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  • 151.
    Sundström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bogdanska, Jasna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Pham, Hung V.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Athanasios, Vlastaras
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nobel, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    McAlees, Alan
    Eriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    DePierre, Joseph W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Radiosynthesis of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), including solubility, partition and adhesion studies2012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 87, no 8, p. 865-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we describe for the first time the synthesis of [S-35] PFOS and [S-35] PFBS with sulfur-35 enriched sulfur dioxide as the radiolabelled reagent, resulting in 2.5 and 2.3 mCi of product, respectively. Basic information concerning the physicochemical properties of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are still limited. Hence, we utilized these radiolabelled perfluoroalkanesulfonates (PFSAs), as well as carbon-14 labelled perfluorooctanoic acid a, ([C-14] PFOA) to determine some basic characteristics of physiological and experimental significance. The solubility of PFOS in buffered aqueous solutions at pH 7.4 was found to be severely reduced in the presence of potassium and sodium ions, which, however, did not reduce the solubility of PFOA or PFBS. PFOS was found to adhere to a small extent to polypropylene and polystyrene, whereas no such adhesion of PFOA or PFBS was detected. The extents of adhesion of PFOS and PFOA to glass were found to be 20% and 10%, respectively. For the first time, the partition coefficients for PFOS, PFBS and PFOA between n-octanol and water were determined experimentally, to be -0.7, -0.3, and 1.4, respectively, reflecting the difference in the amphiphilic natures of these molecules.

  • 152.
    Sundström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Chang, Shu-Ching
    Noker, Patricia E.
    Gorman, Gregory S.
    Hart, Jill A.
    Ehresman, David J.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Butenhoff, John L.
    Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in rats, mice, and monkeys2012In: Reproductive Toxicology, ISSN 0890-6238, E-ISSN 1873-1708, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 441-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) has been found in biological samples from wildlife and humans. The human geometric mean serum PFHxS elimination half-life has been estimated to be 2665 days. A series of studies was undertaken to establish pharmacokinetic parameters for PFHxS in rats, mice, and monkeys after single administration with pharmacokinetic parameters determined by WinNonlin (R) software. Rats and mice appeared to be more effective at eliminating PFHxS than monkeys. With the exception of female rats, which had serum PFHxS elimination half-life of approximately 2 days, the serum elimination half-lives in the rodent species and monkeys approximated 1 month and 4 months, respectively, when followed over extended time periods (10-24 weeks). Collectively, these studies provide valuable insight for human health risk assessment regarding the potential for accumulation of PFHxS in humans.

  • 153.
    Sundström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Ehresman, David
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Bignert, Anders
    Enheten för miljögiftsforskning, Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Butenhoff, John L.
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Olsen, Geary
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Chang, Shu-Ching
    3M Company, St. Paul, MN, USA.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden2010In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 178-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread presence of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in human general populations and their slow elimination profiles have led to renewed interest in understanding the potential human neonatal exposures of perfluoroalkyls (PFAs) from consumption of human milk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk samples obtained in Sweden between 1972 and 2008 (a period representing the most significant period of PFA production) and to see whether the time trend of these analytes parallels that indicated in human serum. Chemical analysis of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA was performed on pooled Swedish human milk samples from 1972 to 2008 after methodological refinements. The 20 samples which formed the 2007 pool were also analyzed individually to evaluate sample variations. Analyses were performed by HPLC-MS/MS. Due to the complexities of the human milk matrix and the requirement to accurately quantitate low pg/mL concentrations, meticulous attention must be paid to background contamination if accurate results are to be obtained. PFOS was the predominant analyte present in the pools and all three analytes showed statistically significant increasing trends from 1972 to 2000, with concentrations reaching a plateau in the 1990s. PFOA and PFOS showed statistically significant decreasing trends during 2001-2008. At the end of the study, in 2008, the measured concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA in pooled human milk were 75 pg/mL, 14 pg/mL, and 74 pg/mL, respectively. The temporal concentration trends of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFOA observed in human milk are parallel to those reported in the general population serum concentrations.

     

