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  • 1851.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regeringen, förvaltningen och parlamentarismen. Inträdesanförande i avd V /i Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademien/ den 1 december 2009: Ur försvarsministerns dagbok 19982010In: Kung Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, no 1, p. 26-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1852.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Regeringscentrerad förhandlingsparlamentarism - men EU-medlemskapet gör skillnad2013In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 145-158Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1853.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Svenska reservofficerare i Estland,Lettland och Litauen2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Defence, support, Baltic States

  • 1854.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Tal på den svenska nationaldagen2018In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, no 2, p. 203-206Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1855.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Varför ska vi ha ett försvar?2012In: Den nationella säklerheten: klarar vi utmaningarna? / [ed] Sven-Christer Nilsson, Göran Larsbrink, Stockholm: Kungl. Krigsvetenskapsakademien , 2012, p. 10-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1856.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Varför ska vi har ett försvar?2012In: Kungl Krigsvetenskapsakademiens Handlingar och Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5369, no 1, p. 46-60Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ideologies on security and war.

  • 1857.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vetenskap och politik: sex svenska statsvetare2018In: Nordisk Tidskrift för vetenskap, konst och industri, ISSN 0029-1501, no 3, p. 337-340Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1858.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vi får inte gå tillbaka till kalla krigets slutna värld: Björn von Sydow om framtidens försvarsforskning2016In: Omvärld, ISSN 2002-4878, no 2, p. 4p. 6-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1859.
    von Sydow, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Yttrandefrihetens betydelse för ett fritt folk2016In: Fritt ord 250 år: Tryckfrihet och offentlighet i Sverige och Finland - ett levande arv från 1766 / [ed] Bertil Wennberg, Kristina Örtenhed, Stockholm: Sveriges riksdag , 2016, p. 639-670Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1860.
    von Sydow, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Naraghi, Laila
    Gemensam valdag möjliggör medvetna val2018In: Aktuellt i politiken: AiP, ISSN 1403-7505, no 45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1861.
    von Sydow, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Politicizing Europe: Patterns of party-based opposition to European integration2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    European integration was for a long time perceived as an elite-driven project that received public acceptance through what was coined as the permissive consensus. With the expansion of the domain of community actions and capacities, and the turmoil in the ratification processes following changes of the treaties, an increased public contestation over European integration can be observed. European integration now covers policy areas that are more prone to political debate and polarization. The weak public support for the EU has not been matched by electoral support for Eurosceptic parties. Hence, this mismatch increases the political opportunity structures for political entrepreneurs wishing to profit from the public dissent regarding the integration process.

    This study focuses on the conditions under which European integration is politicized, where politicization refers more specifically to party-politicization. Political parties that oppose the EU and their electoral fortunes are used as a proxy for the politicization of European integration. It is a comparative study over time (1984-2009) and space (14 member states) which assesses the conditional power of a number of enabling and constraining institutional factors that influence the variation in number of Eurosceptic parties, success of those parties, and the success of single-issue Eurosceptic parties over time and space. The analysis demonstrates the importance of the party system features and the use of referendum over European integration for the emergence of party-based Euroscepticism. It also places special emphasis on the combination of factors and their impact on the outcome. The study relates the findings to the democratic credentials of the European Union, with special reference to the role of opposition and representation.

  • 1862.
    von Unge, Agnes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Peruvian women in Catalonia: A Study on the social position of Peruvian female migrants in the labour market2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This    qualitative research investigates the social positions of Peruvian female migrants in the Catalan labour market in Spain. It questions how social categories interactin order to determine the social positions of individuals, a nd how the positions can be related to a global  world structure.   Four unstructured life story interviews with  Peruvian women resident in  Catalonia were realized in December 2014. The interviews and two previously made studies have then been reviewed by a narrative analysis. The research formed a theoretical framework of intersectionality interpreted by Nina Yuval-Davis, and a globalization and female migration theory by Saskia Sassen.  The analysis with the  implementation of theories showed that nationality has a particularly strong influence in the intersection of social categories, though one must understand how all the identifications lay imbedded in each other in order to determine the social position of each individual. It was  also concluded that an intersection of the identifications of the individuals interacts with global structures in order to determine the  social positions of the study participants in the Catalan labour market.The city of Barcelona  could through the lives of the four Peruvian females be seen as an economic centre that demands cheap labour by migrants, and where the social positions in the labour market can show a division of core and peripheral countries.

  • 1863.
    Vähämäki, Janet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Business School. janet.vahamaki@score.su.se.
    The results agenda in Swedish development cooperation: cycles of failure or reform success?2015In: The Politics of Evidence and Results in International Development: Playing the Game to Change the Rules? / [ed] Rosalind Eyben, Irene Guijt, Chris Roche and Cathy Shutt, Rugby: Practical Action Publishing, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sida, the Swedish International Development Agency, has repeatedly, over decades, tried to introduce a stronger focus on 'results' and it has always resulted in a (re-)introduction of a management technology , based on a derivate of the logical framework. Since 2006, the 'results agenda' has been a top political priority, with large organizational and cultural changes within Sida. The chapter concludes that, although there might be factors that support the success of the current effort, these changes may hamper the achievement of development results on the ground and be just another 'tide of reform'. 

