Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 151 - 200 av 1139
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 151.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    IRIS Teacher Training: CD2009Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    CD in English from the IRIS Teacher Training package. International cooperation between Austria, Belgium, Catalonia (Spain), England, Portugal and Sweden. Focus is on inclusive education and classroom climate.

  • 152.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Lärarhögskolan i Stockholm (LHS).
    Molosiwa, Serefete
    Support for families with children with mental retardation in Botswana, Southern Africa2000Ingår i: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 163-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 153.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Renblad, Karin
    Högskolan i Borås.
    How many positive results on inclusion do we need to make a change?2009Ingår i: Assistive Technology From Adapted Equipment to Inclusive Environments / [ed] P.L. Emiliani, L. Burzagli, A. Como, F. Gabbanini and A-L. Salminen, The Netherlands: IOS Press , 2009, Vol. 25, s. 708-712Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The expectations of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as a tool for participation and equal opportunities for all have been highly valued within the European community. For children and young persons with disabilities the expecations have been of special importance as they have found their opportunities for inclusion on the agenda. Inclusion is not only a physical placement. Inclusion means to be part of, to share, to communicate and to be someone to count with. The aim of the article is to stress research on inclusion of children and highlight how ICT has been and still is used in the schools to enhance participation and equal opportunities for all. Our intention is to stress challenging research results and we ask 'how many positive results on inclusion do we need to make changes?' and 'where are all the progressive decision-makers who will implement the research results?'.

  • 154.
    Brodin, Jane
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för barn- och ungdomsvetenskap.
    Stancheva-Popkostadinova, Vaska
    Social medical dept. South West University.
    Ethical considerations in child research in light of the convention on the rights of the child2009Ingår i: Journal of Global Change and Governance, ISSN 1941-8760, Vol. II, nr 2, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the article is to discuss the needs and priorities for ethical considerations in research on children. The focus is on methodological  issues and  on ethical conserations in research in relation to the CRC.

  • 155.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Bergström, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Joint physical custody, turning to parents for emotional support, and subjective health: a study of adolescents in Stockholm, Sweden2014Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 456-462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Among children with separated parents, the arrangement of joint physical custody, i.e. children living equally much in both parents’ homes, has increased substantially during the last decades in Sweden. To date, empirical research on the living conditions of this group is limited. This study analyses family type differences in turning to parents for emotional support and in subjective health among adolescents. The focus of the study is adolescents in joint physical custody, who are compared with those living with two original parents in the same household; those living (only) in a single-parent household; and those living (only) in a reconstituted family. Methods: The data come from the Stockholm School Survey of 2004, a total population survey of students in grade 9 (15–16 years) in Stockholm (n=8,840). Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions were conducted. Results: Turning to both parents about problems is most commonly reported by adolescents in intact families, followed by those in joint physical custody. Adolescents in non-traditional family types report worse subjective health than adolescents in intact families, but the difference is smaller for those in joint physical custody than for those living with a single parent. The slightly poorer health of adolescents in joint physical custody than those in intact families is not explained by their lower use of parents as a source of emotional support. Conclusions: The study suggests that joint physical custody is associated with a higher inclination to use parents as a source of emotional support and better subjective health than other post-divorce family types.

  • 156.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    National data study showed that adolescents living in poorer households and with one parent were more likely to be bullied2017Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, nr 12, s. 2048-2054Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to assess whether sociodemographic household characteristics were associated with which Swedish adolescents were more likely to be bullied.

    Methods

    The data were derived from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey and its child supplements from the survey years 2008-2011. The analyses included information on 3,951 adolescents aged 10-18 years. Exposure to bullying was reported by adolescents and information on sociodemographic household characteristics was reported by parents and obtained from official registers. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse the data.

    Results

    Adolescents were more likely to be bullied if they lived in households with no cash margin, defined as the ability to pay an unexpected bill of 8,000 Swedish Kronor or about 800 Euros, and if they lived with just one custodial parent. In the unadjusted analyses, elevated risks were identified if adolescents lived in working class households and had unemployed and foreign-born parents. However, these associations were at least partly accounted for by other sociodemographic household characteristics, in particular the lack of a cash margin.

    Conclusion

    This study showed that Swedish adolescents living in households with more limited financial resources had an increased risk of being bullied, supporting results from previous international research.

  • 157.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fransson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Sociodemographic inequalities in adolescents’ health-related behaviours: The case of Sweden2016Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Earlier research suggests that socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviours exist among young people, but with less clearcut patterns than among adults. The aim of the study is to examine to what extent sociodemographic inequalities in health behaviours in terms of alcohol use, smoking, physical inactivity, and regularly skipping breakfast and lunch, exist among adolescents in Sweden.

    Methods

    The data were obtained from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey (ULF) and its child supplements (Child-ULF) from 2008-2011 (n = 4001). Health-related behaviours were reported by adolescents aged 10-18 years and information on sociodemographic characteristics was derived from parents and from official registers. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted.

    Results

    Clear sociodemographic inequalities in health-related behaviours were shown. Compared with their peers with parents in upper non-manual occupations, adolescents in working-class households were more likely to smoke (OR 1.53, p = 0.033), to be physically inactive (OR 1.54, p = 0.004), and to regularly skip breakfast (OR 1.78, p = 0.000) and lunch (OR 1.42, p = 0.011). Adolescents in households lacking a cash margin were more inclined to smoke (OR 1.47, p = 0.033) and to skip breakfast (OR 1.62, p = 0.000) as well as to skip lunch (OR 1.31, p = 0.041) than those in better off households. Not living in a nuclear family was linked with a higher risk of drinking alcohol (OR 1.57, p = 0.002), smoking (OR 2.32, p = 0.000), and skipping breakfast (OR 1.54, p = 0.000) and lunch (OR 1.55, p = 0.000). Adolescents with foreign-born parents were more likely to be physically inactive (OR 1.67, p = 0.001) and to regularly skip breakfast (OR 1.55, p = 0.002) compared with those whose parents were born in Sweden.

    Conclusions

    Sociodemographic inequalities in health-related behaviours clearly exist among adolescents in Sweden, along lines of household social class, financial strain, family structure and parental country of birth.

  • 158.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Do health complaints in adolescence negatively predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood?2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 878-885Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Self-reported psychological and psychosomatic health complaints, such as nervousness, sadness, headache and stomach-ache, are common among adolescents, particularly among girls, and studies suggest that the prevalence has risen among adolescent girls during the last few decades. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the potential long-term consequences of such health complaints. The aim of the current study was to assess whether psychological and psychosomatic health complaints in adolescence predict the chance of entering tertiary education in young adulthood among women and men. Methods: The data used are from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is based on a nationally representative sample with self-reported survey information from adolescents aged 10–18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20–28 in 2010 (n=783). Information was also collected from parents and from official registers. Results: Linear probability models showed that self-reported psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with a lower chance of having entered tertiary education 10 years later. This association was accounted for by differences in grade point average (GPA), suggesting that GPA may mediate the association between psychological complaints and later education. The pattern was similar for both genders. Furthermore, among men, psychosomatic complaints in adolescence were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of having entered tertiary education 10 years later when adjusting for GPA and social class in adolescence. A similar but non-significant tendency was found among women. Conclusions: The findings suggest that health complaints in adolescence may have long-term consequences in terms of lower educational attainment.

