Endre søk
Begrens søket
1234567 151 - 200 of 1937
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 151.
    Berlin, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Kaunitz, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Subjective Well-Being, Income and Economic Margins2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the Swedish Level of Living Survey to study how satisfaction with living conditions and daily life covary with economic resources, in the cross-section and in a decade-long panel. We find that self-reported lack of economic margins is a powerful determinant of satisfaction, its magnitude being comparable even to that of marriage or cohabitation. In contrast, although income is positively associated with satisfaction, the relationship is less robust than for economic margins, and the estimated gradients vary substantially depending on the choice of satisfaction measure, income measure and model specification. 

  • 152.
    Bertola, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Princeton University.
    Svensson, Lars E.O.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Stochastic Devaluation Risk and the Empirical Fit of Target Zone Models1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the model of this paper, an exchange rate fluctuates between given boundaries for random lengths of time and jumps discretely when devaluation occur. We provide explicit solutions for the stochastic processes followed by the exchange rate and by the expected rate of depreciation when the likelihood and the size of devaluations vary stochastically over time. The model produces realistic patterns of covariation between exchange rates and interest rate differentials, and provides interesting interpretations of available empirical evidence. We also specify how to infer devaluation risk from target zone data.

  • 153.
    Besley, Tim
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Why Do Developing Countries Tax So Little?2014Inngår i: Journal of Economic Perspectives, ISSN 0895-3309, E-ISSN 1944-7965, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 99-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 154. Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    Folke, Olle
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Canada.
    Rickne, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Sweden; Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS), Sweden.
    Gender Quotas and the Crisis of the Mediocre Man: Theory and Evidence from Sweden2017Inngår i: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 107, nr 8, s. 2204-2242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop a model where party leaders choose the competence of politicians on the ballot to trade off electoral success against their own survival. The predicted correlation between the competence of party leaders and followers is strongly supported in Swedish data. We use a novel approach, based on register data for the earnings of the whole population, to measure the competence of all politicians in 7 parties, 290 municipalities, and 10 elections (for the period 1982-2014). We ask how competence was affected by a zipper quota, requiring local parties to alternate men and women on the ballot, implemented by the Social Democratic Party in 1993. Far from being at odds with meritocracy, this quota raised the competence of male politicians where it raised female representation the most. We argue that resignation of mediocre male leaders was a key driver of this effect.

  • 155.
    Besley, Timothy J.
    et al.
    London School of Economics and Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
    Burchardi, Konrad B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Ghatak, Maitreesh
    London School of Economics.
    Incentives and the De Soto Effect2012Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 127, nr 1, s. 237-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the consequences of improving property rights to facilitate the use of fixed assets as collateral, popularly attributed to the influential policy advocate Hernando de Soto. We use an equilibrium model of a credit market with moral hazardto characterize the theoretical effects and also develop a quantitative analysis using data from Sri Lanka. We show that the effects are likely to be nonlinear and heterogeneous by wealth group. They also depend on the extent of competition between lenders. There can be significant increases in profits and reductions in interest rates when credit markets are competitive. However, since these are due to reductions in moral hazard, that is, increased effort, the welfare gains tend to be modest when cost of effort is taken into account. Allowing for an extensive margin where borrowers gain access to the credit market can make these effects larger depending on the underlying wealth distribution.

  • 156.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Economic Approaches to Political Institutions2008Inngår i: The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics / [ed] Steven N. Durlauf, Lawrence E. Blume, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, 2. edKapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Political institutions affect the rules of the game in which politics is played. Economists now have theoretical approaches to explain the impact of institutions on policy, and empirical evidence to support the relevance of the theory. This article sketches a framework to inform discussions about how political institutions shape policy outcomes. It does so using four examples: majoritarian versus proportional elections; parliamentary versus presidential government; whether to impose term-limits on office holders; and the choice between direct and representative democracy. Each example illustrates how theory and data can be brought together to investigate a specific issue.