  • 154.
    Sundström, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Hart, J, A
    Chang, S, C
    Ehresman, D, J
    Gorman, G., S.
    Noker, P, E
    Olsen, G, W
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Butenhoff, J, L
    Comparative pharmacokinetics of perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) in rats and monkeys 2009In: Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 71, Peking, 2009, p. 1191-1196Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 155.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Christiansson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Octabrominated Diphenyl Ethers from Aminodiphenyl Ethers2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 41, no 21, p. 7459-7463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are additive brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which have become widespread pollutants in abiotic and biotic environments including man. Tetra- to hexaBDEs and decaBDE are the most common environmental PBDE contaminants. Congeners of octabromodiphenyl ethers (octaBDEs) originate from used industrial OctaBDE mixtures and from transformation products of the high-volume industrial BFR mixture "DecaBDE", which most exclusively consists of perbrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209). The objective of the present work was to develop methods for the synthesis of authentic octaBDE congeners in order to make them available as standards for analytical, toxicological, and stability studies, as well as studies concerning physical-chemical properties. The syntheses of six octaBDEs, 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-194), 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-196), 2,2',3,3',4,5,5',6-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-198), 2,2',3,3',4,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-201), 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-202), and 2,2',3,4,4',5,6,6'-octabromdipheny ether (BDE-204), are described, of which BDE-204 was prepared via two different pathways. Syntheses of BDE-198, BDE-201, BDE-202, and BDE-204 are based on octabromination of mono- or diaminodiphenyl ethers followed by diazotization and reduction of the amino group(s). BDE-194 and BDE-196 were prepared by bromination of 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-169) and 2,3,3',4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-191), respectively, and BDE-169 and BDE-191 were prepared from 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether and 3,4'-diamiodiphenyl ether, respectively. The synthesized PBDE congeners are described by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, electron ionization mass spectra, and their melting points.

  • 156.
    Teclechiel, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Improved synthesis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers via iodonium salt coupling2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Brominated flameretardants II (Environment and fate), 2007, p. 2724-2727Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 157.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Rothenbacher, Klaus
    Herrmann, Thomas
    Sjölin, Sverker
    Hagmar, Lars
    Päpke, Olaf
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Polybrominated diphenyl ether exposure to electronics recycling workers: A follow up study2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 11, p. 1855-1861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers at an electronics recycling plant have previously been shown to have elevated serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) compared to referents without occupational PBDE exposure. Subsequent structural changes and industrial hygiene measures at the plant were applied to improve the work environment. The present study aims to assess the impact of these work environment changes on the occupational exposure to PBDEs.

    Blood were drawn from the workers and analyzed at two different laboratories, and serum concentrations of several PBDE congeners were determined by GC/MS or GC/HRMS. Cross-sectional studies were performed prior to (in 1997; N = 19) and after (in 2000; N = 27) workplace improvements. Longitudinal studies were performed on twelve of the workers that were sampled at both occasions.

    Even though the amount of processed goods had doubled in 2000 as compared to 1997, there was a significant decrease in the serum levels of BDE-183 and BDE-209. For BDE-209 the levels observed in year 2000 were even lower than in referents with no occupational exposure. In contrast to the decrease of higher brominated diphenyl ethers, the concentrations of BDE-47 did not significantly change. For BDE-153, the cross-sectional study indicated no change, whereas the longitudinal follow up indicated a significant increase.

    This study shows that the industrial hygiene improvements clearly reduced the occupational exposure to BDE-183 and BDE-209 at the plant. Still, the levels of hexa- to nonaBDEs but not BDE-209 were elevated, compared to referents with no occupational exposure.

  • 158.
    Thuresson, Kaj
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Diab-Kronholm, Kerstin
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Jakobsson, Kristina
    Occupational exposure to commercial decabromodiphenyl ether in workers manufacturing or handling flame retarded rubber2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 1980-1986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) is commonly used as a flame retardant in different electrical and textile applications. It is also used in the production of flame-retarded rubber compound. DecaBDE is the major technical polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) in use today and consists mainly of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209). PBDEs, including BDE-209, are well-known environmental pollutants, ubiquitous both in aquatic and terrestrial environments. The aim of the present study was to assess the exposure to PBDEs in workers manufacturing or handling rubber which was flame retarded with DecaBDE. A referent group, abattoir workers (slaughterhouse workers), with no occupational exposure to PBDEs, was also investigated. Moreover, the methodology for analysis of PBDEs in serum was refined, with special emphasis on congeners with a high number of bromine substituents, i.e., octa- to decaBDEs. The highest BDE-209 concentration observed among the rubber workers was 280 pmol/g lipid weight (l.w.) (270 ng/g l.w.). The median concentration of BDE-209 among rubber workers was 37 pmol/g l.w. (35 ng/g l.w.). Among referents, the median was 2.5 (range 0.92−9.7) pmol/g l.w. (median 2.4 ng/g l.w.). In rubber workers the BDE-209 concentrations were up to 32% (median 4%) of the 2,2‘,4,4‘,5,5‘-chlorobiphenyl (CB-153) concentra tions, on a molar basis, whereas the referents had BDE-209 concentrations which were similar to that of 2,2‘,4,4‘-bromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), below 1.4% (median 0.3%) of the CB-153 concentration. Concentrations of all nonabromodiphenyl ethers (nonaBDEs) and several octabrmodiphenyl ethers (octaBDEs) congeners, including BDE-203, were also elevated among the rubber workers, with 2.5- to 11-fold higher median concentrations, compared to the referents. The results confirm a significant uptake of BDE-209 in the workers exposed to DecaBDE and indicate a potential for in vivo formation of lower BDEs in these persons.

  • 159. Ueno, Daisuke
    et al.
    Darling, Colin
    Alaee, Mehran
    Pacepavicius, Grazina
    Teixeira, Camilla
    Campbell, Linda
    Letcher, Robert James
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Muir, Derek
    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) in the abiotic environment: surface water and precipitation from Ontario, Canada.2008In: Environ Sci Technol, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1657-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of PBDEs, and also as compounds of natural origin in the marine environment; however, there has only been very limited study of their presence in the abiotic environment. In the present study, OH-PBDEs were determined in samples of surface water and precipitation (rain and snow) collected from sites in Ontario, Canada. OH-PBDEs were detected in all the samples analyzed, although half of the observed peaks did not correspond to any of the 18 authentic standards available. Fluxes of sigmaOH-PBDEs ranged from 3.5 to 190 pg/m2 in snow and from 15 to 170 pg/m2/day in rain, and those were higher at three of the southern Ontario locations relative to a single northern remote site. Concentrations of sigmaOH-PBDEs ranged from 2.2 to 70 pg/L in water and from < 1 to 420 pg/g in particulate organic carbon (POC), and higher values were found near sewage treatment plant (STP) outfalls in Lake Ontario. Partition coefficients (log K(oc)) for OH-PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 5.1. The results in this study suggest that OH-PBDEs are ubiquitous in the abiotic environment and most likely are produced through reaction of PBDEs with atmospheric OH radicals. As well, they may be present in surface waters near STPs due to oxidation of PBDEs and inflows from metabolism by humans and animals.

  • 160. Ulhaq, Mazhar
    et al.
    Sundström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Larsson, Pia
    Gabrielsson, Johan
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Norrgren, Leif
    Örn, Stefan
    Tissue uptake, distribution and elimination of C-14-PFOA in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2015In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 163, p. 148-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a long-chain perfluorinated chemical that has been shown to be non-degradable and persistent in the environment. Laboratory studies on bioconcentration and compound-specific tissue distribution in fish can be valuable for prediction of the persistence and environmental effects of the chemicals. In the present study male and female zebrafish (Danio redo) were continuously exposed to 10 mu g/L of radiolabeled perfluorooctanoic acid (C-14-PFOA) for 40 days, after which the exposed fish were transferred to fresh clean water for another 80 days wash-out period. At defined periodic intervals during the uptake and wash-out, fish were sampled for liquid scintillation counting and whole body autoradiography to profile the bioconcentration and tissue distribution of PFOA. The steady-state concentration of C-14-PFOA in the zebrafish was reached within 20-30 days of exposure. The concentration-time course of C-14-PFOA displayed a bi-exponential decline during washout, with a terminal half-life of approximately 13-14 days. At steady-state the bioconcentration of C-14-PFOA into whole-body fish was approximately 20-30 times greater than that of the exposure concentration, with no differences between females and males. The bioconcentration factors for liver and intestine were approximately 100-fold of the exposure medium, while in brain, ovary and gall bladder the accumulation factors were in the range 15-20. Whole-body autoradiograms confirmed the highest labeling of PFOA in bile and intestines, which implies enterohepatic circulation of PFOA. The C-14-PFOA was also observed in maturing vitellogenic oocytes, suggesting chemical accumulation via yolk proteins into oocytes with plausible risk for adverse effects on early embryonic development and offspring health. The bioconcentration at several C-14-PFOA exposure concentrations were also investigated (0.3-30 mu g/L). This showed that bioconcentration increased linearly with tank exposure in the present in vivo model under steady-state conditions. From this model tissue concentrations of PFOA can be predicted when the external exposure level is known. The present study has generated experimental data on PFOA kinetics in zebrafish that can be valuable for aquatic environmental risk assessment.

  • 161. Valters, Karlis
    et al.
    Olsson, Anders
    Viksne, Janis
    Rubene, Liga
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Concentration dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blood of growing Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) chicks in the wild2022In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 306, article id 119330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) – organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and industrial products and byproducts – are included in different monitoring programmes and surveys, involving various animal species. Fish-eating birds are suitable indicator species for OCs. Adult birds may be difficult to capture, but chicks can be sampled more easily. Blood of birds is a potentially suitable non-destructive matrix for analysis, as OC levels in blood reflect their concentrations in the body. The study was aimed at investigating how age of fast-growing Grey heron (Ardea cinerea) chicks affects contaminant levels in their blood and thus how important is sampling at exact age for biomonitoring purposes. In 1999 on Lake Engure in Latvia whole blood samples of heron chicks were collected at three different time points, with seven and nine days in between the first and second and second and third sampling points, respectively. Twenty-two chicks were sampled at all three times. In total, 102 samples were analysed for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, DDT metabolites – DDE and DDD, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-, β-, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and trans-nonachlor. Total PCB concentrations averaged around 2000 ng/g dry extracted matter (EM). DDE was the dominant individual contaminant (ca. 800 ng/g EM), followed by CB-153, -138, and −118. Most of the other analysed OCs were below 100 ng/g EM. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in OC concentrations were found between the three sampling occasions, except for trans-nonachlor. This means that blood can safely be sampled for biomonitoring purposes during the 17 days’ time window. The analysed legacy contaminants may serve as model substances for other persistent organic pollutants.

