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  • 1701.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Politics of War Rituals: Military Sacrifice and Gendered Meaning-making2019In: Gendering Military Sacrifice: A Feminist Analysis / [ed] Cecilia Åse, Maria Wendt, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, p. 41-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the new official war rituals that were instigated in order to address European soldiers’ deaths during the ISAF mission in Afghanistan. How did ritualised practices and objects – such as ceremonies, medals, and Veterans’ Days – help to render the war mission meaningful and legitimate? Combining Feminist International Relations theory with scholarly work that addresses the politics of rituals, the chapter analyses which norms and ideals are called upon by these rituals, how hierarchies of values are produced and how national identities and gendered norms are (re)constituted. Using cross-country comparison as a feminist method of denaturalisation, rituals in the UK, Denmark, and Sweden are specifically investigated. The elevation and sacralisation of violence stands out as a common theme, while notions of history, family, and masculinity are expressed in more nationally specific terms. Finally, the chapter discusses how the new war rituals have affected possibilities for political discussions of issues of international war missions in the countries examined.

  • 1702.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Politisation of Feminist Research into Men's Violence against Women2012In: Australian feminist studies (Print), ISSN 0816-4649, E-ISSN 1465-3303, Vol. 27, no 71, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001, the first major study of the extent of men's violence against women in Sweden reported that almost every other woman had been exposed to male violence. This article investigates how this feminist-based survey was negotiated by the press and in national politics. The legitimacy of the investigation was undermined in a number of ways, both in the media and in politics. The report was defined as partial and not as reliable as 'conventional' criminological research. The resistance provoked by the investigation is here interpreted as a way of producing nationalistic notions, where 'Swedishness' is recreated as being woman-friendly, just and equal. In Sweden we have come a long way towards gender equality. In some respects-as regards female representation, for instance-we have come further than any other country in the world. Despite this, much remains to be done in a large number of fields. The work is of a long-term nature requiring determination, patience, commitment and not least-knowledge. (Regeringskansliet 2000, 3; emphasis added)

  • 1703.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Undermining women's political agency: media coverage of Feministiskt Initiativ (Fi), Sweden's first feminist political party2016In: Resources for Feminist Research, ISSN 0707-8412, Vol. 34, no 3-4, p. 81-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1704.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Våldtäkt som demokratiproblem: Förändring och stabilitet i politik och debatt2010In: Sju perspektiv på våldtäkt / [ed] Ulrika Helldén, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet , 2010, p. 132-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1705.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eduards, Maud
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fienden mitt ibland oss: kön och nation i pressbevakningen av Feministiskt initiativ2010In: Den nationella väven.: Feministiska analyser / [ed] Maria Jansson, Maria Wendt & Cecilia Åse, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 19-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1706.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jansson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pedagogik och politik: en introduktion2014In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 116, no 4, p. 373-377Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1707.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    För Sverige - med livet som insats: Afghanistankriget, döden och demokratin2016In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 118, no 3, p. 359-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Death, Democracy and the Swedish Afghanistan War

    Five Swedish soldiers lost their lives in Sweden’s military operation in Afghanistan (2002–2014). When citizens are killed in battle, justification of the individual sac-rifice becomes essential. For which values/for whom can the democratic state require its citizens to risk their lives? The purpose of this article is to analyse ideas and representations that support public discourse and constructions of meaning connected to the Swedish losses. The democratic implications of these construc-tions are also discussed. The results show that specific notions of gender and nation are central in the discourse. These notions limit what political positions and atti-tudes that become possible. National historical genealogies, as well as gender ide-als and family norms, frame military operations as “natural” and existential rather than political. Discourse is marked by emotions rather than by debate and delib-eration. The democratic discussion of military casualties and war-making is thereby constrained and critical perspectives become difficult to formulate.

  • 1708.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Kön, våld och död i nya krig2017In: Politik och kön: Feministiska perspektiv på statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall, Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 239-250Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1709.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Learning dilemmas in undergraduate student independent essays2015In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 40, no 5, p. 838-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essay-writing is generally viewed as the primary learning activity to fosterindependence and analytical thinking. In this article, we show that independentresearch projects do not necessarily lead to critical thinking. University-leveleducation on conducting independent projects can, in several respects, counteractenhanced analytical skills. The purpose of this study is to advance knowledge onthe difficulties students experience in acquiring analytical skills. A group ofundergraduate political science students were interviewed while they attended anindependent research course. They were also asked to record their reflections.The digital diaries provide access to the students’ perceptions regarding theassignment and their struggles as they handle scientific problems. We argue thatthe students are caught up in different learning dilemmas when asked to performindependent academic research. One result is that ambiguous and contradictoryunderstandings of science affect the learning processes and thus affect thestudents’ possibilities for developing analytical thinking.

