
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Powerful algebraic ideas: Early algebraic thinking andactive citizenship2022In: Proceedings from the 12th Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME12), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can powerful algebraic ideas be understood for the combined purpose of developing students’ emergent algebraic thinking and fostering future active citizens? To address this question, we have examined two major research review books on early algebra to investigate the interpretations of “powerful algebraic ideas” that are present in the books as a whole. Skovsmose and Valero’s (2008) four interpretations of powerful mathematical ideas (which focus on the logical, psychological, cultural, and sociological power of mathematics) were used. We show that in the books and book chapters there is a dominance of the logical and psychological interpretations of the power ofalgebraic. Furthermore, the cultural and sociological interpretations appear connected to algebraic thinking as a resource or tool for action in “society”. Advancing new possibilities of expanding the ways in which early algebraic thinking is made powerful for students is a challenge to research. 

  • 160.
    Fries, Julia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    The Clown as Transgressive Agent on Paths to Sustainable Futures2022In: Relational and Critical Perspectives on Education for Sustainable Development: Belonging and Sensing in a Vanishing World / [ed] Margaretha Häggström; Catarina Schmidt, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 155-167Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the use of clowning in explorations of sustainability and economics. It analyzes the author’s own clown work through an autoethnographic study, and in relation to the field of transgressive learning. The analysis shows how clowning was a resource to overcome fear in facing difficult issues and to process sustainability with devotion, vulnerability, and joy. The clowning clarified important aspects of sustainability learning and the research points to the clown as an inspiration to imaginative and embodied ways of learning with the aim of transgressing unsustainable norms and transforming ourselves, as well as our societies.

  • 161.
    Fries, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Wall, Tony
    Drama as a hopeful practice when navigating liminal times2023In: Nordic Journal of Art & Research, ISSN 2535-7328, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents results from a study where applied drama interventions were deployed in four different groups to build capacities to re-imagine economics. Participants were interviewed or entered dialogue with each other after completing the drama work. Through a close reading of one of the conversations that stands out as glowing in the research material and with inspiration from rhizomatic analysis, we identify four nodes that point to drama as a hopeful practice during insecure times. The dramatic arts have historically facilitated the navigation of localized political and economic tensions, but research and practice has not seemingly addressed the transitions to more holistic forms of development embedded within the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 8: Decent Work and Inclusive Economic Growth. Conceptualizing this transition as liminal, we argue for the use of drama(tic) arts to navigate this state. The node Space for emotions articulates drama as a possibility to embrace and integrate difficult emotions. The node Openings and invitations – a new learning experience describes drama as an unconventional form of teaching that opens for creativity and new understandings. The third node Pretending towards new realities points to how the imaginative aspects of drama can give experiences of new pretended states beyond the liminal. Finally, the node Discomfort and its reinterpretations shows how challenging aspects of drama can be understood as in itself creating a liminal state where the unexpected can emerge. Findings echo the transformatory potential of drama(tic) arts in prior environmental and sustainability education research but extend it in the specific context of navigating and re-imagining economic growth (SDG8), and point to specific qualities of drama when trying to move towards sustainability in difficult times.

  • 162.
    Fréchin, Vincent
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Latinisering av litterata vuxna med ett annat skriftspråk: En studie om undervisning i svenska för invandrare, nybörjare på studieväg 22022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka latiniseringen av litterata studieväg 2-nybörjarelever på sfi ur ett didaktiskt och emiskt perspektiv och närmare bestämt samla andra lärares erfarenhet kring latinisering av elever. Studien ämnar svara på frågor om de utmaningar lärare upplevt, om de anpassningar som införts och hur framgångsrika dessa var samt om vad lärare anser att de skulle ha gjort annorlunda. Datainsamlingsmetoden för att samla lärares erfarenheter har varit intervjuer och deras innehåll har båda analyserats induktivt och deduktivt bl.a. utifrån studiens frågeställningar. Resultaten visar att utmaningar kan bl.a. avse inkluderingen av elever i behov av latinisering i den ordinarie klassen och tidsramen för latinisering. Resultaten visar även att en lösning för att kunna inkludera alla elever i den ordinarie undervisningen har varit att differentiera undervisningen och att detta utgör en stor del av undervisningen i en klass med nybörjare på studieväg 2 där icke-latiniserade och latiniserade elever får gå tillsammans. De intervjuade lärarna framför därför önskemål att elever i behov av latinisering borde få gå en latiniseringskurs innan de integreras i en ordinarie klass alternativt att de latiniseras i en separat klass och samtidigt deltar i den ordinarie undervisningen för att komma i kapp och bättre förstå det som görs i den ordinarie klassen.

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  • 163.
    Fröjdendahl, Birgitta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Sandberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Facing the validity gap. Perspectives on the final degree project2024In: Educational Research and Evaluation, ISSN 1380-3611, Vol. 29, no 1-2, p. 50-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study detected patterns in teacher educators’ and pre-service teachers’ beliefs and practices regarding the degree project. Requirements in policy documents were also considered. The analysis centred on validity, teacher cognition and grounded theory. Conversations were conducted with instructors and students at three departments for teacher education in Sweden. Findings showed inadequacies with regard to construct- and consequential validity for instruction and learning, timing, pre-service teachers’ prior knowledge and attitudes to educational research. Recommendations for improvement involved having teaching practice and the project run parallel and part-time during a term. Further proposals tallied with national regulations about autonomy and academic literacy for teachers. For example, the pre-service teachers responded positively to introducing crash courses and providing opportunities for supervision prior to the course. Improved validity was deemed imperative for developing long-term literacy and motivation towards incorporating science and empirical data in the teaching profession.

  • 164.
    Fuster, Carles
    et al.
    Mälardalens universitet.
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Translanguaging in Sweden: A critical review from an international perspective2024In: System (Linköping), ISSN 0346-251X, E-ISSN 1879-3282, Vol. 121, article id 103241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘Translanguaging’ is nowadays an umbrella term referring to either the framework of ‘spontaneous translanguaging’ from the United States or that of ‘pedagogical translanguaging’ from the Basque Country. Both these frameworks propose ways of integrating languages in school, but they adopt very different perspectives on multilingualism, language education and minority languages. This article starts out with a discussion of spontaneous and pedagogical translanguaging as related to their sociolinguistic and educational contexts and a discussion of multilingualism in Sweden. This is followed by a critical review of academic publications on translanguaging published by researchers affiliated to Swedish universities between 2017 – the year in which the distinction between spontaneous and pedagogical translanguaging is featured in the literature – and 2023. The analysis shows that whereas spontaneous translanguaging is highly influential, pedagogical translanguaging generally plays a very understated role. Linked to the current discourse about multilingualism in Sweden, most researchers discuss translanguaging in relation to the social inclusion of students with a foreign background, who are referred to as ‘the multilingual students’, rather than to teaching languages to the whole student population. A central goal of the Swedish educational system, however, is to promote all students' multilingualism by teaching multiple languages, including foreign languages as well as any official or immigrant minority language a student uses at home. We call, therefore, for more attention to pedagogical translanguaging and we claim the importance of adapting translanguaging to the challenges of each society.

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  • 165.
    Gidstedt, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Lärares realiseringar utifrån olika typer av respons.2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of mathematics, based on my experience, is not something that students perceive as creative or exploratory. It seems to be common for teachers to struggle with implementing exploratory teaching methods. This study examines how teachers utilize realizations in various types of responses when students indicate, in some way, that they are not engaged in the mathematical discourse. The aim is to determine if this approach can enhance an investigative character in teaching. It is conducted using a modified version of the RTA tool and a modified version of Dimenäs' (1995) didactic response framework. A teacher's lessons have been transcribed, analyzed, and coded to identify correlations between response and realization. It was found that the teacher primarily exhibits a controlling character, and initially using multiple categories of realizations leads to a reduced need for categories in the teacher's response. 

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  • 166. Gonsalves, Allison J.
    et al.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Avraamidou, Lucy
    Nyström, Anne-Sofie
    Esquivel, Rebeca
    Using story-based methodologies to explore physics identities: How do moments add up to a life in physics?2023In: Physical Review Physics Education Research, E-ISSN 2469-9896, Vol. 19, no 2, article id 020106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article details methodologies employed to enable sharing and coconstructing the stories of threewomen’s lives in physics. The first case explores the usefulness of timeline interviewing, where participantsnarrate episodes that are coconstructed with the researcher as meaningful over time. We illustrate thismethod in the case of a mature student in Sweden from a working-class background who shared momentsthat added up to a life outside of physics and then a sharp turn into physics later in life. The second caseexplores life-history interviewing using a narrative-inquiry approach and deep relationship building whichenabled the coconstruction of stories of experiences over time. These moments are coconstructed with theresearcher and analyzed using an intersectionality lens to yield a story depicting the transnationalexperiences of a woman of color moving across various European contexts into the North Americanphysics context. The final case is of a first-generation Canadian woman of color who shared her navigationsof in and out of school physics via a method known as the “Rivers of Life.” Using this method, theparticipant narrates their experiences with physics as a river, using metaphorical tools like rafts, rocks,rapids, tributaries to discuss various moments described as twists and turns over time that together amountto a life in physics. We discuss the value of different approaches to coconstructing narratives withparticipants and, in particular, the need for this kind of research in physics context

  • 167. Gonsalves, Allison J.
    et al.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Johansson, Anders
    Nyström, Anne-Sofie
    Other spaces for young people's identity work in physics: resources accessed through informal physics education in Sweden2022In: Education and Involvement in Precarious Times: Abstract Book NERA Conference 2022 / [ed] Michael Dal, Reykjavik: School of Education, University of Iceland , 2022, p. 296-297Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 168. Gonsalves, Allison J.
    et al.
    Johansson, Anders
    Nyström, Anne-Sofie
    Danielsson, Anna T.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Other spaces for young people’s identity work in physics: Resources accessed through university-adjacent informal physics learning contexts in Sweden2022In: Physical Review Physics Education Research, E-ISSN 2469-9896, Vol. 18, no 2, article id 020118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For young women, inbound identity trajectories into physics are generally regarded as exceptional. In this study, we investigated the experiences that young women have which may support their sustained interest and achievement in physics, and their ongoing inbound trajectories into post-secondary physics education. To understand these experiences, we look to the role of informal physics learning (IPL) environments as spaces which can offer resources that support women’s trajectories into physics. In this paper, we highlight the important role of what we call “university-adjacent” IPL experiences—internships, summer schools, and associations that connect secondary students with the research lives of physicists. Focusing on case studies of six women enrolled in post-secondary physics programs across Sweden, we identify the various forms of resources made available through IPL environments, and how these create possibilities for young women to engage in forms of identity work that contribute to the construction of new possible selves in physics. Findings suggest that young women can access important relational and ideational resources through university-adjacent IPL programs. Relational resources included (a) supportive social networks, (b) enduring relationships, and (c) relatability. Importantly, our research finds that IPL opportunities that emphasize relationship building can create immersive experiences which go beyond representation and rather emphasize opportunities to develop practice-linked identities. Ideational resources emerged as (a) sources of information which possibilized physics for participants, and (b) types of information that provided possibilities to learn about the life of a physicist. Finally, while we claim that IPL experiences provide important possibilities for young women to immerse themselves in the practices of physics, we also discuss that these kinds of experiences remain inaccessible to most students, and thus reproduce a certain elitism in the field.

  • 169. Granfeldt, Jonas
    et al.
    Erickson, Gudrun
    Bardel, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Sayehli, Susan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Ågren, Malin
    Österberg, Rakel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Speaking French, German and Spanish in Swedish lower secondary school –a study on attained levels of proficiency2023In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies, ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 91-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates levels of oral proficiency in French, German and Spanish attained by Swedish speaking students in lower secondary school. A total of 122 students performed two tasks: one production task and one interaction task. The oral performances were rated using scales from the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The rating was done in successive steps by researchers in the project and external raters. The results show that slightly less than half of the students’ performances were rated at or above the expected proficiency level at the end of lower secondary school (A2.1). While there was no difference in rated levels between the two tasks, the performances by the students of German were significantly more often rated at or above the A2.1 level than the performances by students of French and Spanish. In the article, we discuss the results in relation to the few previous studies available on the topic, as well as some aspects of the learning conditions that might contribute to the interpretation of the results. In addition, certain structural phenomena regarding language education in Sweden are briefly considered in relation to equity at a general level. 

  • 170.
    Granqvist, Angelica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    How I live [participate] now: Re-negotiating social belonging and linguistic participation in book-group discussions2023In: European Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-9521, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 460-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how Gabriella, an upper-secondary student in Sweden, re-negotiated social belonging and linguistic participation in book-group discussions involving students in the school subjects Swedish and Swedish as a second language. Gabriella immigrated to Sweden due to forced migration. As a Swedish language learner, she worried that her language proficiency was regarded as insufficient by her peers. Within the frame of linguistic ethnography, and with the aim of identifying Gabriella's trajectory of participation in book-group discussions over time, audio-recorded group discussions about the novel How I live now, interview data, and observational fieldnotes were analyzed by means of an epistemic stance analysis. Building on learning as participation, it was possible to unfold how Gabriella went from a passing participant to a driving force. Her trajectory of participation was spurred by the content of the novel and a sense of epistemic responsibility to share her first-hand experience of war, while her classmates responded with silence. From an educational perspective, this paper emphasizes the importance of classrooms as contact zones where students are not only provided with rich opportunities to gather around literature that stirs up questions of what it means to be human, but more importantly, it accentuates the need for literary education to include responsive practices to help students accommodate each other as co-learners.

  • 171.
    Guttman, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Resor i den Ostindiska övärlden – ett fotoreportage2022In: Förr och nu: tidskrift för en folkets kultur och historia, E-ISSN 2003-329X, Vol. 2022, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för Sydostasien! Det vaknade redan på 1950-talet. Min ingifta morbror hade växt upp i norra Sumatra i Indonesien. Hans berättelser inspirerade fantasier om en fantastisk värld med olika kulturer och språk. Där fanns ljuset och alla synintryck och färgerna. Där fanns musiken, dofterna, smakerna och just mötena med människor. Ett av de främsta matminnena var hans kryddiga Nasi goreng, Fried rice, alltså den indonesiska rätten stekt ris med grönsaker och kött. Minnena av min morbror blev en viktig ingång till de egna upplevelserna av regionen. År 1985 gjorde jag den första långresan i Fjärran östern, vilket också blev inledningen till de återkommande vistelserna i den Ostindiska övärlden. Erfarenheterna av regionen fördjupades sen genom studier i pedagogik, sociologi och inte minst socialantropologi. Arbetet med att dokumentera och samla in bild- och textmaterial hade inletts och kom småningom även att leda till mötet med lärarutbildningen i Stockholm. Det är bland annat där jag sedan 1990-talet jag varit yrkesverksam mellan resorna österut.

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    Resor. Del 1
  • 172.
    Guttman, Staffan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Resor i den Ostindiska övärlden – ett fotoreportage. Del 2 Sumatra2022In: Förr och nu: tidskrift för en folkets kultur och historia, ISSN 2003-329X, Vol. 2022, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid mitten av 1990-talet hade jag redan gjort flera resor i ostindiska övärlden. Kännedom om regionens historiska betydelse i mitt hemland Sverige har dock förefallit märkligt begränsad. Detta till trots av de sjöburna handelsresorna Svenska Ostindiska Kompaniet anställde genom övärlden till Kina mellan 1731 och 1813. I Del 2 av mitt fotoreportage fortsätter jag berättelsen om regionens betydelse i övärlden och omvärlden genom erfarenheter från egna resor och berättelser från min ingifta morbror som växt upp i Sumatra, Indonesien. Detta tillsammans med intervjuer och samtal med befolkningen i övärlden samt litteratur som hanterar den historiska utvecklingen. Jag har rest med penna och kamera och med kulturella ögon haft sikte på möten i vardagen och saker människor gör, där kommunikation och handel framstått som allt viktigare under arbetet.

  • 173.
    Gåfvels, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Viveca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skarelius  , Hanna 
    Sy ihop: Kommunikativa resurser i olika (slöjd)bedömningshandlingar2024In: Techne series: Research in sloyd education and crafts science. A, ISSN 1238-9501, E-ISSN 1893-1774, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 82-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores assessment actions –as an aspect of classroom communication –and how they are expressed in sloyd teaching; with a formative aim centering on pupils’ learning and (the teacher’s) own teaching practice, respectively. In this context, the teacher holds a central role, mediating sloyd knowing through (communicative) verbal and physical actions, acting as an authoritative guidefor pupils’ learning, by making perceptually tacit knowing discernable thanks to pre-established confidence for the teacher in question. Besides authoritative guiding, another theoretical starting point of the article is sociomateriality; a perspective considering physical objects as resulting from connections and activity, hence influencing on the (more) social sphere of actions and activity. The method used is multimodal interaction analysis of three video-recorded sequences of teacher/pupil interaction in a sloyd-classroom setting. To sum up, the findings of the article display how formative assessment in the sloyd context consists of the teacher adapting questions posed to ascertain the knowing of the pupil, then waiting to see how/what/if the pupil performs, whilst being provided –gentle but ample –authoritative guiding to help in the process. The main contribution of the study is establishing the role of formative assessment within sloyd education. The research project has been conducted within the framework of Stockholm Teaching and Learning Studies (STLS), entailing the active involvement of the teacher in question as co-author of the article.

  • 174.
    Gür, Veronika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Högläsning under de tidiga skolåren F-3: En kvalitativ studie om hur några lärare säger sig arbeta med högläsning i undervisningen2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att belysa hur några lärare säger sig arbeta med högläsning som en del av undervisningen i ämnet svenska och utgår från frågeställningen: Hur säger sig lärarna arbeta med högläsning i undervisningen? och Vilka hinder och möjligheter uppfattar lärarna i arbetet med högläsning? Den teoretiska utgångspunkten i studien är det sociokulturella perspektivet med fokus på dialog och lärande. Studien bygger på en kvalitativ metodansats och en tematisk analys har gjorts av den data som samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem lärare. Studiens resultat visar främst att lärarnas uppfattning av högläsning är att den är viktig för elevernas språkutveckling och då framförallt i kombination med boksamtal. Resultatet visar även att lärarna beskriver högläsningen som betydelsefull för elevernas ordförståelse och att eleverna med hjälp av högläsningen får chans att lära sig nya ord och begrepp.

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  • 175.
    Hagborg Olsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Carlbaum, Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    "Det blir enklare att tänka": Bilden som representation i matematiska textuppgifter2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När elever möter matematik i svenska klassrum är det ofta i form av enskilt arbete. Det enskilda arbetet sker i läroböcker och eleverna läser, avkodar, tolkar och räknar till stor del på egen hand. Matematiska läroböcker innehåller bilder av olika slag som medföljer flera uppgifter i böckerna. Bilder verkar därmed utgöra en stor del av elevers matematiska upplevelser och ansågs därför vara intressant att undersöka djupare. Studiens syfte var att utveckla en djupare kunskap om bildens betydelse för elever i matematik. Detta för att bringa uppmärksamhet till bilder inom matematik för lärare att ta del av. Datamaterialet samlades in med hjälp av två test bestående av nio textuppgifter, ett med medföljande bilder till uppgifterna och ett utan bilder, som genomfördes på totalt 30 elever. Därefter genomfördes åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra elever från vardera test. Data analyserades med hjälp av Leshs teoretiska modell av representationsformer med fokus på elevernas förmåga att lösa uppgifter där text och bild kombineras. Resultatet från studien visade att bilden verkade kunna fungera som ett stöd vid lösning av textuppgifter. Däremot verkade vissa bilder fungera bättre än andra. Det visade sig även att elever som saknade bilder till uppgifterna i större utsträckning använde sig av egenkonstruerade bilder i sina lösningar. Eleverna delgav en positiv syn om bilder kombinerat med textuppgifter men beskrev användandet som situationsberoende. Eleverna beskrev sig använda bilderna om de hade ett tydligt matematiskt syfte annars ansågs de onödiga. Bilden verkar vara viktig för eleverna oavsett om den ges till dem eller om eleverna själva skapar dem, dock med reservation att bilden ska presentera ett matematiskt innehåll för att undvika vilseledning.

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  • 176.
    Hallgren, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    "Doing crazy things does not mean you are crazy but brave!"- as a patient with newly-developed psychosis, navigating a chaotic and uncertain time with drama/theatre methods2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper aims to broaden the understanding of what in a drama/theatre practice can fulfil a function in psychiatry in working with patients with newly debuted psychosis.

    Research on cultural expressions, including drama/theatre, provides evidence of positive effects on health, including mental illness. Patients with different diagnoses (e.g. mental illness) who participate in drama/theatre activities express feelings of meaning and hope when their stories are enacted and sometimes even meet an audience. In these contexts, the participants are treated as people with resources and not as patients, and it is an artistically knowledgeable leader who leads the work, not a therapist or nurse (e.g. the WHO report, 2019).

    Previous research mentions hardly any specific drama/theatre conventions in work with drama/theatre aside from role-taking, where alternative ways of being can be tried, and that a dramaturgical understanding of the self can enable us to create new images of ourselves. In previous research, there was no clear participant perspective when drama/theatre was used as a method in anti-stigma work. Nor have we found research in which patients and care staff participate on the same terms as drama/theatre group participants.

    This study focuses on what drama/theatre methods could lead to positive self-esteem and anti-stigma development. Which specific artistic tools are distinguished, and which nuances and qualities are made visible and specified in the interaction between participants and drama educators/theatre directors, which previous studies have not focused on to any great extent?

    This research study is carried out at a daycare clinic where patients with newly developed psychosis can choose to participate in a drama/theatre group once a week. The study extends over a year. As a participating observer, the researcher has joined the drama/theatre work as one of the participants in two different groups. A beginner group mainly with drama work and group establishment and a continuation group with more performance focus. In addition, interviews were conducted with participants, the drama/theatre director and care staff who also participated in the drama/theatre work as participants. The groups continued their work during the covid 19 period, and the work was partly carried out in snow and rain.

    The preliminary results are elucidated with the help of both drama/theatre theory, activity theory and relational theory to be able to describe and understand what it is the theatre practitioner is trying to achieve with his actions in relation to the participants' actions and how the participants' experiences interact with what happens. The result clarifies which drama/theatre tools are essential for increased self-esteem and reduced self-stigma and which nuances have been distinguished as particularly important in their use.

    The most important preliminary conclusion so far is how the drama/theatre practitioner uses his solid knowledge of drama/theatre tools and methods in a, experienced by the participants, professional but unpretentious way. However, it is essential how the drama/theatre practitioner, in joint action with the participants, takes them into the unknown and the absurd and becomes a role model. To do crazy things does not mean that one is crazy but brave!

  • 177.
    Hallgren, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Drama in education and the value of process2022In: The Routledge Companion to Drama in Education / [ed] Mary McAvoy; Peter O'Connor, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, p. 45-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates what characterises actions between students in role, the use of role to develop and explore content in a process drama, and what implications the form of the process has. The chapter draws on Leontiev’s activity theory and dialogism (Bakhtin) and uses the metaphor of macramé as a tool to analyse filmed process dramas. From an activity theory perspective, process drama is understood as two activities – temporary fictional and educational – with two different motives/objects. The critical difference is that a new motive/object is under construction through a playful format in the temporary fictional activity and is given in an educational activity. The actions also differ where in-role actions have a forward direction and include both expectations and hope that the contribution given will be received and reciprocated, but in a new form. The writer suggests a new concept for this unique form of agency that is developed through collective in-role-actions: expectagency, a form of ‘expectation and hope agency’ that increases one’s capability to deal with uncertainty and change. Such a capability, with its collective dimension, should be of great importance for handling uncertainty and change together and is crucial in the world right now, given the challenges we face.

  • 178.
    Hallgren, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    "It is not as simple as one might think."Preschool teachers' mastery of taking on a role and drama tools for developing play and play worlds2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results from a praxis development research study carried out by a drama pedagogue and researcher with preschool teachers at a four-department preschool in a big city in Sweden.

    As a background for the study, there is the schoolification of preschools and children lacking play knowledge. In the latest Swedish curriculum for preschool (2018), the notion of teaching is used for the first time. However, play is also emphasized as essential.

    Based on this, the preschool teachers wanted to develop their playability with the help of drama tools and role-taking inspired by Lindqvist's 'play worlds', to support and challenge the inside the play.

    Monthly planning meetings where preschool teachers and drama pedagogue/researcher explored and developed play worlds. In line with Dunn, knowledge of drama vocabulary can strengthen the adults' ability to become co-players without taking over and using the play for specific learning. Participatory observation and reflective logs constitute the data material.

    The specific preschool had the opportunity to set aside a large hall where the four departments had at least one play session (1-3 hours) each week. Having a room where a specific setting can be built, left and developed based on the wishes of children and adults was important and became an engine for the entire project. However, the engine did not entirely work when role-taking and the use of tension were not understood or not really mastered. The paper explores how the preschool teachers managed to move on, gradually made some of the drama tools their own, and got emotionally engaged inside the fiction. Still, they also dismissed some in creating play worlds.

     

    Dunn, J. (2017) Do you know how to play? A beginner’s Guide to the vocabularies of dramatic play. In O’Connor, P. & C. Rozas Gómez, Playing with Possibilities, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    Lindqvist, G. (1995) The aesthetics of play – a didactic study of play and culture in preschools. Uppsala: Uppsala Studies in Education

    Vygotsky, L. (1925/1971). The Psychology of Art. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 

  • 179.
    Hallgren, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Cedervall, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    The function of drama/theatre work in psychosis care from the patients’ and caregivers’ perspective2022Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Hamza, Karim Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Wojcik, Andrzej
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute.
    Arvanitis, Leena
    Haglund, Karin
    Lundegård, Iann
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Schenk, Linda
    Nature of science in students' discussions on disagreement between scientists following a narrative about health effects of the Fukushima Daiichi accident2023In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 22-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explored the potential for addressing nature of science through a historic narrative about disagreement between researchers concerning a socio-scientific issue, incidence of juvenile thyroid cancer following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The narrative was developed from authentic sources and tested in two cycles. Eight groups of three to four high-school students were audio recorded. Transcripts were analyzed regarding what nature of science emerged in the discussions and what understanding about NOS could be discerned, using three complementary NOS-frameworks (Consensus-NOS, Whole Science-NOS, FRA-NOS). Together, the student groups touched upon 19 different NOS-themes as they tried to make sense of the disagreement related in the narrative. All groups addressed a common core of NOS-themes, most of which were central to the narrative itself, although some themes that were not part of the narrative also emerged. Students displayed a basic understanding of the tentative, empirical, and subjective nature of science together with the role of evidential relevance and completeness of evidence related to the choice of scientific methods. On the other hand, students did not reckon with peer review as a means for establishing knowledge and resolving disagreement. Moreover, although students readily accepted disagreement as a basic property of science, they had difficulty handling this disagreement when coping with the SSI in the narrative. We discuss how the combination of history of science-in-the-making and SSI in narrative form offers opportunities to teach NOS without risking simplified messages of how scientific knowledge develops or how science can be used to address socio-scientific issues.

  • 181. Hansson, Lena
    et al.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Att tänka på när du får tag i gratismaterial för undervisning2023In: Bi-lagan, E-ISSN 2000-8139, Vol. 2023, no 2, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Hansén, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    "Det finns kapacitet för mer": En kvalitativ studie av sva-lärares didaktiska utmaningar vad gäller undervisning av språkintroduktionselever med lång skolbakgrund, med elever från Ukraina som exempel2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to explore the specific didactic conditions identified by Swedish as a second language teachers working with content-based language instruction for newly arrived students with a strong educational background and solid subject knowledge, but very limited knowledge of Swedish – and to discuss the possible approaches the teachers suggest. The study is inspired by the fact that in 2022, a significant number of students from Ukraine started enrolling in language introduction programs across the country. This particular category of students is the target group of the study. 

    Starting from a sociocultural understanding of learning, where the role of the teacher is crucial to the students’ knowledge and identity development, this study utilizes group interviews with second language teachers at three different schools. Using grounded theory as method, the teachers’ reflections have guided the research process in a pendulum motion between data and analysis, to a point where theoretical saturation was achieved. The result indicate that the teachers identify lacking motivation among students from Ukraine as an obstacle to language learning, which they attribute to the students' uncertain living conditions, and to a discrepancy between the current instruction and the students' previous education and level of knowledge. In response, the teachers in varying degrees adapt their instruction to the pace and level of the Ukrainian students. The study also shows that the teachers believe grouping the Ukrainian students in homogenous groups to be beneficial for their motivation and second language acquisition. The findings are discussed in the context of research on ability grouping and the impact of educational background on second language learning, using content-based language instruction theory as a framework.

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  • 183. Hansén, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Lavonen, Jari
    Sjöberg, Jan
    Aspfors, Jessica
    Wikman, Tom
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Tension patterns in Finnish teacher education: Recruitment, reform and relevance2023In: Teacher education in the Nordic region. Challenges and opportunities: Challenges and opportunities / [ed] Eyvind Elstad, Springer, 2023, p. 159-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, tension patterns and development opportunities withinFinnish teacher education are examined. We have chosen to focus the analysis onthe recruitment of student teachers, the relationship between theory and practice andmentorship for newly qualified teachers. Tension patterns and development oppor-tunities appear in all three phases, linking the content and form of teacher education.The analysis examines the overarching idea behind a recently introduced recruit-ment reform that was developed to let interviews play a larger role in the process.This was developed to address a situation in which an applicant applies to severaluniversities or programmes, but is interviewed only once. The relationship betweentheory and practice in teacher education remains problematic, despite the practiceschools’ favourable organizational conditions. New teachers still face challengeswhen entering the profession; mentoring programmes have been introduced toreduce these tensions.Like some other provinces in the Nordic countries, the self-governing ÅlandIslands have their own school system, which has both Finnish and Swedish traits, aswell as similar kinds of tensions. Despite the presented tensions, research-based teacher education continues to be an appropriate foundation for the continuingdevelopment of Finnish teacher education.

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    Tension patterns in Finnish teacher education
  • 184.
    Haslam, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Smith, Oliver
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Sandberg, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Walking the Off- and On-line: Perceptions of Interaction and Development of Teaching and Learning Strategies2022In: A Retrospective of Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic / [ed] Emily Baumgartner; Regina Kaplan-Rakowski; Richard E. Ferdig; Richard Hartshorne; Chrystalla Mouza, AACE-Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education , 2022, p. 133-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After the rapid shift in environment from in-person to online classes in 2020, and the shift back to the in-person environment in 2022, the authors reflect on their existing teaching and learning strategies in pre-serviceteacher education. Moving forward, the authors aimed to find out students’ and teachers’ experiences of these changes and what lessons have been learnt. To find out about these experiences a student survey was conducted to further investigate the teachers’ observations. Results from the survey suggested that students interacted with their teachers and peers differently in the two environments, and that different teaching and learning strategies were required in the two environments. Implications of the study are that forms of interactionfrom online environments may be useful in in-person environments, that learners may benefit from explicitteaching of strategies, and that there appears to be no one-size-fits-all solution; regardless of environment, teaching needs to include a wide variety of approaches.

  • 185.
    Hedefalk, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Markkanen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Sumpter, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Five year Olds in between Sharing and Division2022In: Philosophy of Mathematics Education Journal, ISSN 1465-2978, Vol. 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sharing and division are two concepts that have overlapping properties, and both are connected to the interpretation of fairness. In the present study, we study preschool children’s work with a case where eight biscuits were shared between soft toys. The focus is onthe different arguments that the children express. The results show that children use both ethical arguments and mathematical arguments in their solutions. Some of the arguments can be categorised as ‘Fair sharing related to number of pieces only’ or ‘Fair sharing employing ad hoc attempts at equal size’. The arguments that were coded as sharing not associated with mathematical sense of fairness were either classified as ethical reasoning or play. In the discussion, we raise the need of the combination of ethical reasoning and mathematical arguments if we want to create situations for children to develop critical thinking.

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  • 186. Hedefalk, Maria
    et al.
    Sumpter, Lovisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Eriksson, Helena
    Matematiska och etiska resonemang i förskolan – didaktisk modellering som intervention: [Mathematical and ethical reasoning in preschool – didactic modeling as an intervention]2024In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 68-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article examines didactic choices in teaching where mathematics and sustainable development meet. The purpose of the teaching was to encourage preschool children to reason collectively about distribution problems. It was the children's reasoning about possible solutions that was in focus, not a correct answer. The preschool teacher's role was to create opportunities for agency: enable childrens own contributions to knowledge, pit different conflicting perspectives on sustainable solutions against each other and discuss the solutions. Based on the didactic modeling method, researchers and preschool teachers discussed the teaching based on different expertise. Documentation created during these meetings was analysed, in order to investigate if the didactic what and how questions could help the preschool teachers create agency in teaching. The result shows how reflection on the didactic issues created opportunities for agency in relation to organization of time and environment, of pairing children for collective work and language development work.

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  • 187.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Att arbeta med kritisk flerspråkig medvetenhet i förberedelseklass på gymnasiet: sva-lärarens och studiehandledarens roll2022In: Lisetten, ISSN 1101-5128, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 11-12Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 188.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Samverkande aktiviteter för epistemisk rättvisa2024In: Undervisning i förskolan: Förskollärare och forskare i dialog om didaktiska dilemman  / [ed] A. Olin Almqvist, J. Almqvist, U. Bergmark, K. Hamza, J. Nehez, M. Strömberg & S. Westman, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2024, 1, p. 63-65Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 189.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Paul, Enni
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rosén, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Epistemic Reciprocity Through a Decolonial Crip Literacy in Accommodated Language Education for Adults2024In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This linguistic ethnography was conducted in accommodated language education in Sweden, aimed at adult learners with deafness, hearing impairment, post-traumatic stress disorder, migration stress, or intellectual disability, here, focusing on the latter group, who attended Swedish language learning courses. We empirically investigate a decolonial crip literacy, by connecting language education to epistemic reciprocity. The decolonial lens is understood with regard to the marginalized and dis-abled body, under-represented in Applied Linguistics. More specifically, we focus on teacher positionality and ethical stance-taking among three of the teachers, to contribute an in-depth and situated account of a decolonial crip literacy, as counteracts of ableism and linguicism, and an orientation toward epistemic justice. Based on our linguistic ethnographic data, we suggest that the decolonial crip literacy project engages with disability-as-difference, positioning the dis-abled body as knower, via epistemic reciprocity, which is communicated through a multiplicity of communicative resources, materialities, and creativity. The paper contributes both to the theorizing of injustice in language education and to alternatives in pedagogical practice.

  • 190.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Fisher, Linda
    Critical Multilingual Language Awareness Among Migrant Students: Cultivating Curiosity and a Linguistics of Participation2022In: Journal of Language, Identity & Education, ISSN 1534-8458, E-ISSN 1532-7701, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws from a collaborative project in which we piloted a Critical Multilingual Language Awareness approach (CMLA) in a preparatory class for recently arrived secondary school students in Sweden. We adapted material on Language Awareness from We Are Multilingual (https://www.wamcam.org). This adapted approach followed the five principles of educational design for multilingual learners, which also relate to cognitive, performative, affective, social and power domains of Language Awareness. Data consist of audio- and video-recorded interactions from classroom observations, student/teacher interviews, and teaching/student-produced material. With a process-oriented focus, we discuss student participation in this co-learning design as contingent upon practices of curiosity. A focus is also on the co-learning process through reflection on activity, and how cultivating new ways of listening, involving multilingual study mentoring, may spur linguistic participation.

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  • 191.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Fisher, Linda
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Multilingual study mentoring for critical multilingual language awareness among migrant adolescents: scenarios of possibility2022In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper builds on a collaborative pilot project on Critical Multilingual Language Awareness (CMLA) in a linguistically diverse Preparatory Class with migrant adolescents in Sweden. Importantly, the approach involved Multilingual Study Mentors (MSMs), whose role normally is to provide scaffolding in the strongest language of recently arrived students to facilitate learning in the language of instruction. Previous research has shown that MSMs are left at the margins of education. This paper explores some of the many audio-recorded conversations on multilingualism between the six MSMs and the students as scenarios of possibility (Heath, S. B. 2000. “Seeing Our Way into Learning.” Cambridge Journal of Education 30 (1): 121–132. doi:10.1080/03057640050005816), facilitated by the MSMs' widened epistemic authority and invested symbolic self (Kramsch, C. 2011. “The Symbolic Dimensions of the Intercultural.” Language Teaching 44 (3): 354–367. doi:10.1017/s0261444810000431). Through their careful positionings and personal involvement, students were encouraged to engage in various themes on multilingualism via co-learning processes and translingual practices, beyond the mere display of accurate and efficient communication in the majority language, hence, moving towards increased student participation. These findings demonstrate the potential MSMs – or possibly other community members – have to shape co-learning that is of importance to CMLA.

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  • 192.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Jacquet, Ewa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Nilson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Rejman, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Expressing Reading Engagement within Drama-Based Literary Work: Perspectives from Three Students in aLinguistically Diverse Classroom in Sweden2023In: Multimodality and multilingualism: Towards an integrative approach / [ed] Steph Ainsworth; Dominic Griffiths; Gee Macrory; Kate Pahl, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2023, p. 106-119Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter centers around creative multimodal learning in relation to the reading of literature. Through a focus on the ‘reading of “things”—artifacts, objects, texts’ (Johnson & Enriquez, 2016: 273), the chapter highlights the interplay between text, learning and ‘the sensual, affective, materiality of bodies’ (Hughes, 2016: 124; cf. Vasudevan, 2010). Building on a phenomenological approach to the embodied dimensions of literacy in time and place, we also acknowledge how expressions of individuals as literate beings are contingent upon personal histories as well as institutional norms (Enriquez, 2016: 51). More specifically, the chapter draws on a collaborative drama-based literary project in a linguistically diverse secondary classroom in Sweden. Within the frame of such a drama-based ‘embodied pedagogy’ (Rothwell, 2011: 582), the reading of a detective novel was embedded in a range of creative multimodal learning activities comprising corporeal engagement through ‘material-discursive’ and ‘emotive’ meaning-making (see Johnson & Kontovourki, 2016: 5). The project was introduced by the authors, and one teacher, Nicole, invited us to work collaboratively in her class. The aim was to investigate and discuss student expressions of literary engagement within the drama-based frame and the possible significance of observed embodied engagement for pedagogical approaches to literature. In this chapter, we focus specifically on three of the students: Nura, Omar and Mustafa (pseudonyms).

  • 193.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Lubińska, Dorota
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Aktuella trender i svenska som andraspråk i ljuset av norska som andraspråk [Current trends in Swedish as a second language in the light of Norwegian as a second language]: En studie av doktorsavhandlingar 2013–2021 [A study of doctoral dissertations 2013–2021]2022In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, E-ISSN 2535-3381, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 115-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this overview is to highlight current themes and trends in the research field of Swedish as a Second Language (SSL) on the basis of doctoral dissertations written in 2013–2021. The starting point for the analysis is an earlier overview of the research field of Norwegian as a Second Language (NSL) based on doctoral dissertations. In the dissertations that were classified in the SSL field, from the self-positionings of the authors, we investigated which research topics are represented, main trends, prominent theoretical perspectives, and how trends and perspectives in SSL relate to those in NSL. The analyses show the multidisciplinary nature of both research fields in various ways. Based on an earlier classification of NSL, three main perspectives within SSL are identified: (1) learning, (2) language and culture contact, and (3) teaching. In SSL – like in NSL – the teaching perspective is most prominent, including similar theoretical frames. Differences concern both themes and student groups. While SSL has a greater focus on (subject-specific) literacy in relation to youths and adults, NSL is more concerned with the teaching of literature, and assessment, primarily in the teaching of younger learners. Finally, we discuss the importance of similar overviews in the second-language research field in the Nordic countries. 

  • 194.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Adjusting to linguistic diversity in a primary school through relational agency and expertise: a mother-tongue teacher team’s perspective2023In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communication, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 139-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of collaborative teacher agency in facilitating translingual adjustments in a linguistically diverse primary school in Sweden. We focus on three multicompetent language teachers, who taught minoritized languages in the marginalized Mother Tongue (MT) subject, Modern Languages, and offered Multilingual Study Mentoring. Drawing from ethnographic fieldwork, including teacher interviews and fieldnotes from everyday MT practices and preparations for an annual musical performance, we investigated how the teachers adjusted to the students’ multilingual repertoires through relational agency and distributed expertise (Edwards, A. 2011. Building common knowledge at the boundaries between professional practices: Relational agency and relational expertise in systems of distributed expertise. International Journal of Educational Research 50(1). 33–39). These adjustments affected the offered language provisions beyond what was required, based on students’ linguistic competencies and parental involvement. Didactic adjustments also afforded migrant students literary experiences that starkly contrasted with the limited literacy content in beginner courses in Swedish. These “responsive professional actions” (Edwards, A. 2011. Building common knowledge at the boundaries between professional practices: Relational agency and relational expertise in systems of distributed expertise. International Journal of Educational Research 50(1). 33–39, p. 39) thus impacted on the students’ opportunities for multilingual development, expanded language registers, including verbal art, and linguistic inclusion. Through these actions, language was reformulated as asset, and we find that an ethics of care (Watkins, M. 2011. Teachers’ tears and the affective geography of the classroom. Emotion, Space and Society 4(3). 137–143) was closely intertwined with this relational agency. The findings contribute new knowledge on the role of collaborative teacher agency in diverse settings also of relevance to other national contexts.

  • 195.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Skolämnet svenska som andraspråk i internationellt perspektiv – exempel ur forskning2022Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna översikt belyser vi skolämnet svenska som andraspråk (sva) med utgångspunkt i några internationella utblickar. Inledningsvis tar vi avstamp i den svenska kontexten, med en historisk tillbakablick och genom att redogöra för och diskutera vad som utmärker den unika ämneskonstruktionen med två parallella svenskämnen och vilka argument för designen som åberopats i forskning. Sva diskuteras också i relation till uppfattningar om likvärdighet, baserat i en artikel av Hedman och Magnusson (2018). I denna inledning behandlas även OECD-rapporten Strength through diversity’s spotlight report for Sweden (Cerna et al., 2019) avseende det som där framkommer om skolämnet svenska som andraspråk. Därefter redogör vi för och diskuterar främst tre nationella kontexter, Norge, England och USA beträffande undervisning i norska som andraspråk (noa) respektive English as an Additional Language (EAL). 

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  • 196.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Swedish immersion in Finland and Swedish as a second-language subject in Sweden: Teacher perspectives from two primary schools.2023In: Journal of Immersion and Content Based Language Education, ISSN 2212-8433, E-ISSN 2212-8441, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 255-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on fieldwork and interviews, we explore five teachers’ views abouttheir teaching of Swedish as a second language in an early immersion schoolin Finland (Larch) and a linguistically heterogeneous primary school inSweden (Chestnut). Drawing from ecological perspectives, we aim tocontribute new knowledge on how second language teachers express theirgoals, teacher experiences and expertise depending on language andeducation policy as discursive-material reality. We discuss how societal,discursive and material differences were entangled with the teachers’discourses, for example, the fact that Swedish immersion at Larch enjoyed ahigher social status than Swedish as a second language at Chestnut.Concomitantly, the teachers adhered to pedagogical principles and thevalue of students’ linguistic and cultural repertoires in similar ways. Wespecifically discuss teacher autonomy as entwined with prevailingdiscursive-material realities, including distinct language education policies.

  • 197.
    Hedman, Christina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Nilsson, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Möjligheter till lärande: andraspråksdidaktik i ett kritiskt perspektiv2022In: Möjligheter till lärande: andraspråksdidaktik i ett kritiskt perspektiv / [ed] Kristina Aldén; Mikael Olofsson, Liber AB , 2022, p. 17-34Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 198.
    Hellmark, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    Återkoppling, engagemang, bearbetning: Återkopplingspraktiker i undervisning om akademiskt skrivande för studenter med svenska som andraspråk2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines written feedback on texts in a university preparatory course, Qualifying Course in Swedish for University Studies. The general aim is to illuminate feedback practices in the teaching of academic writing to adult second language students of Swedish and what characterises the feedback practices, with an interest in lecturer and student perspectives. 

    Data were collected from six groups at two universities and consist of 53 texts written by students that include feedback from lecturers, interviews with 24 students and four lecturers, and 47 student survey responses. 

    The study is based on sociocultural theory. Another perspective on writing in academic contexts relates to the concept of cognitive academic language proficiency. The written feedback was categorised to examine the focus of the lecturers’ comments and how they were formulated. To interpret and analyse the transcribed interviews, qualitative content analysis was used with Mediated Learning Experience and learner engagement.

    The results reveal that the focus of the feedback was mainly determined by so-called external factors, syllabi, and criteria in assessment documents. The form of the feedback was mainly motivated by the lecturers’ perceptions of how good feedback should be given and they seemed to have feedback styles that they adhered to. Three of them emphasised the importance of indirect feedback because of its potential to stimulate student reflection and involvement in text revision. The fourth lecturer mainly gave direct correction because they felt that the students needed that support, and that one semester was too short a time for real language development to take place.

    Lecturers said that feedback must be explicit if students are to understand it and avoid praise so that students are not misled into thinking that their texts are of higher quality than they actually are. Despite these views, however, all lecturers mitigated their feedback in some way. 

    Students were generally positive towards both the feedback and the lecturers and felt that the feedback process could lead to writing development. A distinct pattern in what was valued positively was clear and detailed feedback that directed them towards opportunities for improvement, which showed what was problematic, and why it was problematic. There was also consensus on the importance of praise in the feedback to indicate the strengths of a text, for making development visible, and above all, for the motivation it provided. 

    There were somewhat mixed opinions regarding whether indirect or direct feedback was preferred. Indirect feedback was positively valued because it required reflection and engagement for revisions to be made, but some of the students also confirmed the need for direct correction. Negative emotions towards the feedback were, for example, caused by uncertainty about the linguistic level of their texts, and voluminous feedback, although many of the students felt that extensive feedback was necessary. 

    Although the students generally seemed to understand both the lecturers’ feedback and what caused their mistakes, they highlighted the need for extended oral and personal dialogue with lecturers to improve their processing possibilities. 

    In conclusion, regardless of the lecturers’ attitudes to the learning potential of feedback, their feedback was clearly not given procedurally but was deliberate and thoughtful. Students’ commitment to processing their texts was similarly evident.

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  • 199.
    Hesby Mathé, Nora E.
    et al.
    Department of teacher education and school research, University of Oslo.
    Sandahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning. 0000-0003-3746-1620.
    Between the lifeworld and academia: Defining political issues in social science education2023In: Journal of Social Science Education, E-ISSN 1618-5293, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highlights:

    We identified four aspects for defining political issues.Political issues are collective.Political issues are conflictual in nature.Political issues are contemporary issues.Issues are political due to contextual factors.Purpose: The purpose of this study is to discuss mutual understandings of political issues among students and academics. The aim is to suggest a framework that teachers can use to address politics from both the discipline’s and the students’ perspectives.

    Design/methodology/approach: This study is based on semi-structured interviews with twelve students in six upper secondary schools and eight social science academics in Norway and Sweden.

    Findings: We identified four guiding aspects for defining political issues in social science education to connect disciplinary thinking with students’ views of the political. These aspects are: 1) collective, 2) contemporary, 3) conflictual, and 4) contextual.

    Limitations: This study relied on interviews with a selection of students and academics and what they chose to express. The results may not be applicable to other samples.

    Implications: The framework presented can be used in social science education to understand and discuss the nature of political issues.

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  • 200.
    Heyman, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Teaching and Learning.
    ”En gemensam referensram”: Potentialen för interkulturell historieundervisning på lågstadiet2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utforskar potentialen för historieundervisning med interkulturella perspektiv i grundskolans lägsta årskurser, genom intervjuer med åtta verksamma lärare. Syftet är att genom undersökning och tolkning av vad som framträder i empirin, identifiera vad interkulturella perspektiv innebär för lärarna i deras undervisning. Frågeställningarna behandlar vad lärare anser gör historieämnet relevant, relaterbart och tillgängligt för eleverna, hur och i vilken utsträckning lärarna möjliggör perspektivskiften i undervisningen samt vilken förståelse av interkulturella perspektiv som lärarna ger uttryck för. Tidigare forskning visar både utmaningar och potential för interkulturellt historiskt lärande.

    Semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts med lärarna, varefter transkriberingarna har analyserats i en metodkombination av tolkningsfenomenologisk analys och kvalitativ textanalys. Teoretiska utgångspunkter har tagits i tidigare etablerade idéer om interkulturellt historiskt lärande. 

    Resultaten visar stor potential för interkulturella perspektiv i undervisningen, men också att det finns outnyttjad potential och utvecklingsmöjligheter. Lärarna ger uttryck för en ambition att undervisa med interkulturella perspektiv, men synsätt, förekomst och tillvägagångssätt varierar. Studien sammanfattas med förslag på vägledande principer. Där framhålls vikten av att inte se interkulturella perspektiv kvantitativt utan som ett förhållningssätt, att se förhållningssättet som så pass inkluderande att det inte innebär konflikt med lärarens objektivitet, samt att omsätta perspektiven i konkret utveckling av förmågor hos eleverna.

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