  • 1864.
    Waaranperä, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Visionära verk? En kartläggning av svenska myndigheters visionsformuleringar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This text offers an overview over and a categorization of visionary statements produced by Swedish government agencies. The visionary statements are analyzed with respect to the values that they highlight, whom they pinpoint as the principal or initiator, and whether or not the visionary statement is limited to the agency’s sphere of activity. From this discussion it can be concluded that the visionary statements among public agencies bears similarities with the visions used as management tools in the private sector. This similarity is highlighted by the tendency among the public agencies to emphasize economic values such as efficiency comparatively more than accountability and democracy. Since this study only covers official material retrieved form web pages it can draw conclusions about how the visionary statements are presented – and not concerning how they were initiated and developed. Nevertheless, the very existence of visionary statements among public agencies turns attention to the division between the politicians as policy makers and the bureaucracy as a purely implementing force – and to the question about where, when and by whom politics is being made.

  • 1865. Wabnitz, Colette C. C.
    et al.
    Blasiak, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    The rapidly changing world of ocean finance2019In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, article id UNSP 103526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A suite of recent international commitments and aspirational targets related to ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries management suggest growing consensus among states regarding the urgency of action. Yet, securing adequate financial resources to achieve these goals will be a crucial hurdle for many countries and will depend on financing mechanisms that go beyond traditional official development assistance (ODA) and philanthropy. An expanding and diversifying universe of financing mechanisms, however, risks generating confusion, incoherence, and uneven outcomes. This Special Issue on Funding for ocean conservation and sustainable fisheries was conceived to gain insights into current and emerging trends in the rapidly evolving world of 'blue' finance. While one emphasis of the Special Issue is on ODA and philanthropy, additional contributions also cover new and emerging financing mechanisms. Throughout the Special Issue, authors reflect on important gaps, future perspectives and prospects for greater impact. Two relevant topics for the Special Issue, for which dedicated manuscripts are not available, are also briefly addressed: China's growing role as a provider of development finance and a shift to overtly transactional use of aid by the current US administration.

  • 1866.
    Wagnsson, Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Russian political language and public opinion on the West, NATO and Chechnya: securitisation theory reconsidered2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1867.
    Wahlbäck, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Finlandsfrågan i svensk politik 1937-19401964Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1868.
    Walch, James
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Faction and Front: Party Systems in South India1976Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1869.
    Walden Laing, Dagmar von
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    HIV/AIDS in Sweden and the United Kingdom: policy networks 1982-19922001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is on the development and influence of HIV/AIDS policy networks in Sweden and United Kingdom during the period 1982-92, from the period when the lethal disease which was later named AIDS first appeared in the two countries, to the time when HIV/AIDS policy was integrated into the main policy field of infectious diseases. The networks are defined as structural arrangements between organisations and individuals, who are in frequent contact with one another in order to prevent HIV infection, to reduce the personal and social impact of HIV infection, and to care for those already infected.

    Actors on different levels of decision making power in the two countries; the formation and development of networks; and the role of these networks in the political processes, leading to established HIV/AIDS policies, are identified and compared. Primary sources such as government papers, parliamentary debates and committee hearings from both countries have been used. Other sources are printed material from regional and local authorities, and NGOs; monographs and articles written by medical historians, sociologists, and political science scholars; and interviews with politicians, experts, and NGO representatives.

    HIV/AIDS developed into an independent policy sub-sector within the health care sector in both countries, and in Britain also within the social service sector. A large number of actors were involved in the networks. The health services in general have often been described as professionalised networks, dominated by the medical profession. The doctors and other experts were crucial in proposing HIV/AIDS policies and implementing them, but the influence of NGOs representing patients, and groups at risk of infection, grew unusually strong.

    In Sweden, the National Commission was established in 1985, structured in line with the tradition of parliamentary ad hoc commissions. The Commission became the hub of a national network, involving political parties, central, regional and local authorities, concerned NGOs, and relevant experts. In United Kingdom, the AIDS unit in the Department of Health became the central coordinating point. Civil servants rather than politicians shaped the policy, whilst the influence of NGOs on the HIV/AIDS policy fluctuated over time. The centralized nature of the National Health Service delayed health promotion initiatives.

    In the study, two network models provide a set of concepts which have proved useful in analysing the policy formation during the first eleven years of the HIV/AIDS crisis. These concepts facilitated the comparison between Sweden and United Kingdom which showed that differences were caused not only by differences in political culture and the main organisational patterns, in this case the national health care systems. The formation of HIV/AIDS policy networks in both countries was also affected by their national combinations of tradition and ideology. Furthermore, the analysis has suggested that when a new policy field is identified around a crisis affecting whole populations, it should also be analysed with reference to other, interfacing policy fields.

  • 1870.
    Wall, Roger G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Dynamics of Polarization: An Inquiry into the Process of Bipolarization in the International System and its Regions, 1946-19701975Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1871.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lekmän och skoladministratörer: en studie av SÖ1988Book (Other academic)
  • 1872.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Vadstena stadsfullmäktige under hundra år: 1863-1962: minnesskrift utarbetad på stadsfullmäktiges uppdrag1963Book (Other academic)
  • 1873.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Valrörelser och valresultat: andrakammarvalen i Sverige 1866-18841961Book (Other academic)
  • 1874.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Valrörelser och valresultat: Andrakammarvalen i Sverige 1866-18841961Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 1875.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Andersson, Hans G.Andrén, Nils
    Kommunerna i förvandling.1966Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 1876.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ehn, Peter
    Isberg, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stockholm Centre for Organizational Research (SCORE).
    Linde, Claes
    Makthavare i fokus: attityder och verklighetsuppfattningar hos toppskikten inom politik och förvaltning1999Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Redan för 30 år sedan tog ett antal amerikanska statsvetare initiativ till ett forskningsprojekt där man utgick från iakttagelsen att skilda länder på olika sätt och med olika framgång förmått möta och hantera de krav som allt snabbare samhällsförändringar ställt dem inför.

    Under senare delen av 1980-talet togs nytt initiativ till en upprepning av undersökningen, nu med större utrymme för länderspecifika studier. Författarna till denna bok har utgjort den svenska forskargruppen. De har i sin undersökning velat beskriva politikers och tjänstemäns attitydmönster och, i viss mån, beteenden samt att utröna likheter och olikheter mellan de bägge grupperna.

  • 1877.
    Wallrup, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Musicology and Performance Studies. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Musicology and Performance Studies, Musicology.
    Demokrati är ett sätt att hantera problem2009In: Svenska Dagbladet, Vol. 7/5Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommentar av Pierre Rosanvallon, Demokratin som problem, Tankekraft

  • 1878.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Harvard University, USA.
    Appraising the Impact of Toward a Feminist Theory of the State: Consciousness-Raising, Hierarchy Theory, and Substantive Equality Laws2017In: Law & Inequality, ISSN 0737-089X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 353-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The philosophical, political, and legal impact of Catharine MacKinnon's groundbreaking work Toward a Feminist Theory of the State (1989) is discussed, specifically the merging of consciousness-raising of subordinated groups with critically informed scholarship, producing a problem-driven approach engaging in informed policy-making. As a comprehensive political theory of the relationship between male dominance and the state, one of Toward's central features was to draw from consciousness-raising as a feminist research method to further ground its approach to equality, particularly in its prescription for substantive equality laws. The article illustrates how such central concepts have influenced real changes in the world, specifically using legal challenges to pornography and prostitution as examples.

    Parts I and II demonstrates how Toward departed from conventional epistemologies, in part explaining its revolutionary appeal to students, practitioners, and scholars. Part III continues the analysis by using real world applications of its approach to pornography and prostitution, beginning with the anti-pornography civil rights ordinances drafted by Catharine A. MacKinnon and writer Andrea Dworkin in 1983, six years before the publication of Toward. Part III illustrates how the ordinances mobilized MacKinnon’s same cutting-edge approach to advancing women’s legal substantive equality about which she later theorized. A similar approach was instrumental in grounding a substantive equality prostitution law, proposed by MacKinnon in a public speech in Stockholm, Sweden, November 2, 1990, situating that law within her broader approach to equality. The Swedish national umbrella organization for women’s shelters, ROKS, lobbied for the law and rallied other actors to support it, precipitating its passing in Parliament in 1998, with the law taking effect in 1999. Similar laws have now been adopted by many more countries (attesting to MacKinnon’s extraordinary influence as a legal and social theorist), although not until ten years or more after Sweden’s law, which makes Sweden’s unique data availability a “revelatory case.” Part III concludes by analyzing its comparative impact in terms of reducing sexual exploitation and abuse and offering an exit for people in prostitution, thus promoting substantive equality.

  • 1879.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Criminalize Only the Buying of Sex2012In: The New York times, ISSN 0362-4331Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1880.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    End Demand’ Works, Evidence Shows2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1881.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pornografi och mäns våld mot kvinnor2016In: Porr och prostitution: en rapport om utsatthet och efterfrågan, Stockholm: Unizon , 2016, p. 31-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Report in Swedish (English translation on its way) on the links between pornography and gender-based violence, including legal policy proposals for Sweden with US comparisons. Part I (pp. 1–30) is written by Unizon (Swedish women's shelter umbrella NGO) and based on primary data from their member organizations. Part II (pp. 31–108) is written by Max Waltman in collaboration with Unizon. The four chapters in part II is based on Waltman's PhD dissertation (2014), making an analytical summary of the existing research, then followed by legal policy proposals. Adopting a problem-driven theoretical approach, the reality of pornography’s harms is analyzed. Evidence shows its production exploits existing inequalities among persons typically drawn from other forms of prostitution who suffer multiple disadvantages, such as extreme poverty, childhood sexual abuse, and race and gender discrimination, making survival alternatives remote. Consumption is divided by sex. A majority of young adult men consumes pornography frequently; women rarely do, usually not unless initiated by others. After consumption, studies show many normal men become substantially more sexually aggressive and increasingly trivialize and support violence against women. Vulnerable populations — including among others battered, raped, or prostituted women — are most harmed as a result. The report concludes with a chapter outlining legal policy proposals. It analyzes their real and imagined obstacles and potential to address real empirically documented harms with law.

    First, a proposal for applying existing procuring provisions on production of pornography is made since pornographers literally "promote," and typically also "improperly economically exploit" that persons have sex for remuneration. Case law shows that freedom of expression is not an obstacle, so long as an application of general law on offenses committed during production does not directly target the dissemination of otherwise constitutionally protected expressive materials (cf. conviction of Anna Odell's Art Activism 2009, and convictions of rapists who systematically filmed their offenses to make pornography). Second, a legislation against dissemination via similar amendments in the Swedish basic law as for child pornography or alcohol commercials is proposed, but based on a more precise and narrowly tailored definition of the graphic sexually explicit subordinating, and dehumanizing and objectifying pornography that evidence-based research show causes more gender-based violence. Civil rights legislation against such sex discrimination is recommended, among other things since studies of the application of criminal pornography laws show serious deficiencies or non-enforcement when the initiative does not lie among those affected -- an approach that does not account effectively for their perspectives and interests. The latter can be represented by actors with stronger incentives (e.g., women’s shelter organizations) than disinterested, desensitized, or over-worked police officers and prosecutors.

  • 1882.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Pornography and Men’s Violence Against Women: translated by Marion Söderström, reviewed and revised by Max Waltman, with a Preface by Catharine A. Mackinnon, and in collaboration with Unizon. Part 2 in Pornography and Prostitution: A Report on Exploitation and Demand, edited by Unizon, pp. 31-108. Stockholm: Unizon, 2016.2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Report on the links between pornography and gender-based violence, including legal policy proposals for Sweden with US comparisons. Part I (pp. 1-30) is written by Unizon (Swedish women's shelter umbrella NGO) and based on primary data from their member organizations. Part II (pp. 31–108) is written by Max Waltman in collaboration with Unizon. The four chapters in part II is based on parts of Waltman's PhD dissertation (2014), making an analytical summary of the existing research, then followed by legal policy proposals. Adopting a problem-driven theoretical approach, the reality of pornography’s harms is analyzed. Evidence shows its production exploits existing inequalities among persons typically drawn from other forms of prostitution who suffer multiple disadvantages, such as extreme poverty, childhood sexual abuse, and race and gender discrimination, making survival alternatives remote. Consumption is divided by sex. A majority of young adult men consumes pornography frequently; women rarely do, usually not unless initiated by others. After consumption, studies show many normal men become substantially more sexually aggressive and increasingly trivialize and support violence against women. Vulnerable populations — including among others battered, raped, or prostituted women — are most harmed as a result. The report concludes with a chapter outlining legal policy proposals. It analyzes their real and imagined obstacles and potential to address real empirically documented harms with law.

    First, a proposal for applying existing procuring provisions on production of pornography is made since pornographers literally "promote," and typically also "improperly economically exploit" that persons have sex for remuneration. Case law shows that freedom of expression is not an obstacle, so long as an application of general law on offenses committed during production does not directly target the dissemination of otherwise constitutionally protected expressive materials (cf. conviction of Anna Odell's Art Activism 2009, and convictions of rapists who systematically filmed their offenses to make pornography). Second, a legislation against dissemination via similar amendments in the Swedish basic law as for child pornography or alcohol commercials is proposed, but based on a more precise and narrowly tailored definition of the graphic sexually explicit subordinating, and dehumanizing and objectifying pornography that evidence-based research show causes more gender-based violence. Civil rights legislation against such sex discrimination is recommended, among other things since studies of the application of criminal pornography laws show serious deficiencies or non-enforcement when the initiative does not lie among those affected — an approach that does not account effectively for their perspectives and interests. The latter can be represented by actors with stronger incentives (e.g., women’s shelter organizations) than disinterested, desensitized, or over-worked police officers and prosecutors.

  • 1883.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Prohibiting Purchase of Sex in Sweden: Impact, Obstacles, Potential, and Supporting Escape2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the core reasons for the Swedish law from 1999 which criminalizes purchase of sex and decriminalizes the prostituted person, passed as part of an omnibus bill against violence against women and recognizing prostitution as a form of it. Further, it documents the law’s impact by comparing data from several recent Swedish studies with the situation in other relevant countries, concluding the law has significantly reduced the occurrence of prostitution manifolds compared to its neighboring countries. Crucial obstacles to effective implementation are also addressed, particularly in current case law. Some of the critique against the law and disinformation about the law’s effects are also commented. Finally, to realize its full potential to support escape from prostitution more efficiently, it is argued that the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to get damages paid for directly by the tricks/johns for the harm they have contributed to. An additional consideration is for individual states to extend the use of the Palermo Protocol (international law acknowledging connections between prostitution and sex trafficking) to charge tricks for trafficking when they “receive” persons who are effectively pimped.

  • 1884.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Prohibiting Sex Purchasing and Ending Trafficking: The Swedish Prostitution Law2011In: Michigan Journal of International Law, ISSN 1052-2867, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 133-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurisprudence and social evidence strongly suggest that prostitution, as practiced in the world, usually satisfies this definition. Further, the Protocol urges states to reduce the demand for prostitution and to protect and assist victims, for instance by adopting laws deterring purchasers of sex, and by supporting those exploited in prostitution. Policy makers, such as the U.S. Department of State, are criticized for taking an inadequate position in face of the growing evidence from the Swedish law's impact.The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. It also scrutinizes some misinformation of the law's impact, showing for instance that claims alleging a more dangerous situation for those still in prostitution after 1999 were unfounded. In addition, the article addresses remaining obstacles to the law's effective implementation, arguing that in order to realize the law's full potential to support escape from trafficking, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the purchasers for the harm to which they have contributed, and for the violation of the prostituted persons' equality and dignity - a position now recognized by the government to some extent by clarifying amendments made in 2011.

  • 1885.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rethinking democracy: legal challenges to pornography and sex inequality in Canada and the United States2010In: Political research quarterly, ISSN 1065-9129, E-ISSN 1938-274X, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 218-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are democracies unresponsive to well-documented injuries in the production and by the consumption of pornography? Legal challenges to pornography in Canada and the United States in which sexual subordination, not moral notions of "obscenity," were the driving rationale, show democracies inadequately recognizing gender-specific harms. Changes in Canadian obscenity doctrines to account for harm and inequality, in contrast with the U.S. reign of "free speech," did not deliver a corresponding change on the ground. Developments in democratic theory, international law, and the particular U.S.–Canadian legal trajectory, and consideration of the void of institutions articulating the interests of those victimized in and by pornography, suggest the need to adopt empowering civil remedies.

  • 1886.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sweden’s prohibition of purchase of sex: the law's reasons, impact, and potential2011In: Women's Studies: International Forum, ISSN 0277-5395, E-ISSN 1879-243X, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 449-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1999, Sweden passed a law criminalizing the purchase of sex and decriminalizing the prosti­tuted person. The law was part of an omnibus bill against violence against women, recognizing prostitution as related to such violence. This article analyzes the reasons for the Swedish law and documents the law’s impact, concluding that the law has significantly reduced the occur­rence of prostitution in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. In addition, it addresses some important remaining obstacles to the law’s effective implementation and responds to vari­ous common critiques of (and misinformation about) the law and its effects. Finally, this article argues that, in order to realize the law’s full potential to support escape from prostitution, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the tricks/johns for the harm to which they have contributed.

  • 1887.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Ideological Obstacle: Charging Pornographers for Sexual Exploitation2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostitution is a social practice where money is paid for sex. Social science research and other evidence suggest that the sex in pornography is generally supplied by persons who share similar unequal, exploitative, and coercive life circumstances as those who are prostituted generally share. Given that these conditions are similar, there appears to be little reason why the pornography industry should not be subjected to the same legal scrutiny as prostitution per se, as it could have extremely important implications for the population who are exploited in the sex industry. Thus, this paper inquires into the legal, political, and ideological obstacles to address the harmful exploitation of persons in the pornography industry by applying prostitution laws against pimps and other third parties to its production, finding that the obstacles to application are not legal but ideological and political. The paper takes a political science approach to constitutional issues, laws, legislative and judicial politics, drawing from political theory by authors such as Kimberle Crenshaw (intersectionality), Iris Marion Young (groups and inequality), Jane Mansbridge (representation), Ian Shapiro (constitutional politics), Laurel Weldon and Mala Htun (social movements and inequality). Sweden is selected as a case study, having been the first jurisdiction (1999) in the world that identified prostitution as a form of sex inequality related to gender-based violence, with pimps and johns as central in the cycle of exploitation and abuse - a legal approach more consistent with empirical evidence than conventional approaches viewing prostitution per se as either a moral crime of indecency, or a non-exploitative and tolerable work. Some comparative discussions are entertained throughout, with references to Canada, the United States, and international law.

  • 1888.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Politics of Legal Challenges to Pornography: Canada, Sweden, and the United States2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissertation analyzes obstacles and potential in democracies, specifically Canada, Sweden, and United States, to effectively address empirically documented harms of pornography. Legislative and judicial challenges under different democratic and legal frameworks are compared.

    Adopting a problem-driven theoretical approach, the reality of pornography’s harms is analyzed. Evidence shows its production exploits existing inequalities among persons typically drawn from other forms of prostitution who suffer multiple disadvantages, such as extreme poverty, childhood sexual abuse, and race and gender discrimination, making survival alternatives remote. Consumption is also divided by sex. A majority of young adult men consumes pornography frequently; women rarely do, usually not unless initiated by others. After consumption, studies show many normal men become substantially more sexually aggressive and increasingly trivialize and support violence against women. Vulnerable populations—including battered, raped, or prostituted women—are most harmed as a result.

    The impact of attempts to address pornography’s harms on democratic rights and freedoms, specifically gender equality and speech, is explored through the case studies. Democracies are found to provide more favorable conditions for legal challenges to pornography’s harms when recognizing substantive (not formal) equality in law, and when promoting representation of perspectives and interests of groups particularly injured by pornography. State-implemented approaches such as criminal obscenity laws are found less effective. More victim-centered and survivor-initiated civil rights approaches would be more responsive and remedial—a finding with implications for other politico-legal problems, such as global warming, that disproportionately affect disadvantaged populations traditionally largely excluded from decision-making.

  • 1889.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The scars of prostitution: Forms of legalization ignore intrinsic harms.2011In: Toronto StarArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1890.
    Waltman, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    성구매 금지와 인신매매 척결: 스웨덴의 성매매 관련법2012In: Women's Human Rights [South Korea], ISSN 2093-5714, Vol. 7, p. 88-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish prostitution law from 1999, now followed by Norway and Iceland, criminalized the purchaser and decriminalized the prostituted person. This is analyzed as a cogent state response under international trafficking law, particularly to the obligations set forth in the United Nation’s Trafficking Protocol from 2000. The Protocol states that a person is regarded a trafficking victim when, e.g., someone abuses her “position of vulnerability” in order to exploit her. International jurisprudence and social evidence strongly suggest that prostitution, as practiced in the world, usually satisfies this definition. Further, the Protocol urges states to reduce the demand for prostitution and to protect and assist victims, for instance by adopting laws deterring purchasers of sex, and by supporting those exploited in prostitution. Policy makers, such as the U.S. Department of State, are criticized for taking an inadequate position in face of the growing evidence from the Swedish law's impact.The article shows that Sweden has significantly reduced the occurrence of trafficking in Sweden compared to neighboring countries. It also scrutinizes some misinformation of the law's impact, showing for instance that claims alleging a more dangerous situation for those still in prostitution after 1999 were unfounded. In addition, the article addresses remaining obstacles to the law's effective implementation, arguing that in order to realize the law's full potential to support escape from trafficking, the civil rights of prostituted persons under current law should be strengthened to enable them to claim damages directly from the purchasers for the harm to which they have contributed, and for the violation of the prostituted persons' equality and dignity - a position now recognized by the government to some extent by clarifying amendments made in 2011.

  • 1891.
    Waltman, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Hägg, Carina
    Kram, Ebon
    Larsson, Eva
    Ramos-Ruggiero, Luis
    Persson, Olga
    Svensson, Eva-Britt
    Wilkens, Ann
    Stärk prostituerade personers möjlighet att kräva skadestånd [Strenghten Prostituted Persons’ Possibilities to Demand Damages].2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    GÖTEBORGS-POSTEN 10 Maj, 2011, Debatt

    I sexköpsmål betalar köparen i dag främst böter till staten och prostituerade personer kallas endast som vittnen. Möjligheten för prostituerade människor att yrka skadestånd finns, men har aldrig använts sen lagen kom till. Vi vill se en utredning som ser över hur deras förutsättningar för skadestånd kan förbättras, skriver bland andra Carina Hägg (S). 

    Justitieutskottet publicerade nyligen sitt betänkande som föreslår ett skärpt straff för sexköp till riksdagen. Samtidigt skriver majoriteten att en målsägandeställning ”är inte i sig nödvändig för att kunna föra talan om skadestånd eller ens för att få denna talan handlagd,” men åklagaren är inte skyldig att föra talan för andra än målsäganden.

    Detta förtydligande av rättsläget vad gäller skadestånd är välkommet, men det tycks vara lika tydligt att personen som köps i prostitution är den mot vilken brottet sexköp är begånget. Om denna möjlighet att få skadestånd redan existerar reser det emellertid frågetecken varför ingen prostituerad person ännu har fått sådant skadestånd för att ha blivit köpt för sex. Inte en 14-årig psykiskt utvecklingsstörd flicka (HovR över Skåne & Blekinge mål B 2917-10 & B 3184-10), eller en vuxen som öppet tillstods vara maktlös av en Hovrätt vilken uttalade att sexköparna ”insett och utnyttjat” faktumet, vanligt i prostitution, att den prostituerade personen ”befunnit sig i ett sådant underläge mot de två männen att det måste ha framstått som i det närmaste omöjligt för henne att vägra den andre samlag eller i övrigt påverka situationen” (RH 2008:59).

    När nu de styrande således har förtydligat sexköpslagen i detta avseende kommer förhoppningsvis polis, åklagare, målsägandebiträden, domstolar, socialarbetare och andra aktörer hädanefter upplysa alla prostituerade personer om deras rättigheter till skadestånd.

    Icke desto mindre så verkar ytterligare utredning av skadestånd för sexköp vara på sin plats, vilket minoritetsmotionerna har föreslagit utöver deras stöd för regeringens proposition. Mycket är redan känt. En del köpare anser att betalning ger dem rätt att göra vad helst de vill med kvinnan de köper. Många misshandlas svårt av köpare. Bland 200 prostituerade kvinnor i San Francisco våldtogs 70% eller misshandlades på liknande sätt av köpare i genomsnitt 31 gånger. Bland 55 före detta prostituerade kvinnor i Portland, Oregon, blev 78% våldtagna 49 gånger per år (33 gånger av en torsk) och 84% utsattes för grov misshandel i genomsnitt 103 gånger per år (45 gånger av en torsk). Tjugoen procent bland 222 kvinnor som prostituerades i Chicago vilka studerades medgav uttryckligen att de hade våldtagits över 10 gånger i eskortprostitution, gatuprostitution, och när de prostituerats privat i sina hem. De flesta av förövarna var torskar. Två Kanadensiska federala utredningar fann att torskarna utövar mest sexuellt våld mot prostituerade personer (1984, s. 1026; 1985, s. 388). En prostituerad kvinna betrodd av Svea Hovrätt (mål B 4789-09, s. 6) när hon uppgav hur en hallick bestraffade henne genom att skicka henne till (med Södertörns Tingsrätts neutraliserande ord) ”hårdhänta”, ”arga” och de mest ”elaka” torskarna (mål B 13571-07, s. 12) fick likväl inga skadestånd från dessa köpare.

    Sammanhanget med skador på prostituerade människor i prostitution är obestridlig, vars gottgörelse skulle kunna både ge dem upprättelse och möjliggöra för dem att fatta verkliga val vad gäller deras liv. Maktobalansen i prostitution och följderna av hanteringen av prostituerade personer i sexindustrin visar sig i information om misshandel och ohälsa liksom, hos 68% av 827 respondenter i nio länder, posttraumatiska stressymptom (PTSD) jämförbara med den hos tortyroffer, veteraner från krigszoner, och våldtagna kvinnor. En nyare studie med 46 personer som bland annat prostituerats på bordeller och eskortfirmor i Sydkorea och en kontrollgrupp visade att PTSD var signifikant även när man kontrollerat för olika former av misshandel under barndomen. Resultatet stärker slutsatsen att prostitution i sig själv utsätter majoriteten prostituerade personer för lidande. Åttionio procent av människor i prostitution i nio länder som ställdes frågan ”vad behöver du mest” svarade att ta sig ur prostitution. Men de känner inte att de kan. Skadestånd och stöd skulle kunna göra detta möjligt.

    Kommer utskottsmajoritetens uppmaning till rättsväsendet att tillämpa gällande rätt och bedöma skadestånd att räcka till? Givet att dessa juridiska och sociala förhållanden har existerat, och med kännedom så existerat över det gångna decenniet efter att sexköpslagen antogs utan skadestånd eller stöd till en enda prostituerad person, så förtjänar frågan minst sagt ytterligare utredning. Minoriteten (s & v) uppmanar således, som ett tillägg till majoritetens förslag, att en departements- eller expertutredning rimligen tillsätts för att ytterligare utreda och återkomma till riksdagen med ett förslag som kommer skapa bättre förutsättningar än som existerar i dag för den prostituerade personen att få skadestånd.

    Källor

    Bet. 2010/11:JuU22

    Choi, Klein, Shin, & Lee (2009). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) Symptoms Following Prostitution and Childhood Abuse. Violence Against Women 15 (8): 933-51.

    Committee on Sexual Offences Against Children and Youths (1984). Sexual Offences Against Children (Report) (Ottawa, Ont.).

    Farley, Cotton, Lynne, Zumbeck, Spiwak, Reyes, Alvarez, & Sezgin (2003). Prostitution and Trafficking in Nine Countries. I Farley red. Prostitution, Trafficking and Traumatic Stress (Haworth), 33-74.

    Farley, Macleod, Anderson, & Golding (2011). Attitudes and Social Characteristics of Men Who Buy Sex in Scotland. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy 28 (Mars).

    Hunter (1993). Prostitution is Cruelty and Abuse to Women and Children. Michigan J. of Gender and Law 1:91-104 (inkl. Portland-studie).

    Mot. 2010/11:Ju10 (S)

    Mot. 2010/11:Ju11 (V)

    Raphael & Shapiro (2004). Violence in Indoor and Outdoor Prostitution Venues. Violence Against Women 10 (2): 126-139.

    Silbert & Pines (1981). Occupation Hazards of Street Prostitutes. Criminal Justice and Behavior 8 (4): 395-99.

    Special Committee on Pornography and Prostitution in Canada (1985). Pornography and Prostitution in Canada (Ottawa, Ont.).

  • 1892.
    Waltman, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    MacKinnon, Catharine A.
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
    Schyman (F!), Gudrun
    Borgström (S), Claes
    Dingizian (MP), Esabelle
    Kram, Ebon
    Linna (V), Elina
    Lundqvist-Brömster (FP), Maria
    Markström (S), Elisebeht
    Olsson (V), LiseLotte
    Pethrus Engström (KD), Désirée
    Qarlsson (C), Annika
    Ramos-Ruggiero, Luis
    Torskarna ska betala skadestånd till de prostituerade.2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1893.
    Waltman, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Schyman, Gudrun
    Ge skadestånd till prostitutionens offer.2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1894.
    Waltman, Max
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Schyman, Gudrun
    Porr inspirerar till våld.2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 1895. Wang, Yi-ting
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    No democratic transition without women’s rights: A global sequence analysis 1900-20122015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? Research has focused on socioeconomic and institutional factors, yet the assumption that political liberalization has to precede democratization has not been systematically examined. We explore the impacts of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. We argue that both men’s and women’s liberal rights are essential conditions for democratization to take place: giving both men and women rights reduce an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression for authoritarian rulers, and enabling the formation of women’s movements – historically important as a spark of protests in initial phases of democratization. We test this argument empirically using data that cover 160 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through sequence analysis we obtain results suggesting that liberal rights for both men and women enhance civil society organizations, and then lead to electoral democracy. The results suggest that influential modernization writings – stressing the role of economic development in democratization processes – may partly have been misinformed in their blindness for gender. The reported pattern may be at least part of the explanation of the ‘Arab spring’ failures.

  • 1896. Wang, Yi-ting
    et al.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Sundström, Aksel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Paxton, Pamela
    Lindberg, Staffan I.
    Women's rights in democratic transitions: A global sequence analysis, 1900–20122017In: European Journal of Political Research, ISSN 0304-4130, E-ISSN 1475-6765, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 735-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? This article explores the impact of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. It argues that both men's and women's liberal rights are essential conditions for democratisation to take place: providing both women and men rights reduces an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression and enabling the formation of women's organising – historically important to spark protests in initial phases of democratisation. This argument is tested empirically using data that cover 173 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through novel sequence analysis methods, the results suggest that in order to gain electoral democracy a country first needs to furnish civil liberties to both women and men.

  • 1897. Watts, Nick
    et al.
    Adger, W. Neil
    Agnolucci, Paolo
    Blackstock, Ason
    Byass, Peter
    Cai, Wenjia
    Chaytor, Sarah
    Colbourn, Tim
    Collins, Mat
    Cooper, Adam
    Cox, Peter M.
    Depledge, Joanna
    Drummond, Paul
    Ekins, Paul
    Galaz, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Grace, Delia
    Graham, Hilary
    Grubb, Michael
    Haines, Andy
    Hamilton, Ian
    Hunter, Alasdair
    Jiang, Xujia
    Li, Moxuan
    Kelman, Ilan
    Liang, Lu
    Lott, Melissa
    Lowe, Robert
    Luo, Yong
    Mace, Georgina
    Maslin, Mark
    Nilsson, Maria
    Oreszczyn, Tadj
    Pye, Steve
    Quinn, Tara
    Svensdotter, My
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Venevsky, Sergey
    Warner, Koko
    Xu, Bing
    Yang, Jun
    Yin, Yongyuan
    Yu, Chaoqing
    Zhang, Qiang
    Gong, Peng
    Montgomery, Hugh
    Costello, Anthony
    Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health2015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 10006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Lancet Commission on Health and Climate Change has been formed to map out the impacts of climate change, and the necessary policy responses, in order to ensure the highest attainable standards of health for populations worldwide. This Commission is multidisciplinary and international in nature, with strong collaboration between academic centres in Europe and China. The central finding from the Commission's work is that tackling climate change could be the greatest global health opportunity of the 21st century. The key messages from the Commission are summarised below, accompanied by ten underlying recommendations to accelerate action in the next 5 years.

  • 1898.
    Weidstam, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Sustainability passion in fashion: Challenges and Opportunities for Small and Medium-sized Swedish Apparel Brands when Working with Corporate Social Responsibility in their Global Supply Chain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall economic development during the nineteenth and twentieth century has left us with an interconnected global society. However, the pollution does not adhere to the boundaries of nation-states. Therefore, the sustainability issue calls for holistic solutions on all levels of society, from individuals to states, large NGOs, and in particular the companies that produce the goods we consume.

    Corporate initiatives on this matter are usually referred to as Corporate Social Responsibility, or CSR. Many large corporations have been under scrutiny from different stakeholders ever since the early 1990’s and it is no longer possible for them to neglect their responsibility for i.e. pollution or human rights. However, smaller actors do not receive as much attention as their larger competitors, due to lower stakeholder awareness.

    With this background, this master thesis aims at investigating how small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the apparel industry in Sweden perceive their opportunities and challenges when working with CSR in their global supply chain. Thus, the thesis hopes to help bridge a scientific gap, and also connects to Supply Chain Management, SCM. This was accomplished through a literature review that identified and categorized different aspects of the problem. Following this, a multiple-case study with eight different brands was carried out, interviewing representatives from the organizations.

    The results show, among other things, that for SMEs, top management and/or owner values and commitment are of significant importance. This is in line with the literature. On the other hand, aspects like difficulties with language and cultural barriers were not an issue, contrary to the current academic research on SMEs. This was said to be due to the organizations extensive implementation or use of social capital through long-lasting business relations, which is another characteristic of the SME sector identified by the literature. Existing industry initiatives and cooperation between brands can work, but external help to manage these projects is essential for their success. Available Environmental Management Systems (EMS) on the other hand are often considered too expensive, time-consuming or unknown to end-consumers to be implemented. On the contrary, harsher government regulation and enforcement, both in Sweden as well as in the production countries are advocated. This is particularly noticeable, since generally, private sector representatives tend to be against government regulations.

  • 1899. Weiss, Meredith L.
    et al.
    Hansson, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Participation and Space: Themes, Patterns, and Implications2018In: Political Participation in Asia: Defining and Deploying Political Space / [ed] Eva Hansson, Meredith L. Weiss, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, p. 206-213Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional, institutional taxonomies are limiting: classifying regimes along an authoritarian–democratic continuum suggests a static, homogenous categorization that aligns imperfectly with the experience of most citizens and with the expansion of political participation displayed in the region recently. Mainstream theories of democratization focus largely on measurable institutions and elites, evading more complex issues relating to power, participation, and representation. The cases and analyses offer diverse perspectives on dynamics of political participation and dimensions of political space. A core insight tempering the understanding of civil society, as of the state, is the extent to which economics structures the possibilities for participating in political space, and physical space is controlled by economic space, constraining expression. When considering changes to political space, economic attributes again loom large. Changes in political space have opened opportunities for intra-elite rivalries to play out on new terrain, even as they bring new categories of actors or previously disengaged individuals into the public sphere.

  • 1900.
    Wendt Höjer, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rädslans politik: våld och sexualitet i den svenska demokratin2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis argues that men’s violence, and women’s fear of that violence, constitute a central problem for democracy. Women’s possibilities of participating in society are drastically limited by their bodily integrity being threatened, both in public and in the home. As long as women lack the fundamental right to their own bodies, it makes no sense to speak of a functioning democratic order or equal citizenship for women and men.

    The thesis seeks to investigate how men’s violence against women has been dealt with in Swedish politics from the 1930s to the 1990s. The raw material consists in the Swedish public record – public inquiries, parliamentary bills,reports and parliamentary debates – from the period in question. The issue of violence against women is limited to two phenomena: physical assaults on women, and rape.

    An important question concerns what sort of representations of violence and sexuality, of gender and gender relations, dominate political life; and what sort of political measures these representations make possible. The thesis also presents,in terms of power analysis,an interpretation of public policy dealing with violence against women.

    The thesis claims that it is possible to interpret public policy as partly challenging the gender order. In different ways political barriers are challenged, both in terms of what can be brought into the public arena as a political problem,and the way a problem so flagged comes to be framed. Bit by bit the naturalness and banality of violence is eroded. Violence against women becomes a question on its own terms and demands a direct public answer.

    But the analysis also shows that public policy to a large extent is characterized by continuity. Two processes that reinforce the existing order are identified.The first process deals with how men’s violence against women is depoliticized. If the problem of violence is to win legitimacy as a political issue, it has to be defined and understood as something other than as part of a gendered order of domination and subordination. The second process that reinforces established gender power concerns how men’s political primacy is upheld in the public treatment of violence.The content and ambit of politics tends to be determined in relation to a male subject. When the male subject symptomatically becomes the departure point and central figure in political discourse – when it is he who sees and defines issues – women are constructed as the other, as the exceptional (even deviant) case.

    The analysis shows that political discourse to a large extent rejects both the definition of violence in terms of gender power and measures based on that understanding. From the viewpoint that citizenship means equal possibilities to politicize one’s life conditions and situation,women’s citizenship under present conditions must, the thesis suggests, be assessed as highly conditional. In political life women’s practical possibilities are circumscribed by the continuing règle du jeu that their experiences must be capable of formulation as the same as men’s in order to gain political legitimacy.

353637383940 1851 - 1900 of 1959
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