  • 1710.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Manliga maktordningar2009In: Politisk teori / [ed] Ludvig Beckman & Ulf Mörkenstam, Malmö: Liber, 2009, 1., p. 191-209Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1711.
    Wendt, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies.
    När soldater dör tystnar det demokratiska samtalet2018In: Arena, ISSN 1652-0556Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1712.
    Wennblad, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skilda världar: En studie av det svenska skolväsendet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines differences in treatment on grounds of ethnic, cultural and/ or religious group affiliation in the Swedish school system. The aim is to highlight these issues from perspectives of universalism and multiculturalism, focusing on the school's policy documents. The study is carried out by highlighting the representation of the perspectives and the tensions that may arise between them. The conclusion is that there are representations of both perspectives and that tensions do exist. In addition, it is concluded that the universalist approach has a clear advantage and that differences in treatment based on the above reasons do not find support in the school’s policy documents. Finally, possible causes for the situation found in the Swedish school system where differences in treatment do exist are discussed.

  • 1713.
    Wenner-Piuva, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Det nya utanförskapet: En diskursanalys av hur svensk nyhetspress rapporterade om utanförskap under åren 2006 - 2012.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 1714.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den nationella drömträdgården: den stora berättelsen om den egna nationen i svensk och brittisk Europadebatt2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1715.
    Westberg, Jacob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EU:s drivkrafter: En introduktion till teorier om europeisk integration.2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Varför skall vi ha den form av institutionaliserat samarbete som EU innebär? Hur skapar man ökat engagemang för EU-frågorna bland unionens medborgare? Vad utgör slutmålet för integrationsprocessen?De tidiga integrationsförespråkarna ville skapa en gemensam institutionell miljö där ledare för stater och organisationer skulle mötas och utveckla gemensamma europeiska intressen. Idag konkurrerar dessa ursprungliga målsättningar med nya problem och utmaningar.För att förstå de vägval som dagens EU står inför behövs kunskap om integrationsprocessens grundmotiv och dynamik. Boken lyfter fram de problemlösande aspekterna av integrationen och presenterar de viktigaste konkurrerande vetenskapliga teorierna om EU:s motiveringsgrunder och drivkrafter mot bakgrund av den historiska utvecklingen.

  • 1716.
    Westergren, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Political Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions: A Justice-Based Account2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most prominent political developments in recent decades is the expansion and strengthening of global governance institutions (GGIs). Our lives are increasingly governed by rules for trade, fiscal and monetary standards, intellectual property law, and norms of good governance, developed and overseen by global institutions. An important task for contemporary political theory in relation to this development is to seek to clarify the normative issues arising for and from these institutions. In particular, it is important to clarify how the problem of political legitimacy should be understood in the context of GGIs: if, and in virtue of what, there is a problem of political legitimacy in global governance institutions, what the nature of this problem is, and what political legitimacy should be thought to require in this setting. Traditionally, the problem of political legitimacy is understood as arising as a consequence of the kind of coercive power and authority exercised by the state over its citizens. Coercive power, it is standardly presumed, requires a special defense because it stands in tension with individual freedom and autonomy. As a result, state power is legitimate only if heightened normative demands are satisfied. This thesis advances the view that a similar problem arises in the context of GGIs. Despite that GGIs lack strong enforcements capabilities and coercive powers in a strict sense, and despite that they may facilitate inter-state cooperation and produce benefits for states and individuals that would be lost without them, there are problematic forms of power vested in these institutions that gives rise to demands for special justification. The background conditions in the global political economy creates a situation in which states and individuals find themselves dependent on, and vulnerable to, decisions made in global institutions. In an important sense, these relationships of dependency give rise to constraints on freedom that are prima facie normatively problematic and that require justification, the thesis argues. Thus, a problem of political legitimacy is generated at the global level. The thesis argues that in order to be legitimate GGIs must fulfill duties of justice. Only if the distribution of resources and opportunities that GGIs give rise to through their rules, policies and programs, pass an appropriate justifiability test can the constraints of freedom they give rise to be legitimate. In this way, important duties of distributive justice are generated at the global level as a consequence of the need to justify existing global governance institutions.

  • 1717.
    Westman, Moa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skagerlind, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Corporate Social Responsibility through Public-Private Partnerships: Implications for Civil Society and Women's Empowerment in India2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects implemented through Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) impact on the roles, relationship, responsibilities and agendas of the involved actors – the private sector, civil society and the state – and whether these can lead to women’s empowerment and the capacity building of civil society in India, through a case study of the CSR projects of the Indian wind power company Suzlon. The empirical findings in terms of women’s empowerment lead us to conclude that although the first dimension of power, the ‘power over’, reflected in unequal gender structures, only has been addressed to a minor extent through Suzlon’s CSR projects, women’s ‘power to’, ‘power with’ and ‘power from within’ have been enhanced significantly, particularly through the projects specifically aimed to address women’s empowerment. Further, to adequately enhance women’s empowerment requires addressing gender structures and the gender sensitization of men, and not only the capacities of women. Suzlon has contributed to the capacity building of civil society – the NGOs implementing the CSR projects - in terms of enhancing project sustainability, promoting NGO ownership of projects, decreasing donor dependency and enforcing long-term strategies, while some other aspects of capacity building largely have remained unaddressed. Although the respective actors in the PPPs generally are positive of the collaborations, our findings indicate that the state partly withdraws from its responsibility to further development while the private sector increasingly takes on the same. The risk of corporate control of the civil society agenda associated with PPPs is not confirmed by our study although civil society tends to bear the highest costs in PPPs, in terms of credibility losses and insecurity concerning project terms and funding. The findings further confirm the importance of ‘critical cooperation’ and ‘complementary core competencies’ in PPPs.

  • 1718. Wijkström, Filip
    et al.
    Reuter, MartaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.Emami, Abbas
    Civilsamhället i det transnationella rummet2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland ses det civila samhället som en alltigenom svensk historia. I denna nya bok uppmärksammas istället civilsamhällets plats i ett transnationellt rum av ständigt tilltagande aktiviteter och växande flöden av människor, resurser, information och idéer. De idéer som bär organisationslivets frågor och former har rest in från andra delar av världen. De översätts och vävs ihop med tidigare generationer samhälle, ibland vandrar de vidare. Så gick det till igår och så går det till idag. Med den transnationella blicken får vi syn på den pågående radikala omförhandlingen av systemet och på nationalstatens förändrade roll. I tolv aktuella kapitel möter läsaren forskare från olika discipliner och lärosäten med detaljerade analyser av civilsamhällets utveckling, men också motstånd och resistens.

    I bokens första kapitel sätts scenen för övriga kapitel. Vi möter Pride och undersöker kvinnorörelsens organisering i Europa. Vi får lära oss mer om både sparbankernas och konsumentkooperationens europeiska resor. Konturerna för ett nytt rum för importerad frivillighet och filantropi mejslas fram och arbetarrörelsens problem att hantera globaliseringen analyseras. Vi får veta vilka som är nationalstatens sista väktare, hur det går till när pappaskolor går på export, men också vad som kan hända med en transnationell gåva och varför en invandrarorganisation inte når hela vägen i sin europeiska strävan. Antologin är en fristående uppföljning på Civilsamhället i samhällskontraktet.

  • 1719.
    Wiljander, Filip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hela Sveriga ska leva: Idéer och konfliktdimensioner i svensk landsbygdspolitik2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent political developments, with the outcome of the Brexit referendum and the election of Donald J. Trump as President of the United States, have revitalized the discussion about so called political cleavages. Drawing upon the work of Lipset and Rokkan, some see the urban-rural cleavage as an explanation to the election outcomes. In a Swedish context it is primarily the increase in electoral support for the Sweden Democrats that has brought up the question.

    The overarching purpose with this master’s thesis is to explain the role of Lipset and Rokkans theoretical cleavages in Swedish rural politics. Rural politics is considered a most likely-case for finding ideas related to the urban-rural cleavage, a cleavage which is said to have gained a greater importance over the past couple of years. Political cleavages exist when political actors demonstrate cohesive ideas and in a structured matter relate to them. For this reason, the thesis’ subordinate purpose is to describe what ideas parliamentary parties have in the rural political debate. This is done through an idea analysis where problems and solutions presented by the political parties are described and interpreted.

    The conclusion is that the worker-owner-cleavage is the dominant cleavage in Swedish rural politics. Political parties tend to problematize issues that are a part of the cleavage, with issues such as welfare, regional redistribution, entrepreneurship and taxation. The urban-rural and center-periphery cleavage can only be regarded as secondary and subordinate to the worker-owner-cleavage. However, there are ideas in the debate relating to these two cleavages. Ideas relating to the state-church cleavage is absent in the chosen material.

  • 1720.
    Wittenberg, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    PISA och lärarprofessionens självbild: En diskursanalys av lärarprofessionens meningsskapande och den diskursiva kampen kring PISA-fenomenet2016Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den internationella kunskapsmätningen PISA får en allt större uppmärksamhet och betydelse inom den skolpolitiska debatten i Sverige. I studien undersöks betydelsebildningen kring PISA-fenomenet inom den svenska lärarprofessionen och de subjektspositioner som konstrueras i den diskursiva kampen om betydelse, både inom lärarprofessionen och i relationen till politiken. De subjektspositioner som framträder diskuteras i relation till den kollektiva självbilden och lärarnas professionsidentitet. Detta har undersökts genom en diskursanalys av artikulationer i de lärarfackliga förbundens tidningar; Lärarnas tidning och Skolvärlden. Undersökningen har fokuserat på framställningen kring presentationen av PISA 2012 utifrån en tidsperiod mellan november 2013 och april 2014, där materialet består av artikulationer kring tecknet PISA i 21 olika texter. Analysen visar att det inte finns någon entydighet i betydelsebildningen. PISA-resultaten används både för att legitimera och dislegitimera skolpolitik, samtidigt som relevansen ifrågasätts i relation till en metodologisk och dekontextuell problematik. Resultaten visar också att det finns en antagonistisk dimension i relationen till politiken och i den diskursiva kampen kring betydelse. Vidare konstrueras tre olika subjektspositioner i form av den utsatta och pressade läraren, läraren som syndabock och den aktiva och kämpande läraren. Studien får betydelse genom att synliggöra de konflikter som finns kring betydelsebildningen av PISA och i relationen till politiken, men även genom att visa hur lärarnas självbild och professionsidentitet konstrueras i relation till PISA-fenomenet. Detta kan föranleda ytterligare studier kring diskursiva förskjutningar kring betydelsebildningen och vilken betydelse PISA-fenomenet får i relation till lärarnas professionsprojekt.

  • 1721.
    Wittrock, Jon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sacred Nature and the Nature of the Sacred: Rethinking the Sacred in the Anthropocene*2016In: Telos, ISSN 0090-6514, E-ISSN 1940-459X, no 177, p. 107-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1722.
    Wärn, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    A Lebanese vanguard for the Islamic revolution: Hezbollah's combined strategy of resistance and accommodation2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to study how Hezbollah has accommodated a system that it initially rejects but endorses for strategic purposes. It is suggested that Hizbullah's strategic undertaking involves a certain tension between making compromises and concessions while also sticking to its radical pledge to Khomeinism and the Islamic revolution. Did accommodation imply that Hezbollah abstained from these radical impulses while submitting to the social and political Lebanese fabric of pluralism? The contention of this thesis is that Hezbollah has operated in a way that combines its revolutionary pledge to the Islamic revolution with its accommodating strategies to the Lebanese state. That is, the national path chosen by Hezbollah should not be seen as the movement’s surrendering of an Islamist objective to the constraints of the nationstate, or the confessional system, inherently despised by the Hezbollah. Instead, Hezbollah's Islamist project should be understood as  a strategy of resistance which is situated on various levels, and it is argued that the movement has successfully combined this project of resistance with a strategy of accommodation to the Lebanese state. A crucial question to be answered is, resistance against what? The thesis suggests that Hezbollah's struggle against the Israeli occupation of Lebanon should not only be understood as an effort to liberate the land but also to promote a broader awakening of defiance that was part of the Ayatollah Khomeini's vision of the Islamic revolution. The thesis combines a theoretical framework of Frantz Fanon and Antonio Gramsci to understand how Hezbollah tries reproduce its pledge to this revolution with an accommodation to the Lebanese state.

  • 1723.
    Zaia, Mary
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Democratic Transition in the Middle East and North Africa: A Case Study of Tunisia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay consists of a case study of Tunisian democratization process which came along the events of the Arab spring in 2010-11. The aim of the research is to understand why Tunisia took a distinctive path during the uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa in 2010-11. The case study is within the theoretical framework of traditional democratization literature. These theories are modernization theory, historical sociology and the agency approach. Using the methodological approach of qualitative content analysis, I have analyzed academic articles and come to the conclusion that seven factors played a crucial role for democracy in Tunisia: (1) increased level of education, (2) increased level of information, (3) existing formal and informal organizations in the civil society, (4) transnational power structure, (5) the size of coercive apparatus, (6) compromises among political actors and (7) existing political community. I argue that both the structure of the civil society and the political foundation in Tunisia played a vital role for the distinctive path it took towards democracy. 

  • 1724.
    Åberg, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vill EU vända på steken?: En kritisk analys av EU-kommissionens ställningstagande i frågan om animalieproduktionens klimatpåverkan2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the ongoing European political debate on the links between livestock production and climate change. In the end of 2006 the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) released their report Livestock’s long shadow, showing that livestock production represents some 18 % of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the European Commission’s position and response to this question since the release of the report.

    Using Arne Naess’ argumentation analysis, statements made by the Commission will be systematically organized and broken apart. The arguments will then be critically examined and explored through the lense of selected perspectives from the sustainable development literature, as well as the FAO report itself. The analysis will show that the Commission’s position on this question stands in sharp contrast to the many findings and recommendations in the FAO report, and relies on a set of assumptions that are often both unclear and of questionable validity. The line of argument used by the Commission is closely aligned to a wider theoretical discourse on sustainable development that, as argued by many of the theorists consulted in this paper, places a disproportionate focus on economic advantages, at the expense of social and ecological interests.

  • 1725.
    Åberg, Pelle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Translating Popular Education: Civil Society Cooperation between Sweden and Estonia2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By their very nature, attempts by civil society organizations to promote democracy abroad involve cooperation and contact across the borders of nation states. The dissemination of the ideas and practices of the promoters is often essential; in the case of Swedish democracy promotion, popular education or folkbildning has been important.

    This thesis investigates the dissemination of ideas and practices by civil society organizations in Sweden and Estonia in the field of popular education. More specifically, a number of projects run by member organizations of the Swedish study association ABF (Workers’ Educational Association) and member organizations of the Estonian AHL (Open Education Association) are studied. These projects are also part of democracy-promoting activities whose funding comes mainly from Swedish donor agencies. The thesis aims to understand not only what has been spread but also how ideas and practices have been translated to fit the Estonian context. The primary theoretical concept used is therefore translation, even though one aim of the thesis is to systematize the field of study concerning processes of dissemination and to enrich the concept of translation with the aid of previous work on diffusion and socialization.

    The main contribution of the thesis consists of the in-depth study of cooperation between Swedish and Estonian popular education organizations. It also contributes to the theoretical development of the concept of translation by identifying different phases in this kind of process and important elements of these phases. Popular education is an important part of Swedish democracy promotion and this study also contributes to this rather undertheorized subject, and also to the discussions of transnational civil society cooperation, by demonstrating an analytical framework that can be of use in future research into these issues.

  • 1726. Åberg, Pelle
    et al.
    Einarsson, Stefan
    Reuter, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Think Tanks: New Organizational Actors in a Changing Swedish Civil Society2019In: VOLUNTAS - International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, ISSN 0957-8765, E-ISSN 1573-7888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy institutes, or think tanks, are becoming increasingly ubiquitous in our societies. In this article, we conceptualize think tanks explicitly as a civil society phenomenon, linking the proliferation of this relatively new type of actor to the transformation of civil society structures and of systems of interest representation. Using the case of Sweden as an illustration, we argue that the recent decades' rise of think tanks in institutional settings outside of the USA can only be understood if we take into account the particular features and institutional policy access opportunities of the domestic civil society in each national case, and that think tanks should be analytically understood as the allies of, rather than competitors to, the older, established forces in civil society.

  • 1727.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Crisis in Sweden. Death, gender and nationalist emotions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1728.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Crisis Narratives and Masculinist Protection: Gendering the Original Stockholm Syndrome2015In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 595-610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm syndrome, or captor-bonding, is a psychological crisis response to which women are considered especially susceptible. The term was coined in connection with a 1973 hostage situation in Stockholm, Sweden. I argue that the syndrome originally indicated a crisis of state authority. The conception of Stockholm syndrome projected a crisis of the legitimate state onto the women hostages and reinforced connections between state protection, masculinity and physical force. Crisis narratives specifically targeted the women's agency, and the state's protector status was restored by gendering dependency and victimhood. The particular circumstances of the original Stockholm incident were a prerequisite for the syndrome's appearance and continue to inform common understandings and scholarly writing on the syndrome. When crisis discourse appropriates the Stockholm syndrome, a unitary perspective and gendered foundations of state power are reinforced. Possibilities of divergent perspectives and counter-discourses, which are critical to feminist interventions into crisis narratives, are thereby diminished.

  • 1729.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En nationell njutning: Kropp och kön i kungliga årsböcker2006In: Kvinnovetenskaplig Tidskrift, Vol. 26, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1730.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gender, Nation and Hierarchy in the Openings of the Swedish Riksdag2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1731.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Individ utan innehåll: en feministisk kritik av liberala idéer2011In: Politik och kritik: en feministisk guide till statsvetenskap / [ed] Lenita Freidenvall och Maria Jansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1, p. 45-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1732.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kris! Perspektiv på Norrmalmstorgsdramat2014Book (Other academic)
  • 1733.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Moderna svenska individer. Lösningar och problembilder i beskrivningar av ESF-projekt.2011Report (Other academic)
  • 1734.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Monarchical Manoeuvres: Gender, Nation and the Boundary Problem in Post-War Swedish Constitutional Development2013In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish monarchy is often regarded as a purely symbolic institution. Since the constitutional reforms of the mid-1970s, the head of state has lacked formal political power, and rules of succession have been gender-neutral since 1980. This article examines how the monarchy is constitutionally negotiated and the consequences this has for representations of nation and gender. I argue that the constitutional underpinnings of the Swedish monarchy naturalize the idea of a national community. This analysis elucidates the specific dynamics by which political discourse, such as constitutional texts, successfully establishes a supposedly apolitical domain. I also demonstrate the consequences, in terms of norms and ideals regarding gender, sexuality, and family life, of the present constitutional design. The analysis is based on official political documents and debates from the post-war period. Following a section on the evolution of the current regulations surrounding the monarchy, the paper analyses political discourse on the form of government in light of the boundary problem, namely, on what basis can a legitimate people (demos) be affirmed? I demonstrate that the monarchy gives Swedish democracy a national foundation; a legitimate demos is established through the idea of a pre-political national community, personified by the royal family and codified in the hereditary order of succession. In relation to nation and gender, the monarchy connects Swedish nationalism to representations of “blood” and genetic descent. One important conclusion is that the way the Swedish monarchy is constitutionally upheld works against attempts to challenge politically and discuss Swedish nationalism and its relationship to conservative gender norms. Another conclusion is that the monarchy's hereditary principle runs the risk of obstructing free and unfettered discussion of constitutional issues.

  • 1735.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Monarkins makt: Nationell gemenskap i svensk demokrati2009 (ed. 5000)Book (Other academic)
  • 1736.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nation and gender in crisis narratives: The submarine incident in Sweden 19812013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1737.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    National Pleasure: Gender and Nation in Royal Yearbooks2009In: Media and Monarchy in Sweden / [ed] Mats Jönsson & Patrik Lundell, Göteborg: Nordicom , 2009, p. 99-110Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1738.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ship of shame: gender and nation in narratives of the soviet submarine crisis in Sweden2016In: Journal of Cold War Studies, ISSN 1520-3972, E-ISSN 1531-3298, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 112-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article demonstrates that the concepts of gender and nation illuminate the Swedish-Soviet submarine crisis in February 1981, when a nuclear-armed Soviet submarine was stranded for ten days in the Swedish archipelago. The crisis challenged both the Swedish armed forces’ status as protectors of the national territory and the government's foreign policy doctrine of neutrality. The article analyzes Swedish media from 1981 to identify the interpretive frames, with a particular emphasis on emotions and body imagery. Gendered notions of protection permeated the crisis narratives. Male bodies embodied national and military agency, whereas women's bodies symbolically merged with the Swedish nation's territory. The Soviet intruders were disparaged and Swedish military prestige redeemed through gendered and corporeal representations. The article improves our understanding of the way the Swedish ideal of the neutral soldier and the foreign policy doctrine of neutrality incorporated gender.

  • 1739.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Skammens skepp: när U137 gick på grund2014In: Det dolda hotet: 12 forskare om ubåtar / [ed] Andreas Linderoth, Karlskrona: Marinmuseum , 2014, p. 131-151Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1740.
    Åse, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vi är överens: Om monarki och demokrati2008In: Sverigebilder: Det nationellas betydelse i politik och vardag, Institutet för Framtidsstudier , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1741.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jansson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hårda bud: manifest för en levd statsvetenskap2010In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 112, no 4, p. 407-409Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1742.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Jansson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tre nyanser av Sverige2011In: Kön, makt, nation: tillägnad Maud Eduards / [ed] Diane Sainsbury & Maritta Soininen, Stockholm: Statsvetenskapliga institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1743.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Quirico, Monica
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gendered Grief: Mourners' Politicisation of Military Death2019In: Gendering Military Sacrifice: A Feminist Comparative Analysis / [ed] Cecilia Åse, Maria Wendt, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, p. 145-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates how the relatives of the European soldiers who died in the Afghanistan war (2001–2014), particularly mothers, organised and acted publicly and politically. What is the potential for personal grief to contest political and justificatory war narratives? Feminist scholarship on the relationship between gender, war grief, and politics provides the theoretical framework. Using cross-country comparison as a feminist method of denaturalisation, the chapter discusses gendered grief in the six European countries, with a specific focus on Italy, Sweden and the UK. The comparative analysis identifies general patterns and pinpoints the national differences that had a key influence on the politicisation of war grief. A “politico-emotional war contract” is put forward as a key component both opening up space for and stifling bereaved relatives’ political agency. The chapter discusses how relatives made use of gender representations to challenge established war narratives, but also shows how women’s grief was silenced or appropriated and used to sanction and beautify military violence. An important result concerns how different national contexts condition the possibilities for women’s agency as grieving mothers and wives.

  • 1744.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Comparison as Feminist Method: Denaturalising Gender and Nation2019In: Gendering Military Sacrifice: A Feminist Comparative Analysis / [ed] Cecilia Åse, Maria Wendt, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, p. 17-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter develops the cross-country comparison as a feminist method for the critical interrogation of naturalised ideas and representations. Recognising denaturalisation as a shared feminist approach, Cynthia Enloe’s concept of “feminist curiosity” is developed in order to advance cross-national comparison. The basic idea is that comparison assists denaturalisation because it enables the analysis of taken-for-granted ideas, identities, and emotional investments. The chapter presents the comparative methodology used in the subsequent chapters of the volume Gendering Military Sacrifice, where meaning-making associated with military losses in the Afghanistan war (2001–2014) are examined in six European countries. Discussing the methodological challenges related to denaturalising constructions of gender and nation, several research strategies used in the following empirical contributions are presented. These include working collectively, combining in-depth contextual knowledge with comparisons between national contexts, and presenting research according to empirical sites rather than based on a nation-by-nation perspective. As a necessary background to the following transnationally arranged chapters, this chapter also presents the differing war legacies and the building blocks of national identities as well as the overarching gender/nation relations for all the countries discussed in the volume.

  • 1745.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conclusion: The Gendered Politics of Contemporary Military Sacrifice2019In: Gendering Military Sacrifice: A Feminist Comparative Analysis / [ed] Cecilia Åse, Maria Wendt, Abingdon: Routledge, 2019, p. 177-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining the results of the feminist comparative cross-country analyses presented in this book, this concluding chapter underlines the shared features as well as the national differences in European nations’ efforts to give meaning to the military losses during the Afghanistan war (2001–2014). Humanitarian justifications could motivate dispatching soldiers to Afghanistan, but were inadequate when the countries faced military fatalities. The establishment of national history and time, the renegotiation of relations between home and away, and the family trope rendered the war deaths meaningful and affected possibilities to critically discuss the war mission. An important argument is that potential for dissent vis-à-vis military violence depended on gendered national narratives. Discussing Feminist International Relations, the chapter addresses gendered protector/protected renegotiations, and spells out the gender consequences of the linkage between state sovereignty and military sacrifice. In closing, the chapter proposes the denaturalisation and politicisation of gender–nation constructions as essential to advancing war-critical narratives and effective anti-militarist strategies.

  • 1746.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Wendt, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gendering military sacrifice: A feminist comparative analysis2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What does military sacrifice mean in today’s globalised world? For what ethical principles and beliefs are citizens prepared to die and to sacrifice their loved ones? In present-day security discourses emphasising human rights and an international responsibility to protect, traditional masculinised obligations to die for the homeland and its women and children are challenged and renegotiated. Working from a critical feminist perspective, the authors examine the political and societal justifications for sacrifice in wars motivated by post-national and humanitarian values. This volume provides original empirical research from six European countries, demonstrating how gendered and nationalistic representations saturate contemporary notions of sacrifice and legitimate military violence. A key argument is that a gender perspective is necessary in order to understand, and to oppose, the idea of the honourable military death.

    Bringing together a wide range of materials – including public debates, rituals, monuments and artwork – to analyse the justifications for soldiers’ deaths in the Afghanistan war (2001–2014), the analysis challenges methodological nationalism. The authors develop a feminist comparative methodology and engage in cross-country and transdisciplinary analysis. This innovative approach generates new understandings of the ways in which both the idealisation and political contestation of military violence depend on gendered national narratives.

  • 1747.
    Åse, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Ethnology, History of Religions and Gender Studies, Gender Studies.
    Wendt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Gendering the new hero narratives: Military death in Denmark and Sweden2018In: Cooperation and Conflict, ISSN 0010-8367, E-ISSN 1460-3691, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 23-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century, wars were fought primarily in the name of protecting the homeland.Making the ‘ultimate sacrifice’ was a national masculine duty and a key feature of military heroism.Today, human rights and international values justify war-making and legitimise military action.In one of these post-national wars, the International Security Assistance Force operation inAfghanistan, more than 700 European soldiers have lost their lives. How have these deaths beenlegitimised, and how has the new security discourse affected notions of masculinised heroism andsacrifice? This article investigates how the dimensions of national/international and masculinity/femininity are negotiated in media narratives of heroism and sacrifice in Denmark and Sweden.Regarding scholarly discussions on the professionalisation, individualisation and domesticationof military heroism, the empirical analysis demonstrates that the Danish/Swedish nationremains posited as the core context for military heroism and sacrifice. In the media narratives,professionalism is represented as an expression of specific national qualities. The media narrativesconflate nation and family and represent military heroes as distinctively masculine and nationalfigures. It is argued that a family trope has become vital in present-day hero narratives. This tropeis disposed towards collective emotions, national loyalty and conservative gender ideals.

  • 1748.
    Ördén, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Deferring substance: EU policy and the information threat2019In: Intelligence and national security, ISSN 0268-4527, E-ISSN 1743-9019, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 421-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes EU cross-sectoral policy work on online information threats, focusing on the intersection between values and 'referent objects'. Examining discussions on strategic communication, censorship, media literacy and media pluralism, two value-perspectives were identified: while abstract procedural values of efficiency and coherence guide content management in the security/defence/internet communities, media/education communities highlight the end-goals of content pluralism and enhanced citizen judgement. In implementation, the former's lack of substantive goals, coupled with an outsourcing of content management, may give rise to hybrid values. The findings highlight the danger of neglecting substance in favor of efficient management of an online 'battlespace'.

  • 1749.
    Ördén, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Instilling judgement: counter-narratives of humour, fact and logic2018In: Critical Studies on Security, ISSN 2162-4887, E-ISSN 2162-4909, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With citizens turning to extremism, ‘counter-narratives’ have been forwarded as a remedy for online ‘counter-radicalisation’. Still, the relationship between counter-narratives and counter-radicalisation remains theoretically under-examined. Taking as its starting point a policy proposal by the Radicalisation Awareness Network (RAN), and drawing on the work of Arendt and Kant on judgement, this article explores the link between political mind-change and the counter-narrative forms of logic, facts and humour. By understanding radicalisation as an error of judgement, the text examines implicit assumptions about politics and the mind in counter-narrative policy. While counter-narratives of fact and logic emphasise the self-evident nature of political decision-making by ‘saying what is’, the humorous counter-narratives, meant to disarm through laughter-induced aporia, fail to live up to the instrumental logic required by the policymakers. Rather than representing a solution to the problem of radicalisation, the counter-narrative remedy is better described as a ‘vehicle for sense’ in the discourse on extremism.

  • 1750.
    Ördén, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Securitizing cyberspace: protecting political judgementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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