  • 159.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Peer Victimization among Classmates—Associations with Students’ Internalizing Problems, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction2017Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 10, artikel-id 1218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes. Results from multilevel analyses show a significant association between classes with a high proportion of students being victimized and higher levels of internalizing problems, lower self-esteem, and lower life satisfaction at the student level. This association holds when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. This suggests that peer victimization negatively affects those who are directly exposed, as well as their classmates. We conclude that efficient methods and interventions to reduce bullying in school are likely to benefit not only those who are victimized, but all students.

  • 160.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School-performance indicators and subjective health complaints: are there gender differences?2012Ingår i: Sociology of Health and Illness, ISSN 0141-9889, E-ISSN 1467-9566, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 608-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although boys and girls are generally located in the same physical school environment, it may be experienced differently by, and have varying implications for, boys and girls. Girls like school more and achieve higher school marks, but they also perceive more school-related pressure. Based on a total sample of 8456 ninth grade pupils in Stockholm in 2004, this study uses multilevel linear regression to analyse differences between boys and girls with regard to a number of school-performance indicators (demands, motivation, teacher support and school marks) and their association with subjective health complaints. Results showed that girls perceive more demands, show greater academic motivation, perform better in school and report more emotional support from teachers than boys. In contrast, instrumental and appraisal support from teachers are more commonly reported by boys. Associations between school-performance indicators and subjective health complaints were slightly stronger for girls than for boys. Contextual variation in health complaints, especially between classes, was found only for girls. High achievement motivation and emotional teacher support in the school class was associated with better pupil health, suggesting that a positive climate in terms of motivation and support favours class health as a whole.

  • 161.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hoven, Hanno
    Plenty, Stephanie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Effort-reward imbalance in the school setting: associations with Somatic pain and self-rated health2015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 123-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: According to the workplace theory of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), individuals who perceive a lack of reciprocity between their effort spent at work and the rewards received in turn are at an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. It is also assumed that being overcommitted to work is linked to an increased risk of stress-related ill-health. This study applies the effort-reward imbalance model to the school setting. It aims to analyse the associations that effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment share with somatic pain and self-rated health among adolescents. Methods: Data are from the School Stress and Support Study (TriSSS), involving students in grades 8 and 9 (ages 14-16 years) in two schools in Stockholm, Sweden, during 2010 (n=403). Information on effort-reward imbalance and health outcomes was gathered from self-report questionnaires. An adjusted short version of ERI was used. Factor analysis showed that extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment constitute three distinct dimensions. The designed measures demonstrated sound psychometric properties both for the full sample and for subgroups. Ordered logistic regressions were conducted. Results: The analyses showed that low reward and higher overcommitment were associated with greater somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Furthermore, effort-reward imbalance was linked with an elevated risk of somatic pain and poorer self-rated health. Conclusions: Students are more likely to experience stress-related ill-health when they perceive an imbalance between their effort and rewards. In addition, high overcommitment is associated with an increased risk of ill-health among students.

  • 162.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychological complaints in adolescence: do they track into young adulthood?2017Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl. 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychological complaints, such as feeling sad or nervous, are common among adolescents, especially girls. The prevalence also appears to have risen during the last decades in Sweden, in particular among girls. Yet, knowledge about whether there are long-term associations with adverse health outcomes later in life is scarce. The aim of the current study is to assess to what extent psychological complaints in adolescence track into young adulthood, and whether there are gender differences.

    Methods

    The data used were derived from the Swedish Young-LNU, which is a prospective study based on a nationally representative sample with survey information from adolescents aged 10-18 years in 2000 and from the same individuals at ages 20-28 years in 2010 (n = 792). Information on household characteristics at baseline was provided by parents. Psychological complaints in adolescence were measured by self-reported items on feeling sad and down, tense and nervous, and grouchy and irritated. Psychological complaints in young adulthood were measured by self-reported items on anxiety and depression. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression.

    Results

    Psychological complaints in adolescence were associated with an excess risk of psychological complaints in young adulthood (OR = 2.08, p = 0.003) also when adjusting for sex, age group, and family structure and household social class at baseline. Gender-separate analyses revealed that the association was statistically significant for females (OR = 2.22, p = 0.007) but not for males (OR = 1.83, p = 0.148).

    Conclusions

    For females, psychological complaints in adolescence predicted psychological complaints in young adulthood. This underlines the importance that adolescents who suffer from this type of health problems should be identified and provided support, for instance through the school health services.

  • 163.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School climate and exposure to bullying: a multilevel study2017Ingår i: School Effectiveness and School Improvement, ISSN 0924-3453, E-ISSN 1744-5124, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 153-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates associations between aspects of school climate, measured by students’ assessments aggregated to the class level, and exposure to bullying, measured at the individual level. The data were derived from the Stockholm School Survey of 2006–2010 with information from 16,418 ninth-grade students (aged 15–16 years) distributed over 871 classes and 259 schools. Three-level binary logistic regression was applied. Two of the studied school climate aspects in particular were linked with the occurrence of bullying: In classes where a high proportion of students claimed to be aware of the school rules and in classes where a high proportion of students stated that adults intervene against bullying, fewer students reported having been bullied. The findings imply that striving toward a school climate characterized by transparent rules and clear disapproval of harassments may help to reduce bullying.

  • 164.
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School Leadership and Cyberbullying: A Multilevel Analysis2017Ingår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 14, nr 10, artikel-id 1226Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyberbullying is a relatively new form of bullying, with both similarities and differences to traditional bullying. While earlier research has examined associations between school-contextual characteristics and traditional bullying, fewer studies have focused on the links to students’ involvement in cyberbullying behavior. The aim of the present study is to assess whether school-contextual conditions in terms of teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are associated with the occurrence of cyberbullying victimization and perpetration among students. The data are derived from two separate data collections performed in 2016: The Stockholm School Survey conducted among students in the second grade of upper secondary school (ages 17–18 years) in Stockholm municipality, and the Stockholm Teacher Survey which was carried out among teachers in the same schools. The data include information from 6067 students distributed across 58 schools, linked with school-contextual information based on reports from 1251 teachers. Cyberbullying victimization and perpetration are measured by students’ self-reports. Teachers’ ratings of the school leadership are captured by an index based on 10 items; the mean value of this index was aggregated to the school level. Results from binary logistic multilevel regression models show that high teacher ratings of the school leadership are associated with less cyberbullying victimization and perpetration. We conclude that a strong school leadership potentially prevents cyberbullying behavior among students.

  • 165. Brunborg, Geir Scott
    et al.
    Norström, Thor
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI). Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway.
    Storvoll, Elisabet E.
    Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 3, s. 389-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. To identify latent developmental episodic heavy drinking (EHD) trajectory groups for Norwegian adolescents, investigate risk factors associated with group membership and to assess differences in alcohol problems between different groups in early adulthood. Design and Methods. Data were from 1266 individuals measured at four time points from age 13/14years to age 26/27years. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify groups with different EHD development. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigated if gender, impulsivity, school commitment, parents' socio-economic status, frequency of seeing parents drunk and parental knowledge could predict group membership. Differences in alcohol problem scores at age 26/27 were also assessed. Results. Four trajectory groups were identified: stable high', early increasers', late increasers' and stable low'. Membership of the high-risk trajectory groups stable high' and early increasers' was predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. The risk of alcohol problems at age 26/27 was greater for the stable high' group, the early increasers' and the late increasers' compared with the stable low' group. The stable high' and early increasers' had similar risk of alcohol problems. Discussion and Conclusions. Stable high and early increasing EHD in adolescence was associated with more alcohol problems in early adulthood. Such trajectories were predicted by high impulsivity, low school commitment, high frequency of seeing parents drunk and low parental knowledge. [Brunborg GS, Norstrom T, Storvoll EE. Latent developmental trajectories of episodic heavy drinking from adolescence to early adulthood: Predictors of trajectory groups and alcohol problems in early adulthood as outcome.

  • 166. Bruno Pena Gralle, Ana Paula
    et al.
    Barbosa Moreno, Arlinda
    Lopes Juvanhol, Leidjaira
    de Jesus Mendes da Fonseca, Maria
    Prates Melo, Enirtes Caetano
    Antunes Nunes, Maria Angelica
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Harter Griep, Rosane
    Job strain and binge eating among Brazilian workers participating in the ELSA-Brasil study: does BMI matter?2017Ingår i: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 59, nr 3, s. 247-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the association between job strain and binge eating as well as the effect-modifying influence of body mass index (BMI) on this association. Methods: A total of 11,951 active civil servants from the multicenter Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) was included in this cross-sectional analysis. Job strain was assessed using the Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Binge eating was defined as eating a large amount of food with a sense of lack of control over what and how much is eaten in less than 2 hours at least twice a week. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the association between binge eating and job strain as well as its interaction with BMI. Results: After adjustment, and using low-strain job as the reference category, binge eating was associated with high-strain job (high demand/low control: odds ratio [OR]=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-1.98), active job (high demand/high control: OR=1.35, 95% CI 1.07-1.70), and passive job (low demand/low control: OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). Psychological job demands were positively associated with binge eating (OR=1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), while greater job control and social support at work were each inversely associated with binge eating (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.97 and OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98, respectively). BMI modified the association between job strain and binge eating: Heavier psychological job demands were associated with higher odds of binge eating among obese participants, while a stronger inverse association between job control and binge eating was seen among slimmer participants. Conclusions: Job strain increases the odds of binge eating and this association is modified by BMI.

  • 167.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hammarström, Anne
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Health inequalities between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden: a decomposition analysis of social determinants for mental health2018Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 17, artikel-id 59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even though population health is strongly influenced by employment and working conditions, public health research has to a lesser extent explored the social determinants of health inequalities between people in different positions on the labour market, and whether these social determinants vary across the life course. This study analyses mental health inequalities between unemployed and employed in three age groups (youth, adulthood and mid-life), and identifies the extent to which social determinants explain the mental health gap between employed and unemployed in northern Sweden.

    Methods: The Health on Equal Terms survey of 2014 was used, with self-reported employment (unemployed or employed) as exposure and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as mental health outcome. The social determinants of health inequalities were grouped into four dimensions: socioeconomic status, economic resources, social network and trust in institutional systems. The non-linear Oaxaca decomposition analysis was applied, stratified by gender and age groups.

    Results: Mental health inequality was found in all age groups among women and men (difference in GHQ varying between 0.12 and 0.20). The decomposition analysis showed that the social determinants included in the model accounted for 43-51% of the inequalities among youths, 42-98% of the inequalities among adults and 60-65% among middle-aged. The main contributing factors were shown to vary between age groups: cash margin (among youths and middle-aged men), financial strain (among adults and middle-aged women), income (among men in adulthood), along with trust in others (all age groups), practical support (young women) and social support (middle-aged men); stressing how the social determinants of health inequalities vary across the life course.

    Conclusions: The health gap between employed and unemployed was explained by the difference in access to economic and social resources, and to a smaller extent in the trust in the institutional systems. Findings from this study corroborate that much of the mental health inequality in the Swedish labour market is socially and politically produced and potentially avoidable. Greater attention from researchers, policy makers on unemployment and public health should be devoted to the social and economic deprivation of unemployment from a life course perspective to prevent mental health inequality.

  • 168.
    Brydsten, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Rostila, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Dunlavy, Andrea
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social integration and mental health - a decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between the foreign-born and native-born in Sweden2019Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, artikel-id 48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increasing mental health inequalities between native- and foreign-born persons in Sweden is an important public health issue. Improving social integration has been stressed as a key strategy to combat this development. While a vast amount of studies have confirmed the importance of social integration for good mental health, less is known about the role of different types of social integration, and how they relate to mental health inequalities. This study aimed to examine the extent to which indicators of social integration explained mental health inequalities between the native- and foreign-born. Methods: Based on the Health on Equal Terms survey from 2011/2015 in Vastra Gotaland, Sweden (n=71,643), a non-linear Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis was performed comparing native- and foreign-born individuals from Nordic-, European- and non-European countries. The General Health Questionnaire was used to assess psychological distress, while 11 items assessed employment conditions and economic disparities, social relations, and experiences of discrimination to measure different aspects of social integration. Results: Differences in social integration explained large proportions of observed mental health differences between the native- and foreign-born. Important indicators included low levels of social activity (20%), trust in others (17%) and social support (16%), but also labour market disadvantages, such as being outside the labour market (15%), unemployment (10%) and experiencing financial strain (16%). In analyses stratified by region of origin, low trust in others and discrimination contributed to the mental health gap between the native-born and European-born (17 and 9%, respectively), and the native-born and non-European-born (19 and 10%, respectively). Precarious labour market position was a particularly important factor in the mental health gap between the native-born and Nordic-origin (22%), and non-European origin (36%) populations. Conclusion: Social integration factors play a central role in explaining the mental health inequality between natives and migrants in Sweden. Our findings suggest that public health actions targeting mental health gaps could benefit from focusing on inequalities in social and economic recourses between natives and migrants in Sweden. Areas of priority include improving migrants' financial strain, as well as increasing trust in othersand social support and opportunities for civic engagement.

  • 169.
    Bryngelson, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bacchus Hertzman, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Fritzell, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    The relationship between gender segregation in the workplace and long-term sickness absence in Sweden2011Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, nr 6, s. 618-626Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the study is to investigate whether the gender composition in workplaces is related to long-term sickness absence (LSA). We start off with Kanter’s theory on ‘‘tokenism,’’ suggesting an increased risk of stress among minority groups (tokens), which, in turn, might increase the risk of ill health and LSA. Methods: The dataset consists of information obtained from the Swedish level of Living Survey (LNU) and the Swedish Establishment Survey (APU), linked to register-based data from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. The longitudinal data is representative for the Swedish population and consists of 496 women and 566 men, aged 20—55 at baseline. Our study group consisted of employed persons in 1991 and we analyze, by means of piecewise constant intensity regressions, the first entry into LSA with a follow-up period of nine years. Results: Compared with women in gender-integrated workplaces, women’s risk of LSA is most elevated at both extremely male-dominated (0—20% females) and extremely female-dominated workplaces (80—100% females), although the result among women in the most male-dominated group did not reach statistical significance at the 5% level. Men’s risk seems less varied by gender composition. Conclusions: The present study suggests that the gender composition in the workplace has an impact on the risk of LSA, especially among women. Our findings lend no support for Kanter’s theory on the effects of being a token. Most likely, women’s and men’s different status positions have an impact on the different associations found.

  • 170.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Bo, Vinnerljung
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Child welfare clients have higher risks for teenage childbirths: which are the major confounders?2016Ingår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 592-597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aiming to support effective social intervention strategies targeting high-risk groups for teenage motherhood, this study examined to what extent the elevated crude risks of teenage childbirth among child welfare groups were attributable to the uneven distribution of adverse individual and family background factors. Methods: Comprehensive longitudinal register data for more than 700 000 Swedish females born 1973–1989 (including around 29 000 child welfare clients) were analysed by means of binary logistic regression. The Karlson/Holm/Breen-method was used to decompose each confounding factor’s relative contribution to the difference between crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). Results: Elevated crude risks for teenage childbirth are to a large extent attributable to selection on observables. Girls’ school failure was the most potent confounder, accounting for 28–35% of the difference between crude and adjusted ORs. Conclusion: As in majority populations, girls’ school failure was a strong risk factor for teenage childbirth among former child welfare children. At least among pre-adolescents, promoting school performance among children in the child welfare system seems to be a viable intervention path.

  • 171.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Trolldal, Björn
    Menke, Martin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Spatial spillover effects of a community action programme targeting on-licensed premises on violent assaults: evidence from a natural experiment2016Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, nr 3, s. 226-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spatial dependencies may influence the success of community action strategies to prevent and reduce harmful alcohol use. This study examined the effectiveness of a multicomponent Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) programme targeting on-licensed premises on police-recorded assaults in Swedish municipalities. It was expected that the implementation of the programme within any given municipality had an indirect effect by reducing violent assaults in adjacent municipalities.

    Methods This study was a natural experiment exploiting the temporal and spatial variation in the implementation of the RBS programme to predict change in the rate of violent assaults in all Swedish municipalities during 1996–2009 (n=288; T=14; N=4 032). Yearly police-recorded violent assaults per 100 000 inhabitants aged 15 and above committed on weekend nights were used as a dependent variable. Programme fidelity was identified by means of survey data. A semilogarithmic fixed-effects spatial panel regression model was used to estimate the direct, indirect and total effects of the programme.

    Results The direct, indirect and total effects were −1.8% (95% CI −4.4% to 0.8%), −5.8% (95% CI −11.5% to −0.1%) and −7.6% (95% CI −13.2% to −2.2%), respectively. Averaged over time and across all municipalities, implementing one additional programme component in all municipalities will thus reduce violent assaults in one typical municipality by nearly 8%.

    Conclusions The indirect effect of the programme was three times larger than its direct effect. Failing to account for such local spillover effects can result in a considerable underestimation of the programme's total impact and may lead to erroneous policy recommendations.

  • 172.
    Brännström, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Risk factors for teenage childbirths among child welfare clients: findings from Sweden2015Ingår i: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 53, nr 6, s. 44-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study contributes to the literature on preventing teenage childbirths by asking whether the pattern and strength of risk factors is the same for high-risk child welfare clients, as for their peers in the majority population. Longitudinal register data on more than 700,000 Swedish females, including around 29,000 child welfare clients, were analyzed by means of linear probability models and calculations of population attributable fractions. Comparisons of effect sizes suggest that the differences in pattern were marginal, but there were notable differences in strength. The girls' school failure was the most prominent risk factor across all groups, also when prevalence was taken into account. In the majority population, the hypothetical reduction of teenage childbirths is on the scale of 30% if this risk factor could be eliminated. In the child welfare subgroups, however, the hypothetical improvement was even larger, around 40%. Reducing the high rate of school failure could thus yield a profound reduction in teenage childbirths in child welfare subgroups, where the incidence of teenage childbirth is substantially higher compared to other peers.

  • 173.
    Bränstrom, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Yale University, USA.
    Minority stress factors as mediators of sexual orientation disparities in mental health treatment: a longitudinal population-based study2017Ingår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 71, nr 5, s. 446-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Substantial mental health disparities between lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals compared with heterosexuals have been identified. The aim was to examine potential sexual orientation-based disparities in mental health treatment in a prospectively analysed population-based sample in Sweden and to explore potential moderators and mediators. Method 30 730 individuals from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort were followed up with questionnaires and registry-based health record data on psychiatric healthcare visits and prescription drug use between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011. Results In adjusted analyses, gay and lesbian individuals were more likely to receive treatment for anxiety disorders (adjusted ORs (AOR) = 3.80; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.69) and to use antidepressant medication (AOR= 2.13; 95% CI 1.62 to 2.79); and bisexuals were more likely to receive treatment for mood disorders (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.48), anxiety disorders (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI 2.22 to 4.72) and substance use disorders (AOR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.25), and to use antidepressant medication (AOR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.25) when compared with heterosexuals. The largest mental health treatment disparities based on sexual orientation were found among bisexual women, gay men and younger lesbian women. More frequent experiences of victimisation/threat of violence and lack of social support could partially explain these disparities. Conclusions This study shows a substantially elevated risk of poor mental health among LGB individuals as compared with heterosexuals. Findings support several factors outlined in the minority stress theory in explaining the mechanisms behind these disparities.

  • 174. Bränström, Richard
    et al.
    Kvillemo, Pia
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Effects of mindfulness training on levels of cortisol in cancer patients2013Ingår i: Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3182, E-ISSN 1545-7206, Vol. 54, nr 2, s. 158-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training intervention among cancer patients on levels of salivary cortisol, and further to explore if changes in psychological variables mediate intervention effects on cortisol.

    Methods: Patients with a previous cancer diagnosis (n = 71) were recruited and randomized into an intervention group or a waiting-list control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week MBSR training course.

    Results: There were no overall effects of the intervention on cortisol levels at 3-month or 6-month follow-up. However, a significant effect of moderation was found showing a different intervention effect on awakening cortisol among participants with varying baseline level of cortisol. Among those with initial low levels of cortisol, there was an increase from baseline to 3-month follow-up, and among those with initial high levels there was a decreased level of cortisol at 3-month follow-up. There was no association between changes in psychological outcomes and cortisol levels.

    Conclusions: The results suggest an adjustment of cortisol levels as a result of MBSR. The study gives preliminary support indicating that MBSR can influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning. The importance of these findings for future research in the field of mindfulness and stress reduction among cancer patients are discussed.

  • 175. Bråbäck, Lennart
    et al.
    Lowe, Adrian
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Elective cesarean section and childhood asthma2013Ingår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 209, nr 5, s. 496-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 176. Bureš, J.
    et al.
    Kopáčová, M.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Seifert, B.
    Škodová Fendrichová, M.
    Špirková, J.
    Voříšek, V.
    Rejchrt, S.
    Douda, T.
    Král, N.
    Tachecí, I.
    Significant decrease in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the Czech Republic2012Ingår i: World Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 1007-9327, E-ISSN 2219-2840, Vol. 18, nr 32, s. 4412-4418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    METHODS: A total of 22 centres entered the study. The catchment areas of these centres covered cities and towns with more than 20 000 inhabitants, smaller towns (<= 20 000 inhabitants) with surrounding villages and rural areas, and were spread over the whole country, corresponding well to the geographical distribution of the Czech population. A total of 1 837 subjects (aged 5-98 years) took part in the study, randomly selected out of 38 147 people from the general population. H. pylori infection was investigated by means of a C-13-urea breath test. Breath samples in duplicates were analysed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The cut-off point was 3.5. Social and demographic characteristics were based on data from self-completed questionnaires. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 23.5% (430/1826), and 4.8% (20/420) in children aged 15 or less. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence between males (24.3%; 208/857) and females (22.9%, 222/969, P = 0.494). H. pylon infection was strongly associated with higher age, among subjects aged 55+ years, prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.8% (252/633, P < 0.001). The highest prevalence of H. pylori infection was found among persons aged 55-64 years (43.9%, 97/221) and 75+ years (37.9%, 58/153). Among study subjects aged 15+ years, prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly increased in those with lowest education (odds risk 3.19, 95% CI 1.87-5.47). Compared to never married (14.1%), the prevalence of H. pylori infection was statistically significantly higher among married (35.4%, 246/694, P < 0.001), divorced (36.8%, 49/133, P < 0.001) and widowed study subjects (40.2%, 45/112, P < 0.001), both in minimally and fully adjusted analysis. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection between married and widowed subjects (35.4%, 246/694 vs 40.2%, 45/112, P = 0.389). There was little variation in smoking prevalence across categories of smoking and there was no evidence of an increased risk of H. pylon infection among current or past smokers in our data (odds risk 1.04 with 95% CI 0.78-1.40 for current smokers; odds ratio 0.83 with 95% CI 0.60-1.16 for former smokers). The current prevalence of H. pylori in 2011 was significantly lower compared to the prevalence reported from identical geographical areas in 2001 (23.5% vs 41.7%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The overall prevalence of H. pylon infection in the general population has fallen substantially in the Czech Republic over the past 10 years.

  • 177. Burke, Sarah M.
    et al.
    Majid, D. S. Adnan
    Manzouri, Amir H.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Karolinska Institute and University Hospital, Sweden.
    Moody, Teena
    Feusner, Jamie D.
    Savic, Ivanka
    Sex differences in own and other body perception2019Ingår i: Human Brain Mapping, ISSN 1065-9471, E-ISSN 1097-0193, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 474-488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Own body perception, and differentiating and comparing one's body to another person's body, are common cognitive functions that have relevance for self-identity and social interactions. In several psychiatric conditions, including anorexia nervosa, body dysmorphic disorder, gender dysphoria, and autism spectrum disorder, self and own body perception, as well as aspects of social communication are disturbed. Despite most of these conditions having skewed prevalence sex ratios, little is known about whether the neural basis of own body perception differs between the sexes. We addressed this question by investigating brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Body Perception task in 15 male and 15 female healthy participants. Participants viewed their own body, bodies of same-sex, or opposite-sex other people, and rated the degree that they appeared like themselves. We found that men and women did not differ in the pattern of brain activation during own body perception compared to a scrambled control image. However, when viewing images of other bodies of same-sex or opposite-sex, men showed significantly stronger activations in attention-related and reward-related brain regions, whereas women engaged stronger activations in striatal, medial-prefrontal, and insular cortices, when viewing the own body compared to other images of the opposite sex. It is possible that other body images, particularly of the opposite sex, may be of greater salience for men, whereas images of own bodies may be more salient for women. These observations provide tentative neurobiological correlates to why women may be more vulnerable than men to conditions involving own body perception.

  • 178. Busetta, Annalisa
    et al.
    Cetorelli, Valeria
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. London School of Economics, UK.
    A Universal Health Care System? Unmet Need for Medical Care Among Regular and Irregular Immigrants in Italy2018Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 416-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Italy has a universal health care system that covers, in principle, the whole resident population, irrespective of citizenship and legal status. This study calculates the prevalence of unmet need for medical care among Italian citizens, regular and irregular immigrants and estimates logistic regression models to assess whether differences by citizenship and legal status hold true once adjusting for potential confounders. The analysis is based on two Surveys on Income and Living Conditions of Italian households and households with foreigners. Controlling for various factors, the odds of experiencing unmet need for medical care are 27% higher for regular immigrants than for Italian citizens and 59% higher for irregular immigrants. The gaps by citizenship and legal status are even more striking among those with chronic illnesses. These results reveal the high vulnerability of immigrants in Italy and the need to develop more effective policies to achieve health care access for all residents.

  • 179.
    Cakici, Baki
    et al.
    KTH.
    Hebing, Kenneth
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Control (SMI).
    Grünewald, Maria
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Control (SMI).
    Saretok, Paul
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Control (SMI).
    Hulth, Anette
    Swedish Institute for Infectious Control (SMI).
    CASE: A Framework for Computer Supported Outbreak Detection2010Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 10, nr 14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In computer supported outbreak detection, a statistical method is applied to a collection of cases to detect any excess cases for a particular disease. Whether a detected aberration is a true outbreak is decided by a human expert. We present a technical framework designed and implemented at the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control for computer supported outbreak detection, where a database of case reports for a large number of infectious diseases can be processed using one or more statistical methods selected by the user.

    Results: Based on case information, such as diagnosis and date, different statistical algorithms for detecting outbreaks can be applied, both on the disease level and the subtype level. The parameter settings for the algorithms can be configured independently for different diagnoses using the provided graphical interface. Input generators and output parsers are also provided for all supported algorithms. If an outbreak signal is detected, an email notification is sent to the persons listed as receivers for that particular disease.

    Conclusions: The framework is available as open source software, licensed under GNU General Public License Version 3. By making the code open source, we wish to encourage others to contribute to the future development of computer supported outbreak detection systems, and in particular to the development of the CASE framework.

  • 180. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul M.
    How much alcohol is consumed outside of the lifetime risk guidelines in Australia?2018Ingår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 42-47Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of long-term risky drinking within the Australian population and the proportion of standard drinks that is consumed outside of the long-term risk (LTR) guidelines of two Australian standard drinks (ASD) per day.

    Design and Methods. Recruited by phone, 2020 Australian adults with an oversampling of risky drinkers were asked detailed questions about how much alcohol they consumed at a range of locations in 2013. Descriptive statistical analyses of data weighted to be representative of the Australian adult population were undertaken, with a focus on the ASD consumed above the LTR guidelines.

    Results. Although 28% of respondents drink at levels above the LTR drinking guidelines, 56% of all ASD consumed are above the two per day recommended to reduce LTR. Three-quarters of cask wine and liqueurs were consumed outside of the LTR guidelines, as were 58% of all ASD consumed in the home, similar to the proportion of ASD consumed above the guidelines in pubs (55%).

    Discussion and Conclusions. While the minority of Australians drink to LTR levels, the majority of alcohol is consumed by long-term risky drinkers. More research and policy focus on the patterns of alcohol consumption that lead to long-term risk, particularly outside of licensed premises, is required.

  • 181. Canivet, Catarina
    et al.
    Bodin, Theo
    Emmelin, Maria
    Toivanen, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Moghaddassi, Mahnaz
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Precarious employment is a risk factor for poor mental health in young individuals in Sweden: a cohort study with multiple follow-ups2016Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 16, artikel-id 687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The globalisation of the economy and the labour markets has resulted in a growing proportion of individuals who find themselves in a precarious labour market situation, especially among the young. This pertains also to the Nordic countries, despite their characterisation as well developed welfare states with active labour market policies. This should be viewed against the background of a number of studies, which have shown that several aspects of precarious employment are detrimental to mental health. However, longitudinal studies from the Nordic region that examine the impact of precarious labour market conditions on mental health in young individuals are currently lacking. The present study aims to examine this impact in a general cohort of Swedish young people.