  • 162. Vandenberg, Laura N.
    et al.
    Ågerstrand, Marlene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Beronius, Anna
    Beausoleil, Claire
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden.
    Bero, Lisa A.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    Boyer, C. Scott
    Cooper, Glinda S.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    Gee, David
    Grandjean, Philippe
    Guyton, Kathryn Z.
    Hass, Ulla
    Heindel, Jerrold J.
    Jobling, Susan
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kortenkamp, Andreas
    Macleod, Malcolm R.
    Martin, Olwenn V.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Scheringer, Martin
    Thayer, Kristina A.
    Toppari, Jorma
    Whaley, Paul
    Woodruff, Tracey J.
    Rudén, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals2016In: Environmental Health, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 15, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength of evidence linking EDC exposures to adverse health or environmental outcomes. Systematic review methodologies are ideal for addressing this issue as they provide transparent and consistent approaches to study selection and evaluation. Objective methods are needed for integrating the multiple streams of evidence (epidemiology, wildlife, laboratory animal, in vitro, and in silico data) that are relevant in assessing EDCs.

    Methods: We have developed a framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of EDC studies. The framework was designed for use with the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and World Health Organization (WHO) definition of an EDC, which requires appraisal of evidence regarding 1) association between exposure and an adverse effect, 2) association between exposure and endocrine disrupting activity, and 3) a plausible link between the adverse effect and the endocrine disrupting activity.

    Results: Building from existing methodologies for evaluating and synthesizing evidence, the SYRINA framework includes seven steps: 1) Formulate the problem; 2) Develop the review protocol; 3) Identify relevant evidence; 4) Evaluate evidence from individual studies; 5) Summarize and evaluate each stream of evidence; 6) Integrate evidence across all streams; 7) Draw conclusions, make recommendations, and evaluate uncertainties. The proposed method is tailored to the IPCS/WHO definition of an EDC but offers flexibility for use in the context of other definitions of EDCs.

    Conclusions: When using the SYRINA framework, the overall objective is to provide the evidence base needed to support decision making, including any action to avoid/minimise potential adverse effects of exposures. This framework allows for the evaluation and synthesis of evidence from multiple evidence streams. Finally, a decision regarding regulatory action is not only dependent on the strength of evidence, but also the consequences of action/inaction, e.g. limited or weak evidence may be sufficient to justify action if consequences are serious or irreversible.

  • 163. Wahl, M.
    et al.
    Guenther, R.
    Yang, L.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Straehle, U.
    Strack, S.
    Weiss, C.
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and arylhydrocarbon receptor agonists: Different toxicity and target gene expression2010In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 198, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) accumulate in the environment and in humans. PBDEs are developmental neurotoxicants, disturb the endocrine system and induce tumors in rodents. However, underlying mechanisms of PBDE toxicity are still insufficiently understood. Some reports demonstrated activation but also inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by PBDEs based on expression of its target gene cyp1A1. In the present study, we used different PBDE congeners (BDE47, 99, 153 and 209) and analyzed their effects on AhR signaling in various cell lines and zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we performed microarray experiments in rat hepatoma cells to compare changes in gene expression induced by either BDE47 or the AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrabromo-dibenzofuran (TBDF). PBDEs did not activate but rather inhibited AhR signaling and specifically induced malformations in zebrafish embryos, which differ from those provoked by AhR agonists. Furthermore, BDE47 and TBDF differentially regulated global gene expression in hepatoma cells. Hence. PBDEs and AhR agonists trigger different toxicity and target gene expression. Several novel target genes of BDE47 and TBDF were identified and verified by RT-PCR. TBDF induced expression of the transcriptional regulators Sim2 and RevErb beta whereas BDE47 specifically deregulated expression of two subunits of the cytochrome c oxidase complex, cox6a2 and cox4i2, which might be linked to its toxicity.

