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  • 1801.
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Beliefs and behavior in international policy making: longitudinal changes in the governance of the Baltic SeaIn: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1802.
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Institutional stability and change in the Baltic Sea: 30 years of issues, crises and solutions2013In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 38, p. 54-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift from a classic sector-by-sector management system to an operational ecosystem approach is perceived as the way forward towards sustainable use of marine systems. The nine states bordering the Baltic Sea as well as the European Community signed the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) in 2007, intended to provide practical means for implementing the ecosystem approach in the region. However, whether this shift towards a new governance approach also constitutes a case of institutional change remains unclear. This study evaluates institutional change over 30 years in order to understand the process of emergence of the ecosystem approach for this international institution. This study adds to the otherwise largely theoretical debate on institutional change by testing two models of institutional change – gradualist versus punctuated equilibrium – against data from the Helsinki Commission. Relying on a novel methodology involving quantitative text analyses of 574 documents this study suggests that the signing of the BSAP did not cause change in the institution, nor was it the cause of an abrupt institutional change. Overall, findings support a gradualist model of institutional change where the BSAP is layered upon preexisting institutional structures. Results also indicate that institutional change has occurred in some parts of the institution, whereas other parts remain remarkably stable. It proves that in order to intentionally change an institution it is vital that the change processes cohere at all levels of the institution. The study also underlines the mismatch between ecosystems and institutions. Given the relatively slow dynamics identified here, it is unclear whether institutions are able to adapt to rapid and unpredictable ecosystem shifts.

  • 1803.
    Valman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Three faces of HELCOM - institution, organization, policy producer2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite early initiatives during the 1960s and 1970s, and continuing efforts ever since, the Baltic Sea remains in poor condition. The Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) is the governing body tasked with protecting the marine environment from further deterioration through intergovernmental collaboration between the Baltic Sea states and the EU. In 2007, HELCOM launched a new tool – the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), of which the so-called ecosystem approach is a cornerstone. However, how and why the BSAP reform was launched, and also what consequences such management reforms can have for transboundary resource management, is unknown.

    By using institutional theory, organizational theory and the advocacy coalition framework, in combination with content analysis of official documents derived from HELCOM, this thesis argues that the BSAP is the end result of a gradual process of change within institutional structures and actor beliefs. This thesis also shows that HELCOM's capacity to detect, process, and react in response to changes in its regulatory objective has not changed as a consequence of the BSAP. In contrast to earlier research, it seems HELCOM responds better to slow and opaque changes than to quick and visible ones. Finally, by comparing HELCOM with two other similar cases, the thesis shows that HELCOM's adaptive capacity could be improved in line with the recommendations of the ecosystem approach.

    This thesis illustrates the importance of studying the emergence of new tools for governing transboundary resources from several theoretical perspectives. The thesis uses an innovative quantitative content analysis and concludes that new methods might be required to enable such studies. The different perspectives used here give various explanations concerning the causes and consequences of the BSAP. In a future Baltic Sea, where environmental changes are likely to be abrupt, a multitude of understandings regarding the governance of the Baltic Sea will be crucial.

  • 1804.
    Valman, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre, Baltic Nest Institute. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    HELCOM, we have a problem: gradually unfolding crises and problem detection in international organisationsIn: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1805.
    Valman, Matilda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Duit, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Organizational responsiveness: The case of unfolding crises and problem detection within HELCOM2016In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 70, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How and to what extent do international organizations detect, process and react to different types of change within their policy domains? This study addresses this question by combining a unique data set consisting of policy documents from the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) with data measuring ecosystem change in the Baltic Sea during the period 1980-2013. Here HELCOM's responses to two types of ecosystem changes are investigated: fast and visible (summer algae blooms) and slow and opaque (anoxic areas). Finally, this study assesses if the organizational reform of 2007, which introduced the ecosystem approach, has had any effects on HELCOM responsiveness. It is found that HELCOM, contrary to expectations, is only responding systematically to slow-moving and opaque processes but that this response confirms the anticipated organizational bottom-up pattern. The ecosystem approach reform seems to have had a negative effect on the responsiveness of HELCOM; however, a general trend is that HELCOM over time has become more responsive in the lower levels of the organization. The lack of an immediate effect regarding the ecosystem approach reform can serve as a reminder of the absence of panaceas in policy making in general, and in environmental governance in particular.

  • 1806.
    van Baalen, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mobjörk, Malin
    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
    A coming anarchy?: Pathways from climate change to violent conflict in East Africa2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The warming of the climate system is unequivocal according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and will have a strong impact on the security of humans and states alike. In the past half-century the climate system has changed in unprecedented ways and future climate change and variability will include long-lasting alterations to all components of the climate system. With the warming of the climate system and the recognition of the implications that this has for the availability and quality of renewable natural resources, scholars and policy-makers fear that the impacts of climate change will also increase the risk of violent conflict and affect their dynamics. However, despite the rather large amount of studies in the field, scholars have yet to move beyond a number of interesting patterns to establish results that remain robust across studies. While this is partly a reflection of the inherent challenge of observing links between uncertain structural factors such as climate change and rare social outcomes such as violent conflict, the field has also been repeatedly criticised for a lack of sound theoretical development. This has been exacerbated by the practice of excluding qualitative research from state of the art reviews. The purpose of this report is to fill this gap by contributing to a better theoretical understanding of the linkages between climate change and violent conflict through consulting the combined quantitative-qualitative literature.

    In this report, we seek to answer the question of how, and under what circumstances, climate change influences the risk of violent conflict in East Africa. We specifically focus on the pathways to violence – explanations that link various phenomena – in this case climate change and variability, and violent conflict – through a continuous and contiguous chain of links. We explore the research question through a systematic review of the climate- conflict literature on East Africa, hence obtaining a manageable amount of relevant studies and ensuring some minimal cross-study comparability. East Africa was chosen because of the frequency of violent conflict in the region, its high livelihood dependence on natural resources, high levels of poverty and limited capacity for climate change adaptation. The region is also especially relevant from a Swedish policy perspective, since Sweden has considerable development cooperation engagements in East Africa, for example in assisting climate change adaptation and peacebuilding. The present analysis builds on 44 peer-reviewed articles published between 1989-2015 that examine the relationship between climate-related

    v

    environmental change and violent conflict. By focusing on climate-related environmental change, that is a change in biophysical conditions that are or will be affected by a change in the state of the climate or by variations in the mean state of the climate, we widened our analysis beyond climate change to encompass both short- and long-term environmental change.

    The analysis is summarised in a conceptual framework that identifies five types of pathways from climate-related environmental change to violent conflict in East Africa. In particular, the negative impact of climate-related environmental change on the availability of natural resources can lead to conflict by worsening livelihood conditions, by increasing migration or by changing pastoral mobility patterns. Taken together, these three types of pathways lead to or exacerbate local resource conflicts that sometimes turn violent. Weather conditions and climate variability can also affect the tactical considerations of armed groups and hence contribute to intensified fighting during certain periods. Finally, the analysis shows that local resource conflicts are susceptible to elite exploitation that often significantly increases the risk and intensity of violent conflict. This highlights the critical role of political and economic elites in explaining how local resource conflicts relate to larger processes of civil war, ethnic cleansing and insecurity.

    In the discussion, we deepen the analysis by underlining three critical dimensions inherent in the literature: the temporal, spatial and political dimensions. First, the analysis shows that it is essential to reflect on the temporal dimensions of a climate-conflict link, both with regard to temporal scale of the environmental change in question and the expected time lag from that change to the outbreak of violent conflict. There is no reason to believe that all climate-related environmental changes at different time scales generate the same social outcomes. The bulk of the quantitative literature on East Africa measures conflict onset or intensity as an immediate reaction to climate variability, thus studying the implications of climate variability rather than of climate change. To capture the full spectrum, investigations of a climate-conflict link also need to consider the implications of long-term changes in altered livelihood conditions and rapid- onset disasters such as extreme weather events, as these pose a different kind of challenge for societies to mitigate and respond to. Second, the analysis shows the importance of accounting for the spatial dimension. The impacts of climate-related environmental change are unevenly distributed across space and altered livelihood conditions can offset population movements. There is therefore often no merit in assuming that climate-related environmental change will lead to violence in a certain area without considering how people move between areas characterised by resource scarcity and resource abundance. Third, the analysis emphasises that climate-related environmental change and violent conflict cannot be

    vi

    understood in an apolitical vacuum, since socio-political processes affect the relative distribution of natural resources, the adaptive capacity of individuals, groups and societies, and the risk of violent conflict. For example, absent, corrupt or non-functional political institutions often increase the risk of local resource conflicts turning violent. Thus, while climate-related environmental change in itself has not precipitated an East African anarchy so far, it has already played a role in the dynamics of violent conflict and will probably continue to do so, even though the consequences are ultimately mediated by human behaviour.

    Regarding the implications for policy and future research, three strands of policy implications follow from the analysis. First, since a central claim in the literature is that worsening livelihood conditions make people more likely to engage in violence, efforts that mitigate the impact of climate- related environmental change and that build resilience may also contribute to resilience to violent conflicts. Examples include weather insurance schemes and improved access to markets for pastoralists, income diversification and efforts that improve livelihood conditions. Second, movements across space are a crucial adaptation mechanism for populations affected by climate- related environmental change, particularly for pastoralist groups. This means that efforts that enable and support adaptation to population movements may increase both human security and lower the risk of violent conflict. One example relates to efforts that enable pastoral mobility while providing channels to solve resulting conflicts between pastoralists and farmers. Finally, the analysis shows that institutions, both formal and informal, are crucial for mediating conflicts. Since most communities already have some conflict resolution mechanisms, outside actors should focus on how such local knowledge can be adapted to meet new demands and increased pressure, rather than trying to introduce entirely new mechanisms. Future scholarship should examine the challenges relating to the temporal and spatial dimensions of climate-conflict research by studying the impacts of long-term environmental change rather than climate variability and by accounting for how populations move across space. Future research should also seek to improve data quality, while considering the importance of matching data and methods with the underlying theoretical expectations. 

  • 1807. van Well, Lisa
    et al.
    Schmitt, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Understanding territorial governance: conceptual and practical implications2015In: Europa regional, ISSN 0943-7142, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 209-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the policy analysis of spatial planning today focuses on governance or multi-level governance in the sense of tracing vertical and horizontal linkages and integration of relevant stakeholders (particularly from the bottom-up). Thus far, little attention has been paid to the more specific territorial dimensions of governance or how knowledge of territorial specificities and the territorial impacts of various courses of action are used in policy- and decision-making. This paper presents the conceptual and practical implications of the ‘ESPON TANGO’ – project (Territorial Approaches for New Governance). To that end a framework of analysis was developed to systematically conceptualise, operationalise and explore territorial governance processes. Some of the main empirical findings from twelve case studies across Europe are synthesised along 20 components of territorial governance. These components are representative of the structural and process-oriented facets of territorial governance. It will be argued that our analytical framework offers various entry points to understand the main elements and characteristics of territorial governance and thus adds clarity to the debate on what territorial governance is. It also offers a more practical access to doing territorial governance to support practitioners and policy makers at any level to promote territorial governance.

  • 1808.
    Velasquez, Juan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Barrio women's invited and invented spaces against urban elitisation in Chacao, Venezuela2014In: Antipode, ISSN 0066-4812, E-ISSN 1467-8330, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 835-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Outright victories against urban elitisation are rare in the current urban revolution. This article highlights how urban elitisation is confronted in Chacao, the most elite and urban part of Venezuela. Initially it reviews how this urban elitisation created the main economic, political and military strongholds of the opposition to the Bolivarian revolution. Then, in contesting it, the urban and Bolivarian revolutions feed each other through women's participation in invited and invented spaces of citizenship. From such spaces, Chacao women in their settler's movement organised struggles of insurgent citizenship to stop elitist urban renewal agendas and develop further forms of insurgent urbanism to conduct an urban renewal from below and establish a New Socialist Community for 600 families. They emerged as a revolutionary class to implement Bolivarian policies addressing the inefficiency and opportunism of the bureaucratic state and contesting urban elitisation with an anti-capitalist and anti-imperialist insurgent urbanism.

  • 1809.
    Velasquez, Juan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Grass roots in social urban renewal2011In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1810.
    Velasquez, Juan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Gräsrot i Social Stadsförnyelse2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1811.
    Velasquez, Juan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Internationella solidariteten som bäst: Samarbetet Kuba-Venezuela2011In: Tidskriften Kuba, ISSN 1402-8638, no 4, p. 21-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1812.
    Velasquez, Juan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Research in International Migration and Ethnic Relations (CEIFO).
    Uribe y Chacao: De la “Cultura Ciudadana” a la “Seguridad democrática” contra la Sala de Batalla Socialista Victoria Popular?2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [es]

    Hasta hace algunos meses la administración del municipio Chacao había venido trabajando por aproximarse a lo que muy vagamente ha enunciado como la “Cultura Ciudadana”, pero ahora ha cambiado al concepto de “seguridad democrática”. Para abordar este cambio ha requerido la asesoría del expresidente colombiano Alvaro Uribe y su cuerpo de seguidores. Debido al carácter político de este cambio es necesario precisar un poco en que consisten los conceptos a la luz de cómo estos han emergido de las particularidades  políticas en Colombia. Con una mejor comprensión de los conceptos es mas sencillo entender cuales pueden ser las posibles implicaciones de este cambio, tanto para la política local como para las relaciones diplomáticas entre las dos naciones.

  • 1813.
    Vera-Larrucea, Constanza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Citizenship by citizens: First generation nationals with Turkish ancestry on lived citizenship in Paris and Stockholm2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this thesis is to study how citizens with an immigrant ancestry approach citizenship. The academically popular re-formulations that decouple citizenship from the state, such as “postnational” and “denationalised” perspectives, call for a reconfiguration of the understanding and practices of citizenship. As most of this work has been developed within a legal and institutional framework, it has become separated from the experiences and understandings of citizens. The present study pays specific attention to citizens, and especially a group that has not hitherto been central in discussions about citizenship, namely immigrants’ descendants, or so-called second-generation immigrants. According to the theory, being a descendant of immigrants presupposes a different experience of citizenship. This study focuses on experienced citizenship by embracing the concept of ‘lived citizenship’, i.e. the meaning that people attribute to citizenship. Lived citizenship is inspired by citizens’ cultural and ethnic backgrounds, life conditions and other contextual and personal factors. In this work, lived citizenship is approached from the perspective of young adults with and without Turkish ancestry in two European cities: Stockholm and Paris. These cities are located in countries with different histories and conceptions of citizenship. The analysis is based on three dimensions of citizenship: a civic, a subjective and a substantial dimension. These dimensions are problematized with the help of survey data and qualitative interviews. The results indicate that, when turning to individual perceptions, it is the daily struggles that define the experience of citizenship and not the possibility of crossing borders. The study suggests that, when studying people as citizens, their ancestry is less relevant than the practical aspects of the context in which citizenship is experienced. Moreover, citizenship is presented as a complex phenomenon when approached empirically. The definition of citizenship is influenced by the models that are offered by the national context. In contrast, lived citizenship is influenced by everyday life and the personal characteristics of the citizens. People try to include certain elements of their Turkish ancestry because this is considered as richness, rather than as a source of second class citizenship. Finally, people with Turkish ancestry cannot be classified as another kind of citizens, because this depends on the dimension of citizenship being analysed.

  • 1814.
    Vera-Larrucea, Constanza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dual Citizenship, Double Membership?: Membership and Belonging of Immigrants’ Descendants in France and Sweden2011In: Journal of International Migration and Integration, ISSN 1488-3473, E-ISSN 1874-6365, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 165-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conceptual changes in the classical understanding of citizenship in connection with marked shifts in citizenship regimes have been widely studied in recent decades. Most of this work has been developed to explore legal and institutional aspects, thus giving citizenship a static framework. By turning to individuals' perceptions, a new picture of citizenship is discovered. The present study pays attention to a group that has not hitherto been central in discussions about citizenship, namely immigrants’ descendants or so-called second-generation immigrants. This group is regarded as being in-between their parents' native country and the country in which they were themselves born, which could result in an ambiguous membership and potentially divided allegiance, especially for those having dual citizenship. This article introduces the experiences of Turkish descendants in France and Sweden. Qualitative work complemented by survey data shows how dual citizens prioritize one country or both in order to develop new and traditional aspects associated with citizenship. Two dimensions are explored: a civic dimension composed by traditional elements associated with legal status such as rights and duties and a subjective dimension that is defined by the personal elements that link individuals with the country, city, or community to which they belong. Citizenship regimes and paradigms of integration are also problematized in this article in order to capture the context and possible influence over people's narratives.

  • 1815.
    Verhaegen, Soetkin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    What to expect from European identity? Explaining support for solidarity in times of crisis2018In: Comparative European Politics, ISSN 1472-4790, E-ISSN 1740-388X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 871-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Having a European identity is expected to influence citizens’ attitudes and behaviour towards the EU community. European identity is indeed positively related to support for EU integration, but are citizens with a stronger European identity also willing to pay a price for this identification, and to what extent? The contribution provides an answer to these questions by performing multilevel analyses on the EES 2014 data. The analyses show that citizens with a stronger European identity are more supportive of financial solidarity with member states in economic crisis. This explanation for support for solidarity is stronger than explanations provided by self-interest and economic ideological position. Citizens are thus willing to pay a price for their European identity. However, one can only expect so much from European identity as significant interaction effects show that the positive relationship between European identity and support for solidarity is mitigated by experiencing economic hardship.

  • 1816.
    Vernby, Kåre
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Dancygier, Rafaela
    Can immigrants counteract employer discrimination? A factorial field experiment reveals the immutability of ethnic hierarchies2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0218044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How pervasive is labor market discrimination against immigrants and what options do policymakers and migrants have to reduce it? To answer these questions, we conducted a field experiment on employer discrimination in Sweden. Going beyond existing work, we test for a large range of applicant characteristics using a factorial design. We examine whether migrants can affect their employment chances by adopting citizenship, acquiring work experience, or signaling religious practice or whether fixed traits such as country of birth or gender are more consequential. We find little systematic evidence that immigrants can do much to reduce discrimination. Rather, ethnic hierarchies are critical: callback rates decline precipitously with the degree of ethno-cultural distance, leaving Iraqis and Somalis, especially if they are male, with much reduced employment chances. These findings highlight that immigrants have few tools at their disposal to escape ethnic penalties and that efforts to reduce discrimination must address employer prejudice.

  • 1817.
    Vifell, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Enklaver i staten: Internationalisering, demokrati och den svenska statsförvaltningen2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has two purposes. The first is to understand the organizational forms of the public administration when it participates in international rule making processes. The second purpose investigates democratic implications of internationalization of the Swedish state administration. A theoretical framework, combining theories of governance with ideas on resource dependence and a neo-institutional approach, is applied to three empirical cases. The cases follow decision making processes within the European Employment Strategy, The Kyoto Protocol for reduction of green house gasses and negotiations on trade facilitation within the WTO. The studied processes can be described as complex and fragmented, containing multiple types of actors and parallel arenas, complex technical material and bureaucratic processes. They were also characterised by the fact that policy was created throughout the course of the processes. They also seemed to lack an ending and were to a high degree bound by their history. The administrations’ response resulted in an organisational form that is theoretically developed in the study – enclaves. Enclaves contain members from different organizations, both private and state organizations and the work within them is carried out in an informal and interactive way. They are de-coupled units with stable membership that is related to positions in the hierarchy. As opposed to networks, enclaves are not self-organizing but the membership is mainly controlled by state-actors. The second aim of the study is carried out through a number of indicators derived from the deliberative and the representative models of democracy. The blurring of responsibilities, the lack of transparency and the barriers for entrance into the enclaves made the organisational forms of the administration seem problematic in relation to the representative model. However other features of the enclaves seemed to support a more communicative logic of action, leaving the deliberative model more promising as a way of understanding the administrations’ work as democratically legitimate. Still, the analysis showed that the deliberative model also faced some challenges in terms of lack of openness and inclusion of all relevant stake holders.

  • 1818.
    Vifell, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Enklaver: Om governance och demokrati i den svenska statsförvaltningen2007In: Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier, ISSN 1501-8237, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 61-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1819.
    Viktorov, Ilja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The Legacy of Tandemocracy: Russia’s political elite during Putin’s third presidency: Interview with the sociologist Olga Kryshtanovskaya2014In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. 7, no 2-3, p. 14-21Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The period of Dmitry Medvedev's presidency in 2008–2012, that is, the duumvirate of Dmitry Medvedev as president and Vladimir Putin as prime minister, is usually referred to in Russian media as tandemocratia, or "tandemocracy ". The interview describes the experience of tandemocracy for the Russian political system and takes up the main novelties inside the Russian political system and elites after 2008. It also provides some insights into Vladimir Putin's leadership during his third presidentship after 2012

  • 1820.
    Viktorov, Ilja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History and International Relations. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Abramov, Alexander
    The 2014-15 Financial Crisis in Russia and the Foundations of Weak Monetary Power Autonomy in the International Political Economy2019In: New Political Economy, ISSN 1356-3467, E-ISSN 1469-9923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to international political economy debates about the monetary power autonomy (MPA) of emerging market and developing countries (EMDs). The 2014-15 Russian financial crisis is used as a case study to explore why an accumulation of large international reserves does not provide protection against currency crises and macroeconomic adjustments in EMDs. The analysis centres on the interplay between two dimensions of MPA: the Power to Delay and the Power to Deflect adjustment costs. Two structural factors condition Russia's low MPA. First, the country's subordinated integration in global financial markets increases its financial vulnerability. The composition of external assets and liabilities, combined with cross-border capital flows, restrict the use of international reserves to delay currency crises. Second, the choice of a particular macroeconomic policy regime embraced the financialisation of the - mainly state-owned - Russian banking sector, thus making it difficult to transform liquidity inflows into credits for enterprises. Russia's main comparative advantage, hydrocarbon export revenues, is not exploited. The type of economy created due to the post-Communist transition means that provided excessive' liquidity remains in the financial system and is channelled into currency arbitrage. This factor increases exchange rate vulnerability and undermines Russia's MPA.

  • 1821.
    Viktorov, Ilja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Abramov, Alexander
    Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.
    The state capture of Russian non-bank financial institutions and markets after the 2008 crisis2016In: Competition & change, ISSN 1024-5294, E-ISSN 1477-2221, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the expansion of the Russian state into financial markets after the 2008 global financial crisis. The main argument is that the Russian state has been unable to pursue its own developmental agenda in the sector despite increased regulation and state takeovers. While independent private market participants were pushed aside by state-controlled financial intermediaries, the state failed to follow its own policy strategy towards establishing an international financial centre in Moscow. Instead, the Russian financial market institutions were rendered into a vehicle for inter-bank lending under control of the Central Bank of Russia. Data from Russian stock market and corporate bond market trading highlights the trend. The study discusses the role played by informal power networks in redistribution of state-controlled resources and financial flows, and how this factor influenced the state regulation of financial markets in Russia.

  • 1822.
    Villarrubia-Gómez, Patricia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Fabres, Joan
    Marine plastic pollution as a planetary boundary threat - The drifting piece in the sustainability puzzle2018In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 96, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exponential increase in the use of plastic in modern society and the inadequate management of the resulting waste have led to its accumulation in the marine environment. There is increasing evidence of numerous mechanisms by which marine plastic pollution is causing effects across successive levels of biological organization. This will unavoidably impact ecological communities and ecosystem functions. A remaining question to be answered is if the concentration of plastic in the ocean, today or in the future, will reach levels above a critical threshold leading to global effects in vital Earth-system processes, thus granting the consideration of marine plastic pollution as a key component of the planetary boundary threat associated with chemical pollutants. Possible answers to this question are explored by reviewing and evaluating existing knowledge of the effects of plastic pollution in marine ecosystems and the 'core planetary boundaries', biosphere integrity and climate change. The irreversibility and global ubiquity of marine plastic pollution mean that two essential conditions for a planetary boundary threat are already met. The Earth system consequences of plastic pollution are still uncertain, but pathways and mechanisms for thresholds and global systemic change are identified. Irrespective of the recognition of plastic as a novel entity in the planetary boundaries framework, it is certain that marine plastic pollution is closely intertwined with global processes to a point that deserves careful management and prevention.

  • 1823.
    von Bahr, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    European Union's external strategies for the rights of the child2019In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 386-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers the first quantitative analysis of European Union external strategies for children's rights. Drawing on original data, it finds that European Union diplomatic pressure and economic aid have increased over time but that the European Union still lacks independent policy positions on children's rights. European Union strategies target states to different degrees and international non-governmental organizations are favoured over domestic organizations. Findings suggest that the European Union is becoming a more significant actor of child rights governance, underscoring the value of a comparative approach.

  • 1824.
    von Bahr, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Explaining child rights mainstreaming in EU external policy2017In: Comparative European Politics, ISSN 1472-4790, E-ISSN 1740-388X, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 499-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and explains child rights mainstreaming in European Union (EU) external affairs. It provides a within-case comparison of how children's rights have been mainstreamed in development aid, common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and external trade policy. While most mainstreaming research have studied mainstreaming as a process of norm socialization, this article draws on hypotheses concerning bureaucratic self-interest that have thus far not been tested in the EU mainstreaming literature. The article finds support for rational functionalist assumptions that actor preferences, external policy competences and resource exchanges between EU institutions and child rights organizations together help explain variations in child rights mainstreaming across sectors and over time. Rationalist functionalism is found useful in explaining under which conditions at sector level mainstreaming is likely to succeed or fail.

  • 1825.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    1809 års författningsverk - vad kan vi lära för framtiden?2009In: Maktbalans och kontrollmakt: 1809 års händelser, idéer och författningsverk i ett tvåhundraårigt perspektiv, Stockholm: Sveriges riksdag , 2009, p. 483-530Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    författningsrevisioner i Sverige, heltäckande eller halvtäckande författningar,doktrinärt arv och förändring, beslutsregler

  • 1826.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Avspänning genom avskräckning2014In: Röster om Sveriges försvar / [ed] Tommy Jeppsson, Stockholm: Allmänna försvarsföreningen , 2014, 1, p. 24-27Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1827.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Björn von Sydow: Hedersledamoten2017In: Holmiensis: Stockholms nations tidning, no 1, p. 19-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1828.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Björn von Sydow svarar Carl Björeman2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1829.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    De socialdemokratiska partiprogrammen2012In: Mauds bok: en vänbok till Maud Björklund / [ed] Lena Axberg, Lena Finnman, Lars Hjalmarson, Jörgen Högberg, Leif Karlsson, Inga-Britt Rova, Inga-Lena Wallin, Christina Örvi, Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg , 2012, p. 74-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Swedish Social Democratic Party´s ideology in party-program documents 1897 - 2001

  • 1830.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Det handlar om säkerhet och solidaritet - på riktigt!2016In: Aktuellt i politiken, ISSN 1403-7505, no 13, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1831.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Därför ska vi ha ett försvar: Försvaret, filosofin och författningen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 1832.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Edén och Branting - rätt män i rätt tid2018In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, no 1, p. 98-101Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1833.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En modern människa: Hjalmar Branting är aktuell igen2015In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 95-98Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1834.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Europarådet och Ryssland - Demokratin som internationell politik2012In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 331-338Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1835.
    von sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Forskning och utvveckling på försvarsområdet: Betänkande av försvarsforskningsutredningen2016Book (Other academic)
  • 1836.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Förnyelse eller förfall?2013In: Förnyelse eller förfall?: svenska försvaret efter kalla krigets slut / [ed] Fredrik Eriksson, Huddinge: Samtidshistoriska institutet , 2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1837.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Förord2012In: Norden mellan stormakter och fredsförbund: nordiskt säkerhetspolitiskt samarbete i det gamla och nya Europa / [ed] Fredrik Doeser, Magnus Petersson, Jacob Westberg, Stockholm: Santérus Academic Press , 2012, p. 11-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1838.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Förord2017In: Norden sett inifrån: Det fjärde spårbytet / [ed] Bengt Sundelius, Claes Wiklund, Stockholm: Santérus Förlag, 2017, p. 9-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic Cooperation in back-mirror.

  • 1839.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Försvaret lägger döda händer över vindkraften: försvaret & vindkraften2011In: Svensk vindkraft, ISSN 1654-7934, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Competition Defence-planning wind-powered generating electricity

  • 1840.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Försvarsberedningen och det framtida försvaret2018In: Vårt försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 2, p. 7-10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1841.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Grundlagarna och försvaret2012In: Den nationella säkerheten: klarar vi utmaningarna ? / [ed] Sven-Christer Nilsson, Göran Larsbrink, Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2012, p. 17-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1842.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Här står jag och kan icke annat: Tryckfriheten i Sverige och Finland 250 år2016In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 363-370Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1843.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Inget önskeläge om KU:s granskning avgörs av SD2015In: Tidningen NU, ISSN 0281-5285, Vol. 33, no 25, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Parlaiamentary issues in today´ s Swedish Parliament

  • 1844.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Motståndskraft: Inriktningen av totalförsvaret och utformningen av det civila försvaret 2021-20252017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1845.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Norge och Sverige i Lorenzettis ljus: kommentar till Johan P. Olsen, “Lorenzettis utfordring og demokratiets århundrade".2015In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 49-51Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1846.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ohlsson, Per T: Svensk politik2014In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 116, no 2, p. 252-256Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 1847.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    On Swedish Socialdemocratic Party Program2009In: The Model of Swedish Social Democracy: Comments and documents, Beijing: Central Compilation & Translation Press , 2009, p. 143-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [zh]

    Party Program, Swedish version of socialism, functional socialism, democracy, capitaism

  • 1848.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Planering i en oförutsägbar tid2017In: Vårt försvar, ISSN 0042-2800, no 2, p. 30-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1849.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regeringen, förvaltningen och parlamentarismen. Inträdesanförande i avd V /i Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien/ den 1 december 2009: Ur försvarsministerns dagbok 19982010In: Kung Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1850.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regeringscentrerad förhandlingsparlamentarism - men EU-medlemskapet gör skillnad2013In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 145-158Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
34353637383940 1801 - 1850 of 1959
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