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  • 1701.
    Zhang, Qian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Pastoralists and the Environmental State: A study of ecological resettlement in Inner Mongolia, China2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    China's quest for sustainable development has given birth to a set of contested ‘ecological construction’ programmes. Focusing on ‘ecological resettlement’, a type of policy measure in a programme for restoring degraded grasslands, this thesis sets out a critical analysis in opposition to the dominant technical and managerial approaches to understanding environmentalisation. The aim is to draw out the politics of the formulation, implementation and effects of ecological resettlement at and across different scales. The study combines fieldwork, interviews, analysis of policy documents, and statistical analysis while theoretically, in addition to political ecology, it incorporates concepts and models from environmental governance, migration, and pastoralism studies. Environmentalisation is examined through three types of analysis: environmentalisation of the state, reshaping of state-society relations, and (re)territorialisation. A central theme is how local processes are linked to national considerations and how the local state acts as an intermediary between the central state and the pastoralists. The analysis exposes the practices that enabled the central state to define the problem of grasslands and devise interventions, illustrating the environmentalisation of the state. However, at the local level, incentives and interests defined by the political structure drove the developmental local state to pursue short-term-effective rather than sustainable practices. On the other hand, while the pastoral households responded to the projects with different strategies, their migration decisions suggested that social, economic and cultural considerations played a more important role than environmental concerns. Moreover, ecological resettlement has led to a significant change of Mongolian pastoralism. Land-tenure-based management further fragmented rangelands while the emergence of new social arrangements enabled migrant households to remain involved with pastoralism.

  • 1702.
    Zhang, Qian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The Dilemma of Conserving Rangeland by Means of Development: Exploring Ecological Resettlement in a Pastoral Township of Inner Mongolia2012In: Nomadic Peoples, ISSN 0822-7942, E-ISSN 1752-2366, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 88-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade environmental policies, particularly ecological resettlement, have changed China's pastoral areas. This paper explores the difficulty in conserving rangeland through ecological resettlement. The paper focuses on how ecological resettlement policy has been translated into practice, and how the affected people responded with migration decisions. Empirical findings in a pastoral township in Inner Mongolia demonstrate that local politicians have used the projects to stress economic restructuring, promotion of non-farming activities and urbanization. Meanwhile, affected households haved used migration strategies to adapt to the changing economic and social environments rather than the changing natural environment. The difficulty of conserving rangelands and the marginalization of environmental concerns is a result of locally defined modernization development interests and the affected households' adaptive behaviours.

  • 1703.
    Zhang, Qian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Wang, Xiaoyi
    Internal and international migration dynamics in China2018In: Handbook of Migration and Globalisation / [ed] Anna Triandafyllidou, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 297-317Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1704. Zurek, Monika
    et al.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Oxford, UK.
    Leip, Adrian
    Vervoort, Joost
    Kuiper, Marijke
    Garrone, Maria
    Havlik, Petr
    Heckelei, Thomas
    Hornborg, Sara
    Ingram, John
    Kuijsten, Anneleen
    Shutes, Lindsay
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Terluin, Ida
    van 't Veer, Pieter
    Wijnands, Jo
    Zimmermann, Andrea
    Achterbosch, Thom
    Assessing Sustainable Food and Nutrition Security of the EU Food System-An Integrated Approach2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 4271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering the EU food system towards a sustainability transformation requires a vast and actionable knowledge base available to a range of public and private actors. Few have captured this complexity by assessing food systems from a multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective, which would include (1) nutrition and diet, environmental and economic outcomes together with social equity dimensions and (2) system interactions across country, EU and global scales. This paper addresses this gap in food systems research and science communication by providing an integrated analytical approach and new ways to communicate this complexity outside science. Based on a transdisciplinary science approach with continuous stakeholder input, the EU Horizon2020 project 'Metrics, Models and Foresight for European SUStainable Food And Nutrition Security' (SUSFANS) developed a five-step process: Creating a participatory space; designing a conceptual framework of the EU food system; developing food system performance metrics; designing a modelling toolbox and developing a visualization tool. The Sustainable Food and Nutrition-Visualizer, designed to communicate complex policy change-impacts and trade-off questions, enables an informed debate about trade-offs associated with options for change among food system actors as well as in the policy making arena. The discussion highlights points for further research related to indicator development, reach of assessment models, participatory processes and obstacles in science communication.

  • 1705.
    Åhrberg, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Regionaliseringar av Afrika inom regionalgeografin: Exempel från regionalgeografiska läroböcker2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Early in the bachelor’s degree program in Geography, the students learn that maps should be seen as a subjective visualization of the world, rather than the actual world itself. Although this is essential forfurther analysis, especially in Geography, cartographers often commit the crime of not arguing for their choice of what is being showed; what colours are being used; what objects represents reality and why they have characterized and regionalized the areas as they have. In the studies of Regional Geography one could expect that there are discussions about this issue, since the aim of the disciplineis to split the world into smaller regions. This is especially important when it comes to studies of Africa, since it historically has been a continent that has endured regionalizations with great consequences for the understanding of its geography, from the age of colonialism to today. Therefore, this thesis examined the regionalization of Africa in textbooks used in Regional Geography, to study how Africa is regionalized today and what the motives are for these regions. The result showed that regionalizations of Africa are often made by ill-based assumptions of the continent’s geography, much like those from the colonial period. But today there is a growing focuson world religion and especially Islam, in the cartographers’ search for regions and their characteristics. Although the proportion of Christians or Muslims in different regions are true, these features often make a weak base for further geographical analysis. This is particularly troublesome when none of the books have discussions of the map as the author’s subjective view of the world. Thus, these textbooks could be used as a tool for political opinion, which should be taken into accountin the education of new geographers.

  • 1706.
    Åkerlind, Emilie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Pipers Ficka: Från rum till plats?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens titel är ”Pipers Ficka – från rum till plats?” och är ett examensarbete i Kulturgeografi III på Stockholms Universitet. Skriven på svenska av Emilie Åkerlind med handledaren Maria Nordström år 2015. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka Pipers Ficka som fickpark och hur situationen har förändrats för eleverna vid Kungsholmens friskola sedan Pipers Ficka byggts om från parkeringsplatser till en fickpark. Detta genom plats teori, realism och social konstruktion. Barnen hade tidigare ingen skolgård och var tvungna att använda närliggande parker under rasterna. Pipers ficka ger dem möjligheten att i vissa situationer stanna kvar vid skolan. Dock är skolan fortfarande utan en riktig skolgård för sina elever. Men Pipers Ficka har till viss del blivit ett substitut.

  • 1707.
    Årlin, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Becoming Wilderness: a topological study of Tarangire, Northern Tanzania 1890-20042011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on field and archival research, Becoming Wilderness analyses the fluid constructs of game preservation and their affect within networks and landscapes to the west of Tarangire National Park, Northern Tanzania from the late 19th Century until the present. The initial query of this thesis is how and why Tarangire comes to be separated as different from its surrounding (on the map and within policy) and what this has entailed for what is ‘within’ and ‘outside’. This thesis is written to add to the understanding of how ‘one of Tanzania’s most spectacular wilderness areas’ was created, in order to problematize and deepen the understanding of the factual people/park conflicts and entanglements existing there today. Through a topological investigation, it shows Tarangire’s transformation from peripheral to central and the simultaneous transformation of peopled landscapes from central to borderlands. Based on interviews, focus groups and archival research the thesis firstly investigates the transformation of peopled landscapes to the west of Tarangire National Park. Secondly it analyses the alternations in the tsetse geography that has previously been claimed to be the root cause behind the creation of the park, pointing to the fluid and relational character of tsetse landscapes. Thirdly, this thesis queries the notion of an ‘imposition of wilderness’ and suggests that vast tracts of Tanzania’s protected areas have in fact gradually become wilderness within heterogeneous networks, rooting themselves in ways that are far more tricky to oppose than had they suddenly been imposed. As such it seeks to contribute to the understanding of the root causes of conservation vs. people conflicts existing today.

  • 1708. Årlin, Camilla
    et al.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Participatory Checking and the Temporality of Landscapes: Increasing Trust and Relevance in Qualitative Research2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology / [ed] Christian Isendahl, Daryl Stump, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developmental narratives are commonly constructed through statements on directions and drivers of ongoing change. In the process, however, heterogeneous realities and historical trajectories become manicured and truncated due to temporal short-sightedness, misinformation, and the creation of clear-cut categorizations. Based on historical, geographical, and anthropological research on landscape change in East Africa from the nineteenth century to the present, this chapter examines how different types of historical data sources (maps, photographs, remote sensing data, written and oral accounts, as well as the landscape itself) can be used to both interrogate and improve the rigour of narratives that frame concerns for development and conservation. We describe methods of interaction with members of the researched communities over these various data bodies, and summarize this process as ‘participatory checking’. While the focus of this chapter is on landscape change the participatory research methods described are equally relevant to other topics and disciplines.

  • 1709.
    Åsblom, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Musiken avgörande för gemenskap och identitetsskapande i ”utsatta” områden: En fallstudie av personliga upplevelser i Rinkeby2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rinkeby är ett av flera områden i Stockholm som ses som ett “utsatt” område som ofta associeras med brottslighet och negativa egenskaper. Denna studie undersöker Rinkeby där syftet delvis är att visa på en annan aspekt än den bild som utgör en “allmän uppfattning” och studiens främsta syfte är att erhålla förståelse om gemenskap och identitetsskapande i Rinkeby med utgångspunkt från musikens betydelse. För att svara på syftet genomfördes en fallstudie med kvalitativa intervjuer då det tillåter djupdykningar och resultatet som erhölls av personliga upplevelser är unikt. Utöver intervjuer som primärkällor har också observationer genomförts i Rinkeby vilket genererade förståelse för området och materialet. Nyhetsmedia som sekundärkällor har använts för att illustrera bakgrunden och uppfattningen av Rinkeby. Resultatet av fyra intervjuer visar att respondenterna upplever en stark gemenskap i Rinkeby vilket har inneburit trygghetskänslor, starka band till andra människor samt familjära band inom området. De upplever att Rinkeby och kulturen som råder där underlättar för identitetsskapande som ju kan vara svårt. Musikens har enligt respondenterna spelat stor roll för gemenskap och identitetsskapande och tycks vara centralt i Rinkeby i helhet. Resultaten visar utöver gemenskapen att det kan finnas svårigheter i att identifiera sig med både kulturen i Rinkeby och den större i Stockholm. Resultaten har analyserats utifrån teori och tidigare forskning som hjälper att få förståelse för klustring i Rinkeby, subkulturen som skapats samt vad musiken kan ha för betydelse i ett område med minoritetsgrupper. Resultatet går att förstå ur en större samhällelig kontext där Rinkeby är ett segregerat område, men att gemenskapen är stor där. En slutsats är att trots den starka gemenskapen som existerar i Rinkeby identifieras svårigheter för individer som vill, utöver att känna tillhörighet till Rinkeby, också känna tillhörighet till övriga delat av Stockholm. Ytterligare slutsatser är att musiken kan ha en stor roll för att skapa nya relationer och gemenskap samt för individernas identitetsskapande. Studien har bidragit med förståelse för Rinkeby, dess kultur och vad den innebär Rinkebys invånare och hur detta korrelerar med det större samhället i Stockholm. Dessutom bidrar studien med förståelse för musikens relation och betydelse till plats och hur musiken kan influera gemenskap och identitetsskapande som hjälper att förstå andra liknande situationer i andra kontexter.

  • 1710.
    Åslund, Ingrun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Människans upplevelse av vindkraft i landskapet: Om känsla och identitet i ett föränderligt landskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen fokuserar på de bakomliggande faktorerna kring medborgarnas positiva och negativa attityder till vindkraftsetablering för att kartlägga människors värderingar av ”sitt” landskap och därigenom kunna dra slutsatser för en bättre helhetsbedömning av olika landskap i planeringsprocesser. I undersökningen ingick en fördjupad fallstudie av Arvidsjaur kommuns samrådsprocesser kopplat till vindkraftsutredningar och en jämförelse med samrådsprocessen på Öland i samband med framtagandet av vindkraftsplanen för Borgholms och Mörbylånga kommun. Analysen fokuserade på de subjektiva upplevelserna av medborgarna kopplat till platsidentitet och platsberoende genom att belysa hur medborgarna använder sig av landskapet under vardagen och fritiden, hur känslan för platsen, platsidentitet och kulturell anknytning återspeglas i samrådsprocessen samt hur landskapet värderas av olika intressentgrupper. En slutsats i uppsatsen är att det inte finns någon skillnad mellan olika landskapstyper eller året runt boende och fritidshusägare, vad gäller hur man använder sig av landskapet i sin fritid eller vad man längtar efter under sin fritid. Det är det orörda landskapet som ger avkoppling och det är lugnet och tystnaden samt även vetskapen (det så kallade kunskapsvärdet) om orördheten som gör att man kan återhämta sig. Det är dessa värden som återkommande beskrivs när man vill uttrycka sin oro inför en stundande förändring av landskapet i form av en vindkraftsetablering.

  • 1711.
    Åström Eriksson, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Värdering av kulturmiljöer i svenska översiktsplaner - från 1990 till 20162017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att undersöka hur byggd kulturmiljö värderas i svenska kommuners översiktsplaner samt om och hur översiktsplanerna speglar den utveckling som skett inom kulturmiljövården - från att huvudsakligen belysa materiella värden till en växande betoning på immateriella, sociala och ekonomiska värden. Metoden för uppsatsen är kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Tre nyckelord (kulturmiljö, kulturhistorisk och kulturarv) användes och de kontexter de figurerade i analyserades för att undersöka hur nio värden kopplade till kulturmiljöer förekom i 40 översiktsplaner. Värdena har hämtats ur Masons (2002), Bond & Worthings (2016) samt Unnerbäcks (2002) skrifter. Frågeställningarna är ”Hur värderas byggd kulturmiljö i svenska kommuners översiktsplaner?”, ”Finns det skillnader i hur kulturmiljö värderas i svenska kommuners översiktsplaner beroende på om de är antagna före eller efter 2010?” samt ”Speglar översiktsplanerna den utveckling som skett i kulturmiljövården från att färmst framhålla kulturmiljöers materiella värden till att belysa även de immateriella, sociala och ekonomiska värdena?”. Översiktsplaner antagna före och efter 2010 (då nya plan- och bygglagen antogs) skiljer sig inte på något avgörande sätt i värderingen av kulturmiljö.  Undersökningen visar att ett skifte i synsätt skett tidigare, sannolikt under 1990-talet i samband med ändringar som gjordes i plan- och bygglagen 1996, införandet av miljöbalken 1998 och de nationella miljömålen 1999.

  • 1712.
    Öhlin, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lokala centrum och den kommunala rådigheten: En kartläggning och kategorisering av Stockholms ytterstadscentrum2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lokala centrum är centrumbildningar i städers ytterområden som inrymmer funktioner för det lokala bostadsområdets vardagsbehov. Centrum som oftast är samtida med de omkringliggande bostadshusen och i struktur gestaltade efter rådande planeringideal och handelsmönster. Det offentligas vilja och möjlighet att styra utvecklingen har varierat över tid och är i grunden en balansgång mellan reglering/styrning och att låta marknadskrafter avgöra centrumens öde. En stark styrning kontra nyliberalismens tankar om den fria oreglerade marknaden.

    De lokala centrumen utmanas av citykärnan, externhandelsområden och näthandel och under de senaste decennierna har ett vikande kundunderlag noterarats och en vilja att levandegöra de lokala centrumen har grott. Tidigare studier har till stor del kategoriserat behovet av insatser efter centrumens storlek men inte lyckats beskriva vari rådigheten ligger ur det kommunala perspektivet. Syftet med studien är därför att kartlägga lokala centrum utifrån faktorer med avgörande inverkan på den kommunala rådigheten och med hjälp av kartläggningen föreslå en ny typ av kategorisering.

    Som studieobjekt har valts Stockholms stad och de ytterstadscentrum som i stadens översiktsplan markerats med ett C.

    Studien visar att den kommunala rådigheten är till står del varierar efter detaljplanebestämmelser, fastighetsförvaltning och framtida potential vilket också blir avgörande för kategoriseringen. Avslutningsvis föreslås i studien vilken kommunal förvaltningsgren som bör leda ett vitaliseringsarbete beroende på vilken kategori ett centrum tillhör.

  • 1713. Öhlund, Erika
    et al.
    Zurek, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Swedish Institute for European Policy Studies, Sweden.
    Hammer, Monica
    Towards Sustainable Agriculture? The EU framework and local adaptation in Sweden and Poland2015In: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 270-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural systems can be seen as nested social-ecological systems. European Union (EU) Member States vary considerably in terms of their agricultural, socio-economic and environmental circumstances. Yet, as participants in the common agricultural market, they are subject to a uniform Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). An important question is whether there is enough room for flexibility to sustain diverse agricultural systems and facilitate national targeting of sustainability-promoting measures. This article analyses the institutional arrangements concerning cross-scale interactions and interdependencies at national and regional (EU) levels, focusing on how Poland and Sweden implement CAP funds in relation to sustainable agriculture, in particular the agri-environmental schemes, for the period 2007-2013. What room is there in practice for accommodating national differences and sustainability priorities offered by the EU agricultural policy, and how are the existing opportunities used by the two countries? It is shown that agri-environmental funds are too small to prevent transition towards large-scale farming in new Member States and CAP does not effectively promote transformation towards sustainable practices in the EU.

  • 1714.
    Öhlund, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Utvecklingsrum: ackumulerad siktlinjeanalys med osynlighetsdjup, inkorporerat i den samlade bilden av rumsliga begränsningar vid urban utveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande verktyg för att bedöma hur utblickar från kulturmiljöer påverkas av urban utveckling är statiska då de utgår från en eller ett par utblickspunkter och därför inte kan hantera rörelse på ett tillfredställande sätt. Syftet med uppsatsen är försöka adressera problemet med rörelse och tillföra fler nyanser till bedömningen genom att tillämpa ackumulerade siktlinjeanalyser med osynlighetsdjup för att kvantifiera kulturmiljövårdens utblicksskydd. Utblicksskyddet inkorporeras sedan i den samlade bilden av rumsliga restriktioner vid urban utveckling och det nya begreppet utvecklingsrum lanseras. Metoden testas med ingående data från Stockholm stad för att låta lokala aktörer utvärdera dess användbarhet genom fokusgrupper. Resultatet och utvärderingen visar att ackumulerade siktlinjeanalyser med osynlighetsdjup kan lösa problemet med rörelse och tillföra fler nyanser till bedömningen, vilket tillsammans med det nya begreppet utvecklingsrum kan bidra till att effektivisera och kvalitetssäkra planprocesser samt fungera som en rumslig plattform för att föra diskussioner om motstridiga intressen.

  • 1715.
    Ösgård, Anton
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Vad är en Sjöstadsbo?: Platsidentitetens framväxt i ett nybyggt bostadsområde2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines some processes behind the creation of place identity and place attachment using a broad theoretical framework. The framework is structured around the creation of space and place, followed by theories and models on how places are given identity and finally some possible effects of place identity. These theories are then used to examine place identity formation among residents and real estate agents in Hammarby Sjöstad, a newly developed urban residential area in Stockholm, Sweden.

    A total of 5 in depth interviews were carried out with local residents in different parts of the residential area, as well as 3 in depth interviews with real estate agents active in different parts of the area. The interviews were transcribed and analysed in relation to the theoretical framework as well as documents relating to the planning of the area.

    The study shows that there has formed a local identity in Hammarby Sjöstad, not defined by the administrative borders of the area. The perceived extent of the area most probably stem from that the lake Hammarby Sjö acts as a physical barrier between the area and the rest of the inner city. This might be the reason to the evolution of a defined perceived community there. The effects of this could be a contributing factor in the segregation that is evident in urban areas, which calls for attention to the possible effects of place identity in urban planning. 

  • 1716.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Berättelser om det som förblir ouppklarat: Per Brandström, Kibela - hör jag ännu din röst2017In: Respons : recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap, ISSN 2001-2292, no 4, p. 60-61Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1717.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Bringing back the trees2017In: Kenya Past and Present, ISSN 0257-8301, no 44, p. 11-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropologist Wilhelm Östberg documents what happened when a small NGO went to West Pokot to encourage livestock herders to plant trees. 

  • 1718.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Göra kultur: Hur det blir midsommar i Vamlingbo2016In: Från Gutabygd 2016 / [ed] Annika Melin, Visby: Gotlands hembygdsförbunds förlag , 2016, p. 66-77Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Midsommarfirandet i Norrbyn i Vamlingbo är inte så gammalt, inte ens 40 år. Samtidigt är det förstås urgammalt. Sommarsolståndet har man alltid firat. Men den gamla och den nya midsommaren liknar inte varandra och det är just därför som byns midsommarfirande är så livskraftigt idag. Det är inte en gammal tradition man håller vid liv utan Midsommaren i Vamlingbo skapas just nu.

  • 1719.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Han flyttade ut i skogen och skapade sin egen värld2018In: Från Gutabygd 2018 / [ed] Annika Melin, Visby: Gotlands hembygdsförbunds förlag , 2018, p. 60-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1720.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Imani za Waburunge kuhusu ardhi na mmononyoko wa udongo1994Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1721.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Irrigated fields are wives: indigenous irrigation in Marakwet, Kenya2014In: Landesque capital: the historical ecology of enduring landscape modifications / [ed] N. Thomas Håkansson, Mats Widgren, Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press Inc., 2014, p. 197-214Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1722.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Life among the Marakwet2015In: Kenya Past and Present, ISSN 0257-8301, no 42, p. 53-67Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1723.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Matumizi ya ardhi katika vilima vya Uburunge1994Report (Other academic)
  • 1724.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Norrgårde2015In: Ett solvarv på Storsudret / [ed] Anita Widén, Burgsvik: Gotlandsboken , 2015, p. 77-85Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1725.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    När Nefertiti lämnade Egypten2016In: Utställningsestetiskt forum, ISSN 2000-6934, no februariArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1726.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Petsarve2015In: Ett solvarv på Storsudret / [ed] Anita Widén, Burgsvik: Gotlandsboken , 2015, p. 125-126Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1727.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Safflower: Liberalisation or participation in a Tanzanian village2012In: Ecology and power: Struggles over land and material resources in the past, present, and future / [ed] Alf Hornborg, Brett Clark, Kenneth Hermele, Abingdon: Routledge, 2012, p. 250-261Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safflower is a high value oil seed crop. Almost the entire production in Tanzania is exported. During the last ten years a private company has built a de facto monopoly of safflower business in the country. This paper describes the introduction of safflower to Kondoa District. Expectations were high both among farmers and agricultural staff that the crop will bring new wealth to areas currently characterised by extremely low living standards.

    As the new crop entered the area the District Agricultural Office was bypassed and no independent and research based information on the crop was available locally. Risks for disappointments were imminent. This is to be expected after liberalisation of the economy and new directives in development policy. Current key concepts in development planning such as “popular participation” and “empowerment from below” helped to disguise how private capital has taken over the initiative from the agricultural administration.

    In the current debate on international capital's large-scale land acquisitions the safflower case exhibits an alternative way for agribusiness to get access to land resources.

  • 1728.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    The doubtful prospects of land rehabilitation in the Pokot lowlands in the mid-1980s – and its current success2016Report (Other academic)
  • 1729.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Wero Kositet: The bard of Marakwet2018In: Kenya Past and Present, ISSN 0257-8301, no 45, p. 59-66Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1730.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. West Virginia University, USA.
    Caretta, Martina Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. West Virginia University, USA.
    Kerio Valley, 1973–2013: A case study of Kenyan smallholder agriculture2017In: African Studies, ISSN 0002-0184, E-ISSN 1469-2872, Vol. 76, no 3, p. 402-422Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines changes during the last 40 years in a smallholder irrigation-farming community in Elgeyo-Marakwet County, Kenya. Agricultural productivity has increased thanks to improved seeds and the practice of adding manure and crop residues to fields, a very rare occurrence in the 1970s. People’s range of assets, housing conditions and communications have also improved. Development agencies have had limited impact on these developments, particularly in comparison with their ambitious plans for a radical transformation of the study area. Increased yields and improved living conditions are attributed to local initiatives rather than to external interventions.

  • 1731.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Howland, Olivia
    Mduma, Joseph
    Brockington, Dan
    Tracing Improving Livelihoods in Rural Africa Using Local Measures of Wealth: A Case Study from Central Tanzania, 1991–20162018In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied livelihood changes and poverty dynamics over a 25-year period in two villages in central Tanzania. The villages were, from the early 1990s and 2000s, strikingly poor with between 50% and 55% of families in the poorest wealth groups. 25 years later much has changed: people have become substantially wealthier, with 64% and 71% in the middle wealth groups. The new wealth had been generated locally, from farming, particularly of sunflowers as a cash crop. This goes against a conventional view of small-scale farming in Tanzania as being stagnant or unproductive. The area of land farmed per family has increased, almost doubling in one village. People have made money, which they invest in mechanised farming, improved housing, education of their children, livestock, and consumer goods. Improved infrastructure and local entrepreneurs have played key roles in the area’s transformation. Locally identified wealth rankings showed that most villagers, those in the middle wealth groups and above, can now support themselves from their land, which is a notable change to a time when 71% and 82% in each village respectively depended on casual labour for their survival. This change has come at a cost to the environment. By 2016, the village forests have largely gone and been replaced by farms. Farmers were concerned that the climate was turning drier because of deforestation. Studying the mundane—the material used in roofs, the size of farms, and so on made it possible to trace and understand the radical transition the area has experienced.

  • 1732.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lagercrantz, Lotta
    Konst ger nytt liv2017In: Utställningsestetiskt forum, ISSN 2000-6934, no 3, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En döende glesbygd får nytt liv genom ett omfattande konstprojekt, med nybyggda museer och verk utplacerade i landskapet. Genom konstverken styrs blicken mot en bergssida, en havsutsikt – och samtidigt gäller också motsatsen att verken får förhöjd intensitet genom landskapet. Det är kunnigt, raffinerat, kreativt. Konstpubliken kommer i hundratusental och bygden får nytt liv. Men inte bara ekonomiskt. Den sociala gemenskapen stärks, framtidstron och stoltheten stärks.  

  • 1733.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lagercrantz, Lotta
    Konst, pengar och poser i Shanghai2019In: Respons, ISSN 2001-2292, no 2, p. 9-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Shanghais konstscen vibrerar av vitalitet. Det byggs nya museer i häpnadsväckande takt. Konstnärer söker sig dit för att de tycker atmosfären är öppnare, livligare än på andra håll i Kina. Dessutom finns det stormrika köpare. De stora internationella gallerierna är på plats när stadens båda konstmässor öppnar. Dit kommer också Shanghais unga och modemedvetna publik, som använder de eleganta miljöerna som scen för att visa upp sig. Men det finns mer än kommers och yta. Här bjuds också konstteoretiska föredrag och möten mellan västerländsk modernism och österländsk filosofi.

  • 1734.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mduma, Joseph
    Getting to Know Goima Anew / Tracing Change in a Tanzanian Village with a 25 Year Perspective2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1735.
    Östberg, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Slegers, Monique F. W.
    Losing faith in the land: changing environmental perceptions in Burunge country, Tanzania2010In: Journal of Eastern African Studies, ISSN 1753-1055, E-ISSN 1753-1063, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 247-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies carried out among Burunge small-scale farmers disclosed a striking difference in their relation to the area's natural resources over a period of less than fifteen years. The paper outlines how the Burunge had come to develop essentially trustful attitudes to the world they inhabit. Dramatic changes in official land policies in the 1970s had not changed this by the early 1990s. However, this was also a time when a new mode of farming became dominant in the area, which caused Burunge farmers to move from a view of nature as a reliable provider to become concerned over increased drought, diminishing soil fertility and accelerated soil erosion. Rainfall records did not tally with the perceived increased severity of drought and therefore it is concluded that the Burunge did not relate drought only to meteorological events but also understand drought as a function of a diminishing resource base.

  • 1736.
    Österblom, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Scheffer, Marten
    Westley, Frances R.
    van Esso, Miguel L.
    Miller, John
    Bascompte, Jordi
    A message from magic to science: seeing how the brain can be tricked may strengthen our thinking2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific discoveries rely on creative thinking, and several authors have explored similarities in and differences between creativity in the sciences and that in the arts. Here we explore possible ways in which science can learn from the arts, focusing specifically on experiences derived from the art of magic and on the limitations of human cognition. Generations of stage magicians or illusionists have made sophisticated use of the weaknesses in human systems of perception and interpretation. We highlight three important principles of magic tricks, including: (1) the audience see what it expects, (2) it is blind to all but the focus of attention, and (3) ideas spring predictably from a primed mind. These principles highlight a number of important tendencies, which we argue are shortcomings in the ability of scientists to perceive the world, and which scientists need to be aware of. Consciously addressing these shortcomings may help scientists improve their creativity, and will strengthen their capacity to address complex and global challenges.

  • 1737.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    School Choice and Increasing Performance Difference: A Counterfactual Approach2013In: Urban Studies, ISSN 0042-0980, E-ISSN 1360-063X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 407-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, structural changes to the school system, including the introduction of independent schools, have increased school choice alternatives in Sweden. Consequently, a large share of today's students attend a school other than the one closest to home. Since the compulsory school system is designed to be free of charge and to offer the same standard of education everywhere, increasing school choice- hypothetically-should not increase the between-school variation in grades. In reality, however, between-school variation in grades has increased in recent years. The aim of this paper is to test whether increasing between-school variance can be explained by changes in residential patterns, or if it must be attributed to structural change. Using a counterfactual approach, the students' variations in grades are compared between observed schools of graduation and hypothetical schools of graduation. The multilevel results indicate that school choice seems to increase between-school variation of grades.

  • 1738. Östh, John
    et al.
    Clark, William A. V.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Measuring the Scale of Segregation Using k-Nearest Neighbor Aggregates2015In: Geographical Analysis, ISSN 0016-7363, E-ISSN 1538-4632, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nearly all segregation measures use some form of administrative unit (usually tracts in the United States) as the base for the calculation of segregation indices, and most of the commonly used measures are aspatial. The spatial measures that have been proposed are often not easily computed, although there have been significant advances in the past decade. We provide a measure that is individually based (either persons or very small administrative units) and a technique for constructing neighborhoods that does not require administrative units. We show that the spatial distribution of different population groups within an urban area can be efficiently analyzed with segregation measures that use population count-based definitions of neighborhood scale. We provide a variant of a k-nearest neighbor approach and a statistic spatial isolation and a methodology (EquiPop) to map, graph, and evaluate the likelihood of individuals meeting other similar race individuals or of meeting individuals of a different ethnicity. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated in an application of the method to data for Los Angeles and three metropolitan areas in Sweden. This comparative approach is important as we wish to show how the technique can be used across different cultural contexts. The analysis shows how the scale (very small neighborhoods, larger communities, or cities) influences the segregation outcomes. Even if microscale segregation is strong, there may still be much more mixing at macroscales.

  • 1739.
    Östh, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    DO CHANGES IN GDP INFLUENCE COMMUTING DISTANCES?: A STUDY OF SWEDISH COMMUTING PATTERNS BETWEEN 1990 AND 20062012In: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 103, no 4, p. 443-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have analysed the relationships between individuals' commuting distances and individual characteristics, discrimination, societal structure and planning. Largely left unexplored, however, are the long-term relationships between changes in the economic cycle and the effects on individual commuting distances. Using regression analyses, this study focuses on the relationship between changes in GDP and commuters' response reflected in commuting distances. The empirical data consist of records of almost 12 million Swedish commuting events between 1990 and 2006. Results of the analyses indicate that changes in GDP growth rate have an impact on commuting distances, especially for younger workers, the recently unemployed and commuters in metropolitan areas.

  • 1740. Östh, John
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Analysing segregation using individualised neighbourhoods2014In: Social-Spatial Segregation: Concepts, Processes and Outcomes / [ed] Christopher D. Lloyd, Ian G. Shuttleworth, David W.S. Wong, Bristol: Policy Press, 2014, p. 135-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1741. Östh, John
    et al.
    Malmberg, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Andersson, Eva K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Analysing segregation using individualized neighbourhoods: 2014In: Social-spatial Segregation: concepts, processes and outcomes / [ed] Christopher D. Lloyd, Ian G. Shuttleworth, David W. Wong, Bristol: Policy Press, 2014, p. 135-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1742.
    Östlund, Rosanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    I had some problems back home with a big group of people and it was not safe for me there anymore so I had to run away: How LGBT asylum seekers move2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increased number of the amount of asylum-seekers that have migrated to Sweden lately, the topic has received increased attention. This has contributed to housing shortage and policy reforms for new migrants to arise in order to ensure that everybody gets housing. Asylum seekers often experience more difficult patterns to housing, and for LGBT asylum seekers especially since they are such a marginalised group in our society already. Housing is an important part in the initial settlement stage and good housing enables successful resettlement and that will help with the integration process. The aim of this thesis is to look at LGBT asylum seekers mobility and what constrains and opportunities they face in that process. To answer these questions qualitative method and semi-structured life story interviews have been performed with twelve LGBT asylum seekers. The result of these interviews has been presented around four different concepts that were factors contributing to their mobility. These four concepts that were found in the interviews was forced migration, homophobia, social network and freedom. These findings should be of interest for further studies in order for LGBT asylum seekers mobility patters to become more safe and secure.   

  • 1743.
    Östman, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Gård, fält, folk: en geografisk analys av lantbrukets strukturomvandlingsprocess sedan 1950 med exempel från Gotlands och Skaraborgs län1977Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
32333435 1701 - 1743 of 1743
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