  • 157.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London School of Economics and Political Science.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Pillars of prosperity: the political economics of development clusters2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 158.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London School of Economics, CIFAR.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Repression or Civil War?2009Inngår i: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 99, nr 2, s. 292-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Perhaps the crowning achievement of mature democracies is the peaceful acceptance of the ballot box as the primary instrument for deciding who should hold power in society. We do not have to go far back in the history of most democratic states, however, to find a distinct role for political violence. Moreover, many inhabitants of the globe still remain at risk of falling prey to widespread violence in the struggle for political office. Forms of political violence differ a great deal. We focus on two important manifestations: repression and civil war distinguished by whether violence is one-sided or two-sided. We present a unified approach to studying these forms of political violence with common roots in poverty, natural resource rents, and weak political institutions. First, we lay out  rudimentary model to analyze whether violence will occur and, if so, manifest itself as repression or civil war. Three regimes — peace, repression and civil war — emerge as alternative equilibrium outcomes in the interaction between an incumbent government and an opposition group. Moreover, the theory suggests a natural ordering of these regimes. We then construct empirical measures of repression and civil war, which we map into ordered variables as suggested by the theory. We investigate how the regime depends on economic and political variables, using an ordered logit model defined over the three regimes. Our estimation results indicate a strong correlation between low incomes, weak political institutions and both forms of political violence.

  • 159.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London School of Economics, United Kingdom; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canada.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Canada.
    The Causes and Consequences of Development Clusters: State Capacity, Peace and Income2014Inngår i: Annual Review of Economics, ISSN 1941-1383, E-ISSN 1941-1391, Vol. 6, s. 927-949Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three important aspects of development-per capita income, state capabilities, and (the absence of) political violence-are correlated with each other at the country level. This article discusses the causes of such development clusters and highlights two explanations: common economic, political, and social drivers and complementarities (two-way positive feedbacks). It also draws out preliminary policy implications of these patterns of development and proposes topics for further research.

  • 160.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London School of Economics.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    The Logic of Political Violence2011Inngår i: Quarterly Journal of Economics, ISSN 0033-5533, E-ISSN 1531-4650, Vol. 126, nr 3, s. 1411-1445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a unified approach for studying political violence whether it emerges as repression or civil war. We formulate a model where an incumbent or opposition can use violence to maintain or acquire power to study which political and economic factors drive one-sided or two-sided violence (repression or civil war). The model predicts a hierarchy of violence states from peace via repression to civil war; and suggests a natural empirical approach. Exploiting only within-country variation in the data, we show that violence is associated with shocks that can affect wages and aid. As in the theory, these effects are only present where political institutions are noncohesive.

  • 161.
    Besley, Timothy
    et al.
    London School of Economics.
    Persson, Torsten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Wars and State Capacity2008Inngår i: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 6, nr 2-3, s. 522-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The article builds a simple model to investigate how different types of armed conflict shape fiscal capacity: the state's ability to raise revenue from taxes. It starts from the simple observation that external war tends to generate common interests across groups in society, whereas internal, civil war entails deep conflicting interests across groups. Our model predicts that-compared to a society without conflict-civil wars lead to smaller investments in fiscal capacity, whereas prospects of external war generally lead to larger investments. Correlations in international data on conflicts and taxation are, by and large, consistent with these predictions.

  • 162. Bharadwaj, Prashant
    et al.
    Lundborg, Petter
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Birth Weight in the Long Run2018Inngår i: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 189-231Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effect of birth weight on long-run outcomes using data on Swedish twins born between 1926 and 1958 linked to administrative records spanning entire life-time labor market histories. We find that birth weight positively affects permanent income and income across large parts of the lifecycle. The timing of the birth weight–income relationship is in line with the role of birth weight in determining takeup of sickness benefits and morbidity. The effect of birth weight on labor market outcomes even for cohorts born 30 years apart are similar; for short run health outcomes, birth weight plays a decreasing role over time.

  • 163.
    Biscevic, Bojan
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Norström, Mathilda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Euron och Export: En empirisk studie av eurons genomsnittliga effekt på exporten.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 164. Bisin, Alberto
    et al.
    Patacchini, Eleonora
    Verdier, Thierry
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Errata Corrige: are Muslim Immigrants Different in Terms of Cultural Integration?2011Inngår i: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 1012-1019Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 165. Bisin, Alberto
    et al.
    Patacchini, Eleonora
    Verdier, Thierry
    Zenou, Yves
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Ethnic Identity and Labor-Market Outcomes of Immigrants in Europe2011Inngår i: Economic Policy: A European Forum, ISSN 0266-4658, E-ISSN 1468-0327, Vol. 26, nr 65, s. 57-92Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between ethnic identity and labour market outcomes of non-EU immigrants in Europe. Using the European Social Survey, we find that there is a penalty to be paid for immigrants with a strong identity. Being a first generation immigrant leads to a penalty of about 17% while second-generation immigrants have a probability of being employed that is not statistically different from that of natives. However, when they have a strong identity, second-generation immigrants have a lower chance of finding a job than natives. Our analysis also reveals that the relationship between ethnic identity and employment prospects may depend on the type of integration and labour market policies implemented in the country where the immigrant lives. More flexible labour markets help immigrants to access the labour market but do not protect those who have a strong ethnic identity.

  • 166.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Family Background and Outcomes Later in Life: A (Partial and Personal) Survey of Recent Research Using Swedish Register Data2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 167.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Från doktorsexamen till professor – mina år på IUI 1981-19902014Inngår i: IFN 1939—2014 - 75 år av ekonomisk forskning / [ed] Magnus Henrekson och Göran Albinsson Bruhner, Ekerlids förlag, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 168.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Inkomstfördelningen och den ekonomiska politiken2015Inngår i: Svensk ekonomisk politik - då, nu och i framtiden: festskrift tillägnad Hans Tson Söderström / [ed] Birgitta Swedenborg, Dialogos Förlag, 2015Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 169.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nationalekonomisk toppforskning i Sverige - omfattning, lokalisering och inriktning2014Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, nr 5, s. 6-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 170.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Arbetsmarknaden2014 (oppl. 4)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 171.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, PeterStockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Economics of Education2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 172.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Economics of education: Policies and effects2012Inngår i: Nordic economic policy review, ISSN 1904-4526, nr 1, s. 7-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 173.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Ginther, Donna K.
    Dept. of Economics, University of Kansas, USA.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Does Marriage Matter for Children? Assessing the Impact of Legal Marriage in Sweden2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow’s Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage and the effect of selection bias on marriage estimates. Sweden’s rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriage due to this marriage boom. Our analysis addresses the question of whether marginal marriages created by a policy initiative have an impact on children. Using grade point average at age 16 as the outcome variable, we first show the expected pattern that children with married parents do better than children with cohabiting parents. However, once we control for observable family background and compare the outcomes for children whose parents married due to the reform with those for children whose parents remained unmarried, the differences largely disappear. The results from a sibling difference analysis are consistent with the conclusion that the differentials among children of married and cohabiting parents reflect selection rather than causation.

  • 174.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Children of Unknown Fathers: Prevalence and Outcomes in Sweden2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 175.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Country case study Sweden2013Inngår i: The Great Recession and the distribution of household income / [ed] Stephen J Jenkins, Andrea Brandolini, John Micklewright and Brian Nolan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, s. 153-175Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 176.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?2012Inngår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 465-474Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses Swedish register data to examine four classical outcomes in empirical labor economics: IQ noncognitive skills, years of schooling and long-run earnings. We estimate sibling correlations - and the variance components that define the sibling correlation - in these outcomes. We also estimate correlations for MZ-twins, who share all genes. We also extend the variance-component decomposition by accounting for birth order. We find that conventional intergenerational approaches severely underestimate the role of family background, and that future research should follow a more multidimensional approach to the study of family background.

  • 177.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Intergenerational mobility, intergenerational effects, sibling correlations, and equality of opportunity: a comparison of four approaches2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses four different approaches to the study of how individuals’ income and education during adulthood are related to their family background. The most well-known approach, intergenerational mobility, describes how parents’ and offspring’s income or education are related to each other. The intergenerational-effect literature addresses the question how an intervention that changes parental income or education causally affects their children’s outcome. The sibling-correlation approach estimates the share of total inequality that is attributed to factors shared by siblings. This share is generally substantially higher than what is revealed by intergenerational mobility estimates. Finally, the equality-of-opportunity approach is looking for a set of factors, in the family background and otherwise, that are important for children’s outcomes and that children cannot be held accountable for. We argue that all four approaches are most informative and that recent research has provided insightful results. However, by comparing results from the different approaches, it is possible to paint a more nuanced picture of the role of family background. Thus, we recommend that scholars working in the four subfields pay more attention to each other’s research.

  • 178.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    SNS Välfärdsrapport 2011.: Inkomstfördelningen i Sverige2011Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 179.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parental education gradients over the life cycle2012Inngår i: From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage / [ed] Ermisch, John; Jäntti, Markus; Smeeding, Timothy, Russell Sage Foundation , 2012, s. 422-440Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 180.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden.
    The Contribution of Early-life Versus Labour Market Factors to Intergenerational Income Persistence: A Comparison of the UK and Sweden2017Inngår i: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, s. F71-F94Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore whether differences in intergenerational income mobility between the UK and Sweden show up early in life, finding stronger associations between parental income and birthweight, height and school performance in the UK. We investigate whether these differentials can account for the country difference in income mobility. While differences in the associations in birthweight and height are too weak to matter, school performance does account for a substantial part of this difference. However, country differences in the earnings returns to these skills are at least as important as the differences in the link between parental income and skills.

  • 181.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Robling, Per Olof
    Roine, Jesper
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Kapitalinkomster och inkomstfördelning: Bilaga 3 till Långtidsutredningen 20192019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 182.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roemer, John E.
    Equality of opportunity and the distribution of long-run income in Sweden2012Inngår i: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 39, nr 2-3, s. 675-696Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Equality of opportunity is an ethical goal with almost universal appeal. The interpretation taken here is that a society has achieved equality of opportunity if it is the case that what individuals accomplish, with respect to some desirable objective, is determined wholly by their choices and personal effort, rather than by circumstances beyond their control. We use data for Swedish men born between 1955 and 1967 for whom we measure the distribution of long-run income, as well as several important background circumstances, such as parental education and income, family structure and own IQ before adulthood. We address the question: in Sweden, given its present constellation of social policies and institutions, to what extent is existing income inequality due to circumstances, as opposed to 'effort'? Our results suggest that several circumstances, importantly both parental income and own IQ, are important for long-run income inequality, but that variations in individual effort account for the most part of that inequality.

  • 183.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2012Inngår i: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 96, nr 5-6, s. 474-484Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility at the top of the income and earnings distributions. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong at the top, more so for income than for earnings. At the extreme top (top 0.1%) income transmission is remarkable with an intergenerational elasticity of approximately 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that IQ, non-cognitive skills and education of the sons are all unlikely channels in explaining the strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in the income of the fathers, if they are related at all, are negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society in which transmission remains strong at the very top of the distribution and wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 184.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Parental Separation and Children's Educational Attainment: A Siblings Analysis on Swedish Register Data2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 185.
    Björklund Forsgren, Mattias
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Zahlin, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    The Capability Approach och HDIs validitet: en empirisk studie av rangkorrelationen med alternativa mått2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 186.
    Björkman, Martina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Essays on Empirical Development Economics: Education, Health and Gender2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three empirical essays in development economics on education, health and gender.

    "Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda" uses exogenous variation in rainfall across districts in Uganda to estimate the causal effects of household income shocks on children's enrollment and cognitive skills conditional on gender. Adverse income shocks have large negative effects on female enrollment and test scores, while boys are only marginally affected. The results imply that households respond to income shocks by varying the quantity and quality of girls' education while boys are to a large extent sheltered.

    "Does Money Matter for Student Performance? Evidence from a Grant Program in Uganda" assesses the effect on student performance of an untied public grant in the education sector. To capture the causal effect of the grant, I exploit the variation in program exposure introduced by a newspaper campaign aimed at boosting schools' and parents' ability to monitor local officials' handling of the grant program. The newspaper campaign was successful, but since newspaper penetration varies greatly across districts, the exposure to information about the program, and thus funding, differed across districts. I use this variation to study the effect of increased funding on student test scores and find significant and quantitatively important effects.

    "Power to the People: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment of a Citizen Report Card Project in Uganda" presents the results of a randomized evaluation of a community-based monitoring intervention intended to enhance rural communities' ability to hold primary health care providers accountable. The intervention improved both the quality and the quantity of health service provision in the treatment communities: One year into the program, average utilization increased by 16 percent, the weight of infants increased and the number of deaths among children under-five fell markedly. The results suggest that the health unit staff increased their effort to serve the community in light of better community monitoring.

  • 187.
    Björkman, Martina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Income Shocks and Gender Gaps in Education: Evidence from Uganda2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses exogenous variation in rainfall across districts in Uganda to estimate the causal effects of household income shocks on children's enrollment and cognitive skills conditional on gender. I find negative income shocks to have large negative and highly significant effects on female enrollment in primary schools and the effect grows stronger for older girls. The effect on boys' enrollment is smaller and only marginally significant. Moreover, I find that a negative income shock has an adverse effect on test scores in general and test scores of female students in particular. The results imply that households respond to income shocks by varying the quantity and quality of girls' education while boys are to a large extent sheltered -- a finding consistent with a model where parents' values of child labor differ across sexes.

  • 188. Björkman, Martina
    et al.
    Reinikka, Ritva
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Local Accountability2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and implementing incentives that give rise to a strong relationship

    of accountability between service providers and beneficiaries is viewed by many as critical

    for improving service delivery. How to achieve this in practice and if it at all works,

    however, remain open questions. Systematic evaluation of service delivery innovations

    to increase accountability can show what works, what doesn’t and why, a first step to

    scaling up success. This paper discusses one such attempt: a randomized evaluation of a

    Citizen Report Card project at the community level in primary health care in Uganda.

    The Citizen Report Card project collected quantitative information on the quality and

    quantity of health service provision from citizens and public health care providers. This

    information were then assembled in "easy access" report cards that were disseminated,

    together with practical information on how best to use this information, in community,

    staff, and interface meetings by local community organizations in order to enhance citizens’

    ability to monitor the health care providers. The intervention improved both the quality

    and quantity of health service provision in the treatment communities: One year into

    the program, average utilization was 16 percent higher in the treatment communities; the

    weight of infants higher, and the number of deaths among children under-five markedly

    lower. Treatment communities became more extensively involved in monitoring providers

    following the intervention, but we find no evidence of increased government funding. These

    results suggest that the improvements in the quality and quantity of health service delivery

    resulted from increased effort by the health unit staff to serve the community.

  • 189.
    Björkman, Martina
    et al.
    Bocconi University.
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    When is Community-Based Monitoring Effective?: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment in Primary Health in Uganda2010Inngår i: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 8, nr 2-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 190. Björkman Nyqvist, Martina
    et al.
    Corno, Lucia
    de Walque, Damien
    Svensson, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Using lotteries to incentivize safer sex behavior: evidence from a randomized controlled trial on HIV prevention2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Financial incentives are a promising HIV prevention strategy. This paper assesses the effect on HIV incidence of a lottery program in Lesotho with low expected payments but a chance to win a high prize conditional on negative test results for sexually transmitted infections. The intervention resulted in a 21.4 percent reduction in HIV incidence over two years. Lottery incentives appear to be particularly effective for individuals willing to take risks. This paper estimates a model linking sexual behavior to HIV incidence and finds that risk-loving individuals reduce the number of unprotected sexual acts by 0.3/month for every $1 increase in the expected prize.

  • 191.
    Björnerstedt, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Essays in evolutionary game theory1995Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 192.
    Black, Stanley W.
    Vanderbilt University.
    Central Bank Intervention and the Stability of Exchange Rates1980Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 193.
    Black, Stanley W.
    Vanderbilt University.
    Exchange Policies for Less Developed Countries in a World of Floating Rates1976Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 194. Blanchard, Olivier
    et al.
    Calmfors, Lars
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Flam, Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Hassler, John
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Krusell, Per
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Makroekonomi2015Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 195.
    Blinder, Alan S.
    Princeton University.
    Credit, Working Capital, and Effective Supply Failures1983Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 196.
    Blix, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Rational Expectations and Regime Shifts in Macroeconometrics1997Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of three papers. The first two papers explore implications of rational expectations when there is stochastic regime-switching; the third is an independent paper where underlying inflation is defined using rational expectations.

    Rational Expectations in a VAR with Markov Switching examines how a well known class of rational expectations hypotheses using linear vector-autoregressions (VAR:s) can be extended to allow for unobservable Markov switching between discrete states. This statistical model differs from those commonly used in the literature: the model here is easier to estimate and has the appeal that the state dependence is symmetric. The contribution of the paper is to derive simple expressions for the VAR forecasts under Markov switching; these forecasts are then used to find testable restrictions implied by rational expectations, which are linear when the forecast horizon is infinite. As an illustration, I examine a test of the expectations hypothesis (EH) on the short end of the maturity spectrum - three and six month US bills - and find that a non-rejection of the hypothesis in a previous paper, also with regime shifts, may be fragile.

    Term Premia Under Switching Regimes uses the methods discussed in the first paper to identify a conditional term premium over the long end of the maturity spectrum for US and Swedish data. Traditional tests of the EH using linear VAR:s have treated the premium as a constant, unexplained deviation from expectations. I use a well known present value model, but introduce a more flexible specification: the premium is assumed to depend on the current state only, thus allowing for different premia across states. Despite using a more flexible model, the EH hypothesis is still statistically rejected; the rejection is not sensitive to small changes in the specification, but the premium is highly sensitive to small changes in the discount factor. Nevertheless, the EH performs well in terms of goodness of fit.

    Underlying Inflation - A Common Trends Approach uses economic theory based restrictions on a VAR with output and prices to compute underlying inflation. For policy purposes, headline inflation has some undesirable properties, such as being affected by changes in taxes, lack of smoothness, but most importantly, is not consistent with nominal shocks being (exactly) output neutral in the long run. I use an identification scheme proposed in the literature to define underlying inflation as the component of changes in nominal prices which have only transient effect on output, but use a new method to implement the restrictions, which may be simpler to use and interpret. I use this method to calculate core inflation for Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the UK, and the US.

  • 197.
    Blix, Mårten
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Rational Expectations in a VAR with Markov Switching1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how a well known class of rational expectations hypothesis using linear vector autoregressions (VAR:s) can be extended to allow for unobservable Markov switching. The regime shift model used falls into the general framework of Hamilton (1990), but differs to the centered model actually implemented by Hamilton and others. The model here has the advantage that it is easier to estimate, and the intuitive appeal that the state dependence is symmetric. THe contribution of the paper is to derive testable restrictions implied by rational expectations, which are linear when the forecast horizon is infinite. The restrictions on the autoregressive parameters are the same as those that appear in the centered model. As an illustration, we duplicate a test of the expectations hypothesis (EH) in Sola & Driffill (1994) on 3 and 6 month US bills on quarterly data, and find that their results may be fragile.

  • 198.
    Blomqvist, Åke
    et al.
    University of Western Ontario.
    Horn, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för internationell ekonomi.
    Public Health Insurance and Optimal Income Taxation1982Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    If individuals differ not only in their inherent capacity to earn income, but also in the probability that they will fall ill, can subsidized public health insurance be justified on the grounds that it serves as an efficient tool to redistribute welfare? This question is analyzed in a model where the social welfare function is a weighted average of individual expected utilities, and where taxation is by a linear income tax. The answer is "yes", except in certain special cases.

  • 199.
    Blomskog, Stig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Nationalekonomiska institutionen.
    Essays on the functioning of the Swedish labour market1997Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is the functioning of the Swedish Labour Market. In four essays, different aspects of this general question are examined. Two of the essays are related to youth labour market problems.

    The first paper examines the hypothesis of the wage curve, which is defined as a negative and non-linear relationship between wages and regional unemployment rates. By using micro data covering the period 1968-1991, this paper gives evidence of a Swedish wage curve, but for unskilled blue-collar workers only. This is contrary to the results reported by international research, where the main finding is the existence of wage curves for most worker categories. One explanation of the divergent result for Sweden may be the low levels of unemployment that prevailed in Sweden during the period examined, which made the risk of unemployment negligible for the category of skilled workers.

    The purpose of the second paper is to examine the reallocation processes taking place on the Swedish labour market. In the analysis I distinguish between job mobility within and between industries. Work history data serve as a representation of the Swedish labour force and its job mobility pattern. The period examined is 1974-1991. The main finding is that industry-specific experience decreases the propensity for job mobility to other industries, whereas the converse effect emerges for job mobility within the industry. Further, individual unemployment events significantly increase job mobility in general, but unemployed workers with industry-specific experience are relatively more tied to a specific industry. Finally, as predicted by efficiency wage models, high-wage industries exhibit lower turnover rates.

    The third paper addresses the question whether unstable youth labour market behaviour has effects on future employment stability, measured as the risk of becoming unemployed. The analysis is carried out by estimating hazard models using Swedish work history data covering the period 1971-1991. The main finding is that there are long-run persistence effects of unemployment occurrences taking place during initial years on the labour market. The effects are particularly pronounced for females. Moreover, for males, increasing age lowers the risk of unemployment, whereas for females, age does not influence the risk of unemployment during the adult working life. The fourth paper analyses the implications of changing educational institutions and rising skill requirements for the patterns of labour market entry in Sweden. The main finding is that the general upgrading of skills levels does not apply to jobs held by the young workforce. This is partly compensated by a minor rise in mobility from unskilled to skilled jobs, but trying out several jobs has a negative effect on upward mobility. Finally, the positive impact on upward mobility of shorter programmes in the old educational system has vanished after the expansion and reorganization of secondary education.

  • 200. Bobilev, Roman
    et al.
    Boschini, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    Women in the Top of the Income Distribution: What Can We Learn From LIS-Data?2019Inngår i: Italian Economic Journal, ISSN 2199-322X, E-ISSN 2199-3238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore the extent to which LIS-data can be used to shed light on the presence of women in the top of the income distribution. We show developments of the share of women in top groups (P90-100 and P99-100) of the labour income distribution for 28 countries and, when possible, compare to outcomes when including capital incomes. These turn out not to matter much for the share of women in top groups with some important exceptions. Relating our findings to the existing evidence on women in the top of the income distribution based on aggregate tax data, we find that LIS-data give a relatively accurate picture of the basic findings. However, we also note that once we divide the top1 group further, samples quickly become too small to allow further study. For countries where data allows such analysis, we find that having a partner and having children are positively associated with being in top income groups for men, but negatively associated for women. However, time interactions suggest that these differences have decreased over time. Also, top income men are more likely to have partners who are not in the top of the income distribution while this is not the case for top income women. All these results are surprisingly consistent across country groups.

1234567 151 - 200 of 1937
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf