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  • 151.
    Olstedt, Ewa
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att tänka kritiskt?: en studie om lärande, PBL och IT i ingenjörsutbildningen2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of the learning environment being offered to engineering undergraduates in a technical university or institute of technology, using the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm (KTH) as a study case. The factual basis of the empirical study has been compiled from questionnaires, interviews and participants' observations. During the years 1998-2000, some 503 engineering undergraduates participated in the questionnaire component, and 27 engineering undergraduates and six lecturers participated in the interview part of the study.

    This study shows that critical thinking is more than just a fence-sitting approach to what one hears or reads. According to the respondents, critical thinking is based on understanding, which is a prerequisite for learning.

    Engineering undergraduates find themselves in a learning environment that is perceived in different ways, and try to adapt themselves to it to varying degrees. They describe a range of different approaches and strategies for learning.

    The study demonstrates that the learning environment at KTH provides engineering undergraduates with suitable conditions for independent and critical judgement. Regardless of the learning environment itself, the engineering undergraduates point out a number of factors that can encourage or discourage critical thinking. The way in which an individual engineering undergraduate perceives the challenges provided by these learning environments and how they react to them, differs from one individual to another.

    It is evident from the study that most of them see that their studies at KTH do sometimes encourage critical thinking. PBL can encourage critical thinking, but where there are shortcomings in the learning environment, then PBL can also inhibit critical thinking. The study also shows that critical thinking is not facilitated by IT. In pressing situations it is easier to abstain from IT than to take the time to sit down and really "get into" a technology that is perceived as being difficult to handle and unreliable.

  • 152.
    Hernwall, Patrik
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barns digitala rum: berättelser om e-post, chatt & Internet2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to an understanding of the conditions of children in the changeable society, by way of a study on children’s use and experiences of e-mail, chat and the Internet as means of communication. The empirical material used is interviews with children between 8 and 13 years old, conducted in their school environment, complemented with a continuous dialogue via e-mail and chat over a period of 17 months between 1997 and 1998.

    Based in a pedagogical ethnography, the principle of abductive inference has been used, combined with sensitizing concepts, in a qualitative analysis. In the analysis, semiotics has been an important element in the development of an understanding in the children’s experiences of the computer-mediated communication (CMC), as well as in relating their experiences to a theoretical context.

    Children find a wide range of affordances in the computer and the information- and communication technology (ICT). As e-mail, and chat and the Internet in particular, became widespread during this period, the experience of having used these tool can be seen as a developmental task for children. ICT gives children access to an arena where they can transcend the biological (i.e. the body, age) and the physical (i.e. geography). Therefore, ICT becomes a prosthesis that affords interaction and communication in a ‘glocal’ culture, where children are able to make new contacts with other actors as well as transcend their physical identity.

    The thesis also includes a discussion on how to use empirical data collected in cyberspace (i.e. e-mail and chat), and what ethical problems one encounters in doing so. 

  • 153.
    Waldenström, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Constructing the world in dialogue: a study of advisory situations in Swedish agriculture2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is about joint learning and dialogue in advisory situations. It has an explorative and reflective objective and the overarching aim is to explore communication in advisory situations as mediated by communicatively constructed and shared contexts. The empirical study concerns advisory services in agriculture and farmer-adviser communication in a subscription advisory program in crop production.

    The research design is qualitative. The research questions emerged in a previous study which was based on interviews and a grounded theory design. The thesis draws on data from that study, but also on later data from interviews and participant observation. Theoretically, the study is grounded in contextual didactics, a constructionist perspective on learning in which task-directedness and the concept of affordances are central. It also draws on dialogical conceptions of communication, and discusses asymmetries in communication in relation to the validity claims suggested by Habermas.

    The results show how a multitude of contextual resources are included in conversation. Joint strategies of contextualising were facilitated by narrative constructions, joint experiences in a concrete surrounding environment, the use of tools for planning, as well as by conversations on topics related to the farmer’s lifeworld or confirming a joint lifeworld. Communication is interpreted as producing and drawing on shared contexts, and the analysis points out how shared contexts may expand and be reinterpreted as contextual resources are drawn on and negotiated over time. The results suggest a dynamic in conversation of going between shared and separate perspectives and understandings; balancing adaptation and intervention, autonomy and joint decisions. Control, continuity and change of the topical activities are focal. The analysis suggests that advisory conversations may be conceived of as taking place in a dialogical space, and that upholding such a space is a central task for advisers. The study raises theoretical questions on language, experience and experiential learning and points to the empirical grounding of task-and action-related experiential learning.

  • 154.
    Nikolova, Krassimira
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    "Det sitter i ryggraden": om föräldrars föreställningar och kroppens tidiga socialisering2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to show how a physiological function such as sleep becomes an important part of socialization and upbringing. Babies’ and toddlers’ sleep patterns present an opportunity to study how sleep habits are developed, practised and reproduced according to what parents find meaningful, correct and appropriate. The central question is to investigate parents’ notions about children and how these ideas are embodied in habits at an early age.

    This study can be seen as a part of the research on everyday life and family practices. The theoretical framework is built mainly on Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of habitus and Norbert Elias’ concept of the civilized body. The data were collected through interviews with upper middle class families in Stockholm. Eight sets of parents are first-time parents, six have two children and one has three children. The three interviews with the participants followed the ’everyday-life interview’ principles, i.e., they talked about their experiences with their children yesterday and last week. The first interview was conducted when the child was 2-3 months old, the second when the child was 6-9 months old and the third when the child was 12-16 months old.

    The analysis of the data is presented in four chapters. Among the findings, the interviews showed that time has a qualitative aspect for families with babies and toddlers. Time is spent into activities outside the home. These activities are important for the reproduction of social status.

    The reproduction of habitus can be traced in the process of developing sleep routines and disciplining the body. The idea of the separateness of the body and the individual as well as the notion of the secure child can be seen as part of the symbolic capital that parents pass on to their children. The class distinction of the families in relation to children and childcare is expressed by talking about what is ’natural’.

  • 155.
    Boudard, Emmanuel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Literacy proficiency, earnings, and recurrent training: a ten country comparative study2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to theorise on participation in recurrent training and to estimate a statistical model. The main focus is the links between latent variables, such as observed skills based on literacy proficiency, firm size, literacy practices at work and at home, and other latent correlates, such as educational attainment, labour force status, experience, occupational status and earnings. Three models are specified: A model predicting literacy proficiency; a model predicting earnings; and a model predicting participation in recurrent training. The two first models represent intermediate steps in the construction of the final model.

    The data set employed in this study is derived from the International Adult Literacy Survey. It combines tools from educational assessment and household survey, in order to collect background information about the participants and their labour force experience, and makes use of an innovative measure of human capital stock, namely proficiency on a functional literacy assessment. The analysis also includes countries from different parts of the world: Eastern Europe; Northern Europe; Southern Europe; and North America. Structural Equation Modeling has been used.

    The results show that all three models confirm the importance of educational attainment as one of the main predictors of literacy proficiency, earnings and recurrent training, with the effects of educational attainment most often mediated by other variables. Hence literacy proficiency and educational attainment are both important for modeling earnings or participation in recurrent training. The magnitude of educational attainment is seen to provide justification for signalling theory, job matching theory, and principal agent theory, as earnings and occurrence of recurrent training are related more to employees' educational attainment than to their actual levels of knowledge and skills. Work related learning and home related learning are strong predictors of the outcome variable in all three models. The main policy implication of this finding is that no form of education should be favoured, but rather each should be considered valuable and complementary to the others.

    The total effect of parents' education suggests that parents continue to have an influence on the life careers of their children a long time after the completion of initial, formal education. In other words, the kind of start a child has in life is a very strong predictor of his or her actual level of literacy proficiency, earnings, or whether or not he or she will take part in further training, lending support to social capital theory, as well as to resource conversion theory.

    The importance of the long arm of the job is confirmed for the prediction of earnings, as well as for the prediction of recurrent training. Labour force status, firm size and, to a lesser extent occupational status, are important indicators.

    No particular relationship is observed between men and women as regard to models predicting literacy proficiency and earnings. Conversely, gender differences in recurrent training are evident, with, on the one hand, determining factors for women, for example, earnings, and, on the other hand, determining factors for men, such as firm size and literacy practice at work. Hence, the study suggests that women's participation in recurrent training is determined by different factors than that of men.

  • 156.
    Gougoulakis, Petros
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Studiecirkeln: Livslångt lärande - på svenska!: En icke-formell mötesplats för samtal och bildning för alla2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis is a study of a pedagogical phenomenon; an account of one of the flagships of Swedish popular education; an attempt to understand the study circle as a learning environment.

    Study circle work has a special place in the country’s adult education, and assumes the dimensions of a mass-phenomenon in present-daySweden. An estimated 1.2 to 1.6 million people every day take part in one of the approximately 330,000 study circles arranged by the country’s 11 study associations, where they can study any imaginable subjects and practice different skills.

    The present research approach is qualitative and based on the fundamental concept of discourse. The concept is used as an analytical instrument for delimiting, structuring and creating meaning in the phenomena studied. The phenomenon popular education in general and the study circle in particular are elucidated from three central perspectives:

    • the development of modern civil society during the twentieth century,
    • national (popular) educational policy during the same period, and
    • that of contemporary study-circle members.

    Insights gained from the first two perspectives – the ”ideal” and the ”political” – have formed an important backdrop of understanding against which it has been possible to render the third perspective - the ”experienced” – comprehensible. The study-circle-member perspective is examined using a qualitative interview survey with circle members and circle leaders from nine socially-oriented study circles.

    The results indicate that the language of popular education has remained basically unchanged since the beginning of the twentieth century. It has enjoyed a relative autonomy vis-à-vis both the organisations of civil society and the state, despite a very intimate relation with these. At the same time the state and civil society have been able to make use of popular education to fulfil their respective purposes; civil society to achieve political influence and the state to implement its educational-policy goals. The most obvious change in the discourse of popular education appears to have occurred during the latter part of the twentieth century with the focus on the private individual’s educational projects. In virtue of its time-honoured pedagogical concept there is much to indicate that popular education is establishing itself as a competitive actor on the open educational market. At the same time the popular educational institutions constitute a societal opportunity structure for the education of all, adapted to the challenges and the demands for life-long learning of the new era – the Information Age.

    The study circle can also function as a network of individuals in civil society, representing an environment for collaborative learning and democratic education for citizenship.

  • 157.
    Grewin, Ann-Margret
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Unga flickor skriver in sig i sin kultur: möjliga sätt att vara - uttryck i text och bild2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to describe, analyse and understand the meanings that can be extracted from the fictive stories and drawings produced by a group 13-14 year old girls’ and dealing with their future family life. The stories and drawings are ‘read’ as the girls’ reflections and fantasies in dialogue with their culture about different ways of being and living as grown women. The study has a qualitative approach where themes are sought and where detailed analyses of individual stories and drawings are made. The stories and drawings are seen as fixed verbal and pictorial linguistic actions and thereby accessible to a variety of readings and interpretations. Texts are analysed in terms of how the different ‘voices’ of the main character in a story interplay. Drawings are analysed in terms of how ‘narrative strategies’ are combined in a drawing. Place of living and family belongingness were found to be important issues. Four main aspects of the home as a place for a good and enjoyable everyday life that emerged from the girls’ texts were the home as a meeting place, a sphere of intimacy, a haven of refuge and a point of departure. Four main aspects for the construction of family belongingness that emerged from the girls’ drawings were the family members’ likeness in appearance and style, close relations, common activity and scope for individuality. Places of living as they appeared in the stories were affluent, secure and beautiful over which the grown-up woman was the master and where she strove to create an idyll for herself and others, and where her care-giving abilities were mediated between female members. The woman’s central position included her being responsible for keeping the family united, maintaining everyday routines and adjusting her daily life to the needs of the children; this made her position ambivalent. Life sometimes became monotonous, burdensome and lonely, and the woman risked losing contact with the alluring surrounding world, being neglected by important others outside family life; or, when left on her own, she risked becoming confused, clumsy and losing her capabilities. The woman friend and the horse were found to play important roles in the woman’s way of living and in solving her dilemmas. Both the woman friend and the horse constituted links to the past and thereby continuity in life; they opened up ways to maintain freedom and independence and for new ways of living. The stories and drawings could be said to be about working on relations intertwined with working on subjectivity, and to concern questions about what space can be given to the grown woman.

  • 158.
    Greiff, Katarina von
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Adopterade från Latinamerika: deras uppfattningar om sina uppväxtvillkor, sin livssituation och Sverige som socialisationskultur2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 159.
    Söderlund, Anita
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barn i skola och fritidshem: en studie kring samverkan2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this thesis is to focus on the children, by investigating whether various organisation models, integrated, interactiv and mixed co-operation, for co-operation between teachers and recreation instructors showed differences in regard to the children's development, well-being, and ability to absorb knowledge. Did various co-operation models for school/day centre affect the children's school performance, peer and adult relationship, well-being, and general school and day centre experiences? Were there any differences related to the school and living areas? Were there any differences between children with day centre experience, and those who had none when it comes to school subjects, school performance, well-being, self-confidence, and relations with friends? The children's best and worst memories from their day centres are also studied.

    The theoretical frame of reference for this study is Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of human development. A sample of 1229 children from grade three (age 9) from three different years and 282 children from grade six (age 12) are included in the study. The children in grade 6 were studied in grade three. The children answered questionnaires in grade 3 and 6 and the teachers assessed the children's well-being and levels of knowledge.

    Children are from nine different schools. The schools also represent areas with different socio-economic backgrounds, i.e. inner-city schools, suburban schools, and schools located in multicultural settings. The results showed as a whole no differences between the different co-operation models concerning school performance, wellbeing, social competence and relations to peers and adult. Children in the multicultural settings were more positive in their attitudes towards school than the children in the other areas but they performed less well in mathematics and Swedish language. The children in the inner-city had the highest scores. There were no differences between living areas in the children's attitudes towards the day centre.

    Children who had attended day centres were more often rated by their teachers as being more pleased with their performance than children who had not attended day centres. Moreover, more children, expressed as a percentage, who had participated in day centre activities were judged to be fearless and willing to answer questions than those children who had not participated in day centre activities. Many children mentioned relations with peers and staff as examples of their best memories from the school/day centre. Can any conclusions be made about which of the three co-operation models-integrated, interactive, or mixed - is the best? There was no simple pattern showing that any one form of co-operation would offer more advantages to the children than any other.

  • 160.
    Qiang, Yu
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Bilingual education cognitive development and school achievement: a study of the bilingual programs for Tibetan children2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effects of two models of school bilingual programs on Tibetan children's cognitive development and school achievement.

    Based on the findings of empirical studies, Cummins' threshold theory was critically evaluated. It is hypothesized that children's general IQ, language development and achievement in content subjects have different developmental frameworks and are therefore affected by different factors. The effects of bilingual programs on children's general IQ are mainly determined by the total strength of the intellectual stimulations of the programs and also by the pupils' developmental curves. Bilingual children's language development is more sensitive to the total time input in learning the particular languages and also sensitive to achieved general IQ. The achievement in content subject is affected not only by the achieved IQ level and the time input, but also by the proficiency of the working language.

    The present study involved 508 pupils from Grade 2 and Grade 4 in a Tibetan area of China. The bilingual group consisted of 308 pupils enrolled in two models of Tibetan-Chinese bilingual programs (BL1 and BL2), and the monolingual group consisted of 200 pupils enrolled in Han Chinese programs. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were administered twice to all the sampled pupils with a one-year interval as the measures of general IQ. Pupils' records from two related uniform examinations were taken as the measures of pupils' language development and achievement in content subjects. Meanwhile, some questionnaires were administered to pupils, teachers and headmasters to collect background information.

    Data were analyzed in three stages: (1) bivariate analyses of the test scores, (2) bivariate analyses of the background variables and (3) multivariate analyses (ANACOVA and LISREL modeling) of the total data. The results from the bivariate and multivariate analyses were finally synthesized.

    The basic conclusions from the present study are: (1) pupils' development in general IQ was basically not affected by bilingual programs; (2) the bilingual pupils were significantly poorer than the Chinese monolingual pupils in Chinese language, but they were learning two languages; (3) there were no substantial differences between the BL1 pupils and their monolingual peers in mathematics, particularly at Grade 2, but the BL2 pupils performed worse than the monolingual pupils in mathematics, particularly at Grade 4.

  • 161.
    Kanaev, Alexander N
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Civic education in Central Asia: re-conceptualization of citizenship in newly independent states2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 162.
    Wallin, Kerstin E.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Folkbildning på export?: sammanhang, förutsättningar, möjligheter2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 163.
    Bergstrand, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hälsorådgivande samtal: kommunikativa strategier i samspel mellan distriktssköterska och patient2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Health education conversations. Communicative strategies in consultations between district nurse and patient. In recent years, the importance of the patient's point of view and patient participation in health education has been emphasised in policy texts and legislation. These changing policies raise questions as to how life-style messages are communicated in clinical practice. This theses explores the process of advice-giving in consultations between district nurse and patient. To provide an in-depth analysis of advice giving conversations, four cases were studied with complementary techniques. The material consists of video-taped consultations, interviews and stimulated recall with patients and district nurses. The qualitative analysis focuses on the communicative strategies used by the parties in conversations about life style issues. Both district nurse and patient uses a range of direct and indirect strategies to give and respond to advice, as well as to facilitate the interaction. They both define and introduce topics. The district nurse supports patient initiatives, provides information, presents arguments and persuades the patient. The patient presents information, arguments and uses subtle strategies to accept or reject advice. As an overarching strategy, the district nurse draws on everyday experiences presented by the patient, which she re-formulates into pieces of advice. Finally, the patterns of communicative strategies, and the differing goals of the two parties, are discussed in relation to the dilemmas of patient integrity and professional tasks involved in health education.

  • 164.
    Emsheimer, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärarstudenten som subjekt och objekt: kritiskt tänkande och disciplinering i lärarutbildning2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation poses the problem of control in teacher training. Control is defined as a process in which someone wants someone else to adapt to a specific model of knowledge, to thought patterns, social relationships, and obedience. The main question is:

    How is control performed in teacher education and what is the relationship between control and exploration?

    The purpose is to expose problems in teacher training that are related to forming and controlling student teachers, vs encouraging exploration and experimentation and studying how students critical thinking is developed. Data in this dissertation were gathered from interviews with 13 students participating in teacher education. The theorization based on the empirical study is made after the presentation of the material. A hermeneutical approach was used to interpret the interviews.

    Results are reported in eight chapters in which the interviewees' statements are categorized according to themes. The categories are based on the authors' understanding of the statements in the material. Among other things, students report that they rarely have opportunities to discuss two or more opposing viewpoints that are presented at the same time and with equal importance. Differences between teachers are neglected and sometimes hidden, which will make critical examination more difficult. Interviewees also report that there are small possibilities to work with own experiences from their practice in schools. The education is often perceived as fragmented. Moreover, modeling as a working principle in teacher education is discussed. It can encourage critical discussions if the model is used as something to examine but if it is presented as the only one it can lead to imitative learning. However, the interviewees perceive the education as an uplifting life experience which has forced them to exceed their previous capacities. It has also played an important role in the development of their thinking.

    The theoretical part is focused upon seeking answers on mainly existential issues, in order to highlight the theoretical possibilities of free and critical thinking. The questions of human freedom, tradition and possibilities to break traditions are discussed. Another question is the disadvantages and advantages of taking into consideration learners previous experiences. In an interpretation of Deweys' educational philosophy, the fundamental character of reflection and its consequences for critical thinking in education is examined.

    The concluding discussion emphasizes the necessity for education to be open to allow and encourage students' testing of arguments. Only on the basis of what is explicit and in a variety of alternating models it is possible to make a personal choice and develop critical thinking.

  • 165.
    Juhlin Svensson, Ann-Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Nya redskap för lärande: studier av lärarens val och användning av läromedel i gymnasieskolan2000Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of previously published reports with a summary. The main purpose of the empirical studies is to describe and analyse the function and use of educational media in teaching through the understanding and actions of teachers and librarians. The theoretical frames of reference are "framefactor", curriculum and steering theories. In the summary a new theoretical perspective is adopted. Based on new institutional and sociocultural theory, the use of textbook and information technology is reanalysed as cultural tools.

    The result is based on three empirical studies. In six upper-secondary schools 35 teachers, librarians and school principals were interviewed about their understanding of textbooks and information technology and the results indicated that the pedagogical aim and structure of textbooks are the main reasons for their use. To obtain a deeper investigation an observation study of three teachers use of educational media in the classroom was carried through. Their use of different types of educational media indicated that their own style/strategy in the classroom determined in what way the textbook was tied to teaching. The case studies were followed by a survey of twenty upper-secondary schools. The main result confirmed the tradition with textbooks and showed that teachers who often use textbooks had more traditional ways of acting in the classroom than teachers who more seldom or never used textbooks. More flexible learning strategies for pupils appeared when teachers had a positive attitude towards information technology.

    The last part of the dissertation analyses the significance of the historical formal and informal rules and traditions for educational media as mediated means and the possibility for change. The textbook is a cultural tool shaped for the school with its institutional limits. Information technology, in contrast to textbooks, has not been shaped as a unique artefact for education. Teachers used information technology according to the restraints and rules in the activity system as a complex technology they still have not completely appropriated.

  • 166.
    Sebrant, Ulla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Organiserande och identitet: om arbetsorganisation i geriatrisk sjukvård2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is mainly about informal organising. The aim is to describe and interpret processes of organising in a health care unit and, from that example, to accomplish understanding of how power relations are handled and expressed by different actors in health care. I also intend to gain a deeper insight in how people produce subjectivity and social identity in a health care context and what prerequisites that context is offering for different actors to accomplish their projects.

    The site of the empirical study is a rehabilitation ward in a geriatric clinic. The work organisation, work routines and the management of the clinic is investigated through observations, interviews and organisational documents. The findings are presented as narratives of the organisation, where organising is interpreted as actor's interrelating projects. Four themes are in focus, A workplace in change, where the ward and clinic are introduced; Organising in the daily work, which includes team working and computerisation; Routines and rituals, which is about routinising, reporting and rounds; Organisation and management, where corporate features, organisation plans, meetings and decision-making are brought to the fore.

    In a reflective discussion, Organising as discursive and social practice, the organising processes are understood in terms of discourse, subjectivity and construction of social identity. Here I refer to foucauldian thinking about organisations. Actor's projects in the empirical example show a complexity of discourses, which are producing different kinds of subjectivity and constructions of social identity. The professional bureaucracy creates subjectivity from an institutionalised social order, the medical hierarchy, where the medical profession is in power. Furthermore there are other contemporary discourses such as the logic of the corporate organisation, which produces subjugation to economical outcomes. Demands for independence and autonomy are in different ways created in discourses of the developing professions of nurses and paramedics, their increasing documentation obligations, and the computerisation. An ambiguous picture emerges, where discursive and social practices are in some cases congruent but not in other. Social identity is still produced to a great deal from the medical hierarchy, which has become the social order. The above mentioned other discourses introduce competing discursive practices, which create possibilities to constructions of social identity with an increased autonomy for all professional groups.

  • 167.
    Arfwedson, Gerd B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Reformpedagogik och samhälle: en komparativ studie av pedagogiska reformrörelser i USA och Tyskland från 1890-talet till 1930-talet2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a comparative, text analytical and humanistic approach to the inquiry into the reform movements in education from the 1890'ies to the middle of the 1930'ies in two countries, Germany and the United States of America. The study also utilizes some newer concepts, as Foucault's concepts of 'discourse' and 'regime of truth'.

    The comparison is doublesided; it deals with both progressive or reform practice and progressive or reform theory in the two countries. Both practice and theory is (as always) embedded in a specific social and political context. The primary aim is the understanding and mapping of the reform practice and the reform theory, but a second aim is to understand them with account taken to the background of their different contextual conditions. The study will show, that there are some differences between German and American reform practices, but it will also show that the practices in the two countries are much more alike than the theories. It will be shown that the theories are more dependent of the specific historical and cultural traditions, more dependent of a national consensus and a national political basis than is practice. The whole reform movement can, from a social point of view, be understood as the educational answer to the fact of a new industrial era - from an educational point of view it can be understood as an exhange of one curriculum theory for another.

    The empirical research material, representing reform practice, consists of about a dozen or more rather long discussions of reform schools in each country. In USA these reports and descriptions come from educational researchers visiting schools and in Germany from teachers. The empirical material, representing reform theory consists of philosophical and theoretical issues and discussions among the professors of philosophy and education in each country. A starting-point for the analyses of reform practice is some curriculum principles, expressing the new educational faith in students' freedom, in manual work, and in the need for communication and community life in schools. A starting-point for the inquiry into reform theory is its background of philosohical and ideological views of society and individual, views, that are important features of the theory. During this early reform period several educational sciences were established in both countries. A main interest in this part is first the study of the very kind of sciences which were emerging in USA and Germany, second the differences between them, and third their consequences for the relation between school policy, theory and practice.

  • 168.
    Brockstedt, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Slagsta skola och seminarium och dess föregångare : skolan för sinnesslöa barn i Stockholm: ideologi och praktik i undervisningen av barn med utvecklingsstörning 1870-19502000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a pedagogical-historical thesis. The sources were some guides for teacher training, curricula and pictures. The latter show learning settings and materials for sensory training which were considered important in developing the children's senses, since it was supposed that sensory dysfunction constituted the retardation.

    In Sweden, the education of mentally retarded children started in the 1860s.

    Initially philanthropic, soon the county councils took interest in the work. By the end of the century, institutions had grown up in most of the counties, but the philanthropic institutions continued their work for a long time.

    As far as education went, a school run by The Society for the Care of Mentally Retarded Children in Stockholm became the most important. This school, the first one in Sweden, was founded in 1870. In 1879 a teacher training college was connected to it. Teaching methods were developed and through teachers trained at the college the methods were spread out of the country. Parallel to, or even somewhat earlier than these schools, institutions for other groups of handicapped children, deaf-mute and blind, were founded. The education of "abnormal" people was used as a common concept for these schools.

    An important point concerning the School for Mentally Retarded was the board's efforts to find the best leaders and the best teachers, the most important being the headmistress Thorborg Rappe and the female psychiatrist Alfhild Tamm. In contrast to the common practice in other European countries of engaging male physicians and priests as principals for the institutions, in Sweden it became a task for pedagogically trained women. In 1911 the school in Stockholm was replaced by a new institution in the countryside about 20 kilometres south of Stockholm. That institution adopted the name Slagsta skola och seminarium (The Slagsta School and Teacher-training College).

    The education of the mentally retarded took inspiration from schools on the continent, especially the French ones. There, the two physicians Itard and Séguin, had developed programmes for the training of the motor and sensory functions. At this time it was supposed that retardation was due to disturbances in the sensory organs.

    A second characteristic of the Slagsta method was all-encompassing education. This meant that studies over a period of time were concentrated on a special subject. There was no talk of a curriculum as in general education. While studying the subject the pupils used their abilities in reading, writing, counting, modelling, etc.

    The Slagsta skola och seminarium was run by the Society until 1950. From 1951 the school belonged to Stockholm County. The teacher training activities continued for some years, but in 1959 were replaced by a new organisation for the training of teachers in special education.

  • 169.
    Odiwuor, Wycliffe Humphrey
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    The impact of HIV/Aids on primary education: a case study on selected districts of Kenya2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 170.
    Rosenqvist, Mia Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Undervisning i förskolan?: en studie av förskollärarstuderandes föreställningar2000Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden an increasing number of children enter school at the age of six rather than as before at the age of seven. There is an increasing need for cooperation between preschool teachers and school teachers. When these two professional groups meet, they use different professional vocabularies. The concept of teaching (Sw. 'undervisning' close to instruction) is not used by preschool teachers, while it is a central concept for school teachers. With this background the purpose of the investigation is to describe and interpret preschool teacher student's images about the concept of teaching in preschool.

    Three main questions were investigated:

    How do preschool teacher students discuss teaching in preschool context?

    What meaning (signification) do they put into the concept?

    Do the students change their ideas about preschool teaching during their training?

    The data collection was carried out from the autumn term of 1991 up to and including the autumn term of 1993 at the preschool teacher training at Högskolan Dalarna.

    Four groups of students were asked to have leader-less discussions about teaching. As a starting point they were provided with pre-constructed questions. Students' statements were analysed by means of Kansanen's model of three levels of thinking; action level, first thinking level and the second thinking level. In the results was shown that a part of the students changed their earlier ideas. As the project proceeded, two of the groups became able to see the difference between teaching and learning and also accounted for ideas about what preschool teaching might be. While talking about teaching the students created new concepts, they used terms like "forest teaching", "teaching play", "secure play" and "care lesson". The kind of teaching they talked about was called "child teaching".

    The results also brought forward three comprehensive images, of preschool teaching: Synonymity Images, Traditional School Images and Child Care Images. Synonymity implies that the students understand teaching as synonymous with the occurrence of learning. Traditional School Images imply that the students are of the opinion that the teacher is the one who is active and instructs the pupils what to do. Child Care Images imply an outlook on teaching that it must not be noticed, the child must not be influenced directly, but more indirectly by means of material and playing.

    The analysis indicates that some of the preschool teacher students have changed their images during the series of discussions about the same concept, from a more restricted to a more expanded and reflective outlook on teaching in preschool. Some students have changed their views, while others have not or only to a little extent. The rapidity of this process differs between students.

    It seems that the training played a minor part for the students' reflecting on teaching in preschool. The investigation shows among other things that the training does not expose them to challenges that make them develop their thinking and ideas on teaching and learning. It also seems that a conscious and reflective planning is an important prerequisite for seeing the daily teaching in a perspective and being able to reflect upon it. Nothing seems to indicate that the students during their trainee periods have analysed the relationship between teaching and on the other hand learning an the children's activities such as free play.

    The fact that students only to a limited extent carried out the discussions at the second thinking level indicates that pedagogical and other theories should be studied in the preschool teacher training so that these theories later may function as efficient and forceful tools in the work.

  • 171.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Policy som text och som praktik: en analys av likvärdighetsbegreppet i 1990-talets utbildningsreform för det obligatoriska skolväsendet1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relation between policy as text and policy as practice, with a focus on Swedish educational reform in the 1990s in regard to comprehensive schooling.

    School reform in the 1990s has resulted in major changes in Swedish compulsory education. The reform has encompassed a new form of steering system, a new financing system, a new curriculum, new syllabi, a new national employment policy for teachers, a new grading system, and increased privatization of schools.

    All of these changes are analyzed in the study with reference to equivalence in the discourses on the national, municipal and school levels. The analysis of the concept of equivalence is linked to the following specific meanings of the concept: equality of opportunity; equality in regard to resources; equality in regard to achievement; and free choice.

    The empirical data for this thesis has the following components:

    An inter-textual text analysis of the central national steering documents;

    Four case studies that deal with the implementation of the reform at the municipal and school levels. These case studies include a text analysis of the municipalities' and the schools' plans, individual and group interviews with school staff at the municipal and school levels, as well as classroom observations conducted in six schools;

    A questionnaire which deals with the right to choose a school in another municipality, distributed to all of the municipalities in two counties; and

    An analysis of the first twenty-two independent Islamic schools established in Sweden during the period 1993 and 1998.

    The results of the aforementioned studies are the following:

    Educational policy documents function in practice as inter-textual interventions;

    In practice free interpretation and opposition occur;

    Reform is a complex interaction between texts and the practitioners (municipal employees, school personnel);

    Reform is not an occurrence, but rather a process;

    Reform is a compromise;

    Reform has an inter-textual character;

    The concept of equivalence has diverse meanings:

    The occurrence of diverse and conflicting discourses, in regard to equivalence and within the framework for the same reform, gives rise to conflicts in practice;

    Goal steering has the potential to promote equivalence in regard to achievement equality as prescribed in the curriculum, which requires that all pupils are expected to achieve the obligatory goals;

    The shortcomings of the reform in regard to the evaluation phase limit the implementation of the requirements for equivalence as achievement equality in accordance with the curriculum; and

    Negative expectations in relation to certain groups of pupils limit the extent to which the requirements of achievement equality can be implemented in accordance with the curriculum

  • 172.
    Dedze, Indra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Reading ability of Latvian students: results from an international study1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading literacy is becoming a crucial skill for the success in the modern society. Since Latvia is an industrialized country, with a relatively small population, it is of a crucial importance that the educational system produces well literate people. This is important both in order to sustain and to improve country's social and economic development.

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) was organized in the 1960's as a non-governmental and cooperative organization to conduct comparative studies concentrating on educational policies and practices in order to improve learning within and across systems of education. The IEA Reading Literacy Study was the first national study in the field of comparative education carried out in Latvia in early 90's. About 1000 nine-year-old students from 54 classrooms and 800 fourteen-year-old students from 53 schools participated in the study. The study provides us with important information about student reading habits, home background, as well as about teaching strategies. Whenever it is possible, an international comparison is given.

    Two-level structural equation modeling is applied in a reanalysis of the IEA Reading Literacy Study data from Latvia. The aim is to present the relations between the factors derived from student home conditions and reading performance factors at the individual level and at the classroom level. The results shows that at the nine-year-old student classroom level a general socioeconomic factor has rather high connection with the reading performance, while at the individual level factors called "good reader" and "reading resources" had a strong effect upon student reading achievement. In the fourteen-year-old students group the factors "liking school" and "good reader" have influence upon reading achievement on student level, and the factors "liking school" and "reading resources" - on the classroom level.

    Since the current situation in beginning reading instruction in Latvia is still influenced by the educational policies and practices that were in use during the Soviet era, the analyses on the beginning reading instruction in Latvia is given. Basic terms and categories such as the definition of reading, reading models, and goals of reading instruction are presented as they are used and understood in Latvia and compared with those described in Russia and the literature on reading research in other countries.

    The study has notable implications for teachers and policy makers, as well as for future research.

  • 173.
    Olesén, Ann
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Tredje ålderns hus: en spansk boendemiljös betydelse för kvinnors livsprojekt1999Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 174.
    Borgström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att vara mitt emellan: hur spanskamerikanska ungdomar i Sverige kan uppfatta villkoren för sin sociokulturella identitetsutveckling1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to elucidate the conditions for the socio-cultural identity development of Latin American youths living in Sweden. It has been conducted with a view to the youths' own perspective, what they consider important about the significant contexts in which they have grown up and how they looked upon themselves during this process.

    I examine socio-cultural identity from three aspects: identity, language and culture. The term socio-cultural is a combination of a social and a cultural concept. The study is retroductive: my analysis and interpretation of how the youths look at their life situation build on data collected during their intermediate years in compulsory school (grades four to six) and upper secondary school. The research method is based on a life history approach. The data come from interviews and group discussions with the youths, questionnaire to teachers and the youths, drawings by the youths, informal discussions with parents and teachers, correspondence, and my own journal notes. Symbolic interaction and ethnology have provided the theoretical framework and central concepts of the study. These theoretical concepts, along with the youths' own concepts, serve both as guidelines and tools for the analysis and interpretation.

    The youths participate actively in the formulation of their socio-cultural identity. Identity develops through interaction with others, which is why social relationships are of central importance. A sense of security or insecurity develops as a result of these processes. Language is the mediating activity that is present throughout the whole process. Furthermore, the results show that school is not a place where the youths feel secure and that how they are received in school is of vital importance. The youths find security within their extended families, even if their parents are divorced.

    Growing up in Rinkeby gives the youths in the study a sense of security. In Rinkeby they do not stand out as being different. But the youths are also aware that to be accepted by the Swedish society they must conceal the fact that they come from Rinkeby.

    The young people identify either with their own group (Chileans) and their own language (Spanish), or with the "immigrant group" and its language (Rinkeby Swedish). Sometimes they identify with both, but never with "the Swedes". They switch linguistic codes (Spanish and Swedish) when talking among themselves: that and Rinkeby Swedish are identity markers. Most of the youths consider themselves to be "between two worlds": neither the family nor society understands their situation. They experience that however much they may wish to, they are not allowed to belong to the Swedish society. Some feel more integrated than others, and some have a sense of identity and know where they stand in relation to the groups around them. Others continue their search for identity.

  • 175.
    Wilhelmson, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärande dialog: Samtalsmönster, perspektivförändring och lärande i gruppsamtal1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with the prospects of learning from talking within a small group.

    The purpose of the study is to add to our knowledge of dialogue through group communication as a social event, based on human relations and seen as a situation where a process of learning takes place. The object is also to see if and how a pedagogical method (the dialogue meeting) affects the process of learning and to describe and systematically analyze such dialogue meetings from different angles and with different methods.

    The empirical data consists primarily of tape recordings and transcriptions of four group sessions and different forms of interviews undertaken at various stages, both before and after the group conversations. The research design is qualitative.

    The empirical study is founded on an interactionist perspective, the main theoretical frame of reference is the theory of transformative learning.

    Learning is defined as a change of assumptions with regard to a given phenomenon. It is the individual who learns, but in group communication this learning takes place in social interaction, where the individuals together may create new knowledge by going beyond the individual perspective of each person.

    The most important result shows that the more symmetrical the communication in a group meeting is, the higher is the quality of the learning of every individual speaker. Of importance is also the conversational style which can be more or less cooperative or competitive. Both ways of talking are needed if collective learning is to be developed. Before collective learning can occur there is a need for changing and transcending individual perspectives. This demands that the speakers have a capacity for critical reflective thinking.

  • 176.
    Nekatibeb, Teshome
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Media Utilization and School Improvement: A Case Study of Primary Education Support Programs in Ethiopia1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 177.
    Odora Hoppers, Catherine A
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Structural Violence as a Constraint to African Policy Formation in the 1990s: Respositioning Education in International Relations1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a meta-analysis of the manner in which global relations impact on national level policy spaces and policy formation. As the International Financial Institutions tighten their grip through the Structural Adjustment Programmes over African countries, and donors steadily shift their ground and push conditionality beyond economic policy into institutional arrangements, the issue of political sovereignty of African countries, and of indirect rule through aid becomes a key concern.

    Using conceptual and analytical tools developed in social psychology, sociology, peace studies, linguistics and political economy, the study challenges the neutrality of the combined thrust by the IFIs and donors, and argues that genuine progress and recovery of Africa is hampered not by the presence of the state, but by the structural violence so necessary for the maintenance of western hegemony.

    The policy domain is chosen as a point of focus because policy-making defines the functions of the state; and the policy arena is one in which state policies are objectified and elaborated. Precisely because the policy arena is one in which values, ideologies and principles are given concrete expression, it is also this space that, in a context of the hegemony of neo-colonial relations, is targeted for effective control. As the analysis of the pattern of happenings at the United Nations reveal, the more the poor countries attempt to create an alternative, the higher the level of vigilance on the part of the west to contain, derail, or neutralize it.

    Development is thus exposed as not being anymore about how a people might develop according to their own definition, in their diversity, but rather, about becoming transmogrified into an inverted mirror of other's identity, a mirror that belittles them and sends them to the end of the queue. Modern aid is also revealed to be far from the good Samaritan binding the wounds of the man who fell victim to the robbers, but as a cold calculating instrument for the imposition of "good conduct", subjecting the needy to the cold gaze of the helper, demanding of the crier, scientific, ideological, and externally verified proof of need.

    The study holds that by maintaining a silence over whose normative heritage is being transmitted through education, by avoiding to discuss the philosophical basis for education, and by evading the issue of self-reliance as a core imperative for any development, educators have voted to participate in this framework by encouraging the misrecognition of this violence.

    The study calls for a second liberation in Africa, a project of conscientizing the west, a renewed interest in policy studies, and a focus on dialogue as a method, as a strategy and as an objective at all levels of human interaction. Most of all, it reiterates the plea to give the African continent credibility, and thereby a better chance to consolidate itself and prepare for a genuine recovery.

  • 178.
    Bing, Liu
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    The State, Ethnic Identity and Education: A Study of Primary Schooling for Minorities in Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia in China1998Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 179.
    Benincasa, Lusiana
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    A Journey, a Struggle, a Ritual: Higher Education and the Entrance Examinations in a Greek Province Town1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 180.
    Döös, Marianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Den kvalificerande erfarenheten: Lärande vid störningar i automatiserad produktion1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Den kvalificerande erfarenheten
  • 181.
    Romanus, Ejiaga
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Higher Education and the Labor Market: A Study of University Access and Graduate Employment Opportunities in Nigera1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines problems of access to university education and graduate employment opportunities in Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigates issues of equality of opportunity in university education, quotas in admissions, geographical dispersion of higher educational institutions, student finance, university resources, student characteristics, university output, and the transition of graduates to the labor market. The research design of the study incorporates historiography and cross-sectional perspective with more in-depth case studies of two universities. The case studies have been selected based on specific geopolitical, historical, economic, and cultural factors in the country.

    The findings suggest that in order to curb the general problems of university expansion, the availability of the following list of relative indices are important in making admissions decisions: ratio of acceptances to applications, student/academic staff ratio, rate of drop-out, number of graduates in relation to manpower demand by field of specialization, availability of teaching and research equipment, unit cost per student, and the proportion of accepted applicants from the different ethnic groups.

    The results show that access to higher education, particularly in Business Administration, is highly restrictive and elitist. The socio-economic background of the sampled respondents by parental occupation and education shows that 83 percent come from the high-income groups. The study also found gender, age, and regional gaps in university education, and this has implications for student recruitment, assistance, geographical spread of university facilities, and job opportunities.

    With regard to the relevance of university education to employment, more than 70 percent of the graduates indicated that they did not have the training that employers would have liked them to have had. About 65 percent of the employers reported that good academic performance bears no direct relationship to satisfactory job performance. The findings suggest that governments and institutions might consider the integration of manpower planning with educational planning. In Nigeria, manpower planning has not been effective due to lack of a comprehensive employment strategy and, consequently, graduate supply has always outstripped labor market needs. The results show that various means could be used to assist the transition from education to work. Newspaper advertisement and family contacts were considered important sources of obtaining first employment.

  • 182.
    Granberg, Otto
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärande i organisationer: professionella yrkesutövares strategier vid organisatorisk förändring1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study on the professional practice in knowledge organization in the public services. The empirical study deals with the strategies and learning processes developed by the professionals when their units transfer from appropriation financing to performance financing (client-contractor model). The aim of this study is to examine which of the underlying competence and value systems that are conclusive for the strategies developed by the professionals at external demands for change. The aim is also to study the relations between individual and collective group learning. The study has a constructivistic perspective and where system thinking is one starting point.

    The research design is a qualitative study. Six knowledge-intensive organizations were studied. Two of them were followed in a longitudinal study: when there was a decision that they were to be profit centres, at the transition and after one year as a profit-centre. Data were collected mainly by interviews, totally 62 and a questionnaire. The results show that the transition to a new economical managerial system involve the following: A clear strategy for action is that the professionals are working more and harder. The professional way of working have an influence on: treatment methods, prevention work, the competition between professional groups, freedom at work has changed as consciousness of the necessity of development of competence. The influence on the management function is very evident.

    The underlying value base and the criteria for competence, crucial for the professional how to identify and solve their assignment, is founded on two interrelated value systems, the professional value system respective the contextual value system. The professional has acquired and internalized the first system through a university education specially designed for this profession and has developed the training through further education. It is relatively stable over the time and is working as a support for the organization as profession organization. The contextual value system is developing in the immediate culture by the knowledge organization in the public service. The value system is unique for the unit and its professionals. This facilitate the development of strategies supporting the managerial competence. The two value systems are able to cooperate for the founding of a value base facilitating for the unit to manage demands from the surrounding world at the same time as professional values are provided for. At that moment the professional organization is founded. The value base is not synonymous with organizational culture except from the meaning organizational culture for a specific unit of professionals. One consequence of this is that the principal will have difficulties in implementing the management's organizational culture.

  • 183.
    Sorensen, Karen
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Polish Higher Education En Route to the Market: Institutional Change and Autonomy at two Economics Academies1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 184.
    Björn, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barn skapar text: om kulturdialog i skolan1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 185.
    Högberg, Britta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Det handikappade barnet i vuxenvärlden: en reflektion över möjligheten att mötas1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 186.
    Graviz, Ana
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Införande av mediekunskap i skolan: ett pedagogiskt problem? : en fallstudie i Uruguay1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 187.
    Chen, Xiaoda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell och jämförande pedagogik.
    Quality schooling with limited resources: an international comparison of mathematics and science education in China, Korea and Hungary1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 188.
    Jacobson, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Röster från en okänd värld: hur människor med fysiska funktionshinder och omfattande hjälpbehov upplever sina existensvillkor1996Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 189.
    Paulsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    "Dom säger att jag ser mer normal ut med benproteser": om samhällskrav kontra barns behov1995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation study is to explore what it meant to thirteen persons to grow up with severe limb deficiencies (due to Thalidomide) and under the extreme life-conditions that indirectly became the consequences of their impairments. Aspects discussed concern:

    - The functional, social and psychological value of artificial legs from early childhood to grown up age seen from the persons' own perspective.

    - The meaning of growing up with severe limb reduction and with extreme long-time hospital stays, without parents, having corrective splints, plaster castings, operations and even amputations of deformed feet and legs to make them fit into the prostheses, having intensive prosthetic training etc.

    The study focuses on the thalidomide persons' experiences, feelings and views expressed in deep interviews, group discussions and life-stories. Additional data are interviews with parents and staff working with the children in the 1960-ies, data from medical records and protocols from habilitation team meetings.

    The results show that the thalidomide persons' memories of their habilitation years are pervaded by fear, separation anxiety, restriction of movement, lack of physical and psychological control and integrity, a feeling of non-acceptance. The results are discussed also in terms of threat to identity expressed as threat to basic trust, threat to agency, threat to integrity and threat to belonging. To cope the children developed psychological strategies to survive. Intense striving for emotional and/or functional independence and isolation of emotions were strategies that were very obvious to themselves and that sometimes caused problems in adulthood.

    As a final part the thalidomide persons' life conditions were focused from a society perspective. How could this happen? What are we allowed to do to children? How far can striving towards adaptation and normalisation take a society? Analyzing old protocols about amounts spent on technological research compared to the resources spent on supporting the children and their parents in their extreme social and emotional situation gives an insight into societal priorities, attitudes to disabled people, reifying technological solutions of existential matters and objectifying children.

  • 190.
    Mattsson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Generativt lärande: en miljöpedagogisk studie av kunskapsintensiva industriföretag 1991-19931995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe the constraints and possibilities that necessitate generative learning, as well as to describe numerous relevant norms that facilitate generative learning in a knowledge intensive manufacturing industry. The most important result of the thesis is showing that generative learning is divided :1) Generative learning related to routine tasks, 2) Adaptive learning related to routine tasks, 3) Generative learning related to non-routine tasks. Generative learning is unbounded, and its argues that the pedagogical milieu praxis in work places can be a suitable methjod to create conditions for a generative organizational learning.

  • 191.
    Kostoulas-Makrakis, Nelly
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen, Avdelningen för internationell pedagogik.
    Language maintenance or shift?: a study of Greek background students in Sweden1995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores and illustrates the process of language maintenance and shift among greek background students in Sweden, who attend home language instruction. The results show that students' attitudes learning greek were positive. The great majority of students indicated a strong in-group identification. Although the picture revealed in this study is one which in many respects seems to favour language maintenance, it is clear that there is a process of gradual shift taking place among the second generation greek students.

  • 192.
    Fyhr, Gurli
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Vårdinstitutioner söker handledning: en teoretisk analys av ett empiriskt studerat problem1995Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Unexpected problems connected with supervision in residential institutions caring for disturbed and disadvantaged children and adolescents originated this study. The outcome has implications for future planning and support of institutions providing care. Supervisors need to know , not only the primary task of the institution, but also what sort of base the institution is developed from, what governing ideas direct the work and if the institution is mainly performing a conscious or unconscious primary task.

  • 193.
    Grönlund, Erna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Barns känslor bearbetade i dans: dansterapi för barn med tidiga störningar1994Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 194.
    Mogensen, Ester
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Lära i praktiken: en studie av sjuksköterskeutbildningens kliniska avsnitt.1994Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 195.
    Rajamaa, Ruth
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Systrarnas verksamhet, undervisning och uppfostran i Vadstena kloster 1384-15951992Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconstruct and understand the essential meaning of the teaching and upbringing, which women received at the birgittine mother Abbey in Vadstena during the Middle Ages, from the starting point of source material, contemporary literature and modem research. The method of this reconstructional work can be characterized as hermeneutical existential, which in this case means that the interpretation work is focused on understanding the life conditions and existential situation of the women in the convent and the texts and other cultural artefacts which were produced by themselves or had some connection with their situation. The object of interpretation, the sisters' work and official tasks and their education and upbringing is set against the background of an analysis of St. Birgitta and her aims when establishing the convent activities. In this context, the changes in living and working conditions which their activities underwent are also considered. In forming a judgement on the discipline, the description of the form and scope of education and the sisters' knowledge of Latin, local research findings play just as important a role as those of international research. The plausibility of the conclusions which are drawn and whether the applied method of procedure can form the basis of continued research on womens' education in pre-industrial Sweden are discussed in the closing section. From a broader perspective, the work aims to reconstruct life in a medieval Swedish nunnery, something which is only possible to do with the help of source material from birgittine Abbey in Vadstena.

  • 196.
    Brodin, Jane
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Att tolka barns signaler: gravt utvecklingsstörda flerhandikappade barns lek och kommunikation1991Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe interaction between mothers/ caregivers and their profoundly mentally retarded and multiply handicapped children, and to describe the function of play in communicative interaction.

    In the study I describe the communicative interaction of six children aged 1:3 to 10 years. The children have been studied in their homes and preschools or schools. Each child had five or six handicaps in addition to their profound retardation. The study is based on interviews with parents, information from naturally-occurring conversations and videoobservations. Meals and play were selected for video-recording.

    The results indicate that the most important function of play is as a means of communication and learning. Play most often involves sensory stimulation and body play. Communicative interaction is non-verbal and described in terms of gaze/eye contact, facial expressions, gestures and body movements. A pattern of interaction has been found. This consists of four phases: an impression-receiving phase with orientation, an expressive phase with motor activity, a pause with processing and preparation of an answer and finally a break or a limited reaction. These children have, however, a communicative competence. The ability of the mothers to interpret the children’s signals is extremely context-dependent. These mothers adjust their communicative behaviour to the child and facilitate the child’s communicative interaction. The ability of the mothers/ caregivers to interpret the signals of these children is often underestimated by professionals. The living conditions of the parents have emerged as an important factor for play, communication and the development of the child.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Att tolka barns signaler
  • 197.
    Sundelin Wahlsten, Viveka
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Utveckling och överlevnad: en studie av barn i psykosociala riskmiljöer = [Development and survival] : [a study of children at risk living in adverse psychosocial milieu]1991Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of children at risk living in adverse psychosocial milieu.

    The aim of this work is to describe the situation of children at risk in psychosocially disadvantageous milieus, how these children cope with their situation, and which survival-strategies they do develop.

    The work consists of an account on work with children at risk in Sweden and the outcome and effects of this work. A summary of longitudinal research in child development and epidemiology, shows that the reasons for psychopathology are complex and multidimensional. What is not known, is the very process in which the child forms his experiences and resources into a constructive or less constructive strategy for handling the forces that build up a stressful milieu.

    To penetrate and learn something from such a process a longitudinal study, concerning 12 pre-school children during a 4-years period, is designed. As a guiding principle for the work the term: "strategy for survival" has been chosen, defined as a functional tendency in the child to reduce stress. The strategi of the individual child is evaluated as mainly constructive or destructive. The former is characterized by a flexible relationship between self and surrounding and by undisturbed psycho-motor development, the latter by the opposite. Empirically, the actual strategy for survival in the individual child is assumed to be indicated in the following functions: psychosomatic health, affective reactions and volition, social behaviour and patterns of social contact, psychomotor development and ego functions. To assess the kind of stress, experienced by the child, in relation to which the strategy for survival is developed, the structure and the network of the family, the general attitude of the primary care-taker and the incidence of disrupted positive social relations are observed. The strategy for survival is interpreted as the child’s way of handling his situation in these respects.

    Methods used are Griffiths’ psychomotorical test, a behaviour inquire, case sheet notes and interviews with children, their families and the staff involved. The results show three girls developing mainly constructive (moderating) strategies, the other children demonstrate more or less destructive, outerdirected or innerdirected patterns. All boys in the study demonstrate less constructive strategies. Compared to the girls they are less socially active, more withdrawn and more compliant. Health problems and psychosomatic reactions are very frequent, especially among children with innerdirected reactions. Virtually all children showed marked delays in ego functions and certain Griffiths’ sub-scales, mostly those related to concept development and personal-social behaviour. Development is seldom smooth and regular but characterized by sudden arrests and spurts, typically related to changes in child care conditions like entering pre-school or school, disrupting a foster parent relationship etc. It seems obvious that the most important single factor for promoting a better situation for these children is the access to resourceful, positive and stable persons in the social surrounding.

  • 198.
    Olin Lauritzen, Sonja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Hälsovård som rutin eller relation: Svensk mödra- och barnhälsovård möter invandrarfamiljer1990Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 199.
    Wistedt, Inger
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Rum för lärande: Om elevers studier på gymnasiet1987Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 200.
    Holm, Olof
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Kooperation i ofärd och välfärd: studier rörande svensk konsumentkooperation som part på marknaden i historiskt och pedagogiskt perspektiv1984Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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