  • 164. Wei, Lai
    et al.
    Huang, Qinghui
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Gao, Hongwen
    Huang, Fei
    Bignert, Anders
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in eggs of night herons and poultries from the upper Yangtze Basin, Southwest China2023In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 30, no 41, p. 93744-93759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs have been identified as useful indicators for biomonitoring the environmental pollution in China. In this study, we investigated thirty eggs of black-crowned night heron collected from the upper Yangtze River (Changjiang) Basin, Southwest China, for the occurrence of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Our results showed a general presence of POPs in night heron eggs with OCPs being the dominant contaminants, having a geometric mean concentration of 22.2 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), followed by PCBs (1.36 ng g(-1) ww), PBDEs (0.215 ng g(-1) ww), and PCDD/Fs (23.0 pg g(-1) ww). The concentration levels were found to be significantly higher in night heron eggs than in poultry eggs by one or two magnitude orders. Among OCP congeners, p,p & PRIME;-DDE was found to be predominant in night heron eggs, with a geometric mean concentration of 15.1 ng g(-1) ww. Furthermore, species-specific congener patterns in eggs suggested similar or different sources for different POPs, possibly associated with contaminated soil and parental dietary sources. Additionally, estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were used to evaluate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk associated with consumption of bird eggs. Our results revealed non-negligible non-cancer and cancer risk for humans who consume wild bird eggs as a regular diet instead of poultry eggs.

  • 165. Westerink, R.H.S.
    et al.
    Heusinkveld, H.J.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    van den Berg, M
    Dingemans, M.M.L.
    Inhibition of the depolarization-evoked increase in intracellular calcium levels and catecholamine exocytosis by hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in PC12 cells2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166. Westerink, R.H.S.
    et al.
    van den Berg, M
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Dingemans, M.M.L.
    Hydroxylation increases the neurotoxic potential of the brominated flame retardant BDE-47: The structure of BDE-47 Metabolites determines the potency to affect calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Wu, Yan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Qiu, Yanling
    Chen, Da
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Occurrence and risk assessment of trace metals and metalloids in sediments and benthic invertebrates from Dianshan Lake, China2017In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 17, p. 14847-14856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study measured concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Pb in surface sediments and two benthic invertebrate species (Anodonta woodiana and Bellamya aeruginosa) collected from Dianshan Lake, located in the Yangtze River Delta. The Dianshan Lake acts as one of the most important drinking water sources to Shanghai, the biggest city in China. Concentrations of trace metals and metalloids ranged from 0.04 mg/kg for Cd to 288.0 mg/kg for Zn. Substantial bioaccumulation in invertebrates was observed for Zn and Cu based on the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) measurements. The results revealed that concentrations of metals and metalloids in sediments from Dianshan Lake were at the lower end of the range of levels found in other regions of China. The assessment of three significantly inter-related evaluation indices, including the geo-accumulation Index (I-geo), potential ecological risk factor (Er-i), and mean probable effect concentration quotients (Q(m-PEC)), suggested that sediment-associated trace elements exhibited no considerable ecological risks in the studied watershed. However, the target hazard quotient and hazard index analysis suggested that selected elements (particularly As) accumulation in edible tissues of benthic invertebrates could pose potential health risks to local populations, especially fishermen. Given that wild aquatic organisms (e.g., fish and bivalves) constitute the diet of local populations as popular food/protein choices, further investigations are needed to better elucidate human health risks from metal and metalloid exposure via edible freshwater organisms.

  • 168. Yang, Ya
    et al.
    Song, Linlin
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Huang, Qinghui
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Human exposure to phthalate esters via ingestion of municipal drinking water from automatic water purifiers: levels, sources, and risks2022In: Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, ISSN 2053-1400, E-ISSN 2053-1419, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 2843-2855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of organic pollutants in drinking water is an environmental problem threatening public health. Water purifiers are commonly recognized as effective purification equipment for drinking water and are thus prevalent in the market, so there is a need to assess their true effects on drinking water. In this study, we have analyzed the distribution, potential sources, and health risks of phthalate esters (PAEs) in tap as well as purified water. 7 out of 22 target PAEs have been detected in a total of 75 drinking water samples, including tap water (TW), water vending machines (WVMs), and water boiling machines (WBMs). The total concentrations of 22 PAEs are N.D. to 447 ng L−1 in TW samples, 25.7 to 1.10 × 103 ng L−1 in WBM water, and N.D. to 841 ng L−1 in WVM water. The concentrations of PAEs in most WVM and WBM samples were comparable or slightly higher than those in TW samples. Meanwhile, the ΣPAE concentrations in the nearshore of the Yangtze Estuary area (northern and southern areas) were slightly higher than those from offshore areas (Pudong: PD, Fengxian and Minhang: FM), which may be attributed to the source water. Combining the results of principal component analysis and correlation analysis, certain PAEs, e.g., diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibuthyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were more polluting than diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di-methyl phthalate (DMP) in WVM water than those in TW samples. This work suggests that the application of water purifiers may not remove certain PAEs efficiently from drinking water. In addition, the estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of ΣPAE via drinking water from automatic water purifiers were 2–3 times those from tap water under a high-exposure scenario, but all EDIs are well below current health regulatory guidelines for PAEs. This survey indicates that water purifiers made nearly no decrease to the PAE concentrations and possibly have negative effects on the quality of drinking water.

  • 169.
    Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Qui, Yanling
    Zhou, Yihui
    Wang, Hua
    Yao, Zongli
    Jiang, Jianbin
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Tongji University, China.
    Chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants in shellfish from the Yellow Sea and East China Sea2015In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1713-1722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), or compounds with similar characteristics, is well known. Still there are data gaps for POP concentrations from many areas in the world. The aim of the present study is to assess several legacies POPs and also hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in shellfish from three locations in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The sources of the contaminants are discussed. Pooled samples were treated by liquid-liquid extraction and acid and column cleanup prior to analysis by gas chromatogram equipped with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The by far most abundant environmental contaminant originates from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), independent of species analyzed or sampling site. The results indicate ongoing or at least recent discharges of DDT. The second highest concentrations were reported for HBCDD (21–40 ng/g fat) in the shellfish, independent of sampling sites. The two natural products, 6-MeO-BDE-47 and 2′-MeO-BDE-68, were also present in the shellfish (1.3–22 and 1–14 ng/g fat, respectively). The polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener CB-153 (0.8–6.5 ng/g fat), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (1.1–3.6 ng/g fat), and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) (2.3–4.9 ng/g fat) were all higher than the concentrations of other HCH isomers, β-endosulfan, PBDE congeners, and mirex. Apart from the DDTs and HBCDDs, it is evident that the pollution of shellfish was similar to, or lower than, the contamination of shellfish in other parts of the world.

  • 170.
    Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    A refined method for analysis of 4,4 '-dicofol and 4,4 '-dichlorobenzophenone2017In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 24, no 15, p. 13307-13314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acaricide, dicofol, is a well-known pesticide and partly a substitute for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Only few reports on environmental occurrence and concentrations have been reported calling for improvements. Hence, an analytical method was further developed for dicofol and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) to enable assessments of their environmental occurrence. Concentrated sulfuric acid was used to remove lipids and to separate dicofol from DCBP. On-column injection was used as an alternative to splitless injection to protect dicofol from thermal decomposition. By the method presented herein, it is possible to quantify dicofol and DCBP in the same samples. Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) were spiked at two dose levels and the recoveries were determined. The mean recovery for dicofol was 65% at the low dose (1 ng) and 77% at the high dose (10 ng). The mean recovery for DCBP was 99% at the low dose (9.2 ng) and 146% at the high dose (46 ng). The method may be further improved by use of another lipid removal method, e.g., gel permeation chromatography. The method implies a step forward in dicofol environmental assessments.

  • 171.
    Yin, Ge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Zhou, Yihui
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Asplund, Lillemor
    A refined method for analysis of 4,4’-dicofol and 4,4’-dichlorobenzophenoneManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Bignert, Anders
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    West, Christina E.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Polychlorinated alkanes in paired blood serum and breast milk in a Swedish cohort study: Matrix dependent partitioning differences compared to legacy POPs2024In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 183, article id 108440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Polychlorinated alkanes (PCAs) constitute a large group of individual congeners originating from commercial chlorinated paraffin (CP) products with carbon chain lengths of PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, and PCAs-C18-32, occasionally containing PCAs-C6-9 impurities. The extensive use of CPs has led to global environmental pollution of PCAs. This study aimed to quantify PCAs in paired serum and breast milk of lactating Swedish mothers, exploring their concentration relationship.

    Methods: Twenty-five paired samples of mothers’ blood serum and breast milk were analysed and concentrations were determined for PCAs C6-32 and compared to 4,4′-DDE, the PCB congener 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB).

    Results: The median concentrations of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs in serum were 14, 790, 520, 16 and 1350 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, and in breast milk 0.84, 36, 63, 6.0 and 107 ng/g lw. Levels of 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were comparable in the two matrices, serum and breast milk at 17, 12 and 4.9 ng/g lw. The results show significant differences of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17 in breast milk with 22– and 6.2-times lower lw-based concentrations than those measured in serum. On wet weight the differences serum/breast milk ratios of PCAs-C6-9, PCAs-C10-13, PCAs-C14-17, PCAs-C18-32 and ΣPCAs were 1.7, 3.2, 1.0, 0.4 and 1.6, respectively, while the ratio for 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB were each close to 0.1.

    Conclusion: Swedish lactating mothers had high serum concentrations of PCAs-C10-13 and PCAs-C14-17, with the ΣPCAs median serum concentration of 1350 ng/g lw. The breast milk concentration, although considerably lower at 107 ng/g lw, still surpassed those of 4,4′-DDE, CB-153 and HCB, suggesting an exposure risk of infants to PCAs. The variation in blood and breast milk accumulation between PCAs and studied legacy POPs, is rarely discussed but warrants further studies on partitioning properties as well as associated toxicological implications.

  • 173.
    Yuan, Bo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Strid, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Nyström, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Chlorinated paraffins leaking from hand blenders can lead to significant human exposures2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 109, p. 73-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. & para;& para;Objectives: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. & para;& para;Methods: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1 g oil/100 mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders. & para;& para;Results: Dietary intake of CPs from food market baskets was calculated to be 4.6 mu g/day per capita for Swedish adults. Total CP amounts in oil/water leakage samples ranged from < 0.09 to 120 mu g using the hand blenders once. CP leakage showed no decreasing levels after 20 times of hand blender usage. CP profiles in the leakage samples matched those of self-lubricating bearings and/or polymer components disassembled from the hand blenders. & para;& para;Conclusions: Usage of 75% of the hand blenders tested will lead to increased human exposure to CPs. The intake of CPs for Swedish adults by using hand blenders once a day can raise their daily dietary intake by a factor of up to 26. The 95th percentile intake of CPs via using the hand blenders once a day exceeded the TDI for Swedish infants with a body weight < 7.2 kg. CP leakage came from blender components which contain CPs. The leakage may last several hundred times of hand blender use.

  • 174. Zamir, R
    et al.
    Athanasiadou, M
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Nahar, N
    Mamun, M I R
    Mosihuzzaman, M
    Bergman, Å
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Persistent organohalogen contaminants in plasma from groups of humans with different occupations in Bangladesh2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 453-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aimed to assess persistent organic halogenated pollutants in humans living in Bangladesh. The results are compared to other similar studies in the region and globally. Human blood plasma were collected from groups of men and women with different occupations, i.e. being students, garment industry workers, employees at the Power Development Board (PDB), all groups in Dhaka, fishermen and fishermen wife's from Dhaka and another group from Barisal district. The plasma was analysed for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the hexachlorocyclohexane isomers, alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and delta-HCH, the DDT group of chemicals, chlordane compounds, trans-chlordane, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, trans-heptachlorepoxide, methoxychlor and mirex. The most abundant contaminant, in all groups studied, p,p'-DDE is dominating, with p,p'-DDT/ summation operatorDDT ratios indicating recent and ongoing DDT exposure. Among the other pesticides analysed beta-HCH is the most abundant indicating the use of technical HCH products instead of Lindane (gamma-HCH). While the summation operatorDDT is present in the low ppm range the beta-HCH is detected in up to approx. 400ppb, lipid basis. The beta-HCH is most abundant in the groups of students. In contrast to the pesticides analysed very low concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are present in all study groups, with e.g. CB-153 in the range of 5-30ngg(-1) fat. The concentrations of the DDT group of chemical differ significantly between fishermen and fishermen's wives living and working in the Dhaka area versus those living and working in Barisal. Also, fishermen and their wives had significantly different concentrations of DDT compared to garment industry workers.

  • 175.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Wideqvist, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Qiu, Yanling
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Extensive organohalogen contamination in wildlife from a site in the Yangtze River Delta2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 554, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental and human health concerns for organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) extend beyond the 23 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention. The current, intense industrial production and use of chemicals in China and their bioaccumulation makes Chinese wildlife highly suitable for the assessment of legacy, novel and emerging environmental pollutants. In the present study, six species of amphibians, fish and birds were sampled from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were screened for OHCs. Some extensive contamination was found, both regarding number and concentrations of the analytes, among the species assessed. High concentrations of chlorinated paraffins were found in the snake, Short-tailed mamushi (range of 200-340 mu g g(-1) lw), Peregrine falcon (8-59 mu g g(-1) lw) and Asiatic toad (97 mu g g(-1) lw). Novel contaminants and patterns were observed; octaCBs to decaCB made up 20% of the total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content in the samples and new OHCs, substituted with 5-8 chlorines, were found but are not yet structurally confirmed. In addition, Dechlorane 602 (DDC-DBF) and numerous other OHCs (DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexbromocyclododecane (HBCDD), chlordane, heptachlor, endosulfan and Mirex) were found in all species analyzed. These data show extensive chemical contamination of wildlife in the YRD with a suite of OHCs with both known and unknown toxicities, calling for further indepth studies.

  • 176.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Qiu, Yanling
    Bignert, Anders
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    A novel pollution pattern: Highly chlorinated biphenyls retained in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from the Yangtze River Delta2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 150, p. 491-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated diphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) were determined in Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and Whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida) from two drinking water sources, e.g. Tianmu lake and East Tai lake in Yangtze River Delta, China. A novel PCBs contamination pattern was detected, including 11% and 6.9% highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with eight to ten chlorines) in relation to total PCB concentrations in the Black-crowned night heron and Whiskered tern eggs, respectively. The predominating OCPs detected in the present study were 4,4'-DDE, with concentration range 280-650 ng g(-1) lw in Black crowned night heron and 240-480 ng g(-1) lw in Whiskered tern, followed by beta-HCH and Mirex. 6MeO-BDE-90 and 6-MeO-BDE-99 are the two predominant congeners of MeO-PBDEs whereas 6-OH-BDE-47 contributes mostly to the OH-PBDEs in both species. Contamination level was considered as median or low level compared global data.

  • 177.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Stewart, Kathryn
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Bignert, Anders
    Ruokojärvi, Päivi
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Qiu, Yanling
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ma, Zhijun
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    High concentrations of OCDD and related chemicals in heron and tern eggs from Yangtze River Delta indicating PCP originArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China.
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Stewart, Kathryn
    Rantakokko, Panu
    Bignert, Anders
    Ruokojärvi, Päivi
    Kiviranta, Hannu
    Qiu, Yanling
    Ma, Zhijun
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Tongji University, China; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Human exposure to PCDDs and their precursors from heron and tern eggs in the Yangtze River Delta indicate PCP origin2017In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 225, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are highly toxic to humans and wildlife. In the present study, PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the eggs of whiskered terns (Chlidonias hybrida), and genetically identified eggs from black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) sampled from two lakes in the Yangtze River Delta area, China. The median toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs were 280 (range: 95-1500) and 400 (range: 220-1100) pg TEQ g(-1) lw (WHO, 1998 for birds) in the eggs of black-crowned night heron and whiskered tern, respectively. Compared to known sources, concentrations of PCDDs relative to the sum of PCDD/Fs in bird eggs, demonstrated high abundance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD indicating pentachlorophenol (PCP), and/or sodium pentachlorophenolate (Na-PCP) as significant sources of the PCDD/Fs. The presence of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), hydroxylated and methoxylated polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (OH-and Me0-PCDEs, known impurities in PCP products), corroborates this hypothesis. Further, significant correlations were found between the predominant congener CDE-206, 3'-OH-CDE-207, 2'-MeO-CDE-206 and OCDD, indicating a common origin. Eggs from the two lakes are sometimes used for human consumption. The WHO health-based tolerable intake of PCDD/Fs is exceeded if eggs from the two lakes are consumed regularly on a weekly basis, particularly for children. The TEQs extensively exceed maximum levels for PCDD/Fs in hen eggs and egg products according to EU legislation (2.5 pg TEQ g(-1)/w). The results suggest immediate action should be taken to manage the contamination, and further studies evaluating the impacts of egg consumption from wild birds in China. Likewise, studies on dioxins and other POPs in common eggs need to be initiated around China.

  • 179.
    Zhou, Yihui
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Tongji University, China.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science.
    Nyberg, Elisabeth
    Yin, Ge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Shimadzu Scientific Instrument Company, China.
    Bignert, Anders
    Glynn, Anders
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Qu, Yanling
    Sun, Yajie
    Wu, Yongning
    Xiao, Qianfen
    Yin, Daqiang
    Zhu, Zhiliang
    Zhao, Jianfu
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science. Örebro University, Sweden; Tongji University, China.
    Chlorinated Paraffins in Human Milk from Urban Sites in China, Sweden, and Norway2020In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, no 7, p. 4356-4366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-, medium-, and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) were analyzed in human milk from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Scandinavia. Individual samples were collected from Shanghai, Jiaxing, and Shaoxing (China), Stockholm (Sweden), and Bodo (Norway) between 2010 and 2016. Mean concentrations (range) of SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in samples from the YRD were 124 [<limit of detection (LOD)-676], 146 ( LOD-1260), and 19.1 (<LOD-184) ng g(-1 )fat, respectively, all of which were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than 15.9 (<LOD-120). 45.0 (<LOD-311), and 5.50 (<LOD-29.0) ng g(-1 )fat, respectively, in samples from Scandinavia. MCCPs predominate in most samples, and LCCP concentrations exceed reported for polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human milk from the same regions. This study is the first to confirm LCCP exposure via breastfeeding. Principal component analysis showed that the YRD samples were more influenced by SCCPs than the Scandinavian samples, which mirror different exposures to CPs between the regions. Because of a large variation in concentrations among individuals, SCCP intake via breastfeeding indicated a potential health concern in the 90th percentile among Chinese infants. Further, CP concentrations in the YRD samples from first-time mothers were on average three times higher than from second-time mothers. In order to limit the worldwide CP contamination, the inclusion of SCCPs as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention needs to be followed up, with the inclusion of MCCPs and LCCPs as well.

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