    Methods

    Postal questionnaires were sent out in 1999/2000 to a stratified random sample of the Scania population, Sweden; the response rate was 58 %. All of those who responded at baseline were invited to follow-ups after 5 and 10 years. Employment precariousness was determined based on detailed questions about present employment, previous unemployment, and self-rated risk of future unemployment. Mental health was assessed by GHQ-12. For this study individuals in the age range of 18–34 years at baseline, who were active in the labour market (employed or seeking job) and had submitted complete data from 1999/2000, 2005, and 2010 on employment precariousness and mental health status, were selected (N = 1135).

    Results

    Forty-two percent of the participants had a precarious employment situation at baseline. Labour market trajectories that included precarious employment in 1999/2000 or 2005 predicted poor mental health in 2010: the incidence ratio ratio was 1.4 (95 % CI: 1.1–2.0) when excluding all individuals with mental health problems at baseline and adjusting for age, gender, social support, social capital, and economic difficulties in childhood. The population attributable fraction regarding poor mental health in the studied age group was 18 %.

    Conclusions

    This study supported the hypothesis that precarious employment should be regarded as an important social determinant for subsequent development of mental health problems in previously mentally healthy young people.

  • 182. Canlon, Barbara
    et al.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hasson, Dan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Associations between stress and hearing problems in humans2013Ingår i: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 295, nr 1-2, s. 9-15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing problems are a public health issue with prevalence figures far more common than previously estimated. There are well-established risk factors of hearing problems such as age, sex and noise exposure history. Here, we demonstrate additional risk factors, i.e. socioeconomic status and long-term stress exposure that are found to increase the risk of hearing problems. In order to proactively intervene and prevent hearing problems, these newly recognized risk factors need to be taken into consideration. When taking these new risk factors into account, sex differences become even more apparent than previously found. The aim of this review is to summarize our recent findings about the associations between stress and hearing problems.

  • 183. Carlson, Per
    et al.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Are area-level effects just a proxy for school-level effects? Socioeconomic differences in alcohol consumption patterns among Swedish adolescents2016Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 166, s. 243-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    Although recent studies have found significant variations in adolescent alcohol consumption across neighbourhoods, these investigations did not address another important context in adolescents’ lives: schools. The purpose of this study was to not only simultaneously assess variations in adolescent alcohol use and binge drinking at the city district level and the school level but also analyse whether any such variations could be ascribed to the socioeconomic characteristics of the examined city districts, schools, and students.

    Design

    Cross-sectional study.

    Setting

    Stockholm, Sweden.

    Participants

    Ninth-grade students (n = 4349) attending schools (n = 75) located in the city districts of the Stockholm municipality (n = 14).

    Measurements

    Two measures based on information regarding alcohol consumption were constructed: alcohol use (no or yes) and binge drinking among alcohol users (ranging from “very seldom” to “a few times a week”). A wide range of socioeconomic characteristics was included at the city district, school, and student levels. Alcohol use was analysed using mixed-effects logistic regression, whereas binge drinking among users was modelled using mixed-effects ordered logistic regression.

    Findings

    The results indicated that the school was more important than the city district in assessments of contextual variations in adolescent alcohol use in general and binge drinking in particular. Moreover, proportions of well-educated parents and high-performing students accounted for part of the school-level variation in alcohol use but not binge drinking.

    Conclusions

    Failure to account for the school context may have caused past research to overestimate city district differences in alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  • 184. Carlsson, Sofia
    et al.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Late retirement is not associated with increased mortality, results based on all Swedish retirements 1991-20072012Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 483-486Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 185. Caspersen, Janna R.
    et al.
    Van Holt, Tracy
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Johnson, Jeffrey C.
    Measuring Agreement in Participatory Mapping2017Ingår i: Field Methods, ISSN 1525-822X, E-ISSN 1552-3969, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 99-112Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers a way to measure agreement in participatory mapping. We asked subject matter experts (SMEs) to draw where Sudanese ethnic groups were located on a map. We then used an eigenanalysis approach to determine whether SMEs agreed on the location of ethnic groups. We used minimum residual factor analysis to assess the extent of interinformant agreement among SMEs' judgments of four ethnic groups' spatial locations. Although we found little evidence of the lumper/splitter problem, some SMEs drew larger polygons than others, and we provide directions on how to reduce this potential bias. Finally, the results of the geospatial agreement analysis were validated through a comparison of other sources of geospatial data for three of the four ethnic groups.

  • 186.
    Caster, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Juhlin, Kristina
    Watson, Sarah
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Matematiska institutionen. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden.
    Improved Statistical Signal Detection in Pharmacovigilance by Combining Multiple Strength-of-Evidence Aspects in vigiRank2014Ingår i: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 37, nr 8, s. 617-628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Detection of unknown risks with marketed medicines is key to securing the optimal care of individual patients and to reducing the societal burden from adverse drug reactions. Large collections of individual case reports remain the primary source of information and require effective analytics to guide clinical assessors towards likely drug safety signals. Disproportionality analysis is based solely on aggregate numbers of reports and naively disregards report quality and content. However, these latter features are the very fundament of the ensuing clinical assessment.

    Objective

    Our objective was to develop and evaluate a data-driven screening algorithm for emerging drug safety signals that accounts for report quality and content.

    Methods

    vigiRank is a predictive model for emerging safety signals, here implemented with shrinkage logistic regression to identify predictive variables and estimate their respective contributions. The variables considered for inclusion capture different aspects of strength of evidence, including quality and clinical content of individual reports, as well as trends in time and geographic spread. A reference set of 264 positive controls (historical safety signals from 2003 to 2007) and 5,280 negative controls (pairs of drugs and adverse events not listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics of that drug in 2012) was used for model fitting and evaluation; the latter used fivefold cross-validation to protect against over-fitting. All analyses were performed on a reconstructed version of VigiBase® as of 31 December 2004, at around which time most safety signals in our reference set were emerging.

    Results

    The following aspects of strength of evidence were selected for inclusion into vigiRank: the numbers of informative and recent reports, respectively; disproportional reporting; the number of reports with free-text descriptions of the case; and the geographic spread of reporting. vigiRank offered a statistically significant improvement in area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) over screening based on the Information Component (IC) and raw numbers of reports, respectively (0.775 vs. 0.736 and 0.707, cross-validated).

    Conclusions

    Accounting for multiple aspects of strength of evidence has clear conceptual and empirical advantages over disproportionality analysis. vigiRank is a first-of-its-kind predictive model to factor in report quality and content in first-pass screening to better meet tomorrow’s post-marketing drug safety surveillance needs.

  • 187.
    Castro Moreno, Claudia R.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet. University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    The recognition of Chronobiology in Science2018Ingår i: Sleep Science, ISSN 1984-0659, E-ISSN 1984-0063, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 1-1Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 188.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Development of job demands, decision authority and social support in industries with different gender composition - Sweden, 1991-20132019Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, artikel-id 758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study aims to explore the development of job demands, decision authority and social support within and between industries with different gender composition in Sweden between 1991 and 2013.

    Methods

    Cross-sectional data from 12 waves of the Swedish Work Environment Surveys (1991 to 2013), comprising in total 109,698 respondents, were used. Industries were classified in 7 categories according to its gender composition and main activity, comprising two female-dominated, three gender-mixed and two male-dominated industries. Proportions of workers reporting high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support between 1991 and 2013 were calculated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate variation across time, using 1991 as the reference category, and between industries, using knowledge intensive services as the reference category. Estimates for high job demands, low decision authority and poor social support were presented as average marginal effects (AMEs).

    Results

    The probabilities of reporting low decision authority were higher in education and health and social care during the whole study period, for both genders, compared with the reference category of knowledge intensive services. The probability of having high job demands were higher for men and women in education, and women in health and social care, compared with the reference category. Men in the male dominated industries had increased job demands over time, compared to the beginning of the study period (1991). The probability of reporting poor social support was higher in the later than in the earliest time period for women in the female-dominated industry health and social care as well as in the gender-mixed labour intensive services industry.

    Conclusions

    There has been a negative development of job demands and decision authority in the female-dominated industries education and health and social care in Sweden, whereas social support has developed more negatively for women in health and social care and in labour intensive services.

  • 189.
    Cerdas, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Johansson, Gun
    Nyberg, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Development of Organisational and Psychosocial Work Factors Across Industries with Different Gender Composition in Sweden, 2003-20132018Ingår i: Book of proceedings: 13th Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology: Adapting to rapid changes in today's workplace / [ed] Kevin Teoh, Nathalie Saade, Vlad Dediu, Juliet Hassard, Luis Torres, Nottingham: European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology , 2018, s. 34-35, artikel-id S2Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, the development of mental ill-health and sickness absence has been poorer in female-dominated industries compared to others. One possible explanation is the different developments of psychosocial working conditions across industries. Men and women appear to react similarly to the same psychosocial exposures at work, but differences in exposure patterns may prevail. There is to date a lack of studies on the extent to which psychosocial work exposures are associated with the gender segregation on the Swedish labour market at the industry level. This study aims to investigate how organisational and psychosocial work factors have developed over time across industries with different gender composition in Sweden from 2003 to 2013, and to what extent these factors differ between industries.

    Methods: The present study is based on repeated cross-sectional data from the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES). SWES is conducted biennially by Statistics Sweden (SCB) and includes Swedish workers aged 16-64 years. Six waves from 2003 to 2013, comprising a study sample of 45,631 subjects, were analysed, Industries were categorised according to gender composition and divided into seven categories: 1) Goods and energy production; 2) Machine handling; 3) Manual services; 4) Public administration; 5) Knowledge intensive services; 6) Education; 7) Health and social care. Proportions of men and women in each industry who were exposed to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were calculated for each of the six waves. Logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age, educational level and year of response to SWES were performed on the full sample (all six waves), in order to estimate the odds of being exposed to organisational and psychosocial work factors in each industry using the knowledge intensive service industry as the reference category.

    Results: Preliminary results show that in female dominated industries (Education and Health and social care), many organisational and psychosocial work factors developed poorly over the study period. Higher odds of exposure to adverse or positive organisational and psychosocial work factors were found for several industries when using the industry of Knowledge intensive services as the reference category.

    Conclusion: This study is one of the first of its kind analysing the development of organisational and psychosocial work factors, as well as differences in these factors between industries with different gender compositions in Sweden.

  • 190. Chandler, Rebecca E.
    et al.
    Juhlin, Kristina
    Fransson, Jonas
    Caster, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring, Sweden.
    Edwards, I. Ralph
    Norén, G. Niklas
    Current Safety Concerns with Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A Cluster Analysis of Reports in VigiBase (R)2017Ingår i: Drug Safety, ISSN 0114-5916, E-ISSN 1179-1942, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 81-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A number of safety signals-complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)-have emerged with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, which share a similar pattern of symptomatology. Previous signal evaluations and epidemiological studies have largely relied on traditional methodologies and signals have been considered individually. Objective The aim of this study was to explore global reporting patterns for HPV vaccine for subgroups of reports with similar adverse event (AE) profiles. Methods All individual case safety reports (reports) for HPV vaccines in VigiBase (R) until 1 January 2015 were identified. A statistical cluster analysis algorithm was used to identify natural groupings based on AE profiles in a data-driven exploratory analysis. Clinical assessment of the clusters was performed to identify clusters relevant to current safety concerns. Results Overall, 54 clusters containing at least five reports were identified. The four largest clusters included 71 % of the analysed HPV reports and described AEs included in the product label. Four smaller clusters were identified to include case reports relevant to ongoing safety concerns (total of 694 cases). In all four of these clusters, the most commonly reported AE terms were headache and dizziness and fatigue or syncope; three of these four AE terms were reported in >50 % of the reports included in the clusters. These clusters had a higher proportion of serious cases compared with HPV reports overall (44-89 % in the clusters compared with 24 %). Furthermore, only a minority of reports included in these clusters included AE terms of diagnoses to explain these symptoms. Using proportional reporting ratios, the combination of headache and dizziness with either fatigue or syncope was found to be more commonly reported in HPV vaccine reports compared with non-HPV vaccine reports for females aged 9-25 years. This disproportionality remained when results were stratified by age and when those countries reporting the signals of CRPS (Japan) and POTS (Denmark) were excluded. Conclusions Cluster analysis reveals additional reports of AEs following HPV vaccination that are serious in nature and describe symptoms that overlap those reported in cases from the recent safety signals (POTS, CRPS, and CFS), but which do not report explicit diagnoses. While the causal association between HPV vaccination and these AEs remains uncertain, more extensive analyses of spontaneous reports can better identify the relevant case series for thorough signal evaluation.

  • 191.
    Chaparro, M. Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of California, USA.
    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
    Harrison, Gail G.
    Association between food assistance program participation and overweight2014Ingår i: Revista de Saude Publica, ISSN 0034-8910, E-ISSN 1518-8787, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 889-898Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity according to poverty level. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of data from 46,217 non-pregnant and non-lactating women in Lima, Peru was conducted; these data were obtained from nationally representative surveys from the years 2003, 2004, 2006, and 2008-2010. The dependent variable was overweight/obesity, and the independent variable was food assistance program participation. Poisson regression was used to stratify the data by family socioeconomic level, area of residence (Lima versus the rest of the country; urban versus rural), and survey year (2003-2006 versus 2008-2010). The models were adjusted for age, education level, urbanization, and survey year. RESULTS: Food assistance program participation was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obesity in women living in homes without poverty indicators [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06; 1.57]. When stratified by area of residence, similar associations were observed for women living in Lima and urban areas; no associations were found between food assistance program participation and overweight/obesity among women living outside of Lima or in rural areas, regardless of the poverty status. CONCLUSIONS: Food assistance program participation was associated with overweight/obesity in non-poor women. Additional studies are required in countries facing both aspects of malnutrition.

  • 192.
    Chaparro, M. Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    De Luna, Xavier
    Haggstrom, Jenny
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Lindgren, Urban
    Nilsson, Karina
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Childhood family structure and women's adult overweight risk: A longitudinal study2017Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 511-519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate whether women's adult overweight and obesity risk was associated with their childhood family structure, measured as their mothers' marital status history, during the women's first 18 years of life. Methods: Using linked register data, we analyzed 30,584 primiparous women born in Sweden in 1975 who were between 19-35 years of age when their height and pre-pregnancy weight was recorded. The outcomes were women's overweight/ obesity (body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and the predictor was mothers' marital status history, which was summarized using sequence analysis. We carried out nested logistic regression models adjusting for women's age and maternal sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Mothers' marital status history was summarized into six clusters: stable marriage, stable cohabitation, married then divorcing, cohabiting then separating, varied transitions, and not with father. In fully adjusted models and compared with women whose mothers belonged to the stable marriage cluster: (1) women whose mothers belonged to the other marital status clusters had higher odds of overweight/obesity (odds ratio (OR) ranging 1.15-1.19; p < 0.05); and (2) women whose mothers belonged to the stable cohabitation (OR = 1.31; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.52), cohabiting then separating (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.01-1.49), varied transitions (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.11-1.39), and not with father (OR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.00-1.54) clusters had higher odds of obesity. Conclusions: Women whose mothers were not in stable marriage relationships had higher odds of being overweight or obese in adulthood. The finding that even women raised in the context of stable cohabitation had higher odds of being overweight or obese is intriguing as these relationships are socially accepted in Sweden.

  • 193. Chaparro, M. Pia
    et al.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Byberg, Liisa
    Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition in young adulthood: the modifying role of offspring sex and birth order2017Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 20, nr 17, s. 3084-3089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring’s body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex.

    Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Uppsala, Sweden.

    Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers.

    In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter’s %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother’s BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter’s body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI−0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=−0·13, 95 % CI−0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=−0·54, 95 % CI−1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI−0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons.

    A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women’s reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.

  • 194.
    Chaparro, M. Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsovetenskap, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). University of California Los Angeles, USA.
    Langellier, B. A.
    Wang, M. C.
    Koleilat, M.
    Whaley, S. E.
    Effects of Parental Nativity and Length of Stay in the US on Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among WIC-Enrolled Preschool-Aged Children2015Ingår i: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 333-338Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to US culture is negatively associated with fruits and vegetables (F&V) intake. Our goal was to investigate how parent's nativity and length of stay in the US influences preschoolers' F&V intake. We analyzed survey data from 2,352 children, aged 36-60 months, who participate in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) in Los Angeles County. Using multiple linear regression, we examined children's F&V intake by parent's nativity and years in the US, adjusting for possible confounders. Children of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for < 10 years consumed fewer servings of vegetables than children of US born parents and of foreign born parents who had lived in the US for a parts per thousand yen10 years. Children of newer immigrant families may be at greater risk for consuming poor-quality diets. Research to identify determinants of poor diet quality among children of immigrant families may increase the effectiveness of WIC in addressing this population's nutritional needs.

  • 195.
    Chaparro, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ivarsson, A.
    Koupil, Illona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Nilsson, K.
    Häggström, J.
    de Luna, X.
    Lindgren, U.
    Regional inequalities in pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in Sweden, 1992, 2000, and 20102015Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 534-539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate regional differences and time trends in women's overweight and obesity in Sweden. Methods: Using data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (women aged 18 years, first pregnancy only) and the Total Population Register accessed through the Umea SIMSAM Lab, age-standardized prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (BMI 25 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI 30 kg/m(2)) were estimated by county for the years 1992, 2000, and 2010. Maps were created using ArcMap v10.2.2 to display regional variations over time and logistic regression analyses were used to assess if the observed trends were significant. Results: The prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and obesity increased significantly in all Swedish counties between 1992, and 2010. In 2010, Sodermanland and Gotland exhibited the highest age-standardized overweight/obesity (39.7%) and obesity (15.1%) prevalence, respectively. The sharpest increases between 1992 and 2010 were observed in Vasterbotten for overweight/obesity (75% increase) and in Gotland for obesity (233% increase). Across the years, Stockholm had the lowest prevalence of overweight/obesity (26.3% in 2010) and obesity (7.3% in 2010) and one of the least steep increases in prevalence of both between 1992 and 2010. Conclusions: Substantial regional differences in pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity prevalence are apparent in Sweden. Further research should elucidate the mechanisms causing these differences.

  • 196.
    Chaparro, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Illona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women2014Ingår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 120, s. 199-207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 197.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Karasek, Robert
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Factor Structure and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An Evidence from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 8, artikel-id e70541Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the factor structure and to evaluate the longitudinal measurement invariance of the demand-control-support questionnaire (DCSQ), using the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    METHODS: A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) models within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM) have been used to examine the factor structure and invariance across time.

    RESULTS: FOUR FACTORS: psychological demand, skill discretion, decision authority and social support, were confirmed by CFA at baseline, with the best fit obtained by removing the item repetitive work of skill discretion. A measurement error correlation (0.42) between work fast and work intensively for psychological demands was also detected. Acceptable composite reliability measures were obtained except for skill discretion (0.68). The invariance of the same factor structure was established, but caution in comparing mean levels of factors over time is warranted as lack of intercept invariance was evident. However, partial intercept invariance was established for work intensively.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that skill discretion and decision authority represent two distinct constructs in the retained model. However removing the item repetitive work along with either work fast or work intensively would improve model fit. Care should also be taken while making comparisons in the constructs across time. Further research should investigate invariance across occupations or socio-economic classes.

  • 198.
    Chungkham, Holendro Singh
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Westerlund, Hugo
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    A Longitudinal Analysis of Confirmatory Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Demand Control Support Model: An evidence from SLOSH2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 199.
    Cisneros Örnberg, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Innanför och utanför nationens gränser: svensk alkoholpolitik i förändring2012Ingår i: Samhället, alkoholen och drogerna: Politik, konstruktioner och dilemman / [ed] Jessica Storbjörk, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2012, s. 71-87Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan Sverige gick med i den Europeiska Unionen (EU) har den nationella alkoholpolitiken genomgått stora förändringar. Detta har setts som en tvingande konsekvens av själva medlemskapet eftersom EU:s regler om fri rörlighet av varor inte har rimmat med Sveriges syn på alkohol som en folkhälsofråga. Frågan är dock om det enbart är själva medlemskapet som drivit fram förändringarna eller om de lika mycket beror på ändrad inställning och attityd bland svenskarna. Det här kapitlet redogör för de 17 år som förflutit sedan Sverige trädde in i EU. Det beskriver de lagändringar som Sverige gjort i alkoholfrågan och de mekanismer som drivit fram dessa. Det berättar också hur Sverige genom konsekvent påtryckning, forskning och kunskapsspridning lyckats medverka till en attitydförändring inom EU och lyfta alkoholfrågan till att också bli en fråga om folkhälsa. Det är berättelsen om hur ett litet medlemsland, med hjälp av goda argument och stöd från andra länder, kan påverka EU:s politiska utveckling.

  • 200. Cochran, Susan D.
    et al.
    Björkenstam, Charlotte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. University of California, Los Angeles Fielding School of Public Health, USA.
    Mays, Vickie M.
    Sexual Orientation and All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults Aged 18 to 59 Years, 2001-20112016Ingår i: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 106, nr 5, s. 918-920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine whether sexual minorities have an earliermortality than do heterosexuals, we investigated associations between sexual orientation assessed in the 2001 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and mortality in the 2011 NHANES-linked mortality file. Mortality follow-up time averaged 69.6 months after NHANES. By 2011, 338 individuals had died. Sexual minorities evidenced greater all-cause mortality than did heterosexuals after adjusting for demographic confounding. These effects generally disappeared with further adjustment for NHANES-detected health and behavioral differences.

1234567 151 - 200 av 1139
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf